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Sample records for laser-induced fluorescence detection

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for sodium atoms and compounds in high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J. R.; Wise, Michael L.; Smith, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of laser-induced fluorescence schemes were examined experimentally in atmospheric pressure flames to determine their use for sodium atom and salt detection in high-pressure, optically thick environments. Collisional energy transfer plays a large role in fluorescence detection. Optimum sensitivity, at the parts in 10 exp 9 level for a single laser pulse, was obtained with the excitation of the 4p-3s transition at 330 nm and the detection of the 3d-3p fluorescence at 818 nm. Fluorescence loss processes, such as ionization and amplified spontaneous emission, were examined. A new laser-induced atomization/laser-induced fluorescence detection technique was demonstrated for NaOH and NaCl. A 248-nm excimer laser photodissociates the salt molecules present in the seeded flames prior to atom detection by laser-induced fluorescence.

  2. Sensitive detection and separation of fluorescent derivatives using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection with 532nm Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrabel, Patrik; Taborsky, Petr; Ryvolova, Marketa; Havel, Josef; Preisler, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CELIF) is a powerful tool for separation and sensitive determination of fluorescent species. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids, peptides and proteins may exhibit native fluorescence, which is however often low and/or an expensive laser is required for excitation in UV. Therefore, labelling of the analytes with a fluorescent dye is usually necessary. In this work, a home-built CELIF instrument with diode pumped frequency-doubled continuous wave Nd:YAG excitation laser with feedback power regulation (532nm) was constructed. The suitability of this type of laser for LIF detection in a separation method was found excellent. A limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3) of 2x10 -13 mol/l was achieved with rhodamine B, which is comparable to those obtained using similar instruments with Ar + laser [Y.F. Cheng, N.J. Dovichi, Science 242 (1988) 562, E.S. Yeung et al., J. Chromatogr. 608 (1992) 73]. LOD of a protein derivatized according to modified procedures [M.J. Little et al., Anal. Chim. Acta 339 (1997) 279, A. Chersi et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1336 (1997) 83] was determined. Detection of the derivatives was found to be limited by insufficient reaction recovery at low analyte concentration, chemical noise, separation efficiency and quality of the derivatizing reagent rather than by the detector performance. As a consequence, a huge gap between the detection ability of CELIF instruments and LOD determined in real samples is revealed

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence in the detection of esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth K.; Gutta, Kumar; Laukka, Mark A.; Densmore, John

    1995-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique which can perform an 'optical biopsy' of gastrointestinal mucosa. LIF was performed in resected specimens using a pulsed N2-laser coupled fiberoptically to a probe. Fluorescence was measured using a 0.2 meter spectroscope with an intensified photodiode array. Measurements were made on fresh (esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Each tissue section was examined using an optical probe consisting of a central fiber for delivering the excitation energy and a 6 fiber bundle surrounding the central fiber for detection of the fluorescence. An excitation wavelength of 337 nm was used which generated 3-ns pulses while fluorescence intensities were acquired from 300-800 nm. Spectra were obtained from each section in a standardized fashion and background spectra subtracted. Fluorescence readings were taken from 54 normal esophageal sections and 32 sections of adenocarcinoma. A fluorescence index obtained from the tumor sections was 0.68+/- 0.01 compared with 0.51+/- 0.01 for the normal sections (pesophagus with good accuracy.

  4. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, the author introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, they demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection. In the second part of this dissertation, the author used laser-induced native fluorescence coupled with capillary electrophoresis (LINF-CE) and microscope imaging to study the single cell degranulation. On the basis of good temporal correlation with events observed through an optical microscope, they have identified individual peaks in the fluorescence electropherograms as serotonin released from the granular core on contact with the surrounding fluid.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis hyphenated with UV-native-laser induced fluorescence detection (CE/UV-native-LIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, François; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Véréna

    2017-01-01

    Native laser-induced fluorescence using UV lasers associated to CE offers now a large related literature, for now 30 years. The main works have been performed using very expensive Ar-ion lasers emitting at 257 and 275 nm. They are not affordable for routine analyses, but have numerous applications such as protein, catecholamine, and indolamine analysis. Some other lasers such as HeCd 325 nm have been used but only for few applications. Diode lasers, emitting at 266 nm, cheaper, are extensively used for the same topics, even if the obtained sensitivity is lower than the one observed using the costly UV-Ar-ion lasers. This review presents various CE or microchips applications and different UV lasers used for the excitation of native fluorescence. We showed that CE/Native UV laser induced fluorescence detection is very sensitive for detection as well as small aromatic biomolecules than proteins containing Trp and Tyr amino acids. Moreover, it is a simple way to analyze biomolecules without derivatization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, we introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, we demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection.

  7. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Su

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, we introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, we demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm(sub 2) for 40-(micro)m wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection

  8. Development of laser-induced fluorescence detection to assay DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.; Freund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    A precolumn derivation method has been developed for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of DNA damage using fluorescence detection. The modified nucleotide, having excised enzymatically from the exposed DNA, is enriched from the normal nucleotides and labeled with a fluorescent reagent. The labeling procedure involves phosphoramidation of the nucleotide with ethylenediamine (EDA) followed by conjugation of the free amino end of the phosphoramidate with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene 1-sulfonyl chloride, commonly known as Dansyl chloride. The dansylated nucleotide can be analyzed with a sub-picomole limit of detection (LOD) by conventional HPLC using a conventional fluorescence detector. By combining microbore HPLC with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, the authors present the development of an analytical system that has sub-femtomole LOD for real-time analysis of the dansylated nucleotide. In this paper the application of the developed system in fluorescence postlabeling assay of a small alkyl-modified nucleotide (5-methyl CMP) in calf-thymus DNA is discussed

  9. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential use of laser-induced fluorescence imaging techniques was investigated for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging f...

  10. Impurity monitoring by laser-induced fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbwachs, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can provide a highly sensitive and selective means of detecting atomic and ionic impurities. Because the photodetector can be physically isolated from the laser-excited region, these techniques can be applied to monitoring in hostile environments. The basic concepts behind fluorescence detection are reviewed. Saturated optical excitation is shown to maximize impurity atom emission yield while mitigating effects of laser intensity fluctuations upon absolute density calibration. Monitoring in high- and low-pressure monitoring environments is compared. Methods to improve detection sensitivity by luminescence background suppression are presented

  11. Detecting long-term low-irradiance stress and water stress of trees with laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, M.; Kurata, K.; Takahashi, K.; Mineuchi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find simple and objective methods of diagnosing the ailments of trees in indoor spaces, such as atriums. In this study, two simple diagnostics were compared. One was the analysis of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of leaves and the other was the analysis of the laser-induced chlorophyll-fluorescence induction kinetics (Kautsky effect). In the latter analysis, second time derivatives of the induction-kinetics curves were used. Cinnamomum camphora and Quercus myrsinifolia grown under different light conditions and Cinnamomum camphora under water stress were used in the experiments. The effects of low irradiance were detected in both the induction kinetics and the spectra; however, the effects of water stress were detected in the induction kinetics only. These results indicate the possibility of utilizing laser-induced-fluorescence induction-kinetics for diagnosing the ailments of trees. (author)

  12. Laser induced fluorescence technique for detecting organic matter in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Pan, Delu; Huang, Haiqing

    2017-10-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for fast diagnosing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in water is discussed. We have developed a new field-portable laser fluorometer for rapid fluorescence measurements. In addtion, the fluorescence spectral characteristics of fluorescent constituents (e.g., CDOM, chlorophyll-a) were analyzed with a spectral deconvolution method of bi-Gaussian peak function. In situ measurements by the LIF technique compared well with values measured by conventional spectrophotometer method in laboratory. A significant correlation (R2 = 0.93) was observed between fluorescence by the technique and absorption by laboratory spectrophotometer. Influence of temperature variation on LIF measurement was investigated in lab and a temperature coefficient was deduced for fluorescence correction. Distributions of CDOM fluorescence measured using this technique in the East China Sea coast were presented. The in situ result demonstrated the utility of the LIF technique for rapid detecting dissolved organic matter.

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Peter J.

    1998-12-01

    This paper outlines a method for optically detecting bacteria on various backgrounds, such as meat, by imaging their laser induced auto-fluorescence response. This method can potentially operate in real-time, which is many times faster than current bacterial detection methods, which require culturing of bacterial samples. This paper describes the imaging technique employed whereby a laser spot is scanned across an object while capturing, filtering, and digitizing the returned light. Preliminary results of the bacterial auto-fluorescence are reported and plans for future research are discussed. The results to date are encouraging with six of the eight bacterial strains investigated exhibiting auto-fluorescence when excited at 488 nm. Discrimination of these bacterial strains against red meat is shown and techniques for reducing background fluorescence discussed.

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence detection platform for point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Marcel; Hilbig, Urs; Schubert, Markus B.; Gauglitz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for continuous low-cost monitoring of critical patient parameters require miniaturized and integrated setups for performing quick high-sensitivity analyses, away from central clinical laboratories. This work presents a novel and promising laser-induced fluorescence platform for measurements in direct optical test formats that leads towards such powerful POCT devices based on fluorescence-labeled immunoassays. Ultimate sensitivity of thin film photodetectors, integrated with microfluidics, and a comprehensive optimization of all system components aim at low-level signal detection in the targeted biosensor application. The setup acquires fluorescence signals from the volume of a microfluidic channel. An innovative sandwiching process forms a flow channel in the microfluidic chips by embedding laser-cut double-sided adhesive tapes. The custom fit of amorphous silicon based photodiode arrays to the geometry of the flow channel enables miniaturization, fully adequate for POCT devices. A free-beam laser excitation with line focus provides excellent alignment stability, allows for easy and reliable swapping of the disposable microfluidic chips, and therewith greatly improves the ease of use of the resulting integrated device. As a proof-of-concept of this novel in-volume measurement approach, the limit of detection for the dye DY636-COOH in pure water as a model fluorophore is examined and found to be 26 nmol l-1 .

  15. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  16. Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Martinez, Jesus; Flores-Hernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, Fernando

    2002-05-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul were inoculated with Erwinia carotovora, the causal agent of stem soft rot. We investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of agave plants to determine whether LIF can be used as a noninvasive sensing tool for pathological studies. The LIF technique was also investigated as a means of detecting the effect of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine as a bactericide against the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. A He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm was used as the excitation source, and in vivo fluorescence emission spectra were recorded in the 660-790-range. Fluorescence maxima were at 690 and 740 nm. The infected plants that were untreated with the bactericide showed a definite increase in fluorescence intensity at both maxima within the first three days after infection. Beginning on the fifth day, a steady decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed, with a greater effect at 740 than at 690 nm. After 30 days there was no fluorescence. The infected plants that had been treated with the bactericide showed no significant change in fluorescence compared with that of the uninfected plants. The ratio of fluorescence intensities was determined to be F 690 nm/F 740 nm for all treatments. These studies indicate that LIF measurements of agave plants may be used for the early detection of certain types of disease and for determining the effect of a bactericide on bacteria. The results also showed that fluorescence intensity ratios can be used as a reliable indicator of the progress of disease.

  17. Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies in capillary electrophoresis: determination of naphthalene sulphonates in river water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, S.J.; Isberg, I.C.K.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Velthorst, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Various UV-laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for capillary electrophoresis (CE) are compared, i.e. two UV-laser systems (a pulsed laser providing up to 25 mW of tunable emission, applied at 280, 290 and 325 nm, and a continuous wave (cw) laser providing up to 100 mW of 257 nm emission)

  18. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  19. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  20. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  2. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  3. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.P.

    1995-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is based on the absorption of a short pulse of tuned laser light by a group of atoms and the observation of the resulting fluorescence radiation from the excited state. Because the excitation is resonant it is very efficient, and the fluorescence can be many times brighter than the normal spontaneous emission, so low number densities of the selected atoms can be detected and measured. Good spatial resolution can be achieved by using a narrow laser beam. If the laser is sufficiently monochromatic, and it can be tuned over the absorption line profile of the selected atoms, information can also be obtained about the velocities of the atoms from the Doppler effect which can broaden and shift the line. In this report two topics are examined in detail. The first is the effect of high laser irradiance, which can cause 'power broadening' of the apparent absorption line profile. The second is the effect of the high magnetic field in FTU. Detailed calculations are given for LIFS of neutral iron and molybdenum atoms, including the Zeeman effect, and the implementation of LIFS for these atoms on FTU is discussed

  4. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  5. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Engels, S.

    1989-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence as a tool for tissue diagnostics is discussed. Both spectrally and time-resolved fluorescence signals are studied to optimize the demarcation of diseased lesions from normal tissue. The presentation is focused on two fields of application: the identification of malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. Tissue autofluorescence as well as fluorescence from administered drugs have been utilized in diseased tissue diagnosis. The fluorescence criterion for tissue diagnosis is, as far as possible, chosen to be independent of unknown fluorescence parameters, which are not correlated to the type of tissue investigated. Both a dependence on biological parameters, such as light absorption in blood, and instrumental characteristics, such as excitation pulse fluctuations and detection geometry, can be minimized. Several chemical compounds have been studied in animal experiments after intraveneous injection to verify their capacity as malignant tumour marking drugs under laser excitation and fluorescence detection. Another objective of these studies was to improve our understanding of the mechanism and chemistry behind the retention of the various drugs in tissue. The properties of a chemical which maximize its selective retention in tumours are discussed. In order to utilize this diagnostic modality, three different clinically adapted sets of instrumentation have been developed and are presented. Two of the systems are nitrogen-laser-based fluorosensors; one is a point-monitoring system with full spectral resolution and the other one is an imaging system with up to four simultaneously recorded images in different spectral bands. The third system is a low-cost point-monitoring mercury-lamp-based fluoroscence emission as well as reflection characteristics of tissue. (author)

  7. Detection of vegetation stress from laser-induced fluorescence signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, N.

    1995-01-01

    The in vivo laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signatures of UV irradiated Salvia splendens plants were measured using an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) system with Nitrogen laser excitation. The LIF spectra which consisted of the blue-green and the red chlorophyll bands were analysed with a non-linear interactive procedure using Gaussian spectral functions. The fluorescence intensity ratios of the various bands obtained from curve fitted parameters were found to be more sensitive to changes in the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The variation in the intensity ratio for the chlorophyll bands for nutrient stressed sunflower, cotton and groundnut plants as well as the nutrient and water stressed rice plants are also presented. It is observed that vegetation stress not only changes the fluorescence intensity ratios and the vitality index of the plant but also changes the peak position of the emission bands, in some cases. It is also seen that analysis of the fluorescence spectra in vegetation remote sensing applications would require a deconvolution procedure to evaluate the exact contribution of each band in the total spectra. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Kana, Todd M.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    1998-07-01

    We report spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types detected by means of a blue spectral shift in airborne laser-induced fluorescence emission. The blue shift of the phycoerythrobilin fluorescence is known from laboratory studies to be induced by phycourobilin chromophore substitution at phycoerythrobilin chromophore sites in some strains of phycoerythrin-containing marine cyanobacteria. The airborne 532-nm laser-induced phycoerythrin fluorescence of the upper oceanic volume showed distinct segregation of cyanobacterial chromophore types in a flight transect from coastal water to the Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic. High phycourobilin levels were restricted to the oceanic (oligotrophic) end of the flight transect, in agreement with historical ship findings. These remotely observed phycoerythrin spectral fluorescence shifts have the potential to permit rapid, wide-area studies of the spatial variability of spectrally distinct cyanobacteria, especially across interfacial regions of coastal and oceanic water masses. Airborne laser-induced phytoplankton spectral fluorescence observations also further the development of satellite algorithms for passive detection of phytoplankton pigments. Optical modifications to the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar are briefly described that permitted observation of the fluorescence spectral shifts.

  9. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Julius, Clark E.; Overholt, Suzanne; Phan, Mary N.

    2003-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is used for in-vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus and skin cancer. For esophageal measurements a fiberoptic probe inserted through an endoscope was used. Autofluorescence of normal and malignant tissues were measured directly on patient skin without requiring an endoscope. Measurement of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed using laser excitation at 410 nm. The methodology was applied to differentiate normal and malignant tumors of the esophagus and malignant skin lesions. The results of this LIF approach were compared with histopathology results of the biopsy samples and indicated excellent agreement in the classification of normal and malignant tumors for the samples investigated.

  11. Design of remote laser-induced fluorescence system's acquisition circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Lou, Yue; Wang, Ran; Yan, Debao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence system(LIfS) has been found its significant application in identifying one kind of substance from another by its properties even it's thimbleful, and becomes useful in plenty of fields. Many superior works have reported LIfS' theoretical analysis , designs and uses. However, the usual LIPS is always constructed in labs to detect matter quite closely, for the system using low-power laser as excitation source and charge coupled device (CCD) as detector. Promoting the detectivity of LIfS is of much concern to spread its application. Here, we take a high-energy narrow-pulse laser instead of commonly used continuous wave laser to operate sample, thus we can get strong fluorescent. Besides, photomultiplier (PMT) with high sensitivity is adopted in our system to detect extremely weak fluorescence after a long flight time from the sample to the detector. Another advantage in our system, as the fluorescence collected into spectroscopy, multiple wavelengths of light can be converted to the corresponding electrical signals with the linear array multichannel PMT. Therefore, at the cost of high-powered incentive and high-sensitive detector, a remote LIFS is get. In order to run this system, it is of importance to turn light signal to digital signal which can be processed by computer. The pulse width of fluorescence is deeply associated with excitation laser, at the nanosecond(ns) level, which has a high demand for acquisition circuit. We design an acquisition circuit including, I/V conversion circuit, amplifying circuit and peak-holding circuit. The simulation of circuit shows that peak-holding circuit can be one effective approach to reducing difficulty of acquisition circuit.

  12. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  13. Flame Front Detection Using Formaldehyde Laser Induced Fluorescence In Turbulent Lean Premixed Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, S.; Tylli, N.; Bombach, R.

    2005-03-01

    The present work aims at suggesting the excitation-detection scheme best suited for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in turbulent lean premixed flames. In the literature, three different excitation schemes within the A{sup 1} X{sup 1} electronic transition have been suggested, with excitation into the 2{sup 1}{sub 0} 4{sup 1}{sub 0} , 4{sup 1}{sub 0} , and 4{sup 0}{sub 1} vibratoric bands, respectively. These excitation schemes were tested systematically and both advantages and disadvantages for each scheme are discussed. (author)

  14. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  15. Сomparative Analysis of 0.266 and 0.355 µm Fluorescence Excitation Wavelengths for Laser Fluores-Cence Monitoring of Oil Pollution Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line detection of pipeline spillage is really essential for the fast oil spill response to the ecological and economical consequences. However existing on-line pipelines spillage detection systems have a sensibility of 0.2 – 1 % of pipe flow and do not detect the smaller-sized spillages.For unpeopled or sparsely populated regions an advanced technique for detection of pipeline spillages (including low-intensity ones is to monitor oil pollution (petroleum spills on the earth surface along the pipeline using, for example, an air drone.The laser remote sensing method is an effective method to detect the pipelines spillage.The paper is dedicated to development of laser fluorescence detection method of oil pollution. The remote sensing laser method to monitor oil pollution is based on the fluorescence excitation of oil in UV spectral band and on the data record of the earth surface laser-induced fluorescence radiation.For laser fluorescence method of monitoring oil pollution the paper presents a comparative analysis  of 0.266 and 0.355 µm wavelengths of the fluorescence excitation in terms of earth atmosphere propagation, eye-safety, laser characteristics, and petroleum fluorescence excitation efficiency.It is shown that in terms of eye-safety, laser characteristics, and propagation in the earth atmosphere a 0.355 µm laser wavelength of the fluorescence excitation has a sure advantage.In the context of petroleum fluorescence excitation efficiency a 0.266 µm laser wavelength of the fluorescence excitation has the advantage, but this advantage depends heavily on the petroleum base. For low-sulfur (sweet oil for instance,  it is not that big.At large, in solving the task of oil pollution detection because of the oil pipeline spillages the 0.355 µm wavelength of fluorescence excitation ought to be preferable. However, when creating a monitoring system for the pipeline with a specific petroleum base the irreversible decision depends on the

  16. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, F. J.; De la Rosa, J.; Gallegos, F. J.

    2006-02-01

    Fluorescence methods are being used increasingly in the measurement of species concentrations in gases, liquids and solids. Laser induced fluorescence is spontaneous emission from atoms or molecules that have been excited by laser radiation. Here we present a time resolved fluorescence instrument that consists of a 5 μJ Nitrogen laser (337.1 nm), a sample holder, a quartz optical fiber, a spectrometer, a PMT and a PC that allows the measurement of visible fluorescence spectra (350-750 nm). Time response of the system is approximately 5 ns. The instrument has been used in the measurement of colored bond paper, antifreeze, diesel, cochineal pigment and malignant tissues. The data acquisition was achieved through computer control of a digital oscilloscope (using General Purpose Interface Bus GPIB) and the spectrometer via serial (RS232). The instrument software provides a graphic interface that lets make some data acquisition tasks like finding fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes. The software was developed using the Lab-View 6i graphic programming package and can be easily managed in order to add more functions to it.

  17. Simulating fluorescence light-canopy interaction in support of laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosema, A.; Verhoef, W.; Schroote, J.; Snel, J.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands an operational field instrument for the measurement of laser induced fluorescence of vegetation (LEAF) is developed. In addition, plant physiological and remote sensing research is done to support this new remote sensing instrument. This paper presents a general introduction on the subject of laser-induced fluorescence, including the relation between chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis, spectral characteristics, and previous research. Also the LEAF system is briefly described. Subsequently, the development of a leaf fluorescence model (KMF) and a canopy fluorescence model (FLSAIL) are reported. With these simulation models a sensitivity study is carried out. Fluorescence of 685 nm appears to be most suitable to obtain information on photosynthesis and stress, but is also influenced by canopy structure. Separation of these two effects is studied

  18. Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, K.P.; Dahn, H.G.; Lüdeker, W.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the EUREKA project LASFLEUR (EU 380) started as an European research effort to investigate the future application of far-field laser-induced plant fluorescence for synoptic, airborne environmental monitoring of vegetation. This report includes a brief introduction in a theoretically approach for the laser-induced fluorescence signals of leaves and their spectral and radiometric behaviour. In addition, a detailed description of the design and realization of the second generation of the far-field fluorescence lidar (DLidaR-2) is given with special regard to the optical and electronical setup, followed by a short explanation of the data processing. The main objectives of the far field measurements are to demonstrate the link between laser-induced fluorescence data and plant physiology and to show the reliability of remote single shot lidar measurements. The data sets include the typical daily cycles of the fluorescence for different global irradiation. As expected from biophysical models, the remotely sensed chlorophyll fluorescence is highly correlated with the carbon fixation rate, while the fluorescence ratio F685 / F730 is only dependent on the chlorophyll concentration. Drought stress measurement of evergreen oaks Quercus pubescens confirm the findings of healthy plants with regard to the fluorescence ratio F685 / F730 while the fluorescence signals of stressed plants show a different behavior than nonstressed plants. Additionally, the corresponding physiological data (porometer and PAM data) are presented. (author)

  19. Recognition of edible oil by using BP neural network and laser induced fluorescence spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Zhang, Hong-yan; Liu, Xiao-hua; Wang, Yuan; Bu, Zhi-chao

    2013-09-01

    In order to accomplish recognition of the different edible oil we set up a laser induced fluorescence spectrum system in the laboratory based on Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, and then collect the fluorescence spectrum of different edible oil by using that system. Based on this, we set up a fluorescence spectrum database of different cooking oil. It is clear that there are three main peak position of different edible oil from fluorescence spectrum chart. Although the peak positions of all cooking oil were almost the same, the relative intensity of different edible oils was totally different. So it could easily accomplish that oil recognition could take advantage of the difference of relative intensity. Feature invariants were extracted from the spectrum data, which were chosen from the fluorescence spectrum database randomly, before distinguishing different cooking oil. Then back propagation (BP) neural network was established and trained by the chosen data from the spectrum database. On that basis real experiment data was identified by BP neural network. It was found that the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 83.2%. Experiments showed that the laser induced fluorescence spectrum of different cooking oil was very different from each other, which could be used to accomplish the oil recognition. Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, combined BP neural network,was fast, high sensitivity, non-contact, and high recognition rate. It could become a new technique to accomplish the edible oil recognition and quality detection.

  20. New Method Based on Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection (CE-LIF) to Monitor Interaction between Nanoparticles and the Amyloid-β Peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, Davide; Verpillot, Romain; Taverna, Myriam; de Kimpe, Line; Le Droumaguet, Benjamin; Nicolas, Julien; Canovi, Mara; Gobbi, Marco; Mantegazza, Francesco; Salmona, Mario; Nicolas, Valérie; Scheper, Wiep; Couvreur, Patrick; Andrieux, Karine

    2010-01-01

    A novel application of capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was proposed to efficiently detect and monitor the interaction between polymeric nanoparticles and the β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)), a biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), at concentrations close

  1. Homogenization optics to improve detectability of a fluorescence response to a single laser pulse: Detection of feces on apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination of produce is a known food safety risk. Measuring fluorescence responses to UV excitation is an established method for detecting such contamination. One measurement system utilizes a pulsed UV laser to induce a fluorescence response from fecal material and a gated intensified cam...

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  3. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomande, K.; Konate, A.; Krou Adjo, V.; Soro, A.; Ebby, N.; Ballo, K.

    1998-02-01

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  4. In-vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Buckley, Paul F., II; Edwards, Donna H.

    1995-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used for direct in-vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus without requiring biopsy. The methodology was applied to differentiate normal and malignant tumors of the esophagus. Endogenous fluorescence of normal and malignant tissues were measured directly using a fiberoptic probe inserted through an endoscope. The measurements were performed in vivo during routine endoscopy. Detection of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed using laser excitation. The results of this LIF approach were compared with histopathology results of the biopsy samples and indicated excellent agreement in the classification of normal and malignant tumors for the samples investigated. The LIF procedure could lead to the development of a rapid and cost-effective technique for cancer diagnosis.

  5. Simultaneous detection of ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jeff.guthrie@emich.edu; Limmer, Robert T.; Brooks, Eric A.; Wisnewski, Chelsea C.; Loggins-Davis, Nnekia D.; Bouzid, Abderraouf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CE–LIF was developed for simultaneous detection of UV-induced DNA photoproducts. • Fluorescent quantum dot reporters enabled detection of small amounts of photoproducts. • Photoproducts were detected after 65 J m{sup −2} of fluence from a UVB lamp in ∼6 ng of DNA. • Natural sunlight induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers after only 15 min of exposure. - Abstract: An immunoassay based on CE–LIF was developed for the simultaneous detection of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) in genomic DNA irradiated with UVB or natural sunlight. Human cells were first exposed to varying amounts of UVB or natural sunlight to induce DNA damage. Genomic DNA was extracted and incubated with anti-CPD and anti-6-4PP primary antibodies attached to secondary antibodies with a fluorescent quantum dot (QD) reporter that emitted either red or yellow fluorescence. CE was used to separate the unbound antibodies from those bound to the photoproducts, and LIF with appropriate optical filters was used to separate the fluorescence signals from each QD to individual photomultiplier tubes for simultaneous photoproduct detection. Using this strategy, photoproducts were detected from ∼6 ng (200 ng μL{sup −1}) of DNA under a low UVB fluence of 65 J m{sup −2} for CPDs or 195 J m{sup −2} for 6-4PPs. This assay was also the first to demonstrate the detection of CPDs in human cells after only 15 min of irradiation under natural sunlight.

  6. Simultaneous detection of ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Jeffrey W.; Limmer, Robert T.; Brooks, Eric A.; Wisnewski, Chelsea C.; Loggins-Davis, Nnekia D.; Bouzid, Abderraouf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CE–LIF was developed for simultaneous detection of UV-induced DNA photoproducts. • Fluorescent quantum dot reporters enabled detection of small amounts of photoproducts. • Photoproducts were detected after 65 J m −2 of fluence from a UVB lamp in ∼6 ng of DNA. • Natural sunlight induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers after only 15 min of exposure. - Abstract: An immunoassay based on CE–LIF was developed for the simultaneous detection of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) in genomic DNA irradiated with UVB or natural sunlight. Human cells were first exposed to varying amounts of UVB or natural sunlight to induce DNA damage. Genomic DNA was extracted and incubated with anti-CPD and anti-6-4PP primary antibodies attached to secondary antibodies with a fluorescent quantum dot (QD) reporter that emitted either red or yellow fluorescence. CE was used to separate the unbound antibodies from those bound to the photoproducts, and LIF with appropriate optical filters was used to separate the fluorescence signals from each QD to individual photomultiplier tubes for simultaneous photoproduct detection. Using this strategy, photoproducts were detected from ∼6 ng (200 ng μL −1 ) of DNA under a low UVB fluence of 65 J m −2 for CPDs or 195 J m −2 for 6-4PPs. This assay was also the first to demonstrate the detection of CPDs in human cells after only 15 min of irradiation under natural sunlight

  7. Spatially resolved analyses of uranium species using a coupled system made up of confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, S.; Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T.

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescent properties of uranium when excited by UV light are used increasingly for spectroscope analyses of uranium species within watery samples. Here, alongside the fluorescent properties of the hexavalent oxidation phases, the tetra and pentavalent oxidation phases also play an increasingly important role. The detection of fluorescent emission spectrums on solid and biological samples using (time-resolved) laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS or LIFS respectively) has, however, the disadvantage that no statements regarding the spatial localisation of the uranium can be made. However, particularly in complex, biological samples, such statements on the localisation of the uranium enrichment in the sample are desired, in order to e.g. be able to distinguish between intra and extra-cellular uranium bonds. The fluorescent properties of uranium (VI) compounds and minerals can also be used to detect their localisation within complex samples. So the application of fluorescent microscopic methods represents one possibility to localise and visualise uranium precipitates and enrichments in biological samples, such as biofilms or cells. The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) is especially well suited to this purpose. Coupling confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) makes it possible to localise and visualise fluorescent signals spatially and three-dimensionally, while at the same time being able to detect spatially resolved, fluorescent-spectroscopic data. This technology is characterised by relatively low detection limits from up to 1.10 -6 M for uranium (VI) compounds within the confocal volume. (orig.)

  8. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  9. The Development and Deployment of a Ground-Based, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for the In Situ Detection of Iodine Monoxide Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 1012. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A23/2 (v = 2) ? X23/2 (v = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  10. Laser-Induced Photofragmentation Fluorescence Imaging of Alkali Compounds in Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Tomas; Brackmann, Christian; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced photofragmentation fluorescence has been investigated for the imaging of alkali compounds in premixed laminar methane-air flames. An ArF excimer laser, providing pulses of wavelength 193 nm, was used to photodissociate KCl, KOH, and NaCl molecules in the post-flame region and fluorescence from the excited atomic alkali fragment was detected. Fluorescence emission spectra showed distinct lines of the alkali atoms allowing for efficient background filtering. Temperature data from Rayleigh scattering measurements together with simulations of potassium chemistry presented in literature allowed for conclusions on the relative contributions of potassium species KOH and KCl to the detected signal. Experimental approaches for separate measurements of these components are discussed. Signal power dependence and calculated fractions of dissociated molecules indicate the saturation of the photolysis process, independent on absorption cross-section, under the experimental conditions. Quantitative KCl concentrations up to 30 parts per million (ppm) were evaluated from the fluorescence data and showed good agreement with results from ultraviolet absorption measurements. Detection limits for KCl photofragmentation fluorescence imaging of 0.5 and 1.0 ppm were determined for averaged and single-shot data, respectively. Moreover, simultaneous imaging of KCl and NaCl was demonstrated using a stereoscope with filters. The results indicate that the photofragmentation method can be employed for detailed studies of alkali chemistry in laboratory flames for validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms crucial for efficient biomass fuel utilization.

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence of se, as, and sb in an electrothermal atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, D J; Ezer, M; Pacquette, H L; Simeonsson, J B

    1998-04-01

    Trace detection of Se, As, and Sb atoms has been performed by electrothermal atomization laser-induced fluorescence (ETA-LIF) approaches. Production of far-UV radiation necessary for excitation of As atoms at 193.696 nm and Se atoms at 196.026 nm was accomplished by stimulated Raman shifting (SRS) of the output of a frequency-doubled dye laser operating near 230 nm. Both wavelengths were obtained as second-order anti-Stokes shifts of the dye laser radiation and provided up to 10 μJ/pulse, which was shown through power dependence studies to be sufficient for saturation in the ETA. An excited-state direct line fluorescence approach using excitation at 206.279 nm was also investigated for the LIF detection of Se. High-sensitivity LIF of Sb atoms was accomplished using 206.833-nm excitation and detection at 259.805 nm. The accuracy of the ETA-LIF approaches was demonstrated by determining the As and Se content of aqueous reference samples. The limits of detection (absolute mass) were 200 fg by ground-state LIF and 150 fg by excited-state direct line fluorescence for Se, 200 fg for As, and 10 fg for Sb; these LODs compare favorably with results reported previously in the literature for ETA-LIF, GFAAS, and ICP-MS methods.

  12. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, P.J.W.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Döbele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has

  13. Photodissociation dynamics of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene and nitrocyclopentane in gas phase: Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawade, Monali N.; Saha, Ankur; Upadhyaya, Hari P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D., E-mail: pdnaik@barc.gov.in

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Photodissociation studies on chloronitrotoluene (ClNT) and nitrocyclopentane (NCP). • Nascent OH product detected state selectively using laser induced fluorescence. • OH formation takes place from the ground electronic state with an exit barrier. • UV photodissociation dynamics of ClNT and NCP is different. - Abstract: Photodissociation of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene (ClNT) at 193, 248 and 266 nm and nitrocyclopentane (NCP) at 193 nm leads to the formation of OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The nascent OH produced from the photolysis of ClNT at all the wavelengths is vibrationally cold, with the Boltzmann type rotational state distributions. However, the nascent OH product from NCP is in the ground and vibrationally excited states with the measured average relative population in ν{sup ″}=1 to that in ν{sup ″}=0 of 0.12 ± 0.03, and these levels are characterized by rotational temperatures of 650 ± 180 K and 1570 ± 90 K, respectively. The translational energy partitioned in the OH fragment has been measured for photodissociation of both ClNT and NCP. On the basis of both the experimental results and the ground state molecular orbital (MO) calculations, a plausible mechanism for the OH formation has been proposed.

  14. Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) in sooting hydrocarbon flames using femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, femtosecond (fs)-duration, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) are reported in rich, sooting hydrocarbon flames. CO-TPLIF detection using conventional nanosecond or picosecond lasers are often plagued by photochemical interferences, specifically under fuel-rich flames conditions. In the current study, we investigate the commonly used CO two-photon excitation scheme of the B1Σ+ ← X1Σ+ electronic transition, using approximately 100-fs-duration excitation pulses. Fluorescence emission was observed in the Ångström band originating from directly populated B1Σ+ upper state, as well as, in the third positive band from collisionally populated b3Σ+ upper state. The current work was focused on the Ångström band emission. Interference from nascent C2 emissions originating from hot soot particles in the flame could be reduced to a negligible level using a narrower detection gate width. In contrast, avoiding interferences from laser-generated C2 Swan-band emissions required specific narrowband spectral filtering in sooting flame conditions. The observed less than quadratic laser pulse energy dependence of the TPLIF signal suggests the presence of strong three-photon ionization and stimulated emission processes. In a range of CH4/air and C2H4/air premixed flames investigated, the measured CO fluorescence signals agree well with the calculated equilibrium CO number densities. Reduced-interference CO-TPLIF imaging in premixed C2H4/O2/N2 jet flames is also reported.

  15. Two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G. Andrew; Lucht, Robert P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for obtaining two-dimensional temperature images in water. For this method, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excites a solution of temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640. The resulting emissions are optically separated through filters and detected via a charged-couple device (CCD) camera system. A ratio of the two images yields temperature images independent of incident irradiance. An uncertainty in temperature of ±1.4 deg. C is established at the 95% confidence interval

  16. Pressure broadening of atomic oxygen two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinov, D.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.; Guaitella, O.; Golda, J.; Klarenaar, B.L.M.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Booth, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, considered to be a determining reactant in plasma applications at ambient pressure, is routinely detected by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Here, pressure broadening of the (2p 4 3 P 2  →  3p 3 P J=0,1,2) two-photon transition in oxygen atoms was

  17. Laser-based optical detection of explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Farrell, Mikella E

    2015-01-01

    Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understa...

  18. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, C.; Decambox, P.; Mauchien, P.; Petit, A.

    1995-01-01

    Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) is a very sensitive and selective method that has been used for actinides and lanthanides analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle. This technique has been used in different fields such as in geology, in the Purex process, in the environment, in the medical and in waste storage assessment. Spectroscopic data, limits of detection and results obtained in previously quoted fields are presented. (author)

  19. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurlow, M. E., E-mail: thurlow@huarp.harvard.edu; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Co, D. T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); O' Brien, A. S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hanisco, T. F. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10{sup 12}. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ′} = 2) ← X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ″} = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  20. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hanisco, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10 12 . The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A 2 Π 3/2 (v ′ = 2) ← X 2 Π 3/2 (v ″ = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America

  1. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Simeonsson, Josef B.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 μg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05 ± 2.60, 20.70 ± 2.27 and 20.60 ± 2.46 μg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible

  2. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A; Jones, Bradley T; Simeonsson, Josef B

    2006-06-30

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 microg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05+/-2.60, 20.70+/-2.27 and 20.60+/-2.46 microg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible.

  3. Instantaneous imaging of ozone in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kajsa; Hot, Dina; Gao, Jinlong; Kong, Chengdong; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim; Ehn, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Ozone vapor, O3, is here visualized in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence. Ozone is imaged by first photodissociating the O3 molecule into an O radical and a vibrationally hot O2 fragment by a pump photon. Thereafter, the vibrationally excited O2 molecule absorbs a second (probe) photon that further transits the O2-molecule to an excited electronic state, and hence, fluorescence from the deexcitation process in the molecule can be detected. Both the photodissociation and excitation processes are achieved within one 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulse that is formed into a laser sheet and the fluorescence is imaged using an intensified CCD camera. The laser-induced signal in the vicinity of the plasma column formed by the gliding arc is confirmed to stem from O3 rather than plasma produced vibrationally hot O2. While both these products can be produced in plasmas a second laser pulse at 266 nm was utilized to separate the pump- from the probe-processes. Such arrangement allowed lifetime studies of vibrationally hot O2, which under these conditions were several orders of magnitude shorter than the lifetime of plasma-produced ozone.

  4. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D.C.; Doebele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has a bandwith of 0.15 cm -1 . The wavelength of the laser radiation is calibrated by simultaneous recording of the two-photon laser induced fluorescence spectrum of nitric oxide. The excited hydrogen populations are calibrated on the basis of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. A population distribution is measured in the shock region of a pure hydrogen plasma expansion. The higher rotational levels (J>5) show overpopulation compared to a Boltzmann distribution determined from the lower rotational levels (J≤5)

  5. In vivo study of the human skin by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study are to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced auto-fluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin and optimize of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of laser-induced fluorescence to discriminate disease from normal surrounding tissue. The most fluorescence studies have used exogenous fluorophores of this discrimination. The laser-induced auto-fluorescence which is used for diagnosis of tissues in the human body avoids administration of any drugs. In this study a technique for optical biopsy of in vivo human skin is presented. The auto-fluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissues. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitiligo. Two main endogenous fluorophores in the human skin account for most of the cellular auto-fluorescence for excitation wavelength 337 nm reduced from of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and collagen. The auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin depend on main internal absorbers which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by blood and melanin content on the shape of the auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. (authors)

  6. Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostic of barium ion plasmas in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moses; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. To investigate the ion plasma microstate in PTSX, including the ion density profile and the ion velocity distribution function, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed as a nondestructive diagnostic. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. A feasibility study of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic using barium ions is presented with the characterization of a tunable dye laser. The installation of the barium ion source and the development of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system are also discussed

  7. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  8. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, J.S.

    1980-10-01

    Laser induced fluoresence (LIF) spectra (laser excitation spectra) are conceptually among the most simple spectra to obtain. One need only confine a gaseous sample in a suitable container, direct a laser along one axis of the container, and monitor the sample's fluorescence at a right angle to the laser beam. As the laser wavelength is changed, the changes in fluorescence intensity map the absorption spectrum of the sample. (More precisely, only absorption to states which have a significant radiative decay component are monitored.) For ion spectroscopy, one could benefit in many ways by such an experiment. Most optical ion spectra have been observed by emission techniques, and, aside from the problems of spectral analysis, discharge emission methods often produce the spectra of many species, some of which may be unknown or uncertain. Implicit in the description of LIF given above is certainty as to the chemical identity of the carrier of the spectrum. This article describes a method by which the simplifying aspects of LIF can be extended to molecular ions

  9. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures

  10. Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Moses; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. For the in-situ measurement of the transverse ion density profile in the PTSX device, which is essential for the study of beam mismatch and halo particle production, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. The installation of the barium ion source and the characterization of the tunable dye laser system are discussed. The design of the collection optics with an intensified CCD camera system is also discussed. Finally, initial test results using the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic will be presented.

  11. Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, J M; Kychakoff, G; Hanson, R K

    1985-09-01

    A single-pulse, laser-induced-fluorescence diagnostic for the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields in combustion flows is described. The method uses sheet illumination from a tunable laser to excite planar laserinduced fluorescence in a stable tracer molecule, seeded at constant mole fraction into the flow field. The temporal resolution of this technique is determined by the laser pulse length. Experimental results are presented for a rodstabilized, premixed methane-air flame, using the Q(1) (22) line of the nitric oxide A(2) Sigma(+) (v = 0) ? X(2)II((1/2))(v = 0) transition (lambda approximately 225.6 nm).

  12. Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, H.

    1998-11-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand and optimize combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines, laser techniques have been developed for measurement of fuel and residual gas, respectively, in the precombustion mixture of an operating SI engine. The primary objective was to obtain two-dimensional, quantitative data in the vicinity of the spark gap at the time of ignition. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed for fuel visualization in engine environments. Since the fluorescence signal from any commercial gasoline fuel would be unknown to its origin, with an unpredictable dependence on collisional partners, pressure and temperature, a non-fluorescent base fuel - isooctane - was used. For LIF detection, a fluorescent species was added to the fuel. An additive not commonly used in this context - 3-pentanone - was chosen based on its suitable vaporization characteristics and fluorescent properties. The LIF technique was applied to an optically accessible research engine. By calibration, the fluorescence signal from the additive was converted to fuel-to-air equivalence ratio ({phi}). The accuracy and precision of the acquired data were assessed. A statistical evaluation revealed that the spatially averaged equivalence ratio around the spark plug had a significant impact on the combustion event. The strong correlation between these two quantities suggested that the early combustion was sensitive to large-scale inhomogeneities in the precombustion mixture. A similar LIF technique, using acetone as a fluorescent additive in methane, was applied to a combustion cell for ion current evaluation. The local equivalence ratio around the spark gap at the time of ignition was extracted from LIF data. Useful relations were identified between different ion current parameters and the local equivalence ratio, although the impact of the flow field, the fuel type, and the electrode geometry were identified as areas for future research. A novel fuel - dimethyl ether (DME

  13. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  14. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab...

  15. The influence of PAH concentration and distribution on real-time in situ measurements of petroleum products in soils using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.; Lieberman, S.H.; McGinnis, W.C.; Knowles, D.; Peven, C.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in situ measurements of soil samples provide a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for hydrocarbon site assessments. The site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS), is a truck-mounted cone penetrometer probe modified with a sapphire window and connected to a laser by fiber optics. The pulsed nitrogen laser 337-nm excitation source induces fluorescence in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are present in petroleum products. The fluorescence response of these compounds is measured with a fluorometer. The SCAPS can provide continuous hydrocarbon screening measurements to soil depths greater than 100 feet. Discrete soil samples collected from the SCAPS boreholes were extracted and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 16 parent and over 100 alkyl substituted PAH compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). This method provides a basis for evaluating the relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations in the soil samples and laser induced fluorescence measurements from the soil borings

  16. Single-Shot, Volumetrically Illuminated, Three-Dimensional, Tomographic Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Imaging in a Gaseous Free Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Single-shot, volumetrically illuminated, three- dimensional, tomographic laser-induced- fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet Benjamin R. Halls...acquisition; (110.6955) Tomographic imaging ; (110.6960) Tomography; (280.2490) Flow diagnostics; (300.2530) Fluorescence , laser-induced...84 (1983). 2. I. van Cruyningen, A. Lozano, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative imaging of concentration by planar laser-induced fluorescence ,” Exp

  17. Pulsed lasers versus continuous light sources in capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence detection studies: Photodegradation pathways and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutonnet, Audrey; Morin, Arnaud; Petit, Pierre; Vicendo, Patricia; Poinsot, Véréna; Couderc, François

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed lasers are widely used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) studies to provide laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Unfortunately pulsed lasers do not give linear calibration curves over a wide range of concentrations. While this does not prevent their use in CE/LIF studies, the non-linear behavior must be understood. Using 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) (10–5000 nM), Tamra (10–5000 nM) and tryptophan (1–200 μM) as dyes, we observe that continuous lasers and LEDs result in linear calibration curves, while pulsed lasers give polynomial ones. The effect is seen with both visible light (530 nm) and with UV light (355 nm, 266 nm). In this work we point out the formation of byproducts induced by pulsed laser upon irradiation of 7-HC. Their separation by CE using two Zeta LIF detectors clearly shows that this process is related to the first laser detection. All of these photodegradation products can be identified by an ESI-/MS investigation and correspond to at least two 7HC dimers. By using the photodegradation model proposed by Heywood and Farnsworth (2010) and by taking into account the 7-HC results and the fact that in our system we do not have a constant concentration of fluorophore, it is possible to propose a new photochemical model of fluorescence in LIF detection. The model, like the experiment, shows that it is difficult to obtain linear quantitation curves with pulsed lasers while UV-LEDs used in continuous mode have this advantage. They are a good alternative to UV pulsed lasers. An application involving the separation and linear quantification of oligosaccharides labeled with 2-aminobezoic acid is presented using HILIC and LED (365 nm) induced fluorescence. - Highlights: • No linear calibration curves are obtained in CE/Pulsed-LIF detection. • Photodegradation and photodimerisation are responsible of this non linearity. • A mathematical model of this phenomenon is presented. • 7 hydroxycoumarin in CE/LIF is used to verify the

  18. Optimal buffer gas pressure for laser-induced fluorescence detection of the iodine-129 isotope in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, S.V.; Pit'ko, A.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric air pressure on the intensity of iodine-129 vapor fluorescence excited by a He-Ne (633 nm) laser is studied. It is shown that to achieve the maximum intensity of fluorescence of molecular iodine-129, it is advantageous, first, to use a 3 He- 20 Ne laser for excitation, and second, to detect atmospheric iodine impurities in the gas mixture under analysis evacuated to 2 x 10 18 - 4 x 10 18 mol/cm 3 . In this case, the sensitivity increases about twofold. 7 refs., 4 figs

  19. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N A; Cappelli, M A; Hargus, W A

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s(')[1/2](1)(0)-6p(')[3/2](2) xenon atomic transition at λ = 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  20. Examinations for the determination of the flux density of sputtered iron using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweer, H.B.

    1983-11-01

    In this work investigations are described to measure the flux density of sputtered iron atoms by means of laser induced fluorescence. In a laboratory experiment an iron target (stainless steel 316, Inconel 600), was bombarded with 10 keV Ar + and 2.5 keV H + and the population distribution of the energy levels of the ground state a 5 D and the metastable state a 5 F was measured. In the plasma wall region in the ISX-B tokamak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) neutral iron atoms were measured the first time by laser induced fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 was found and sputtered iron atoms were observed in the first 15 ms of the discharge. (orig./BRB)

  1. Blood perfusion and pH monitoring in organs by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Stavridi, Marigo; Snyder, Wendy J.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Thomas, Reem; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in detecting a change in tissue pH, and blood perfusion was determined. Rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The arterial and venous blood supplies of the kidney were isolated and ligated to alter the perfusion. The femoral artery was cannulated to extract samples for blood gas analysis. A 308-nm XeCl was used as an excitation source. A 600 micrometers core diameter fiber was used for fluorescence acquisition, and the spectra analyzed by an optical multichannel analyzer (EG & G, OMA III). the corresponding intensity ratio R equals INADH / ICOLL was used as an index for respiratory acidosis. Blood perfusion was assessed using the following algorithm: (IELAS minus ICOLL) divided by (INADH minus ICOLL). The intensity ratio linearly decreased with the reduction of blood perfusion. When we totally occluded the artery the ratio decreased tenfold when compared to the ratio of a fully perfused kidney. Results of monitoring blood acidosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy shows a significant trend between pH and intensity ratio. Since all the slopes were negative, there is an obvious significant correlation between the pH and NADH.COLLAGEN RATIO. Blue-light-induced fluorescence measurements and ratio fluorometry is a sensitive method for monitoring blood perfusion and acidity or alkalinity of an organ.

  2. Simultaneous detection of ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Jeffrey W; Limmer, Robert T; Brooks, Eric A; Wisnewski, Chelsea C; Loggins-Davis, Nnekia D; Bouzid, Abderraouf

    2015-01-01

    An immunoassay based on CE-LIF was developed for the simultaneous detection of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) in genomic DNA irradiated with UVB or natural sunlight. Human cells were first exposed to varying amounts of UVB or natural sunlight to induce DNA damage. Genomic DNA was extracted and incubated with anti-CPD and anti-6-4PP primary antibodies attached to secondary antibodies with a fluorescent quantum dot (QD) reporter that emitted either red or yellow fluorescence. CE was used to separate the unbound antibodies from those bound to the photoproducts, and LIF with appropriate optical filters was used to separate the fluorescence signals from each QD to individual photomultiplier tubes for simultaneous photoproduct detection. Using this strategy, photoproducts were detected from ∼6 ng (200 ng μL(-1)) of DNA under a low UVB fluence of 65 J m(-2) for CPDs or 195 J m(-2) for 6-4PPs. This assay was also the first to demonstrate the detection of CPDs in human cells after only 15 min of irradiation under natural sunlight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  4. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N. A.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hargus, W. A. Jr. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s{sup Prime }[1/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}-6p{sup Prime }[3/2]{sub 2} xenon atomic transition at {lambda}= 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  5. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light.

  6. Characterization of type I, II, III, IV, and V collagens by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Cohen, David; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2000-04-01

    The relative proportions of genetically distinct collagen types in connective tissues vary with tissue type and change during disease progression, development, wound healing, aging. This study aims to 1) characterize the spectro- temporal fluorescence emission of fiber different types of collagen and 2) assess the ability of time-resolved laser- induced fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between collagen types. Fluorescence emission of commercially available purified samples was induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses and detected with a MCP-PMT connected to a digital storage oscilloscope. The recorded time-resolved emission spectra displayed distinct fluorescence emission characteristics for each collagen type. The time domain information complemented the spectral domain intensity data for improved discrimination between different collagen types. Our results reveal that analysis of the fluorescence emission can be used to characterize different species of collagen. Also, the results suggest that time-resolved spectroscopy can be used for monitoring of connective tissue matrix composition changes due to various pathological and non-pathological conditions.

  7. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  8. Laser induced uranium fluorescence as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.

    1985-01-01

    A laser induced fluorescence system was developed to measure uranium trace level amounts in aqueous solution with reliable and simple materials and electronics. A nitrogen pulsed laser was built with the storage energy capacitor directly coupled to laser tube electrodes as a transmission line device. This laser operated at 3Hz repetition rate with peak intensity around 21 Kw and temporal width of 4.5 x 10 -9 s. A sample compartment made of rigid PVC and a photomultiplier housing of aluminium were constructed and assembled forming a single integrated device. As a result of this prototype system we made several analytical measurements with U dissolved in nitric acid to obtain a calibration curve. We obtained a straight line from a plot of U concentration versus fluorescence intensity fitted by a least square method that produced a regression coefficient of 0.994. The lower limit of U determination was 30 ppb -+ 3.5%. (Author) [pt

  9. Spatially resolved analyses of uranium species using a coupled system made up of confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS); Ortsaufgeloeste Analyse von Uranspezies mittels einem Gekoppelten System aus Konfokaler Laser-Scanning Mikroskopie (CLSM) und Laser Induzierter Fluoreszenzspektroskopie (LIFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, S. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Ressourcenoekologie

    2014-01-15

    The fluorescent properties of uranium when excited by UV light are used increasingly for spectroscope analyses of uranium species within watery samples. Here, alongside the fluorescent properties of the hexavalent oxidation phases, the tetra and pentavalent oxidation phases also play an increasingly important role. The detection of fluorescent emission spectrums on solid and biological samples using (time-resolved) laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS or LIFS respectively) has, however, the disadvantage that no statements regarding the spatial localisation of the uranium can be made. However, particularly in complex, biological samples, such statements on the localisation of the uranium enrichment in the sample are desired, in order to e.g. be able to distinguish between intra and extra-cellular uranium bonds. The fluorescent properties of uranium (VI) compounds and minerals can also be used to detect their localisation within complex samples. So the application of fluorescent microscopic methods represents one possibility to localise and visualise uranium precipitates and enrichments in biological samples, such as biofilms or cells. The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) is especially well suited to this purpose. Coupling confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) makes it possible to localise and visualise fluorescent signals spatially and three-dimensionally, while at the same time being able to detect spatially resolved, fluorescent-spectroscopic data. This technology is characterised by relatively low detection limits from up to 1.10{sup -6} M for uranium (VI) compounds within the confocal volume. (orig.)

  10. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  12. Laser resonant ionization spectroscopy and laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectra of samarium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Changtai

    1995-01-01

    We have measured new high-lying levels of Sm atom by two-colour resonant photoionisation spectroscopy; we have observed the isotope shifts of Sm atom by laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectroscopy; the lifetime of eight low-lying levels of Sm atom were measured by using pulsed laser-Boxcar technique in atomic beam.

  13. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar+*(2G9/2) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge.

  14. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  15. Quantitative analysis of essential oils of Thymus daenensis using laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshroo, H; Khadem, H; Bahreini, M; Tavassoli, S H; Hadian, J

    2015-11-10

    Laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are used for the investigation of different genotypes of Thymus daenensis native to the Ilam province of Iran. Different genotypes of T. daenensis essential oils, labeled T1 through T7, possess slight differences with regard to the composition of the thymol. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is performed to determine the concentration of each constituent as a reference method. The Raman spectra of different concentrations of pure thymol dissolved in hexane as standard samples are obtained via a laboratory prototype Raman spectroscopy setup for the calculation of the calibration curve. The regression coefficient and limit of detection are calculated. The possibility of the differentiation of different genotypes of T. daenensis is also examined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, although we do not know the exact amounts of their components. All the fluorescence spectral information is used jointly by cluster analysis to differentiate between 7 genotypes. Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of Raman spectroscopy with GC-MS and corroborate the capacity of Raman spectroscopy in applications in the quantitative analysis field. Furthermore, the cluster analysis results show that laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is an acceptable technique for the rapid classification of different genotypes of T. daenensis without having any previous information of their exact amount of constituents. So, the ability to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate between genotypes makes it possible to efficiently select high-quality herbs from many samples.

  16. Technique for Increasing the Selectivity of the Method of Laser Fragmentation/Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    A technique for increasing the selectivity of the method of detecting high-energy materials (HEMs) based on laser fragmentation of HEM molecules with subsequent laser excitation of fluorescence of the characteristic NO fragments from the first vibrational level of the ground state is suggested.

  17. Study on two-color planar laser induced fluorescence thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaodan; Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen; Lin Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many of the convection heat transfer process are involved in the research of nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics. To experimentally determine the variation of the temperature field in those processes is important for the design and safety operation of the nuclear reactor. The application of the two-color planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in the measurements of fluid temperature distribution is discussed in the paper. The laser dyes used here is rhodamine B (RhB) with negative temperature coefficient and fluorescein 27 (F127) with positive temperature coefficient. The beam of the laser light is adjusted to laser sheet by using the lens group. The fluid with dyes is excited by this laser sheet in a specific plane and temperature dependent fluorescence is released. The temperature field of the plane can be determined through the intensity information. Some technical aspects encountered in the application of the two-laser PLIF are discussed in the paper, such as the spectra characteristic of the dyes and the separation of the spectra. The calibration temperature is higher than the water saturation temperature (at atmosphere pressure). (authors)

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements within a Laboratory Hall Thruster (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hargus, Jr., W. A; Cappelli, M. A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the results of a study of laser induced fluorescence velocimetry of ionic xenon in the plume and interior acceleration channel of a laboratory Hall type thruster operating...

  19. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar + *( 2 G 9/2 ) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T) as a non-invasive temperature measurement technique for thermal hydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strack, J.; Leung, K.; Walker, A., E-mail: strackj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is an experimental technique whereby a scalar field in a fluid system is measured optically from the fluorescence intensity of a tracer dye following excitation by laser light. For laser induced fluorescence thermometry (LIF-T), a temperature sensitive dye is used. Through the use of a temperature sensitive tracer dye, sheet laser optics, optical filters, and photography, a 2D temperature field can be measured non-invasively. An experiment to test the viability of using LIF-T for macroscopic thermal hydraulic experiments was developed and tested. A reference calibration curve to relate fluorescence measurements to temperature is presented. (author)

  1. Experimental Studies of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Plants Immunity to the Kind of Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various external factors (pollutants available in the soil, a lack or insufficient amount of water and nutrients, etc. lead to stressful conditions of plants and impossibility of their normal development. At the early stages it is difficult to identify visually the stressful situations of plants. Therefore development of methods and devices to detect stressful states is important.A method of the laser-induced fluorescence is one of perspective methods for detection of stressful conditions of plants.In spite of quite a great number of work presenting results of the pilot studies of fluorescence spectra of vegetation, there are some important issues, which are unclear.The paper gives results of pilot studies of stability of a spectrum form of the laser-induced fluorescence of plants for different types of soil at the wavelength of excitation fluorescence of 532 nm.Results of processing fluorescence spectra of plants show:- fluorescence spectra of plants grown up under similar conditions have good repeatability of a spectra form for different samples of plants and different measurement time for each type of studied soil. The ratio value R of the fluorescence intensity at the wavelength of 685 nm to the fluorescence intensity at the wavelength of 740 nm has high stability. The standard deviation in sampling of the ratio R of different samples of a plant for one type of soil (for width of spectral ranges of recording fluorescent radiation of 10 nm lies in the range ~ 0.055 - ~ 0.12;- a difference in plant fluorescence spectra between themselves for different types of soil has the same order as a difference in fluorescence spectra of different samples of a plant for one type of soil. Difference in average value of the ratio R for different types of soil lies in the range ~ 0.01 - ~ 0.15.Thus, the value of the ratio R is steady against a type of soil and can be used to control a condition of plants.

  2. Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence studies of HS radicals, DS radicals, and I atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiee, J J; Ferris, M J; Loge, G W; Wampler, F B

    1983-04-15

    A two-photon laser-induced excitation and fluorescence technique has been used to study the A /sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ - X/sup 2/PI transition of HS and DS radicals and various high-lying /sup 4/P/sup 0/, /sup 2/D/sup 0/, and /sup 4/D/sup 0/ states of the I atom. The two-photon excitation cross sections and detection sensitivity are discussed. 13 references, 5 figures.

  3. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  4. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  5. Photodetection of early cancer by laser-induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Cornaz, Piet F.; Chatelain, Andre; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1990-07-01

    An apparatus is designed and realized to detect "early" cancer at the surface of the hollow organs in the human body by endoscopic means. The tumor is localized by the laser induced fluorescence of a dye (HPD) which concentrates selectively in the neoplastic tissue after intravenous injection. Fluorescence contrast between the tumor and its normal surroundings is enhanced by subtracting the background autofluorescence which occurs in both types of tissue. This is done by means of 2-color digital images manipulation in real-time. Preliminary clinical tests of the apparatus demonstrated the detection of carcinoma in situ in the esophagus.

  6. Confocal laser-induced fluorescence detector for narrow capillary system with yoctomole limit of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Mitchell T; Lynch, Kyle B; Zhu, Zaifang; Chen, Huang; Lu, Joann J; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detectors for low-micrometer and sub-micrometer capillary on-column detection are not commercially available. In this paper, we describe in details how to construct a confocal LIF detector to address this issue. We characterize the detector by determining its limit of detection (LOD), linear dynamic range (LDR) and background signal drift; a very low LOD (~70 fluorescein molecules or 12 yoctomole fluorescein), a wide LDR (greater than 3 orders of magnitude) and a small background signal drift (~1.2-fold of the root mean square noise) are obtained. For detecting analytes inside a low-micrometer and sub-micrometer capillary, proper alignment is essential. We present a simple protocol to align the capillary with the optical system and use the position-lock capability of a translation stage to fix the capillary in position during the experiment. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this detector for narrow capillary systems, we build a 2-μm-i.d. capillary flow injection analysis (FIA) system using the newly developed LIF prototype as a detector and obtain an FIA LOD of 14 zeptomole fluorescein. We also separate a DNA ladder sample by bare narrow capillary - hydrodynamic chromatography and use the LIF prototype to monitor the resolved DNA fragments. We obtain not only well-resolved peaks but also the quantitative information of all DNA fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for biological and materials sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dallas Jonathan

    The field of laser-based diagnostics has been a topic of research in various fields, more specifically for applications in environmental studies, military defense technologies, and medicine, among many others. In this dissertation, a novel laser-based optical diagnostic method, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), has been implemented in a spectroscopy mode and expanded into an imaging mode in combination with fluorescence techniques. The DLIPS method takes advantage of deep ultraviolet (UV) laser perturbation at sub-ablative energy fluences to photochemically cleave bonds and alter fluorescence signal response before and after perturbation. The resulting difference spectrum or differential image adds more information about the target specimen, and can be used in combination with traditional fluorescence techniques for detection of certain materials, characterization of many materials and biological specimen, and diagnosis of various human skin conditions. The differential aspect allows for mitigation of patient or sample variation, and has the potential to develop into a powerful, noninvasive optical sensing tool. The studies in this dissertation encompass efforts to continue the fundamental research on DLIPS including expansion of the method to an imaging mode. Five primary studies have been carried out and presented. These include the use of DLIPS in a spectroscopy mode for analysis of nitrogen-based explosives on various substrates, classification of Caribbean fruit flies versus Caribbean fruit flies that have been irradiated with gamma rays, and diagnosis of human skin cancer lesions. The nitrogen-based explosives and Caribbean fruit flies have been analyzed with the DLIPS scheme using the imaging modality, providing complementary information to the spectroscopic scheme. In each study, a comparison between absolute fluorescence signals and DLIPS responses showed that DLIPS statistically outperformed traditional fluorescence techniques

  8. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  9. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy for applications in chemical sensing and optical refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi Barimah, Eric

    limit of detection for ClO4, was determined to be 14.7 +/- 0.5 wt%/wt for the given experimental conditions. In the second part of this research, the temperature-dependent absorption and emission properties of Tm doped KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and KPb2Br5 (KPB) were evaluated for applications in laser cooling. A Tm doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) crystal was also included for comparative studies. Under laser pumping, all crystals exhibited broad IR fluorescence at room temperature with a mean fluorescence wavelength of ˜1.82 mum and bandwidth of 0.14 mum (FWHM) for Tm:KPC/KPB and ˜1.79 mum for Tm:YAG. Initial experiments on laser-induced heating/cooling were performed using a combined IR imaging and fluorescence thermometry setup. Employing a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.907 mum, Tm: KPC and Tm: KPB crystals revealed a very small heat load resulting in temperature increase of ˜ 0.3 ( +/- 0.1)°C. The heat loading in Tm:YAG was signicantly larger and resulted in a temperature increase of ˜0.9 (+/-0.1)°C. The results derived from IR imaging were also conrmed by the fluorescence thermometry experiments, which showed only minimal changes in the FIR intensity ratio of the green Er3+ fluorescence lines from Er:KPC.

  10. Kerosene detection using laser induced fluorescence imaging for aeronautical engines application; Detection du kerozene par imagerie de fluorescence induite par laser, pour application sur foyer aeronautique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranger, Ph.

    2004-10-15

    The new concepts of aeronautical engines, developed to follow the evolution of the European standards of pollution, are generally based on an improvement of the processes of liquid fuel injection and mixture in the combustion chamber. There is currently no model mature enough to work without experimental validation. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the possibility of measuring the kerosene (Jet A1) vapour distribution by PLIF (Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence). That measurement technique must quantitatively image the instantaneous concentrations fields of the vaporized fuel in a spray. The implementation of such a technique needs an experimental spectroscopic study, which was realized on the vapour of fuel. First of all, this study allowed us to determine the properties of the kerosene fluorescence spectrum versus physical parameters such as temperature, pressure or gas mixture composition, especially in presence of oxygen molecules. Then, it was shown that the fluorescence spectrum of the fuel could be reproduce in all physical conditions by a single mixture of four aromatics. Their photophysical properties were also analyzed. Following this spectroscopic study, a phenomenological model for the fluorescence of the gaseous fuel was set up. This model led us to a protocol for an optical diagnostic on this fuel vapour. An experiment was set up to test the implementation and the limits of this technique in simple laboratory conditions. This experiment confirmed that this is indeed a promising technique for the diagnostic of the fuel vapour in aeronautical engine. (author)

  11. Measurements of excited-state-to-excited-state transition probabilities and photoionization cross-sections using laser-induced fluorescence and photoionization signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.L.; Sahoo, A.C.; Pulhani, A.K.; Gupta, G.P.; Dikshit, B.; Bhatia, M.S.; Suri, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced photoionization and fluorescence signals were simultaneously observed in atomic samarium using Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers. Two-color, three-photon photoionization and two-color fluorescence signals were recorded simultaneously as a function of the second-step laser power for two photoionization pathways. The density matrix formalism has been employed to analyze these signals. Two-color laser-induced fluorescence signal depends on the laser powers used for the first and second-step transitions as well as the first and second-step transition probability whereas two-color, three-photon photoionization signal depends on the third-step transition cross-section at the second-step laser wavelength along with the laser powers and transition probability for the first and second-step transitions. Two-color laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the second-step transition probability. The second-step transition probability obtained was used to infer the photoionization cross-section. Thus, the methodology combining two-color, three-photon photoionization and two-color fluorescence signals in a single experiment has been established for the first time to measure the second-step transition probability as well as the photoionization cross-section. - Highlights: • Laser-induced photoionization and fluorescence signals have been simultaneously observed. • The density matrix formalism has been employed to analyze these signals. • Two-color laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the second-step transition probability. • The second-step transition probability obtained was used to infer the photoionization cross-section. • Transition probability and photoionization cross-section have been measured in a single experiment

  12. Sensitive determination of malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and biological fluids by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lačná, J.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 169, JUL (2017), s. 85-90 ISSN 0039-9140 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21919S Keywords : malondialdehyde * capillary electrophoresis * laser induced fluorescence * blood plasma * saliva Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  13. Visualization of Two-Phase Fluid Distribution Using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. U.; Darrow, J.; Schock, H.; Golding, B.; Nocera, D.; Keller, P.

    1998-03-01

    Laser-induced exciplex (excited state complex) fluorescence has been used to generate two-dimensional images of dispersed liquid and vapor phases with spectrally resolved two-color emissions. In this method, the vapor phase is tagged by the monomer fluorescence while the liquid phase is tracked by the exciplex fluorescence. A new exciplex visualization system consisting of DMA and 1,4,6-TMN in an isooctane solvent was developed.(J.U. Kim et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 323-328 (1997)) The direct ca

  14. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Sousa Dias Cartaxana, Paulo Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area...... spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick...... macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin...

  15. Multispectral imaging system based on laser-induced fluorescence for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Del Franco, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Spizzichino, V.

    2016-10-01

    The development of portable sensors for fast screening of crime scenes is required to reduce the number of evidences useful to be collected, optimizing time and resources. Laser based spectroscopic techniques are good candidates to this scope due to their capability to operate in field, in remote and rapid way. In this work, the prototype of a multispectral imaging LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) system able to detect evidence of different materials on large very crowded and confusing areas at distances up to some tens of meters will be presented. Data collected as both 2D fluorescence images and LIF spectra are suitable to the identification and the localization of the materials of interest. A reduced scan time, preserving at the same time the accuracy of the results, has been taken into account as a main requirement in the system design. An excimer laser with high energy and repetition rate coupled to a gated high sensitivity ICCD assures very good performances for this purpose. Effort has been devoted to speed up the data processing. The system has been tested in outdoor and indoor real scenarios and some results will be reported. Evidence of the plastics polypropylene (PP) and polyethilene (PE) and polyester have been identified and their localization on the examined scenes has been highlighted through the data processing. By suitable emission bands, the instrument can be used for the rapid detection of other material classes (i.e. textiles, woods, varnishes). The activities of this work have been supported by the EU-FP7 FORLAB project (Forensic Laboratory for in-situ evidence analysis in a post blast scenario).

  16. Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of an Optically Thick Plasma in Combination with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion of laser-induced fluorescence profiles attributable to optical absorption and saturation broadening was corrected in combination with laser absorption spectroscopy in argon plasma flow. At high probe-laser intensity, saturated absorption profiles were measured to correct probe-laser absorption. At low laser intensity, nonsaturated absorption profiles were measured to correct fluorescence reabsorption. Saturation broadening at the measurement point was corrected using a ratio of saturated to non-saturated broadening. Observed LIF broadening and corresponding translational temperature without correction were, respectively, 2.20±0.05 GHz and 2510±100 K and corrected broadening and temperature were, respectively, 1.96±0.07 GHz and 1990±150 K. Although this correction is applicable only at the center of symmetry, the deduced temperature agreed well with that obtained by LAS with Abel inversion.

  17. Cutaneous porphyrins exhibit anti-stokes fluorescence that is detectable in sebum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Giselle; Zeng, Haishan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Zhenguo; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Lui, Harvey; Mclean, David I.

    2016-02-01

    Porphyrins produced by Propionibacterium acnes represent the principal fluorophore associated with acne, and appear as orange-red luminescence under the Wood's lamp. Assessment of acne based on Wood's lamp (UV) or visible light illumination is limited by photon penetration depth and has limited sensitivity for earlier stage lesions. Inducing fluorescence with near infrared (NIR) excitation may provide an alternative way to assess porphyrin-related skin disorders. We discovered that under 785 nm CW laser excitation PpIX powder exhibits fluorescence emission in the shorter wavelength range of 600-715 nm with an intensity that is linearly dependent on the excitation power. We attribute this shorter wavelength emission to anti-Stokes fluorescence. Similar anti-Stokes fluorescence was also detected focally in all skin-derived samples containing porphyrins. Regular (Stokes) fluorescence was present under UV and visible light excitation on ex vivo nasal skin and sebum from uninflamed acne, but not on nose surface smears or sebum from inflamed acne. Co-registered CW laser-excited anti-Stokes fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence images of PpIX powder showed similar features. In the skin samples because of the anti-Stokes effect, the NIR-induced fluorescence was presumably specific for porphyrins since there appeared to be no anti-Stokes emission signals from other typical skin fluorophores such as lipids, keratins and collagen. Anti-Stokes fluorescence under NIR CW excitation is more sensitive and specific for porphyrin detection than UV- or visible light-excited regular fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence. This approach also has higher image contrast compared to NIR fs laser-based multi-photon fluorescence imaging. The anti-Stokes fluorescence of porphyrins within sebum could potentially be applied to detecting and targeting acne lesions for treatment via fluorescence image guidance.

  18. Assisted Interpretation of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Egg-Based Binding Media Using Total Emission Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglos, D.; Nevin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can provide nondestructive, qualitative analysis of protein-based binding media found in artworks. Fluorescence emissions from proteins in egg yolk and egg white are due to auto fluorescent aromatic amino acids as well as other native and age-related fluorophores, but the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the differentiation between binding media is dependent on the choice of a suitable excitation wavelength and limited by problems in interpretation. However, a better understanding of emission spectra associated with LIF can be achieved following comparisons with total emission fluorescence spectra where a series of consecutive emission spectra are recorded over a specific range. Results using nanosecond UV laser sources for LIF of egg-based binding media are presented which are rationalised following comparisons with total emission spectra. Specifically, fluorescence is assigned to tryptophan and oxidation products of amino acids; in the case of egg yolk, fatty-acid polymerisation and age-related degradation products account for the formation of fluorophores.

  19. Quantitative nitric oxide measurements by means of laser-induced fluorescence in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Vliet, van A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Ganippa, L.C.; Bougie, H.J.T.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative in-cylinder laser-induced fluorescence measurements ofnitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine are presented. Special attention is paid to experimental techniques to assess the attenuation of the laser beam and the fluorescence signal by the cylinder contents.This attenuation can be

  20. Chiral separation of amino acids in biological fluids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J

    2000-08-18

    A method is presented for the chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+/-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate (APOC) and separated using a mixed micellar separation system. No tedious pre-purification of samples is required. The excellent separation efficiency and good detection capabilities of the MEKC-LIF system are exemplified in the analysis of urine and cerebrospinal fluid. This is the first time MEKC has been reported for chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids. The amino acids D-alanine, D-glutamine, and D-aspartic acid have been observed in cerebrospinal fluid, and D-alanine and D-glutamic acid in urine. To the best of our knowledge no measurements of either D-alanine in cerebrospinal fluid or D-glutamic acid in urine have been presented in the literature before.

  1. Reaction-time-resolved measurements of laser-induced fluorescence in a shock tube with a single laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeti, S.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2017-11-01

    Shock tubes allow for the study of ultra-fast gas-phase reactions on the microsecond time scale. Because the repetition rate of the experiments is low, it is crucial to gain as much information as possible from each individual measurement. While reaction-time-resolved species concentration and temperature measurements with fast absorption methods are established, conventional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements with pulsed lasers provide data only at a single reaction time. Therefore, fluorescence methods have rarely been used in shock-tube diagnostics. In this paper, a novel experimental concept is presented that allows reaction-time-resolved LIF measurements with one single laser pulse using a test section that is equipped with several optical ports. After the passage of the shock wave, the reactive mixture is excited along the center of the tube with a 266-nm laser beam directed through a window in the end wall of the shock tube. The emitted LIF signal is collected through elongated sidewall windows and focused onto the entrance slit of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an intensified CCD camera. The one-dimensional spatial resolution of the measurement translates into a reaction-time-resolved measurement while the species information can be gained from the spectral axis of the detected two-dimensional image. Anisole pyrolysis was selected as the benchmark reaction to demonstrate the new apparatus.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A; Bombach, R; Hubschmid, W; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  3. Ultratrace analysis of actinides via coprecipitation/laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Actinides were selectively preconcentrated by coprecipitating each out of solution with a fluoride matrix and calcining each sample at 800 0 C. The fluorescence spectrum of each sample was recorded by illuminating the sample with laser light and detecting fluorescence with either a fluorescence/Raman spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer or in certain cases a filter fluorimeter. Three previously unobserved actinide spectra were recorded. Narrow lines at 546.9 nm, 564.6 nm, and 569.6 nm were found for CaF 2 :PuO 2++ at 10K. CaF 2 :Am + 3 displayed two broadband fluorescent peaks at 625 nm and 746 nm at room temperature and CaF 2 :Pu + 3 possessed a fluorescent peak at 1.22 microns at 10K. Energy transfer was observed in the form of Tb fluorescence quenching in TbF 3 :Pu + 3 when Pu was present in quantities of 10 ppM or more and in the form of Tb fluorescence enhancement in TbF 3 :Am + 3 when 1 ppM or more of Am was present. Careful sample preparation and the use of temporal as well as a spectral discrimination system extended the detection limit of U from 1 ml samples to the subfemtogram level. The fluorescence detection limits for Pu and Am were extended to 0.48 and 0.032 pg/ml. 39 figures, 9 tables

  4. Laser-induced fluorescences due to quadrupole moment transition and Stark effect in a He glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hisashi; Takiyama, Ken; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Motokuni; Fujita, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu; Kawasaki, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The electric quadrupole moment transition and the Stark effect are investigated in a He hollow cathode discharge with laser-induced fluorescence method. It is shown that the forbidden transition from 2 1 S to 3 1 D in the negative glow is dominantly due to the quadrupole moment transition. This absorption coefficient is obtained from the laser-induced fluorescence intensity measurement in which the collisional transfers are taken into account. The result agrees with the theoretical coefficient. In the cathode dark space the fluorescence due to the Stark effect is also observed. Spatial distribution of the fluorescence is discussed, compared with the electric field distribution in the dark space. (author)

  5. Does ozone enhance the remineralizing potential of nanohydroxyapatite on artificially demineralized enamel? A laser induced fluorescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Samuelraj; Prabhu, Vijendra; Chandra, Subhash; Koshy, Shalini; Acharya, Shashidhar; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2014-02-01

    The present era of minimal invasive dentistry emphasizes the early detection and remineralization of initial enamel caries. Ozone has been shown to reverse the initial demineralization before the integrity of the enamel surface is lost. Nano-hydroxyapatite is a proven remineralizing agent for early enamel caries. In the present study, the effect of ozone in enhancing the remineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite on artificially demineralized enamel was investigated using laser induced fluorescence. Thirty five sound human premolars were collected from healthy subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. Fluorescence was recorded by exciting the mesial surfaces using 325 nm He-Cd laser with 2 mW power. Tooth specimens were subjected to demineralization to create initial enamel caries. Following which the specimens were divided into three groups, i.e ozone (ozonated water for 2 min), without ozone and artificial saliva. Remineralization regimen was followed for 3 weeks. The fluorescence spectra of the specimens were recorded from all the three experimental groups at baseline, after demineralization and remineralization. The average spectrum for each experimental group was used for statistical analysis. Fluorescence intensities of Ozone treated specimens following remineralization were higher than that of artificial saliva, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.0001). In a nutshell, ozone enhanced the remineralizing potential of nanohydroxyapatite, and laser induced fluorescence was found to be effective in assessing the surface mineral changes in enamel. Ozone can be considered an effective agent in reversing the initial enamel caries there by preventing the tooth from entering into the repetitive restorative cycle.

  6. Determination of gabapentin in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection with and without solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.; Liang, S.; Tan, X.; Meng, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed two methods for the quantitation of gabapentin in human plasma. They are based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) with and without solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the derivatizing reagent 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)amino fluoresencin. The conditions for derivatization, separation and extraction were investigated in detail, and the optimal labeling conditions include a temperature of 40 0 C, a reaction time of 30 min, and the use of a borate buffer of pH 9.0 as the reaction medium. A borate buffer of pH 9.2 served as a background electrolyte for CE separations. The CE-LIF and SPE-CE-LIF methods have linear ranges of 5-200 nmol L -1 and 0.2-10 nmol L -1 , respectively, and the limits of detection are 0.5 and 0.02 nmol L -1 , respectively. The SPE-CE-LIF method was successfully applied to the determination of gabapentin in blood plasma samples. (author)

  7. Development of the spectrometric imaging apparatus of laser induced fluorescence from plants and estimation of chlorophyll contents of rice leaves; Laser reiki keiko sokutei sochi no kaihatsu to inehanai no chlorophyll ganryo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, K.; Shoji, K.; Hanyu, H.

    1999-05-01

    Photosynthetic activity of plants is an important factor to assess the micrometeorological effect of plant canopy or to estimate the influence of circumstances such as water stress. Light illumination induces fluorescence from a leaf or suspension of chloroplasts. The red chlorophyll fluorescence had been used to determine the process of the electron transportation in photosynthetic reaction. The fluorescence source other than chlorophyll is not announced sufficiently, but is supposed to be useful to determine the contents of the substance corresponding to physiological response of plants. We developed a fluorescence imaging apparatus to observe spectrum and distribution of laser induced fluorescence from a leaf. Pulsed UV-laser (Nd:YAG) induced blue-green fluorescence and red chlorophyll fluorescence from a green leaf. The pulse modulated measuring light and CCD with image-intensifier (ICCD) enable to detect the fluorescence from plants under illumination. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra were investigated to estimate the chlorophyll contents in leaves of rice. During the greening course of dark grown etiolated rice leaves, chlorophyll contents were determined using the extraction of leaves and steady state LIF spectra were measured. As a result, the ratio of fluorescent intensity between blue-green and red peaks (F460/F740 and F510/F740) decreased in proportion to alteration of chlorophyll contents respectively. These fluorescence intensity ratios perform more precise estimation of higher chlorophyll contents of leaves than reported red chlorophyll fluorescence intensity ratio (F690/E740). (author)

  8. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  9. Peroxy Radical Measurements via Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawny, Katrin; Tatum Ernest, Cheryl; Novelli, Anna; Elste, Thomas; Plaß-Dülmer, Christian; Rudolf, Markus; Martinez, Monica; Harder, Hartwig; Lelieveld, Jos

    2013-04-01

    We present a newly built Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system to measure the sum of all peroxy radicals (RO2) utilizing chemical conversion to OH. This instrument operates in two different modes: the ROx mode (sum of OH, HO2, and RO2) and the HOx mode (sum of OH and HO2). The HOx mode is used to derive the RO2 data from the ROx measurements. A model approach was used during instrumental development to identify the key parameters needed for the conversion process in front of the detection area and to optimize sensitivity. The instrument was then carefully characterized in various lab experiments, where it could be shown that the wall losses for HO2 are negligible and that nearly all HO2 is converted to OH in front of the detection zone. The pressure and temperature dependencies were also analyzed and assured that the instrument does not show any photolytical interference. As the instrument is calibrated with only one kind of peroxy radicals it was very important that the differences in sensitivity for different peroxy radicals are acceptable. Lab experiments as well as first results from the HOPE 2012 intensive field campaign, which took place in summer 2012 at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the German Weather Service, will be discussed.

  10. Laser induced florescence: application to spectroscopy and new microscopy imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is one of the light using techniques which allows the highest sensitivity for atoms and molecules detection, up to the single atom or single molecule level. This field is much too large for an extensive review; therefor we have chosen to focus on two main points: 1- the observation of laser stimulated fluorescence in phthalocyanine and porphyrin like molecules in rare gas and nitrogen matrices at low temperatures. 2- the presentation of laser induced fluorescence techniques suitable for achieving ultra-high spatial resolution imaging, below the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy, thanks to highly fluorescent molecules to be used as biological markers. (Author)

  11. TRACE ANALYSIS BY LASER-EXCITED ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE WITH ATOMIZATION IN A PULSED PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lunyov , O.; Oshemkov , S.; Petrov , A.

    1991-01-01

    The possibilities of plasma atomization for laser fluorescence trace analysis are discussed. Pulsed hot hollow cathode discharge was used for analysis of solutions and powdered samples. The high voltage spark and laser-induced breakdown (laser spark) were used as atomizers of metal-containing atmospheric aerosols. Detection limits were improved by means of temporal background selection.

  12. Amine Analysis Using AlexaFluor 488 Succinimidyl Ester and Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Kendall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent probes enable detection of otherwise nonfluorescent species via highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence. Organic amines are predominantly nonfluorescent and are of analytical interest in agricultural and food science, biomedical applications, and biowarfare detection. Alexa Fluor 488 N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (AF488 NHS-ester is an amine-specific fluorescent probe. Here, we demonstrate low limit of detection of long-chain (C9 to C18 primary amines and optimize AF488 derivatization of long-chain primary amines. The reaction was found to be equally efficient in all solvents studied (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide. While an organic base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine is required to achieve efficient reaction between AF488 NHS-ester and organic amines with longer hydrophobic chains, high concentrations (>5 mM result in increased levels of ethylamine and propylamine in the blank. Optimal incubation times were found to be >12 hrs at room temperature. We present an initial capillary electrophoresis separation for analysis using a simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC buffer consisting of 12 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and 5 mM carbonate, pH 10. Limits of detection using the optimized labeling conditions and these separation conditions were 5–17 nM. The method presented here represents a novel addition to the arsenal of fluorescent probes available for highly sensitive analysis of small organic molecules.

  13. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence of metal-atom impurities in a neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, C.F.; Pyle, R.V.; Sabetimani, Z.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    The need to limit impurities in fusion devices to low levels is well known. We have investigated, by the technique of laser-induced fluorescence, the concentration of heavy-metal atoms in a neutral beam caused by their evaporation from the hot filaments in a conventional high-current multifilament hydrogen-ion source

  15. Laser induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.): in situ and remote detection of life in Antarctic and Alaskan ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Sattler, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    Once thought to be a barren desert devoid of life, it now appears that Earth's cryosphere is an ice ecosystem harbouring a rich community of metabolically active microorganisms inhabiting ice, snow, water, and lithic environments. The ability to rapidly survey this ecosystem during in situ and orbital missions is of considerable interest for monitoring Earth's carbon budget and for efficiently searching for life on Mars or any exoplanet with an analogous cryosphere. Laser induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging and spectroscopy using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths have been proposed as non-destructive astrobiological survey tools to search for amino acids, nucleic acids, microbial life, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for larger, more complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources. Of particular interest is the ability for excitation at blue, green, and red wavelengths to produce visible and near infrared fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, ice sheets, and even the supercooled water-ice droplets of clouds. During the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition we tested the in situ use of the technique as part of a field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In the spring of 2009, we performed airborne remote sensing tests of the technology in Alaska. In this paper we review our in situ laser detection experiments and present for the first time preliminary results on our efforts to detect cryosphere L.I.F.E. from an airborne platform.

  16. Impact of laser excitation intensity on deep UV fluorescence detection in microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Philipp; Ludwig, Martin; Belder, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    A high intensity 266 nm continuous wave (cw-) laser developed for material processing was utilised as an excitation source for sensitive native fluorescence detection of unlabelled compounds in MCE. This 120 mW laser was attached via an optical fibre into a commercial epifluorescence microscope. With this MCE set-up we evaluated the impact of laser power on the S/N of aromatic compounds as well as of proteins. Compared with a previous work which used a 4 mW pulsed laser for excitation, improved S/N for small aromatics and to a lesser extent for proteins could be attained. The LOD of the system was determined down to 24 ng/mL for serotonin (113 nM), 24 ng/mL for propranolol (81 nM), 80 ng/mL for tryptophan (392 nM) and 80 ng/mL for an aromatic diol (475 nM). Sensitive protein detection was obtained at concentrations of 5 microg/mL for lysocyme, trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen (340, 208 and 195 nM, respectively). Finally, a comparison of the cw- with a pulsed 266 nm laser, operating at the same average power, showed a higher attainable sensitivity of the cw-laser. This can be attributed to fluorescence saturation and photobleaching effects of the pulsed laser at high pulse energies.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing in atomic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, T.; Schuessler, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of highly monochromatic light allows the selective excitation of atoms in vapors if excitation and detection of the fluorescence is carried out collinearly. The atoms capable of absorbing light then form an atomic beam of well defined velocity along the direction of the laser beam, but no velocity selection occurs perpendicular to it. The potential of the technique for Doppler-free atomic spectroscopy and for the study of excited atom collisions is demonstrated using the Na D 1 line as an example

  18. Laser induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilecce, G; De Benedictis, S; Martini, L M; Tosi, P; Scotoni, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an outline of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics and practical recommendations for its use in atmospheric pressure discharges. LIF principles, technical requirements and rationalization of experimental outcomes by modelling are addressed. Important issues that are particularly relevant to small scale, spatially inhomogeneous discharges, like plasma-jets, are emphasized. For the first time, all collision processes and the spatial non-homogeneity of the laser beam are together accounted for in the LIF model. Saturation characteristics are discussed and used for the assessment of model parameters. A calibration procedure is discussed and implemented. Gas temperature measurements by LIF are also addressed. The whole description of the technique is given, without loss of generality, through the example of its application to the OH radical. Notes on other diatomic radicals, CH, NO and CN, are given along the paper. Some results in a RF plasma-jet are presented as an example of application in a discharge system where all the concepts developed in the paper are applied. (paper)

  19. Photodissociation dynamics of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene and nitrocyclopentane in gas phase: Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawade, Monali N.; Saha, Ankur; Upadhyaya, Hari P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D.

    2014-10-01

    Photodissociation of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene (ClNT) at 193, 248 and 266 nm and nitrocyclopentane (NCP) at 193 nm leads to the formation of OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The nascent OH produced from the photolysis of ClNT at all the wavelengths is vibrationally cold, with the Boltzmann type rotational state distributions. However, the nascent OH product from NCP is in the ground and vibrationally excited states with the measured average relative population in ν″ = 1 to that in ν″ = 0 of 0.12 ± 0.03, and these levels are characterized by rotational temperatures of 650 ± 180 K and 1570 ± 90 K, respectively. The translational energy partitioned in the OH fragment has been measured for photodissociation of both ClNT and NCP. On the basis of both the experimental results and the ground state molecular orbital (MO) calculations, a plausible mechanism for the OH formation has been proposed.

  20. Femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of krypton for high-speed flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; Capps, Cade; Kulatilaka, Waruna D

    2017-02-15

    Ultrashort-pulse (femtosecond-duration) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) of an inert gas tracer krypton (Kr) is investigated. A detailed spectroscopic study of fluorescence channels followed by the 5p'←←4p excitation of Kr at 204.1 nm is reported. The experimental line positions in the 750-840 nm emission region agree well with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The present work provides an accurate listing of relative line strengths in this spectral region. In the range of laser pulse energies investigated, a quadratic dependence was observed between the Kr-TPLIF signal and the laser pulse energy. The single-laser-shot 2D TPLIF images recorded in an unsteady jet demonstrate the potential of using fs excitation at 204.1 nm for mixing and flow diagnostic studies using Kr as an inert gas tracer.

  1. Detection of hepatocarcinoma in rats by integration of the fluorescence spectrum: Experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcassa, J. C.; Ferreira, J.; Zucoloto, S.; Castro E Silva, O., Jr.; Marcassa, L. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    The incorporation of spectroscopic techniques into diagnostic procedures may greatly improve the chances for precise diagnostics. One promising technique is fluorescence spectroscopy, which has recently been used to detect many different types of diseases. In this work, we use laser-induced tissue fluorescence to detect hepatocarcinoma in rats using excitation light at wavelengths of 443 and 532 nm. Hepatocarcinoma was induced chemically in Wistar rats. The collected fluorescence spectrum ranges from the excitation wavelength up to 850 nm. A mathematical procedure carried out on the spectrum determines a figure of merit value, which allows the detection of hepatocarcinoma. The figure of merit involves a procedure which evaluates the ratio between the backscattered excitation wavelength and the broad emission fluorescence band. We demonstrate that a normalization allowed by integration of the fluorescence spectra is a simple operation that may allow the detection of hepatocarcinoma.

  2. Measurement of fuel corrosion products using planar laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Butt, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterizing the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel material in a high-temperature hydrogen environment is critical for ascertaining the operational performance of proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. In this paper, we describe an experimental study undertaken to develop and test non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics for ultimately measuring the distribution of key gas-phase corrosion products expected to evolve during the exposure of NTP fuel to hydrogen. A laser ablation technique is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from uranium-free zirconium carbide (ZrC) and niobium carbide (NbC) forms for probing by various optical diagnostics including planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, and we describe both the actual and proposed planar LIF schemes for imaging constituents of the ablated ZrC and NbC plumes. Envisioned testing of the laser technique in rf-heated, high temperature gas streams is also discussed

  3. Measurements of KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence in high-temperature atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Laufer, Gabriel; Mcdaniel, James C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining laser-induced O2 fluorescence using a tunable KrF laser has been determined theoretically and experimentally. With this laser source, O2 rotational temperature measurement is possible even in the absence of vibrational equilibrium. Temperature measurement using a two-line excitation scheme has been demonstrated in a high-temperature atmospheric-air furnace. A measurement uncertainty of 10.7 percent for the temperature range 1325-1725 K was realized. At atmospheric pressure, O2 LIF measurements are possible for air temperatures above 1250 K. Interference from OH fluorescence in reacting flows can be avoided by the proper selection of O2 transitions. Depletion of the ground state population by the incident laser is negligible for intensities below 7.5 x 10 to the 6th W/sq cm/per cm.

  4. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) System with a Tunable Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jong; Do, Jeong Jun; You, Hyun Jong; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Myoung Jae; Chung, Kyu Sun

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is known as one of the most powerful techniques for measurements of ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) and ion temperature by means of Doppler broadening and Doppler shift. The dye lasers are generally used for LIF system with 611.66 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion, the low power diode laser was also proposed by Severn et al with the wavelength of 664.55 nm and 668.61 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion. Although the diode laser has the disadvantages of low power and small tuning range, it can be used for LIF system at the low temperature plasmas. A tunable diode laser with 668.614 nm of center wavelength and 10 GHz mode hop free tuning region has been used for our LIF system and it can be measured the ion temperature is up to 1 eV. The ion temperature and velocity distribution function have been measured with LaB6 plasma source, which is about 0.23 eV with Ar gas and 2.2 mTorr working pressure

  5. Ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence based proteomics for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V B; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-09-08

    An ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique has been developed by our group at Manipal, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from volunteers (normal, and different pre-malignant/malignant conditions) were recorded using this set-up. The protein profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve objective detection and classification of malignant, premalignant and healthy conditions with high sensitivity and specificity. The HPLC-LIF protein profiling combined with PCA, as a routine method for screening, diagnosis, and staging of cervical cancer and oral cancer, is discussed in this paper. In recent years, proteomics techniques have advanced tremendously in life sciences and medical sciences for the detection and identification of proteins in body fluids, tissue homogenates and cellular samples to understand biochemical mechanisms leading to different diseases. Some of the methods include techniques like high performance liquid chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF-MS, SELDI-TOF-MS, CE-MS and LC-MS techniques. We have developed an ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from healthy and volunteers with different malignant conditions were recorded by using this set-up. The protein profile data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) for objective

  6. Sensitive elemental detection using microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adeel; Sun, Zhiwei; Wall, Matthew; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a sensitive spectroscopic method for quantitative elemental detection by manipulating the temporal and spatial parameters of laser-induced plasma. The method was tested for indium detection in solid samples, in which laser ablation was used to generate a tiny plasma. The lifetime of the laser-induced plasma can be extended to hundreds of microseconds using microwave injection to remobilize the electrons. In this novel method, temporal integrated signal of indium emission was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, the projected detectable area of the excited indium atoms was also significantly improved using an interference-, instead of diffraction-, based technique, achieved by directly imaging microwave-enhanced plasma through a novel narrow-bandpass filter, exactly centered at the indium emission line. Quantitative laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy was also recorded simultaneously with the new imaging method. The intensities recorded from both methods exhibit very good mutual linear relationship. The detection intensity was improved to 14-folds because of the combined improvements in the plasma lifetime and the area of detection.

  7. Graphene oxide-coated stir bar sorptive extraction of trace aflatoxins from soy milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Ran, Congcong; Li, Mengjiao; Gao, Jinglin; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Lina; Bian, Jing; Li, Junmei; Jiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    Mycotoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. Among them, aflatoxins (AFs) are the most toxic. Therefore, AFs were selected as models, and a sensitive, simple and green graphene oxide (GO)-based stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method was developed for extraction and determination of AFs with high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detector (HPLC-LIF). This method improved the sensitivity of AFs detection and solved the deposition difficulty of the direct use of GO as adsorbent. Several parameters including a spiked amount of NaCl, stirring rate, extraction time and desorption time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the quantitative method had low limits of detection of 2.4-8.0 pg/mL, which were better than some reported AFs analytical methods. The developed method has been applied to soy milk samples with good recoveries ranging from 80.5 to 102.3%. The prepared GO-based SBSE can be used as a sensitive screening technique for detecting AFs in soy milk.

  8. Quantitative liquid and vapor distribution measurements in evaporating fuel sprays using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fansler, Todd D; Drake, Michael C; Gajdeczko, Boguslaw; Düwel, Isabell; Koban, Wieland; Zimmermann, Frank P; Schulz, Christof

    2009-01-01

    Fully quantitative two-dimensional measurements of liquid- and vapor-phase fuel distributions (mass per unit volume) from high-pressure direct-injection gasoline injectors are reported for conditions of both slow and rapid vaporization in a heated, high-pressure spray chamber. The measurements employ the coevaporative gasoline-like fluorobenzene (FB)/diethylmethylamine (DEMA)/hexane exciplex tracer/fuel system. In contrast to most previous laser-induced exciplex-fluorescence (LIEF) experiments, the quantitative results here include regions in which liquid and vapor fuel coexist (e.g. near the injector exit). A unique aspect is evaluation of both vapor- and liquid-phase distributions at varying temperature and pressure using only in situ vapor-phase fluorescence calibration measurements at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This approach draws on recent extensive measurements of the temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of the FB–DEMA exciplex system, in particular on knowledge of the quantum efficiencies of the vapor-phase and liquid-phase (exciplex) fluorescence. In addition to procedures necessary for quantitative measurements, we discuss corrections for liquid–vapor crosstalk (liquid fluorescence that overlaps the vapor-fluorescence bandpass), the unknown local temperature due to vaporization-induced cooling, and laser-sheet attenuation by scattering and absorption

  9. Mineralogy and Astrobiology Detection Using Laser Remote Sensing Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, M. Nurul; Bradley, Arthur T.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Lucey, Paul G.; Mckay, Chistopher P.; Ismail, Syed; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    A multispectral instrument based on Raman, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and a lidar system provides high-fidelity scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operation constraints in the context of planetary field campaigns with the Jupiter Europa Robotic Lander and Mars Sample Return mission opportunities. This instrument conducts scientific investigations analogous to investigations anticipated for missions to Mars and Jupiter's icy moons. This combined multispectral instrument is capable of performing Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy out to a >100 m target distance from the rover system and provides single-wavelength atmospheric profiling over long ranges (>20 km). In this article, we will reveal integrated remote Raman, LIF, and lidar technologies for use in robotic and lander-based planetary remote sensing applications. Discussions are focused on recently developed Raman, LIF, and lidar systems in addition to emphasizing surface water ice, surface and subsurface minerals, organics, biogenic, biomarker identification, atmospheric aerosols and clouds distributions, i.e., near-field atmospheric thin layers detection for next robotic-lander based instruments to measure all the above-mentioned parameters. OCIS codes: (120.0280) Remote sensing and sensors; (130.0250) Optoelectronics; (280.3640) Lidar; (300.2530) Fluorescence, laser-induced; (300.6450) Spectroscopy, Raman; (300.6365) Spectroscopy, laser induced breakdown

  10. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of concentration distributions in turbulent flows with crossed-plane laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Scharr, H.; Krömker, S.; Schulz, C.

    2005-01-01

    A laser-based technique for measuring instantaneous three-dimensional species concentration distributions in turbulent flows is presented. The laser beam from a single laser is formed into two crossed light sheets that illuminate the area of interest. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signal emitted from excited species within both planes is detected with a single camera via a mirror arrangement. Image processing enables the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data set in close proximity to the cutting line of the two light sheets. Three-dimensional intensity gradients are computed and compared to the two-dimensional projections obtained from the two directly observed planes. Volume visualization by digital image processing gives unique insight into the three-dimensional structures within the turbulent processes. We apply this technique to measurements of toluene-LIF in a turbulent, non-reactive mixing process of toluene and air and to hydroxyl (OH) LIF in a turbulent methane-air flame upon excitation at 248 nm with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

  11. Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) from plant foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Williams, Darrel L.

    1987-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence induction kinetics of green plants excited at 337 nm by a laser were studied. They correlate with plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of stress. The plant types studied include herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, conifers, and algae. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands or the relative intensity of the bands. Differences in fluorescent spectra which could be related to vigor status are observed in conifers located in an area of high atmospheric deposition. Changes in the fluorescence spectra and induction kinetics are also seen in plants grown under conditions of nutrient deficiency and drought stress.

  12. Stereoscopic Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging at 500 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Taylor L.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Jiang, N.; Webster, M.; Lempert, Walter; Miller, J.; Meyer, T.

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique for obtaining time- and spatially-resolved image sequences in hypersonic flows is developed. Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) has previously been used to investigate transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hypersonic boundary layers using both planar and volumetric imaging capabilities. Low flow rates of NO were typically seeded into the flow, minimally perturbing the flow. The volumetric imaging was performed at a measurement rate of 10 Hz using a thick planar laser sheet that excited NO fluorescence. The fluorescence was captured by a pair of cameras having slightly different views of the flow. Subsequent stereoscopic reconstruction of these images allowed the three-dimensional flow structures to be viewed. In the current paper, this approach has been extended to 50,000 times higher repetition rates. A laser operating at 500 kHz excites the seeded NO molecules, and a camera, synchronized with the laser and fitted with a beam-splitting assembly, acquires two separate images of the flow. The resulting stereoscopic images provide three-dimensional flow visualizations at 500 kHz for the first time. The 200 ns exposure time in each frame is fast enough to freeze the flow while the 500 kHz repetition rate is fast enough to time-resolve changes in the flow being studied. This method is applied to visualize the evolving hypersonic flow structures that propagate downstream of a discrete protuberance attached to a flat plate. The technique was demonstrated in the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Different tunnel Reynolds number conditions, NO flow rates and two different cylindrical protuberance heights were investigated. The location of the onset of flow unsteadiness, an indicator of transition, was observed to move downstream during the tunnel runs, coinciding with an increase in the model temperature.

  13. Laser Induced Fluorescence of Helium Ions in a Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C. S.; Biloui, C.; Hardin, R. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Scime, E. E.; Boivin, R.

    2003-10-01

    The lack of a suitable Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) scheme for helium ions at visible wavelengths has prevented LIF from being employed in helium plasmas for measurements of ion temperature and bulk ion flow speeds. In this work, we will discuss our attempts to perform LIF of helium ions in a helicon source plasma using an infrared, tunable diode laser operating at 1012.36 nm. The infrared transition corresponds to excitation from the n = 4 level (4f ^2F) to the n = 5 (5g ^2G) level of singly ionized helium and therefore requires substantial electron temperatures (> 10 eV) to maintain an adequate ion population in the n = 4 state. Calculations using a steady state coronal model predict that the n = 4 state population will be 25% larger than the n = 5 population for our experimental conditions. The fluorescence decay from the n = 5 (5f ^2F) level of singly ionized helium level to the n = 3 (3d ^2D) level at 320.31 nm is monitored as the diode laser is swept through 10 GHz around the 1012.36 nm line. Note that the fluorescence emission requires a collisionally coupled transition between two different n = 5 quantum states. We will also present measurements of the emission intensities of both the 1012.36 nm and the 320.31 nm lines as a function of source neutral pressure, rf power, and plasma density. This work supported by the U.S. DoE EPSCoR Lab Partnership Program.

  14. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence combined with one-step duplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in throat swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruan; Chengjun, Sun; Heng, Chen; Chen, Zhou; Yuanqian, Li; Yongxin, Li

    2015-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 are the main pathogens causing hand-foot-mouth disease. In this paper, microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence combined with one-step duplex reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction has been developed for the detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in throat swab specimens. The specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplicons labeled with SYBR Orange were separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis and detected by laser induced fluorescence detector within 7 min. The intraday and interday relative standard deviation of migration time for DNA Marker was in the range of 1.36-2.94 and 2.78-3.96%, respectively. The detection limits were as low as 2.06 × 10(3) copies/mL for Enterovirus 71 and 5 × 10(3) copies/mL for Coxsackievirus A16. No cross-reactivity was observed with rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus, and adenovirus, which showed good specificity of the method. This assay was validated using 100 throat swab specimens that were detected by real-time reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction in parallel and the two methods produced the same results. This study provided a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the detection of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, which make a contribution to significant time and cost saving for the identification and treatment of patients. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mixture-fraction imaging at 1  kHz using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence of krypton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel R; Jiang, Naibo; Stauffer, Hans U; Kearney, Sean P; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2017-09-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (TALIF) imaging measurements of krypton (Kr) are demonstrated to study mixing in gaseous flows. A measurement approach is presented in which observed Kr TALIF signals are 7 times stronger than the current state-of-the-art methodology. Fluorescence emission is compared for different gas pressures and excitation wavelengths, and the strongest fluorescence signals were observed when the excitation wavelength was tuned to 212.56 nm. Using this optimized excitation scheme, 1-kHz, single-laser-shot visualizations of unsteady flows and two-dimensional measurements of mixture fraction and scalar dissipation rate of a Kr-seeded jet are demonstrated.

  17. Laser-induced heating integrated with a microfluidic platform for real-time DNA replication and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Sheng; Ho, Chia-Chin; Chen, Chih-Pin

    2016-08-01

    This study developed a microfluidic platform for replicating and detecting DNA in real time by integrating a laser and a microfluidic device composed of polydimethylsiloxane. The design of the microchannels consisted of a laser-heating area and a detection area. An infrared laser was used as the heating source for DNA replication, and the laser power was adjusted to heat the solutions directly. In addition, strong biotin-avidin binding was used to capture and detect the replicated products. The biotin on one end was bound to avidin and anchored to the surface of the microchannels, whereas the biotin on the other end was bound to the quantum dots (Qdots). The results showed that the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots bound to the replicated products in the detection area increased with the number of thermal cycles created by the laser. When the number of thermal cycles was ≥10, the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots was directly detectable on the surface of the microchannels. The proposed method is more sensitive than detection methods entailing gel electrophoresis.

  18. Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelle, E.W.; McMurtrey, J.E. III; Kim, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of vegetation is being investigated in this laboratory for use as a technique for the remote detection of the effects of environmental stress upon vegetation, as well as for plant identification. The fluorescence band with a maximum at 440 nm, in conjunction with the chlorophyll bands with maxima at 685 and 740 nm, has been found to be a critical band in the development of algorithms for detecting stress, and identifying plant types. The identification of the plant constituent responsible for this band is vital to understanding the mechanism underlying its fluorescence changes in response to environmental and physiological changes. The identification was achieved as follows: The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of pure plant pigments were determined. Fluorescence bands with maxima at 420 nm, 440 nm, 490 nm, and 525 nm were observed for vitamin K 1 , reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH), beta-carotene, and riboflavin, respectively. The LIF spectra of water extracts and acetone extracts of clover leaves were also measured. It was found that the blue fluorescence band was associated with the water extract. NADPH which is a water-soluble compound, and the water extract of clover had no fluorescence after oxidation by potassium ferricyanide, while the fluorescence of water insoluble vitamin K 1 was unchanged by the oxidizing agent. It was also found that the absorption maximum of NADPH was the same as the absorption maximum of the aqueous extract of clover. The above findings indicated that the compound responsible for the blue fluorescence at 440 nm is in the reduced state and is water-soluble. It was concluded that NADPH was responsible for the blue fluorescence at 440 nm. The strong linear relationship between the fluorescence at 440 nm and the rate of photosynthesis suggests the possible use of LIF measurements in the remote estimation of photosynthetic rates. (author)

  19. Detecting Kerogen as a Biosignature Using Colocated UV Time-Gated Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolyar, Svetlana; Eshelman, Evan J; Farmer, Jack D; Hamilton, David; Daly, Michael G; Youngbull, Cody

    2018-04-01

    The Mars 2020 mission will analyze samples in situ and identify any that could have preserved biosignatures in ancient habitable environments for later return to Earth. Highest priority targeted samples include aqueously formed sedimentary lithologies. On Earth, such lithologies can contain fossil biosignatures as aromatic carbon (kerogen). In this study, we analyzed nonextracted kerogen in a diverse suite of natural, complex samples using colocated UV excitation (266 nm) time-gated (UV-TG) Raman and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. We interrogated kerogen and its host matrix in samples to (1) explore the capabilities of UV-TG Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies for detecting kerogen in high-priority targets in the search for possible biosignatures on Mars; (2) assess the effectiveness of time gating and UV laser wavelength in reducing fluorescence in Raman spectra; and (3) identify sample-specific issues that could challenge rover-based identifications of kerogen using UV-TG Raman spectroscopy. We found that ungated UV Raman spectroscopy is suited to identify diagnostic kerogen Raman bands without interfering fluorescence and that UV fluorescence spectroscopy is suited to identify kerogen. These results highlight the value of combining colocated Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, similar to those obtainable by SHERLOC on Mars 2020, to strengthen the confidence of kerogen detection as a potential biosignature in complex natural samples. Key Words: Raman spectroscopy-Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy-Mars Sample Return-Mars 2020 mission-Kerogen-Biosignatures. Astrobiology 18, 431-453.

  20. Speciation of actinides in aqueous solution by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takaumi; Kato, Yoshiharu; Meinrath, G.; Yoshida, Zenko; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) as a sensitive and selective method has been applied to the speciation of actinides in aqueous solution. Studies on hydrolysis and carbonate complexation of U(VI) and on determination of hydration number of Cm(III) are reported. (author)

  1. Immuno-magnetic beads-based extraction-capillary zone electrophoresis-deep UV laser-induced fluorescence analysis of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heye; Dou, Peng; Lü, Chenchen; Liu, Zhen

    2012-07-13

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is an important glycoprotein hormone. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is an important therapeutic drug and can be also used as doping reagent in sports. The analysis of EPO glycoforms in pharmaceutical and sports areas greatly challenges analytical scientists from several aspects, among which sensitive detection and effective and facile sample preparation are two essential issues. Herein, we investigated new possibilities for these two aspects. Deep UV laser-induced fluorescence detection (deep UV-LIF) was established to detect the intrinsic fluorescence of EPO while an immuno-magnetic beads-based extraction (IMBE) was developed to specifically extract EPO glycoforms. Combined with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), CZE-deep UV-LIF allows high resolution glycoform profiling with improved sensitivity. The detection sensitivity was improved by one order of magnitude as compared with UV absorbance detection. An additional advantage is that the original glycoform distribution can be completely preserved because no fluorescent labeling is needed. By combining IMBE with CZE-deep UV-LIF, the overall detection sensitivity was 1.5 × 10⁻⁸ mol/L, which was enhanced by two orders of magnitude relative to conventional CZE with UV absorbance detection. It is applicable to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations of EPO, but the sensitivity is insufficient for the anti-doping analysis of EPO in blood and urine. IMBE can be straightforward and effective approach for sample preparation. However, antibodies with high specificity were the key for application to urine samples because some urinary proteins can severely interfere the immuno-extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on high power ultraviolet laser oil detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qi; Cui, Zihao; Bi, Zongjie; Zhang, Yanchao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Fu, Shiyou

    2018-03-01

    Laser Induce Fluorescence (LIF) is a widely used new telemetry technology. It obtains information about oil spill and oil film thickness by analyzing the characteristics of stimulated fluorescence and has an important application in the field of rapid analysis of water composition. A set of LIF detection system for marine oil pollution is designed in this paper, which uses 355nm high-energy pulsed laser as the excitation light source. A high-sensitivity image intensifier is used in the detector. The upper machine sends a digital signal through a serial port to achieve nanoseconds range-gated width control for image intensifier. The target fluorescence spectrum image is displayed on the image intensifier by adjusting the delay time and the width of the pulse signal. The spectral image is coupled to CCD by lens imaging to achieve spectral display and data analysis function by computer. The system is used to detect the surface of the floating oil film in the distance of 25m to obtain the fluorescence spectra of different oil products respectively. The fluorescence spectra of oil products are obvious. The experimental results show that the system can realize high-precision long-range fluorescence detection and reflect the fluorescence characteristics of the target accurately, with broad application prospects in marine oil pollution identification and oil film thickness detection.

  3. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  4. Determination of Conjugation Efficiency of Antibodies and Proteins to the Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.-H.; Yoshitake, Takashi [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden); Kim, Do-Kyung; Muhammed, Mamoun [Royal Institute of Technology, Materials Chemistry Division (Sweden); Bjelke, Boerje [MRI-Center, Experimental Unit, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Kehr, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden)], E-mail: Jan.Kehr@neuro.ki.se

    2003-04-15

    The method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE/LIF) was developed for determination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameters of 100 nm) functionalized with molecules containing primary amino groups. The magnetic nanoparticles with carboxylic or aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane groups at their surface were conjugated to the model proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA; streptavidin or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G, IgG) using carbodiimide as a zero-length cross-linker.The nanoparticle-protein conjugates (hydrodynamic diameter 163-194 nm) were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde reagent and separated by CE/LIF with a helium-cadmium laser (excitation at 442 nm, emission at 488 nm). The separations were carried out by using a fused-silica capillary (effective length 48 cm, inner diameter 75 um) and 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2), the potential was 30 kV. The detection limit for BSA-conjugate was 1.3 pg/10 nl, i.e. about 20 amol. The present method provides an efficient and fast tool for sensitive determination of the efficacy of biomolecular functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The CE/LIF technique requires only negligible sample volumes for analysis, which is especially suitable for controlling the process of preparation of functionalized nanoparticles with unique properties aimed to be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  5. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fisk, Martin R; Cousins, Claire; Sattler, Birgit; Griffiths, Andrew D; Coates, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars mission in 2016 with a primary goal of surveying the martian subsurface for evidence of organic material. We have recently investigated the utility of including either a 365 nm light-emitting diode or a 375 nm laser light source in the ExoMars rover panoramic camera (PanCam). Such a modification would make it feasible to monitor rover drill cuttings optically for the fluorescence signatures of aromatic organic molecules and map the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of depth to the 2 m limit of the ExoMars drill. The technique described requires no sample preparation, does not consume irreplaceable resources, and would allow mission control to prioritize deployment of organic detection experiments that require sample destruction, expenditure of non-replaceable consumables, or both. We report here for the first time laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging detection limits for anthracene, pyrene, and perylene targets doped onto a Mars analog granular peridotite with a 375 nm Nichia laser diode in optically uncorrected wide-angle mode. Data were collected via the Beagle 2 PanCam backup filter wheel fitted with original blue (440 nm), green (530 nm), and red (670 nm) filters. All three PAH species can be detected with the PanCam green (530 nm) filter. Detection limits in the green band for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) > 10 are 49 parts per million (ppm) for anthracene, 145 ppm for pyrene, and 20 ppm for perylene. The anthracene detection limit improves to 7 ppm with use of the PanCam blue filter. We discuss soil-dependent detection limit constraints; use of UV excitation with other rover cameras, which provides higher spatial resolution; and the advantages of focused and wide-angle laser modes. Finally, we discuss application of L.I.F.E. techniques at multiple wavelengths for exploration of Mars analog extreme environments on Earth, including Icelandic hydrothermally

  6. Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne laser-induced, depth-resolved water Raman backscatter is useful in the detection and mapping of water optical transmission variations. This test, together with other field experiments, has identified the need for additional field experiments to resolve the degree of the contribution to the depth-resolved, Raman-backscattered signal waveform that is due to (1) sea surface height or elevation probability density; (2) off-nadir laser beam angle relative to the mean sea surface; and (3) the Gelbstoff fluorescence background, and the analytical techniques required to remove it. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms obtained reveal cells of a decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission.

  7. Ultrasensitive detection of target analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles using laser-induced nanoparticle Rayleigh scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Detection of salt- and analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) mostly relies on costly and bulky analytical instruments. To response this drawback, a portable, miniaturized, sensitive, and cost-effective detection technique is urgently required for rapid field detection and monitoring of target analyte via the use of AuNP-based sensor. This study combined a miniaturized spectrometer with a 532-nm laser to develop a laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, allowing the sensitive and selective detection of Rayleigh scattering from the aggregated AuNPs. Three AuNP-based sensing systems, including salt-, thiol- and metal ion-induced aggregation of the AuNPs, were performed to examine the sensitivity of laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Salt-, thiol-, and metal ion-promoted NP aggregation were exemplified by the use of aptamer-adsorbed, fluorosurfactant-stabilized, and gallic acid-capped AuNPs for probing K(+), S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-induced hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine, and Pb(2+), in sequence. Compared to the reported methods for monitoring the aggregated AuNPs, the proposed system provided distinct advantages of sensitivity. Laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique was improved to be convenient, cheap, and portable by replacing a diode laser and a miniaturized spectrometer with a laser pointer and a smart-phone. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we can determine whether or not the Pb(2+) concentration exceed the maximum allowable level of Pb(2+) in drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossler, Frederik

    1999-05-01

    Elastic scattering and the Lorenz-Mie (LM) theory in particular is used for the characterization of sub-micron- and micron-sized droplets of organic fuels in sprays and aerosols. Calculations on the Lorenz-Mie theory show that backward-sideward scattered visible radiation can be used for unambiguous detection of ensembles of homogeneous droplets of organic substances with diameters around 1 micrometer (size parameter between 2 and 6). A backward feature in the polarization ratio appears with a value considerably higher than one, on the opposite to the case of the rainbow observed for larger droplets. A comparison between measurements and LM calculations showed that a large amount of droplets in aerosols and well-atomized sprays were smaller than one micrometer in diameter. The LM theory was also used to characterize different size groups in a burning spray. A 3 - D technique based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera was demonstrated for measurements of fast and turbulent biphase flows. The entire 3 - D information was obtained within a time-span of less than 15 nanoseconds. A 2 - D technique for lifetime measurements based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera has been demonstrated on static objects. An analysis indicates that the technique may be applied to measurements of lifetimes around or below one picosecond employing femtosecond lasers and femtosecond streak-cameras. The technique may in principle be used to study dynamic systems when two detectors are used. Fluorescence lifetime measurements on hydrogen and oxygen atoms in flames at atmospheric pressure demonstrate the need of lasers with suiting spectral properties such as jitter and linewidth and the need of detectors with high sensitivity in the near IR in the case of oxygen atoms. The fluorescence lifetimes of gas phase acetone and 3-pentanone at 266 nm excitation wavelength have been measured for mixtures with nitrogen and air at temperatures between 323 and 723 K and pressures between 0

  9. Fluorescence/depolarization lidar for mid-range stand-off detection of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Z.; Kopczyński, K.; Zygmunt, M.; Wojtanowski, J.; Młynczak, J.; Gawlikowski, A.; Młodzianko, A.; Piotrowski, W.; Gietka, A.; Knysak, P.; Drozd, T.; Muzal, M.; Kaszczuk, M.; Ostrowski, R.; Jakubaszek, M.

    2011-06-01

    LIDAR system for real-time standoff detection of bio-agents is presented and preliminary experimental results are discussed. The detection approach is based on two independent physical phenomena: (1) laser induced fluorescence (LIF), (2) depolarization resulting from elastic scattering on non-spherical particles. The device includes three laser sources, two receiving telescopes, depolarization component and spectral signature analyzing spectrograph. It was designed to provide the stand-off detection capability at ranges from 200 m up to several kilometers. The system as a whole forms a mobile platform for vehicle or building installation. Additionally, it's combined with a scanning mechanics and advanced software, which enable to conduct the semi-automatic monitoring of a specified space sector. For fluorescence excitation, 3-rd (355 nm) and 4-th (266 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG pulsed lasers are used. They emit short (~6 ns) pulses with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. Collecting optics for fluorescence echo detection and spectral content analysis includes 25 mm diameter f/4 Newton telescope, Czerny Turner spectrograph and 32-channel PMT. Depending on the grating applied, the spectral resolution from 20 nm up to 3 nm per channel can be achieved. The system is also equipped with an eye-safe (1.5 μm) Nd:YAG OPO laser for elastic backscattering/depolarization detection. The optical echo signal is collected by Cassegrain telescope with aperture diameter of 12.5 mm. Depolarization detection component based on polarizing beam-splitter serves as the stand-off particle-shape analyzer, which is very valuable in case of non-spherical bio-aerosols sensing.

  10. Fluorescence detection system for microfluidic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binyu; Han, Xiaoming; Su, Zhen; Liu, Quanjun

    2018-05-01

    In microfluidic detection technology, because of the universality of optical methods in laboratory, optical detection is an attractive solution for microfluidic chip laboratory equipment. In addition, the equipment with high stability and low cost can be realized by integrating appropriate optical detection technology on the chip. This paper reports a detection system for microfluidic droplets. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) is used as a detection device to improve the sensitivity of detection. This system improves the signal to noise ratio by software filtering and spatial filter. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of the fluorescence and intensity of the laser. The fluorescence micro droplets of different concentrations can be distinguished by this system.

  11. Development of laser excited atomic fluorescence and ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winefordner, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Progress report: May 1, 1988 to December 31, 1991. The research supported by DE-FG05-88ER13881 during the past (nearly) 3 years can be divided into the following four categories: (1) theoretical considerations of the ultimate detection powers of laser fluorescence and laser ionization methods; (2) experimental evaluation of laser excited atomic fluorescence; (3) fundamental studies of atomic and molecular parameters in flames and plasmas; (4) other studies

  12. High sensitivity detection of selenium by laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry using electrothermal atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, U.; Hese, A.; Schoknecht, G.; Gries, W.

    1995-01-01

    The high sensitivity detection of the trace element selenium is reported. The analytical method applied is Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry using Electrothermal Atomization within a graphite furnace atomizer. For the production of tunable laser radiation in the VUV spectral region a laser system was developed which consists of two dye lasers pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The laser radiations are subsequently frequency doubled and sum frequency mixed by nonlinear optical KDP or BBO crystals, respectively. The system works with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and provides output energies of up to 100 μJ in the VUV at a pulse duration of 5 ns. The analytical investigations were focused on the detection of selenium in aqueous solutions and samples of human whole blood. From measurements on aqueous standards detection limits of 1.5 ng/l for selenium were obtained, with corresponding absolute detected masses of only 15 fg. The linear dynamic range spanned six orders of magnitude and good precision was achieved. In case of human whole blood samples the recovery was found to be within the range of 96% to 104%. The determination of the selenium content yielded medians of [119.5 ± 17.3] μg/l for 200 frozen blood samples taken in 1988 and [109.1 ± 15.6] μg/l for 103 fresh blood samples. (author)

  13. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Amemiya, T.; Komatu, K.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of acetone inside evaporating and burning fuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringi, D. S.; Shaw, B. D.; Dwyer, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize acetone fields inside individual droplets of pure acetone as well as droplets composed of methanol or 1-propanol initially mixed with acetone. Droplets were supported on a horizontal wire and two vaporization conditions were investigated: (1) slow evaporation in room air and (2) droplet combustion, which leads to substantially faster droplet surface regression rates. Acetone was preferentially gasified, causing its concentration in droplets to drop in time with resultant decreases in acetone fluorescence intensities. Slowly vaporizing droplets did not exhibit large spatial variations of fluorescence within droplets, indicating that these droplets were relatively well mixed. Ignition of droplets led to significant variations in fluorescence intensities within droplets, indicating that these droplets were not well mixed. Ignited droplets composed of mixtures of 1-propanol and acetone showed large time-varying changes in shapes for higher acetone concentrations, suggesting that bubble formation was occurring in these droplets.

  15. Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence in the gas phase: a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular spectroscopy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2017-11-01

    Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) extends the usual laser induced fluorescence technique by adding a second dimension, the wavelength at which excited states emit, thereby significantly enhancing the information that can be extracted. It allows overlapping absorption features, whether they arise from within the same molecule or from different molecules in a mixture, to be associated with their appropriate "parent" state and/or molecule. While the first gas phase version of the technique was published a decade ago, the technique is in its infancy, having been exploited by only a few groups to date. However, its potential in gas phase spectroscopy and dynamics is significant. In this article we provide an overview of the technique and illustrate its potential with examples, with a focus on those utilising high resolution in the dispersed fluorescence dimension.

  16. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  17. Thermal distribution in biological tissue at laser induced fluorescence and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.

    2012-03-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are techniques currently introduced in clinical applications for visualization and local destruction of malignant tumours as well as premalignant lesions. During the laser irradiation of tissues for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the absorbed optical energy generates heat, although the power density of the treatment light for surface illumination is normally low enough not to cause any significantly increased tissue temperature. In this work we tried to evaluate the utility of Monte Carlo modeling for simulating the temperature fields and the dynamics of heat conduction into the skin tissue under several laser irradiation conditions with both a pulsed UV laser and a continuous wave visible laser beam. The analysis of the results showed that heat is not localized on the surface, but it is collected inside the tissue. By varying the boundary conditions on the surface and the type of the laser radiation (continuous or pulsed) we can reach higher than normal temperature inside the tissue without simultaneous formation of thermally damaged tissue (e.g. coagulation or necrosis zone).

  18. Fluorescence line-narrowing studies of Nd:glass laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseberg, L.A.; Brecher, C.

    The increasing importance of Nd glass lasers in laser fusion technology has emphasized the inadequacy in the understanding of the optical properties of rare earth ions in glasses. Indeed, it has been difficult to generate models for the performance of these devices, and the selection of host glasses could be done by little more than a trial-and-error approach. The technique of laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing developed within the last few years provides a new and powerful tool for the study of these systems. In this technique, a laser excites within the inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands a selected subgroup of the ions in the system, namely those whose absorption energy is resonant with the laser. If the excitation does not migrate among the entire collection of ions prior to fluorescence, the fluorescence that is observed is only from the group that was excited and is narrowed. This permits the selective study of classes of ion sites within the ensemble. The concept is indicated schematically. By the use of a tunable laser, such as a dye laser, it is possible to vary the class of sites, defined by energy, that is excited and thereby study the important spectroscopic properties and their variations, unclouded by the averaging that occurs under excitation of the entire system. Furthermore, it is then possible to use the spectroscopic information to infer a description of the variation of the microscopic environment, and a rationalization of the effects of compositional changes. Use of a pulsed dye laser and time-resolved detection permits the study of the dynamics, including, for example, the energy transfer among ions of different energies within the inhomogeneously-broadened spectrum. The goal of this project has been to apply such studies to glasses of interest to glass laser technology, providing information for device modeling, and establishing design criteria for glass selection

  19. Determination of absolute Ba densities during dimming operation of fluorescent lamps by laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Beck, M; Garner, R C; Lieder, G; Ehlbeck, J

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of fluorescent lamps (FL) are often focused on the electrodes, since the lifetime of the lamps is typically limited by the electrode lifetime and durability. During steady state operation, the work function lowering emitter material, in particular, barium, is lost. Greater barium losses occur under dimming conditions, in which reduced discharge currents lead to increased cathode falls, the result of the otherwise diminished heating of the electrode by the bombarding plasma ions. In this work the barium density near the electrodes of (FL), operating in high frequency dimming mode is investigated using the high-sensitivity method of laser-induced fluorescence. From these measurements we infer barium loss for a range of discharge currents and auxiliary coil heating currents. We show that the Ba loss can very easily be reduced by moderate auxiliary coil heating

  20. Toluene laser-induced fluorescence imaging of compressible flows in an expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V. A.; Gamba, M.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Mohri, K.; Schulz, C.

    2011-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging using toluene as a tracer molecule has been developed for high-speed, low-to-moderate enthalpy conditions in the Stanford 6-inch Expansion Tube. The approach is demonstrated on three canonical compressible flow configurations: (i) supersonic flow over a 20° wedge, (ii) around a cylinder, and (iii) a supersonic boundary layer. Under constant-pressure conditions, toluene LIF offers unique sensitivity to temperature and can therefore be used as an accurate thermometry diagnostic for supersonic flows; on the other hand, for variable-pressure flow fields (e.g., flow around a blunt body), toluene LIF imaging is demonstrated to be an effective flow visualization tool. The three configurations selected demonstrate the diagnostic in these two capacities. For all configurations considered in the study, toluene (0.6% by volume) is seeded into a nitrogen freestream at a Mach number ~ 2.2, T ~ 500K, and p ~ 1.5 bar. A frequency-quadrupled pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tracer, and the resulting fluorescence is captured by an ICCD camera. Synthetic fluorescence signals from CFD solutions of each case have been computed and compare favorably to measured signals. Sponsored by DoE PSAAP at Stanford University.

  1. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory---USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  2. Fluorescent zinc sensor with minimized proton-induced interferences: photophysical mechanism for fluorescence turn-on response and detection of endogenous free zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Lee, Sumin; You, Youngmin; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Ohkubo, Kei; Cho, Jaeheung; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Shin, Injae; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-20

    A new fluorescent zinc sensor (HNBO-DPA) consisting of 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-naphthyl)benzoxazole (HNBO) chromophore and a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) metal chelator has been prepared and examined for zinc bioimaging. The probe exhibits zinc-induced fluorescence turn-on without any spectral shifts. Its crystal structure reveals that HNBO-DPA binds a zinc ion in a pentacoordinative fashion through the DPA and HNBO moieties. Steady-state photophysical studies establish zinc-induced deprotonation of the HNBO group. Nanosecond and femtosecond laser flash photolysis and electrochemical measurements provide evidence for zinc-induced modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to HNBO. Thus, the zinc-responsive fluorescence turn-on is attributed to suppression of PeT exerted by deprotonation of HNBO and occupation of the electron pair of DPA, a conclusion that is further supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) calculations. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.0), the probe displays a 44-fold fluorescence turn-on in response to zinc ions with a K(d) value of 12 pM. The fluorescent response of the probe to zinc ions is conserved over a broad pH range with its excellent selectivity for zinc ions among biologically relevant metal ions. In particular, its sensing ability is not altered by divalent transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II). Cell experiments using HNBO-DPA show its suitability for monitoring intracellular zinc ions. We have also demonstrated applicability of the probe to visualize intact zinc ions released from cells that undergo apoptosis. More interestingly, zinc-rich pools in zebrafish embryos are traced with HNBO-DPA during early developmental stages. The results obtained from the in vitro and in vivo imaging studies demonstrate the practical usefulness of the probe to detect zinc ions.

  3. Novel xenon calibration scheme for two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; Short, Zachary, E-mail: zdshort@mix.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26056 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) measurements of neutral hydrogen and its isotopes are typically calibrated by performing TALIF measurements on krypton with the same diagnostic system and using the known ratio of the absorption cross sections [K. Niemi et al., J. Phys. D 34, 2330 (2001)]. Here we present the measurements of a new calibration method based on a ground state xenon scheme for which the fluorescent emission wavelength is nearly identical to that of hydrogen, thereby eliminating chromatic effects in the collection optics and simplifying detector calibration. We determine that the ratio of the TALIF cross sections of xenon and hydrogen is 0.024 ± 0.001.

  4. Diagnostics of Susabi-nori (Porphyra Yezoensis) by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Kaneko, Shohei; Shimada, Yuji

    Susabi-nori (Porphyra yezoensis) was diagnosed by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Fluorescence peaks located at approximately 580, 660, 685 and 720 nm were observed in the LIF spectra of Susabi-nori. In the spectrum of the sample infected with the red rot disease, the intensity of 580 nm peak was relatively high as compared with that of the control sample. On the other hand, the intensities of 580 nm and 660 nm peaks drastically decreased by the influence of the chytrid disease. Furthermore, the intensity of the 580 nm peak increased by dipping into fresh water. These results indicate that LIF spectra of Susabi-nori are affected by the diseases and the stress of fresh water and that the diseases and the stress of Susabi-nori can be diagnosed by the LIF method.

  5. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  6. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Laser Ablation Plumes Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2017-02-06

    We used a CW laser as a narrow-band (~50kHz) tunable LIF excitation source to probe absorption from selected atomic transitions (Al, U etc. ) in a ns laser ablation plume. A comparison of fluorescence signal with respect to emission spectroscopy show significant increase in the magnitude and persistence from selected Al and U transitions in a LIBS plume. The high spectral resolution provided by the LIF measurement allows peaks to be easily separated even if they overlap in the emission spectra.

  7. Formation of nitric oxide in an industrial burner measured by 2-D laser induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A; Bombach, R; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    We have performed two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2-D LIF) measurements of nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical distributions in an industrial burner at atmospheric pressure. The relative 2-D LIF data of NO were set to an absolute scale by calibration with probe sampling combined with gas analysis. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs.

  8. Measurement of interferences associated with the detection of the hydroperoxy radical in the atmosphere using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Michelle M.; Dusanter, Sebastien; Stevens, Philip S.

    2018-01-01

    One technique used to measure concentrations of the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the atmosphere involves chemically converting it to OH by addition of NO and subsequent detection of OH. However, some organic peroxy radicals (RO2) can also be rapidly converted to HO2 (and subsequently OH) in the presence of NO, interfering with measurements of ambient HO2 radical concentrations. This interference must be characterized for each instrument to determine to what extent various RO2 radicals interfere with measurements of HO2 and to assess the impact of this interference on past measurements. The efficiency of RO2-to-HO2 conversion for the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion (IU-FAGE) instrument was measured for a variety of RO2 radicals. Known quantities of OH and HO2 radicals were produced from the photolysis of water vapor at 184.9 nm, and RO2 radicals were produced by the reaction of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with OH. The conversion efficiency of RO2 radicals to HO2 was measured when NO was added to the sampling cell for conditions employed during several previous field campaigns. For these conditions, approximately 80 % of alkene-derived RO2 radicals and 20 % of alkane-derived RO2 radicals were converted to HO2. Based on these measurements, interferences from various RO2 radicals contributed to approximately 35 % of the measured HO2 signal during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2006 campaign (MCMA-2006), where the measured VOCs consisted of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated species. However, this interference can contribute more significantly to the measured HO2 signal in forested environments dominated by unsaturated biogenic emissions such as isoprene.

  9. LASER FLUORESCENCE EEM PROBE FOR CONE PENETROMETER POLLUTION ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic LIF (Laser induced fluorescence) EEM (Excitation emission matrix) instrument for CPT deployment has been successfully developed and field tested. The system employs a Nd: YAG laser and Raman shifter as a rugged field portable excitation source. This excitation sou...

  10. Detection of gain enhancement in laser-induced fluorescence of rhodamine B lasing dye by silicon dioxide nanostructures-coated cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tameemi, Mohammed N. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, nanostructured silicon dioxide films are deposited by closed-field unbalanced direct-current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering technique on two sides of quartz cells containing rhodamine B dye dissolved in ethanol with 10‒5 M concentration as a random gain medium. The preparation conditions are optimized to prepare highly pure SiO2 nanostructures with a minimum particle size of about 20 nm. The effect of SiO2 films as external cavity for the random gain medium is determined by the laser-induced fluorescence of this medium, and an increase of about 200% in intensity is observed after the deposition of nanostructured SiO2 thin films on two sides of the dye cell.

  11. Laser-Induced Population Inversion in Rhodamine 6G for Lysozyme Oligomer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczyc, Piotr; Sznitko, Lech

    2017-06-06

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a common method for detecting amyloid fibrils in which organic fluorophores are used as markers that exhibit an increase in quantum yield upon binding. However, most of the dyes exhibit enhanced emission only when bound to mature fibrils, and significantly weaker signals are obtained in the presence of amyloid oligomers. In the concept of population inversion, a laser is used as an excitation source to keep the major fraction of molecules in the excited state to create the pathways for the occurrence of stimulated emission. In the case of the proteins, the conformational changes lead to the self-ordering and thus different light scattering conditions that can influence the optical signatures of the generated light. Using this methodology, we show it is possible to optically detect amyloid oligomers using commonly available staining dyes in which population inversion can be induced. The results indicate that rhodamine 6G molecules are complexed with oligomers, and using a laser-assisted methodology, weakly emissive states can be detected. Significant spectral red-shifting of rhodamine 6G dispersed with amyloid oligomers and a notable difference determined by comparison of spectra of the fibrils suggest the existence of specific dye aggregates around the oligomer binding sites. This approach can provide new insights into intermediate oligomer states that are believed to be responsible for toxic seeding in neurodegeneration diseases.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of argon ion velocities near the sheath boundary of an argon-xenon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongsoo; Severn, Greg; Oksuz, Lutfi; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2006-01-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion in single- and two-ion species plasma is studied with laser-induced fluorescence using a diode laser. Xenon is added to a low pressure unmagnetized dc hot filament argon discharge confined by surface multidipole magnetic fields. The Ar II transition at 668.614 nm is adopted for optical pumping to detect the fluorescence from the plasma and to measure the argon ion velocity distribution functions with respect to positions relative to a negatively biased boundary plate. The structures of the plasma sheath and presheath are measured by an emissive probe. The ion concentrations of the two-species in the bulk plasma are calculated from ion acoustic wave experiments. Results are compared with previous experiments of Ar-He plasmas in which the argon ions were the heavier ion species. Unlike the previous results, the argon speed is slower than its own Bohm velocity near the sheath-presheath boundary in the Ar-Xe plasma where argon ions are the lighter ion species. We argue that this result is consistent with the behaviour of the helium ion required by the generalized Bohm criterion in the previous experiments with Ar-He plasmas. Further, our results suggest that the measured argon ion speed approaches the ion sound speed of the system

  13. A LabVIEW-Based Virtual Instrument System for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qijun; Wang, Lufei; Zu, Lily

    2011-01-01

    We report the design and operation of a Virtual Instrument (VI) system based on LabVIEW 2009 for laser-induced fluorescence experiments. This system achieves synchronous control of equipment and acquisition of real-time fluorescence data communicating with a single computer via GPIB, USB, RS232, and parallel ports. The reported VI system can also accomplish data display, saving, and analysis, and printing the results. The VI system performs sequences of operations automatically, and this system has been successfully applied to obtain the excitation and dispersion spectra of α-methylnaphthalene. The reported VI system opens up new possibilities for researchers and increases the efficiency and precision of experiments. The design and operation of the VI system are described in detail in this paper, and the advantages that this system can provide are highlighted.

  14. Sputtering of amorphous carbon layers studied by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasch, E.

    1992-07-01

    In order to minimize the radiation losses, it is desirable to keep the plasmas in nuclear fusion devices free of high-Z-impurities. Therefore, the walls of TEXTOR and other tokamaks are covered with thin layers of amorphous carbon layers (a-C:H) or amorphous carbon/boron layers (a-C/B:H). The sputtering behaviour of these layers has been studied under bombardment by Ar + ions with energies of 1.5 keV and current densities of a few mA/cm 2 . Investigations of these coatings were carried out with the object to measure the velocity distribution of the sputtered atoms and the sputtered yields by laser induced fluorescence in the vacuum ultraviolet. (orig.)

  15. All Fiber-Coupled OH Planar Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (OH-PLIF)-Based Two-Dimensional Thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Paul S; Jiang, Naibo; Patnaik, Anil K; Katta, Vish; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2018-04-01

    Two-color, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF)-based two-dimensional (2D) thermometry techniques for reacting flows, which are typically developed in the laboratory conditions, face a stiff challenge in their practical implementation in harsh environments such as combustion rigs. In addition to limited optical access, the critical experimental conditions (i.e., uncontrolled humidity, vibration, and large thermal gradients) often restrict sensitive laser system operation and cause difficulties maintaining beam-overlap. Thus, an all fiber-coupled, two-color OH-PLIF system has been developed, employing two long optical fibers allowing isolation of the laser and signal-collection systems. Two OH-excitation laser beams (∼283 nm and ∼286 nm) are delivered through a common 6 m long, 400 µm core, deep ultraviolet (UV)-enhanced multimode fiber. The fluorescence signal (∼310 nm) is collected by a 3 m long, UV-grade imaging fiber. Proof-of-principle temperature measurements are demonstrated in atmospheric pressure, near adiabatic, CH 4 /O 2 /N 2 jet flames. The effects of the excitation pulse interval on fiber transmission are investigated. The proof-of-principle measurements show significant promise for thermometry in harsh environments such as gas turbine engine tests.

  16. Determination of nuclear spins of short-lived isotopes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchinger, F.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Kremmling, H.; Kuehl, T.; Mueller, A.C.; Schuessler, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The spins of several nuclear ground and isomeric states have been measured for a number of mercury isotopes. The fluorescent light from the 6s6p 3 P 1 state is observed at 2537 Angstroem after excitation with the frequency doubled output of a pulsed dye laser. Four different laser induced fluorescence techniques were tested for their applicability: double resonance, Hanle effect, time delayed integral Hanle beats, and time resolved quantum beats. The sensitivity and selectivity of these models are compared with emphasis on the determination of spins of nuclei far from beta-stability, where short half lives and low production yields restrict the number of available atoms. The experiments were carried out on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator at CERN at densities as low as 10 6 atoms/cm 3 . Results for the very neutron deficient high spin mercury isomers with half lives of several seconds, but also for the ground states of the abundant low spin stable mercury isotopes, are given as examples. The test measurements determined the nuclear spins of the odd sup(185m-191m)Hg isomers to be I = 13/2. (orig.)

  17. In-vivo optical detection of cancer using chlorin e6 – polyvinylpyrrolidone induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, William WL; Thong, Patricia SP; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Soo, Khee Chee; Heng, Paul WS; Olivo, Malini

    2009-01-01

    Photosensitizer based fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is fast becoming a promising approach for cancer detection. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) formulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a potential exogenous fluorophore for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopic detection of human cancer tissue xenografted in preclinical models as well as in a patient. Fluorescence imaging was performed on MGH human bladder tumor xenografted on both the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the murine model using a fluorescence endoscopy imaging system. In addition, fiber optic based fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on tumors and various normal organs in the same mice to validate the macroscopic images. In one patient, fluorescence imaging was performed on angiosarcoma lesions and normal skin in conjunction with fluorescence spectroscopy to validate Ce6-PVP induced fluorescence visual assessment of the lesions. Margins of tumor xenografts in the CAM model were clearly outlined under fluorescence imaging. Ce6-PVP-induced fluorescence imaging yielded a specificity of 83% on the CAM model. In mice, fluorescence intensity of Ce6-PVP was higher in bladder tumor compared to adjacent muscle and normal bladder. Clinical results confirmed that fluorescence imaging clearly captured the fluorescence of Ce6-PVP in angiosarcoma lesions and good correlation was found between fluorescence imaging and spectral measurement in the patient. Combination of Ce6-PVP induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy could allow for optical detection and discrimination between cancer and the surrounding normal tissues. Ce6-PVP seems to be a promising fluorophore for fluorescence diagnosis of cancer

  18. Measurement of isotope shift of recycled uranium by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi

    1999-07-01

    Isotope shift of the recycled uranium atoms including the 236 U was measured by laser induced fluorescence method. Eight even levels at 2 eV and three odd levels at 4 eV were measured with isotope shifts among 238 U, 236 U and 235 U obtained. As for the measurement of the 4 eV levels, the Doppler free two photon absorption method was used, and the hyperfine structure of the 235 U was analyzed simultaneously. The isotope shift of 234 U was also observed in the three transition. (J.P.N.)

  19. Implementação de um sistema de eletroforese capilar com detecção de fluorescência induzida por laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Marcia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoresis system using laser induced fluorescence detection is described. A Raman system equipped with a microscope has been used to focus the laser beam on the capillary giving a lateral resolution of 1.5 mm. The fluorescence signal of the analyte (ZnPcTS - tetrasulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine was collected by the microscope objectives and analysed by a monochromator with confocal characteristics equipped with a CCD detector. Electropherograms obtained with this system were compared to those obtained on a commercial instrument, showing that the described system presents a lower detection limit and better resolution.

  20. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The magnitude and spatial dependence of neutral density in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is a key physical parameter, particularly in the plasma edge. Modeling codes require precise measurements of the neutral density to calculate charge-exchange power losses and drag forces on rotating plasmas. However, direct measurements of the neutral density are problematic. In this work, we proposed to construct a laser-based diagnostic capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of the neutral density in the edge of plasma in the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic concept is based on two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). By injecting two beams of 205 nm light (co or counter propagating), ground state hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) can be excited from the n = 1 level to the n = 3 level at the location where the two beams intersect. Individually, the beams experience no absorption, and therefore have no difficulty penetrating even dense plasmas. After excitation, a fraction of the hydrogen atoms decay from the n = 3 level to the n = 2 level and emit photons at 656 nm (the Hα line). Calculations based on the results of previous TALIF experiments in magnetic fusion devices indicated that a laser pulse energy of approximately 3 mJ delivered in 5 ns would provide sufficient signal-to-noise for detection of the fluorescence. In collaboration with the DIII-D engineering staff and experts in plasma edge diagnostics for DIII-D from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), WVU researchers designed a TALIF system capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of neutral deuterium densities in the DIII-D edge plasma. The laser systems were specified, purchased, and assembled at WVU. The TALIF system was tested on a low-power hydrogen discharge at WVU and the plan was to move the instrument to DIII-D for installation in collaboration with ORNL researchers. After budget cuts at DIII-D, the DIII-D facility declined to support

  1. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude and spatial dependence of neutral density in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is a key physical parameter, particularly in the plasma edge. Modeling codes require precise measurements of the neutral density to calculate charge-exchange power losses and drag forces on rotating plasmas. However, direct measurements of the neutral density are problematic. In this work, we proposed to construct a laser-based diagnostic capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of the neutral density in the edge of plasma in the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic concept is based on two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). By injecting two beams of 205 nm light (co or counter propagating), ground state hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) can be excited from the n = 1 level to the n = 3 level at the location where the two beams intersect. Individually, the beams experience no absorption, and therefore have no difficulty penetrating even dense plasmas. After excitation, a fraction of the hydrogen atoms decay from the n = 3 level to the n = 2 level and emit photons at 656 nm (the H α line). Calculations based on the results of previous TALIF experiments in magnetic fusion devices indicated that a laser pulse energy of approximately 3 mJ delivered in 5 ns would provide sufficient signal-to-noise for detection of the fluorescence. In collaboration with the DIII-D engineering staff and experts in plasma edge diagnostics for DIII-D from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), WVU researchers designed a TALIF system capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of neutral deuterium densities in the DIII-D edge plasma. The laser systems were specified, purchased, and assembled at WVU. The TALIF system was tested on a low-power hydrogen discharge at WVU and the plan was to move the instrument to DIII-D for installation in collaboration with ORNL researchers. After budget cuts at DIII-D, the DIII-D facility declined to support installation on their

  2. Laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing was applied to investigate the local fields and interactions of paramagnetic ions in oxide glasses. Studies included the site dependence of energy levels, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, homogeneous line broadening, and ion--ion energy transfer of rare earth ions. These results and the experimental techniques are reviewed briefly; the use of paramagnetic ions other than the rare earths is also considered. Recently, laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate modifications in the local structure of lithium borate glass caused by compositional changes and phase separation and the site dependence of nonradiative relaxation of paramagnetic ions by multiphonon processes. These results and their implications are discussed. 6 figures

  3. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  4. A PDMS-based cylindrical hybrid lens for enhanced fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Yang, Yu-Ching; Ho, Chong-Yi; Yang, Han-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2014-02-13

    Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light.

  5. Applicability of UV laser-induced solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Eva; Meyer, Hans; Weigel, Diana; Pritzke, Heinz; Posch, Tjorben N; Kler, Pablo A; Schürmann, Klaus; Roscher, Jörg; Huhn, Carolin

    2014-10-01

    High production output of solid pharmaceutical formulations requires fast methods to ensure their quality. Likewise, fast analytical procedures are required in forensic sciences, for example at customs, to substantiate an initial suspicion. We here present the design and the optimization of an instrumental setup for rapid and non-invasive characterization of tablets by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (with a UV-laser (λ ex = 266 nm) as excitation source) in reflection geometry. The setup was first validated with regard to repeatability, bleaching phenomena, and sensitivity. The effect on the spectra by the physical and chemical properties of the samples, e.g. their hardness, homogeneity, chemical composition, and granule grain size of the uncompressed material, using a series of tablets, manufactured in accordance with design of experiments, was investigated. Investigation of tablets with regard to homogeneity, especially, is extremely important in pharmaceutical production processes. We demonstrate that multiplicative scatter correction is an appropriate tool for data preprocessing of fluorescence spectra. Tablets with different physical and chemical characteristics can be discriminated well from their fluorescence spectra by subjecting the results to principal component analysis.

  6. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges : measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomares Linares, J.M.; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hubner, S.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon

  7. Development of the Megahertz Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for Plasma Turbulence Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuritsyn, Aleksey; Levinton, Fred M.

    2004-01-01

    A megahertz LIF-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal 2D images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultra-fast CCD camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique

  8. Enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection limit using a low-pressure and short-pulse laser-induced plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yan, Jun Jie; Liu, Ji Ping

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

  9. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Vdovin, Yu; Biryukova, T

    2010-01-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 – 645 nm and 340 – 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy

  10. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Biryukova, T.; Sukhinina, A.; Vdovin, Yu

    2010-11-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 - 645 nm and 340 - 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy.

  11. Application of laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection in human colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sheng; Chia, Teck-Chee; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Diong, Cheong Hoong; Tang, Choong Leong; Choen, Francis S.; Krishnan, S. M.

    2003-10-01

    We investigated 48 normal patients and 25 diseased patients using our laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection system during their regular colonoscopy. The colon and rectum mucosa autofluorescence were excited by 405 nm continue wavelength laser. We observed that cancer or diseased colorectal mucosa, their autofluorescence spectra are significantly different from normal area. The autofluorescence spectra intensity at about 500 nm was been used for our intensity ratio characteristics intensity for our diagnostic algorithm. The intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 were performed to identify the detection area. From experimental result we concluded that both intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 as guidelines can detect cancerous and polyps disease completely. Our investigation provided some useful insight for laser induced autofluorescence spectra as a diagnosis technique for clinical application.

  12. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  13. Ultratrace determination of lead in whole blood using electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, E P; Smith, B W; Winefordner, J D

    1996-09-15

    Laser-excited atomic fluorescence has been used to detect lead that was electrothermally atomized from whole blood in a graphite furnace. A 9 kHz repetition rate copper vapor laser pumped dye laser was used to excite the lead at 283.3 nm, and the resulting atomic fluorescence was detected at 405.8 nm. No matrix modification was used other than a 1:21 dilution of the whole blood with high-purity water. Using the atomic fluorescence peak area as the analytical measure and a background correction technique based upon a simultaneous measurement of the transmitted laser intensity, excellent agreement for NIST and CDC certified whole blood reference samples was obtained with aqueous standards. A limit of detection in blood of 10 fg/mL (100 ag absolute) was achieved.

  14. Laser scanning endoscope via an imaging fiber bundle for fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Lorenz D.; Nestler, Dirk; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-12-01

    Based on a laser scanning endoscope via an imaging fiber bundle, a new approach for a tumor diagnostic system has been developed to assist physicians in the diagnosis before the actual PDT is carried out. Laser induced, spatially resolved fluorescence images of diseased tissue can be compared with images received by video endoscopy using a white light source. The set- up is required to produce a better contrast between infected and healthy tissue and might serve as a constructive diagnostic help for surgeons. The fundamental idea is to scan a low-power laser beam on an imaging fiber bundle and to achieve a spatially resolved projection on the tissue surface. A sufficiently high laser intensity from the diode laser is concentrated on each single spot of the tissue exciting fluorescence when a dye has previously been accumulated. Subsequently, video image of the tissue is recorded and stored. With an image processing unit, video and fluorescence images are overlaid producing a picture of the fluorescence intensity in the environment of the observed tissue.

  15. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  16. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  17. The motional stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is the worldwide standard technique for internal magnetic field pitch angle measurements in magnetized plasmas. Traditionally, it is based on using polarimetry to measure the polarization direction of light emitted from a hydrogenic species in a neutral beam. As the beam passes through the magnetized plasma at a high velocity, in its rest frame it perceives a Lorentz electric field. This field causes the H-alpha emission to be split and polarized. A new technique under development adds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for an MSE measurement that will enable radially resolved magnetic field magnitude as well as pitch angle measurements in even low-field (experiments. An MSE-LIF system will be installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It will enable reconstructions of the plasma pressure, q-profile and current as well as, in conjunction with the existing MSE system, measurements of radial electric fields.

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Plasma Couette Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noam; Skiff, Fred; Collins, Cami; Weisberg, Dave; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Garot, Kristine; Forest, Cary

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX) at U. Wisconsin-Madison consists of a rotating high-beta plasma and is well-suited to the study of flow-driven, astrophysically-relevant plasma phenomena. PCX confinement relies on alternating rings of 1kG permanent magnets and the rotation is driven by electrode rings, interspersed between the magnets, which provide an azimuthal ExB. I will discuss the development of a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (LIF) to characterize the ion distribution function of argon plasmas in PCX. The LIF system--which will be scanned radially--will be used to calibrate internal Mach probes, as well as to measure the time-resolved velocity profile, ion temperature and density non-perturbatively. These diagnostics will be applied to study the magneto-rotational instability in a plasma, as well as the buoyancy instability thought to be involved in producing the solar magnetic field. This work is supported by NSF and DOE.

  19. Detection of fluorescent organic nanoparticles by confocal laser endomicroscopy in a rat model of Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassie E

    2015-10-01

    . Non-operated and operated rats in which gastroesophageal reflux was surgically induced received both types of NPs (NP-DCM and NP-DCM-ASYNYDA by intravenous route. Localization of mucosal NPs was assessed in vivo by confocal laser endomicroscopy, a technique which enables a “real time” and in situ visualization of the tissue at a cellular level. After injection of NP-DCM and NP-DCM-ASYNYDA, fluorescence was observed in rats affected by esophageal cancer, whereas no signal was observed in control non-operated rats, or in rats with simple esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus mucosa. Fluorescence was observable in vivo 30 minutes after the administration of NPs. Interestingly, NP-DCM-ASYNYDA induced strong fluorescence intensity 24 hours after administration. These observations suggested that NPs could reach the tumor cells, likely by enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the peptide ASYNYDA gave them high specificity for esophageal cancer cells. Thus, the combination of NP platform and confocal laser endomicroscopy could play an important role for highlighting esophageal cancer conditions. This result supports the potential of this strategy as a targeted carrier for photoactive and bioactive molecules in esophageal cancer diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: confocal laser endomicroscopy, Barrett’s esophagus, diagnostics, esophageal adenocarcinoma, fluorescent nanoparticles, heptapeptide

  20. Experimental studies of the propagation of electrostatic ion perturbations by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachet, G.; Skiff, F.; Doveil, F.; Stern, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Effects induced by the propagation of several kinds of electrostatic perturbation in a low-density collisionless argon plasma are observed with space, time, and velocity-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The propagation of strong self-organized ion structures is observed and the associated electric field is determined. Snap shots of the ion phase space with a time resolution of 2 μs can be reconstructed from the experimental data. All the terms of the kinetic equation can also be determined from the data. A one-dimensional (1D) numerical simulation reproduces qualitatively the experimentally observed ion phase space behavior

  1. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how...... (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). CONCLUSION: MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented...... protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. METHODS: We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10...

  2. Development of a new light collection and detection system optimized for ion beam induced fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Mi, Zhaohong; Koh, Long Cheng; Tao, Ye; Bettiol, Andrew A.; Watt, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam induced fluorescence microscopy is a new imaging technique which has the potential to achieve sub-50 nm spatial resolution fluorescence images. Currently the resolution of the technique has been limited to around 150 nm mainly because of inefficient collection and detection of emitted photons from the sample. To overcome this limitation, a new light collection system based on a custom made parabolic mirror is employed to enhance the fluorescence collection. The custom made mirror is designed so as to obtain both structural (scanning transmission ion microscopy) and ion beam induced fluorescence imaging simultaneously. The design and characterization of the parabolic mirror is discussed in detail

  3. Direct measurements of neutral density depletion by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A.; Liard, L.; Leray, G.; Jolly, J.; Chabert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state density of xenon atoms has been measured by spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation in the diffusion chamber of a magnetized Helicon plasma. This technique allows the authors to directly measure the relative variations of the xenon atom density without any assumptions. A significant neutral gas density depletion was measured in the core of the magnetized plasma, in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental works. It was also found that the neutral gas density was depleted near the radial walls

  4. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  5. Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husinsky, W.R.

    1980-08-01

    Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed

  6. Supersonic pulsed free-jet of atoms and molecules of refractory metals: laser induced fluorescence spectroscopic studies on zirconium atoms and zirconium oxide molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhale, S.G.

    2004-11-01

    The experimental setup for generating supersonic pulsed free-jet containing atoms and molecules of refractory nature has been built. The technique of laser vaporization in conjunction with supersonic cooling is used to generate these species. The cooled atoms and molecules in supersonic free-jet are probed by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In particular, the technique has been used to perform low-resolution laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, limited by laser linewidth, on cold Zr atoms and ZrO molecules. The translational temperatures of ∼ 26.5 K and the rotational temperatures of ∼ 81 K have been achieved. It is possible to achieve the Doppler width of few tens of MHz allowing it to perform high-resolution spectroscopy on these atomic and molecular species. Also because of low rotational temperature of molecules the spectral congestion is greatly reduced. In general, this technique can be applied to perform spectroscopy on atoms and molecules of refractory nature. (author)

  7. Atmospheric measurements of OH, HO2 and NO by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using a compact all solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, W. J.; Floquet, C.; Gravestock, T. J.; Heard, D. E.; Ingham, T.; Johnson, G. P.; Lee, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Free-radicals are key intermediates that control the budgets of many trace gases, for example ozone, greenhouse gases and harmful pollutants. Measurement of radicals and comparison with model calculations constitutes an important test of our understanding of the underlying chemistry. There is a greater need for compact and lightweight instruments for the in situ measurement of free-radical species that are suitable for deployment from a number of field-platforms. A new field instrument has been developed that incorporates an all solid-state Nd:YAG pumped titanium sapphire laser that is capable of generating radiation at high pulse-repetition-frequency for the detection of OH, HO_2, NO and IO radicals in the atmosphere by laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The system offers advantages of wide wavelength tunability, compactness, low weight, greater long-term stability (fibre-optic delivery) and short warm-up time. The instrument was successfully deployed during 2002 in the NAMBLEX field campaign at Mace Head with detection limits for OH and HO_2 (measured simultaneously with laser operation at 308 nm) of 3.1 x 10^5 molecule cm-3 (0.012 ppt) and 2.6 x 10^6 molecule cm-3 (0.09 pptv) respectively. Diurnal profiles of OH have been recorded over a period of 5 weeks. NO controls the HO_2/OH ratio and is the critical parameter in the production of tropospheric ozone, yet measurements in the boundary layer are restricted to a single indirect technique based on chemiluminescent analysers. Measurements of NO in the atmosphere have been made by LIF using the new instrument operating at 226 nm, with absolute concentrations in good agreement with simultaneous measurements made using a commercial chemiluminescent analyser. Whilst operating at 445 nm, the instrument has detected the IO radical in the laboratory, with a projected detection limit that is well below previously measured atmospheric concentrations of IO. A second instrument to be deployed on an aircraft platform is

  8. Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel imaging during gas-turbine relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2013-01-01

    of ignition when the airflow rate is high. In the presence of flame, medium-sized burning droplets are observed close to the injector centerline. Flame interference resulting from fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is apparent, but small, suggesting that kerosene planar laser...

  9. 4D Density Determination of NH Radicals in an MSE Microplasma Combining Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martin; Schenk, Andreas; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    An application of microplasmas is surface modification under mild conditions and of small, well defined areas. For this, an understanding of the plasma composition is of importance. First results of our work on the production and detection of NH radicals in a capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) microplasma are presented. A microstructured comb electrode was used to generate a glow discharge in a hydrogen/nitrogen gas mixture by applying 13.56 MHz RF voltage. The techniques of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) are used for space and time resolved, quantitative detection of the NH radical in the plasma. The rotational temperature was determined to be 820 K and, the density 5.1×1012 cm3. Also, time dependent behaviour of the NH production was observed.

  10. 4D Density Determination of NH Radicals in an MSE Microplasma Combining Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Martin; Schenk, Andreas; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    An application of microplasmas is surface modification under mild conditions and of small, well defined areas. For this, an understanding of the plasma composition is of importance. First results of our work on the production and detection of NH radicals in a capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) microplasma are presented. A microstructured comb electrode was used to generate a glow discharge in a hydrogen/nitrogen gas mixture by applying 13.56 MHz RF voltage. The techniques of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) are used for space and time resolved, quantitative detection of the NH radical in the plasma. The rotational temperature was determined to be 820 K and, the density 5.1x10 12 cm 3 . Also, time dependent behaviour of the NH production was observed.

  11. Uranium speciation in biofilms studies by laser fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Thuro; Grossmann, Kay; Baumann, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms may immobilize toxic heavy metals in the environment and thereby influence their migration behaviour. The mechanisms of these processes are currently not understood, because the complexity of such biofilms creates many discrete geochemical microenvironments which may differ from the surrounding bulk solution in their bacterial diversity, their prevailing geochemical properties, e.g. pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, the presence of organic molecules, e.g. metabolites, and many more, all of which may affect metal speciation. To obtain such information, which is necessary for performance assessment studies or the development of new cost-effective strategies for cleaning waste waters, it is very important to develop new non-invasive methods applicable to study the interactions of metals within biofilm systems. Laser fluorescence techniques have some superior features, above all very high sensitivity for fluorescent heavy metals. An approach combining confocal laser scanning microscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for study of the interactions of biofilms with uranium is presented. It was found that coupling these techniques furnishes a promising tool for in-situ non-invasive study of fluorescent heavy metals within biofilm systems. Information on uranium speciation and uranium redox states can be obtained.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence studies of premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, Claes; Wang, Ingrid; Lindquist, Charlotta; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Svanberg, Katarina

    1997-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was studied in vivo from premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract, in particular the cervix. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibilities to differentiate cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal tissue by means of two different fluorescence modalities. Most of the patients were given a low dose (5 mg/kg bw) of (delta) -amino levulinic acid (ALA). The ALA was orally administered 2 - 4 hours prior to the investigation. During this time, the ALA is transformed to the strongly fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the haem cycle. Excitation light with a wavelength of 405 nm was used to excite the PpIX fluorescence. Excess amounts of PpIX were accumulated preferentially in diseased tissue. However, the variability in the PpIX accumulation from patient to patient was large. By using excitation light at 337 nm, the endogenous fluorophores are more efficiently excited. Therefore, this excitation modality was exploited for studying spectral characteristics of the autofluorescence in different tissue types. The spectra obtained were evaluated by forming fluorescence intensity ratios. The tissue types were grouped according to the histopathological examination. A correlation with the fluorescence ratios was performed. Some problems with the classification remain, mostly due to the difficulties in obtaining histopathologic evaluation of the biopsies at the exact location of the LIF measurements.

  13. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  14. Analysis of Indium Tin Oxide Film Using Argon Fluroide (ArF) Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence of Ablated Plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sut Kam; Garcia, Dario Machado

    2017-04-01

    A two-pulse laser-excited atomic fluorescence (LEAF) technique at 193 nm wavelength was applied to the analysis of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Fluorescence emissions from analytes were induced from plumes generated by first laser pulse. Using this approach, non-selective LEAF can be accomplished for simultaneous multi-element analysis and it overcomes the handicap of strict requirement for laser excitation wavelength. In this study, experimental conditions including laser fluences, times for gating and time delay between pulses were optimized to reveal high sensitivity with minimal sample destruction and penetration. With weak laser fluences of 100 and 125 mJ/cm 2 for 355 and 193 nm pulses, detection limits were estimated to be 0.10% and 0.43% for Sn and In, respectively. In addition, the relation between fluorescence emissions and number of laser shots was investigated; reproducible results were obtained for Sn and In. It shows the feasibility of depth profiling by this technique. Morphologies of samples were characterized at various laser fluences and number of shots to examine the accurate penetration. Images of craters were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate the imperceptible destructiveness of film after laser shot. With such weak laser fluences and minimal destructiveness, this LEAF technique is suitable for thin-film analysis.

  15. Optical scanner system for high resolution measurement of lubricant distributions on metal strips based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Philipp; Lutz, Christian; Brandenburg, Albrecht

    2017-06-01

    We present a new optical setup, which uses scanning mirrors in combination with laser induced fluorescence to monitor the spatial distribution of lubricant on metal sheets. Current trends in metal processing industry require forming procedures with increasing deformations. Thus a welldefined amount of lubricant is necessary to prevent the material from rupture, to reduce the wearing of the manufacturing tool as well as to prevent problems in post-deforming procedures. Therefore spatial resolved analysis of the thickness of lubricant layers is required. Current systems capture the lubricant distribution by moving sensor heads over the object along a linear axis. However the spatial resolution of these systems is insufficient at high strip speeds, e.g. at press plants. The presented technology uses fast rotating scanner mirrors to deflect a laser beam on the surface. This 405 nm laser light excites the autofluorescence of the investigated lubricants. A coaxial optic collects the fluorescence signal which is then spectrally filtered and recorded using a photomultiplier. From the acquired signal a two dimensional image is reconstructed in real time. This paper presents the sensor setup as well as its characterization. For the calibration of the system reference targets were prepared using an ink jet printer. The presented technology for the first time allows a spatial resolution in the millimetre range at production speed. The presented test system analyses an area of 300 x 300 mm² at a spatial resolution of 1.1 mm in less than 20 seconds. Despite this high speed of the measurement the limit of detection of the system described in this paper is better than 0.05 g/m² for the certified lubricant BAM K-009.

  16. Utilization of Photochemically Induced Fluorescence Detection for HPLC Determination of Genotoxic Impurities in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, Michal; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    An analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitative determination of two genotoxic impurities at ppm level present in the vortioxetine manufacturing process is described. Applying the concept of threshold of toxicological concern, a limit of 75 ppm each for both genotoxic impurities was calculated based on the maximum daily dose of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The novel reversed-phase HPLC method with photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed on XSELECT Charged Surface Hybrid Phenyl-Hexyl column using the mobile phase consisted a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and acetonitrile. The elution was performed using an isocratic composition of 48:52 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The photochemically induced fluorescence detection is based on the use of UV irradiation at 254 nm through measuring the fluorescence intensity at 300 nm and an excitation wavelength of 272 nm to produce fluorescent derivatives of both genotoxic impurities. The online photochemical conversion and detection is easily accomplished for two expected genotoxic impurities and provides a sufficiently low limit detection and quantification for the target analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Applications of optical fiber to remote laser fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Shin, Jang Soo; Lee, Sang Mock; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Heon; Hong, Seok Kyung

    1991-12-01

    Fluorescence analysis using time-resolved laser fluorimetry has been used for trace uranium analysis because this method shows high sensitivity and low detection limit and is less matrix dependent than any other fluorimetric measurement. By this time, the uranium analyses in the solution of reprocessing process or high radioactive area have been primarily analyzed by sampling of the solution, but recently, a study on a remote uranium fluorescence analysis using optical fiber has been setting out based on the development of an optical fiber with radiation resistivity and of an advanced laser excitation source. Laser fluorimetry developed by our laboratory for trace uranium analyses in uranium handling process or in urine samples of workers in a nuclear facility has been used in our institute since 1988. A development of the system for remote control of uranium fluorescence analysis will be expected to contribute to an on-line uranium concentration monitoring in the cooling water of reconversion stream. In this report, we summarize the information related to fluorescence analyses and remote fluorescence monitoring methods established by foreign countries and our laboratory. We also present a future research direction for remote on-line monitoring of uranium in conversion or reconversion process. (Author)

  18. Detection system of capillary array electrophoresis microchip based on optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobo; Bai, Haiming; Yan, Weiping

    2009-11-01

    To meet the demands of the post-genomic era study and the large parallel detections of epidemic diseases and drug screening, the high throughput micro-fluidic detection system is needed urgently. A scanning laser induced fluorescence detection system based on optical fiber has been established by using a green laser diode double-pumped solid-state laser as excitation source. It includes laser induced fluorescence detection subsystem, capillary array electrophoresis micro-chip, channel identification unit and fluorescent signal processing subsystem. V-shaped detecting probe composed with two optical fibers for transmitting the excitation light and detecting induced fluorescence were constructed. Parallel four-channel signal analysis of capillary electrophoresis was performed on this system by using Rhodamine B as the sample. The distinction of different samples and separation of samples were achieved with the constructed detection system. The lowest detected concentration is 1×10-5 mol/L for Rhodamine B. The results show that the detection system possesses some advantages, such as compact structure, better stability and higher sensitivity, which are beneficial to the development of microminiaturization and integration of capillary array electrophoresis chip.

  19. Dual fluorescence and laser emissions from fluorescein-Na and eosin-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Math, N.N.; Naik, L.R.; Suresh, H.M.; Inamdar, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Dual laser emissions were observed from fluorescein-Na and eosin-B in ethanolic solutions individually in the concentration range from 10 -2 to 10 -3 mol dm -3 under N 2 laser excitation. The first compound was found to lase at two distinct regions with wavelength maxima around 540, 550 nm, while the second one around 558, 574 nm. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence excitation, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence emission and decays of the dyes in various solvents under varying conditions of excitation and detection systems were carried out to identify the nature of the emitting species responsible for laser emissions in two distinct regions. Both the dyes exhibited concentration and excitation wavelength dependence of fluorescence and the effects were found to be more pronounced in binary solution. The fluorescence decays of dyes were monoexponential in ethanol, while in some other solvents used, the decays showed biexponential behavior. The absorption and excitation studies using thin layers of solutions revealed the formation of dimers with the dye concentration around 1x10 -3 mol dm -3 . Fluorescence polarization and decay studies confirmed the presence of dimers. The two laser bands observed in the shorter and longer wavelengths were respectively ascribed to monomeric and dimeric species

  20. Dual fluorescence and laser emissions from fluorescein-Na and eosin-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Math, N.N. [Laser Spectroscopy (DRDO/KU) Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India)]. E-mail: nnm31@rediffmail.com; Naik, L.R. [Laser Spectroscopy (DRDO/KU) Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India); Suresh, H.M. [Laser Spectroscopy (DRDO/KU) Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India); Inamdar, S.R. [Laser Spectroscopy (DRDO/KU) Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2006-12-15

    Dual laser emissions were observed from fluorescein-Na and eosin-B in ethanolic solutions individually in the concentration range from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} under N{sub 2} laser excitation. The first compound was found to lase at two distinct regions with wavelength maxima around 540, 550 nm, while the second one around 558, 574 nm. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence excitation, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence emission and decays of the dyes in various solvents under varying conditions of excitation and detection systems were carried out to identify the nature of the emitting species responsible for laser emissions in two distinct regions. Both the dyes exhibited concentration and excitation wavelength dependence of fluorescence and the effects were found to be more pronounced in binary solution. The fluorescence decays of dyes were monoexponential in ethanol, while in some other solvents used, the decays showed biexponential behavior. The absorption and excitation studies using thin layers of solutions revealed the formation of dimers with the dye concentration around 1x10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. Fluorescence polarization and decay studies confirmed the presence of dimers. The two laser bands observed in the shorter and longer wavelengths were respectively ascribed to monomeric and dimeric species.

  1. Comparison of the Detection Characteristics of Trace Species Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Breakdown Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and precise element measurement of trace species, such as mercury, iodine, strontium, cesium, etc. is imperative for various applications, especially for industrial needs. The elements mercury and iodine were measured by two detection methods for comparison of the corresponding detection features. A laser beam was focused to induce plasma. Emission and ion signals were detected using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LB-TOFMS. Multi-photon ionization and electron impact ionization in the plasma generation process can be controlled by the pressure and pulse width. The effect of electron impact ionization on continuum emission, coexisting molecular and atomic emissions became weakened in low pressure condition. When the pressure was less than 1 Pa, the plasma was induced by laser dissociation and multi-photon ionization in LB-TOFMS. According to the experimental results, the detection limits of mercury and iodine in N2 were 3.5 ppb and 60 ppb using low pressure LIBS. The mercury and iodine detection limits using LB-TOFMS were 1.2 ppb and 9.0 ppb, which were enhanced due to different detection features. The detection systems of LIBS and LB-TOFMS can be selected depending on the condition of each application.

  2. Prospects for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for biomedical applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar

    2011-09-01

    We review the different spectroscopic techniques including the most recent laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the characterization of materials in any phase (solid, liquid or gas) including biological materials. A brief history of the laser and its application in bioscience is presented. The development of LIBS, its working principle and its instrumentation (different parts of the experimental set up) are briefly summarized. The generation of laser-induced plasma and detection of light emitted from this plasma are also discussed. The merit and demerits of LIBS are discussed in comparison with other conventional analytical techniques. The work done using the laser in the biomedical field is also summarized. The analysis of different tissues, mineral analysis in different organs of the human body, characterization of different types of stone formed in the human body, analysis of biological aerosols using the LIBS technique are also summarized. The unique abilities of LIBS including detection of molecular species and calibration-free LIBS are compared with those of other conventional techniques including atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence.

  3. Airborne laser induced fluorescence imaging. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was demonstration as part of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Plant 1 Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area located at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The demonstration took place on November 19, 1996. In order to allow the contaminated buildings undergoing deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) to be opened to the atmosphere, radiological surveys of floors, walls and ceilings must take place. After successful completion of the radiological clearance survey, demolition of the building can continue. Currently, this process is performed by collecting and analyzing swipe samples for radiological analysis. Two methods are used to analyze the swipe samples: hand-held frisker and laboratory analysis. For the purpose of this demonstration, the least expensive method, swipe samples analyzed by hand-held frisker, is the baseline technology. The objective of the technology demonstration was to determine if the baseline technology could be replaced using LIF

  4. Laser-excited atomic-fluorescence spectrometry with electrothermal tube atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, J A; Leong, M B; Stevenson, C L; Petrucci, G; Winefordner, J D

    1989-12-01

    The performance of graphite-tube electrothermal atomizers is evaluated for laser-excited atomic-fluorescence spectrometry for several elements. Three pulsed laser systems are used to pump tunable dye lasers which subsequently are used to excite Pb, Ga, In, Fe, Ir, and Tl atoms in the hot graphite tube. The dye laser systems used are pumped by nitrogen, copper vapour and Nd:YAG lasers. Detection limits in the femtogram and subfemtogram range are typically obtained for all elements. A commercial graphite-tube furnace is important for the successful utilization of the laser-based method when the determination of trace elements is intended, especially when complicated matrices may be present.

  5. In vitro performance of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for dental calculus detection on human tooth root surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rams

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Excellent intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of autofluorescence intensity measurements was obtained with the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device on human tooth roots. Calculus-positive root surfaces exhibited significantly greater DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence than calculus-free tooth roots, even with the laser probe tip directed parallel to root surfaces. These findings provide further in vitro validation of the potential utility of a DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for identifying dental calculus on human tooth root surfaces.

  6. Fluorescence and Four-Wave Mixing in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Guo; Li Cheng; Zhang Zhao-Yang; Che Jun-Ling; Qin Meng-Zhe; He Jia-Nan; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2013-01-01

    We simultaneously compare the probe transmission, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) and fluorescence signals with dressing effects in a four-level atomic system. The variation rules of three types of signals are exhibited by changing the frequency detuning and power of incident laser beams. The interplay between two ladder subsystems is investigated in the Y-type atomic system. In particular, the fluorescence signal with ultra-narrow linewidth is obtained due to being sheared twice by the electromagnetically induced transparency window. Such fluorescence with very high coherence and monochromaticity can be used for the quantum correlation and narrow linewidth laser

  7. Laser induced fluorescence in nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges for CO2 conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L. M.; Gatti, N.; Dilecce, G.; Scotoni, M.; Tosi, P.

    2018-01-01

    A CO2 nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge (NRP) is a harsh environment for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. The difficulties arise from it being a strongly collisional system in which the gas composition, pressure and temperature, have quick and strong variations. The relevant diagnostic problems are described and illustrated through the application of LIF to the measurement of the OH radical in three different discharge configurations, with gas mixtures containing CO2 + H2O. These range from a dielectric barrier NRP with He buffer gas, a less hostile case in which absolute OH density measurement is possible, to an NRP in CO2+H2O, where the full set of drawbacks is at work. In the last case, the OH density measurement is not possible with laser pulses and detector time resolution in the ns time scale. Nevertheless, it is shown that with a proper knowledge of the collisional rate constants involved in the LIF process, a collisional energy transfer-LIF methodology is still applicable to deduce the gas composition from the analysis of LIF spectra.

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Measurements of Neutral (ArI) and singly-ionized (ArII) Argon in a LargeScale Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. F.; Fisher, D. M.; Hatch, M. W.; Gilmore, M.; Dwyer, R. H.; Meany, K.; Zhang, Y.; Desjardins, T. R.

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the role of neutral dynamics in helicon discharges in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) plasma device at U. New Mexico, a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed. The LIF system is based on a >250 mW, tunable diode laser with a tuning range between 680 and 700nm. For neutral Argon, the laser pumps the metastable (2P3/20) 4s level to the (2P1/20) 4p level using 696. 7352 nm light. The fluorescence radiation from decay to the (2P1/20) 4s level at 772. 6333 nm is observed. For singly ionized Argon, the laser pumps the 3s23p4(3 P)3d level to the 3s23p4(3 P)4p level using 686.3162nm light. The fluorescence radiation from the decay to the 3s23p4(3 P)4s level is observed. The system design, and velocity measurements in the axial, azimuthal and radial directions for ArI, and in the axial direction for ArII will be presented. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.

  9. Thermal characterization of a flashing jet by planar laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrano, M. R.; Simonini, A.; Steelant, J.; Rambaud, P.

    2013-07-01

    Flash atomization can be observed when a pressurized fluid is released in an environment at lower pressure. This phenomenon plays an important role in the security management of chemical industries where liquefied gases can be accidentally released at atmosphere. In other applications, for example in propulsion systems, it can have some potential benefits as it is known to produce a fine spray with enhanced atomization. The experimental characterization of these kinds of atomization should be performed by means of non-intrusive measurement techniques since they are very sensitive to external perturbation. In this work, the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to measure the liquid phase temperature of an ethanol superheated flashing jet. The feasibility of the technique is proved, measurements are taken for different superheat conditions, and an analysis of the measurement uncertainties is presented.

  10. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)], E-mail: jennifer.gottfried@arl.army.mil; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  11. Parallel ion flow velocity measurement using laser induced fluorescence method in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ogiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Parallel ion flow velocity along a magnetic field has been measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) argon plasma with a weakly-diverging magnetic field. To measure parallel flow velocity in a cylindrical plasma using the LIF method, the laser beam should be injected along device axis; however, the reflection of the incident beam causes interference between the LIF emission of the incident and reflected beams. Here we present a method of quasi-parallel laser injection at a small angle, which utilizes the reflected beam as well as the incident beam to obtain the parallel ion flow velocity. Using this method, we observed an increase in parallel ion flow velocity along the magnetic field. The acceleration mechanism is briefly discussed on the basis of the ion fluid model. (author)

  12. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (students for inter-item correlation while the 2nd and 3rd reading of LF displays the best agreement. ICDAS II score favors more non-invasive treatment compared to LF. ICDAS II showed good repeatability except on buccal and lingual surfaces. In line with some of the previous study, ICDAS II is applicable for caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  13. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  14. Comparison of three fluorescence labeling and tracking methods of endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare three kinds of fluorescent probes for in vitro labeling and in vivo tracking of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. METHODS: EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and labeled with three different fluorescent probes: 5-(and-6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE, 1,1′-dilinoleyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate linked acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-AcLDL, and green fluorescent protein (GFP. The fluorescent intensity of EPCs was examined by confocal microscopy. Survival rate of labeled EPCs was calculated with trypan blue staining, and their adhesive capability was assessed. A mouse model of retinal injury was induced by laser, and EPCs were injected into the vitreous cavity. Frozen section and fluorescein angiography on flat-mounted retinal samples was employed to track the labeled EPCs in vivo. RESULTS: EPCs labeled with CFSE and DiI-AcLDL exhibited an intense green and red fluorescence at the beginning; the fluorescence intensity decreased gradually to 20.23% and 49.99% respectively, after 28d. On the contrary, the florescent intensity of GFP-labeled EPCs increased in a time-dependent manner. All labeled EPCs showed normal morphology and no significant change in survival and adhesive capability. In the mouse model, transplantation of EPCs showed a protective effect against retinal injury. EPCs labeled with CFSE and DiI-AcLDL were successfully tracked in mice during the development of retinal injury and repair; however, GFP-labeled EPCs were not detected in the laser-injured mouse retina. CONCLUSION: The three fluorescent markers used in this study have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. CFSE and DiI-AcLDL are suitable for short-term EPC-labeling, while GFP should be used for long-term labeling. The choice of fluorescent markers should be guided by the purpose of the study.

  15. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine. Laser-based detection and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the work described in this thesis is the development of a method to determine the nitric oxide (NO) density with both spatial and temporal resolution during the combustion inside the cylinder of a diesel engine by means of laser diagnostics. As a tool to observe the NO molecules the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique is used. This non-intrusive technique allows to detect minority species in combustion with spatial and temporal resolution. The intensity of the fluorescence resulting from the NO molecules, that are excited by the laser radiation is a measure for the amount of NO present in the cylinder of the running engine. The engine used is a one-cylinder, two-stroke, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is made optically accessible by mounting two quartz windows in the cylinder wall through which the laser beam can traverse the combustion chamber. A third window is placed in the centre of the cylinder head and is used to detect the fluorescence. The engine was operated in steady-state, on standard commercial diesel fuel and non-oxygen enriched intake air, in contrast to most other experiments reported in literature. In previously described experiments the research engine was mostly operated in skip-fired mode on a substitute fuel and often extra oxygen was supplied to the intake air. The experiments reported in this thesis have shown that it is possible to observe NO inside the combustion chamber of the two-stroke diesel engine applying the LIF technique. 93 refs

  16. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol−ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol−ene waveguide was selectively...... functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentration and fluorescent intensity. To further demonstrate the attractiveness of using thiol−ene for optofluidic...

  17. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  18. Remote detection and recognition of bio-aerosols by laser-induced fluorescense lidar: practical implementation and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreysho, Anatoly; Savin, Andrey; Morozov, Alexey; Konyaev, Maxim; Konovalov, Konstantin

    2007-06-01

    Recognition of aerosol clouds material at some significant distance is now a key requirement for the wide range of applications. The elastic backscatter lidar have demonstrated high capabilities in aerosol remote detection, cloud real-time mapping at very long distances for low-concentration natural aerosols as well as artificial ones [1]. However, recognition ability is required to make them more relevant. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) looks very promising with respect to the recognition problem. New approach based on mobile lidar complex [2] equipped by spectrally-and range-resolved LIF-sensor is described as well as some results of field tests. The LIF-sensor consists of four-harmonics Nd:YAG laser equipped by an output expander to provide final beam divergence camera collimated with the lidar scanning direction. The LIF-lidar is mounted on a truck-based platform (20-feet container) as a part of multi-purpose mobile lidar complex and adjusted for field conditions.

  19. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    detecting secondary caries around amalgam restorations. Diniz and colleagues (53) examined the influence of clear and opaque sealants on laser...Int Dent J 1997; 47(5): 259-265. 36. De Paula A, Campos J, Diniz M, Hebling J, Rodrigues J. In situ and in vitro comparison of laser fluorescence...DIAGNOdent in the detection of secondary carious lesions. Acta Odont Scandinavia, 2005; 63: 26-30. 53. Diniz M, Rodrigues J, Hug I, Cordeiro R, Lussi

  20. Temperature field measurement research in high-speed diesel engine using laser induced fluorescence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zhang, You-tong; Gou, Chenhua; Tian, Hongsen

    2008-12-01

    Temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements using a new multi-spectral detection strategy are reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160 MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset (by 1.0 mm) to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Ba+*-He exciplexes produced in cold He gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Matsuo, Yukari; Moriwaki, Yoshiki

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Ba +* -He exciplexes. The experiment is carried out in an environment of cold gaseous helium at a temperature range of 3-30 K. We have observed the emission spectra of exciplexes by means of excitation of the 6p 2 P 32 2 S 12 transition of Ba + ions. It is found that these spectra are redshifted from the D2 emission line in the free space and are composed of several peaks. The experimental results are reproduced well by theoretical calculation of the emission spectra for vibrational levels of Ba +* -He. We also investigate the vibrational dynamics of the 6p 2 Π 32 state of Ba + *-He, and we have determined the collision-induced vibrational relaxation cross sections of the 6p 2 Π 32 state to be 9.7±1.1 A 2 at 15 K

  2. Classification of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectra from Normal and Malignant bladder tissues using Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Mascarenhas, Kim Komal; Patil, Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we discuss the potential of recently developed classification algorithm, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), for the analysis of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectra, recorded from normal and malignant bladder tissue samples. The algorithm is prototype based and inherently...

  3. Wavelength comparison for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marcello M.; Raele, Marcus P.; Ana, Patrícia A.; Núñez, Sílvia C.; Zamataro, Claudia B.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2018-02-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique capable to perform elemental analyses of a variety of samples, independent of matter state. Other spectroscopy techniques may require a destructive and time-consuming sample preparation. On the other hand, LIBS is a less destructive technique with no (or considerably less) sample preparation, using a relatively simple experimental setup. LIBS also provides a multielement analysis into one single spectrum acquisition, applying a Nd:YAG short-pulsed laser to ensure the stoichiometry between the sample and the generated plasma. LIBS have been applied on the study of carious lesions using a Nd:YAG into its fundamental emission at 1064 nm. It was shown that ratio of P/Ca and Zn/Ca can be used to monitor the cariogenic process. Another minor elements, e.g. C and Cu, associated with bacteria biofilm were also measured with the Nd:YAG laser. The fundamental wavelength emission (1064 nm) of Nd:YAG is coincident with a hydroxyapatite transmission window and it may affect the result. In order to address this issue a study used the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. It was show that it is also possible perform LIBS on carious lesion using the Nd:YAG at 532 nm. However, there is not a work direct comparing the LIBS at 532 nm and 1064 nm for carious lesion detection. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of laser wavelength on the LIBS performance for carious lesion detection. In both cases the carious lesion was detected with the advantage of no interference with hydroxyapatite at 532 nm.

  4. Detection of boron in simulated corrosion products by using a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Yeon, J-W.; Jung, S-H.; Hwang, J.; Jung, E-C.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many methods for detection of coolant leakage have been developed and employed for the safe operation. However, these methods have many limitations for analyzing and dealing with the corrosion products due to the high radioactivity. LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) offer a remote and on-site elemental analysis including the boron in the corrosion products with no sample preparation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of detecting boron and analyzing an elemental composition of boron-containing iron oxides with the LIBS, in order to develop a coolant leakage detection system. First, we prepared five different boron-containing iron oxides and the element ratios were determined by using ICP-AES (inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). After this, the laser induced emission spectra of these iron oxides were obtained by using a 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The B/Fe ratios of the oxides were determined by comparing the intensities of the B emission peak at 249.844 nm with those of the Fe peak at 250.217 nm as an internal reference. It was confirmed that the B contents in the oxides could be analyzed over 0.1 wt% by the laser induced breakdown spectroscopic technique. (author)

  5. Ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A using catalase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Zhan, Shengnan; Xu, Hengyi; Meng, Xianwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    Herein, for the first time we report an improved competitive fluorescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, catalase (CAT) was labeled with OTA as a competitive antigen to connect the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the target. Through the combinatorial use of H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs as a fluorescence signal output and the ultrahigh catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2, our proposed method could be used to perform a dynamic linear detection of OTA ranging from 0.05 pg mL-1 to 10 pg mL-1. The half maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.53 pg mL-1 and the limit of detection was 0.05 pg mL-1. These values were approximately 283- and 300-folds lower than those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based conventional ELISA, respectively. The reported method is accurate, highly reproducible, and specific against other mycotoxins in agricultural products as well. In summary, the developed fluorescence immunoassay based on H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs can be used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins or haptens in food safety monitoring.Herein, for the first time we report an improved competitive fluorescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, catalase (CAT) was labeled with OTA as a competitive antigen to connect the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the target. Through the combinatorial use of H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs as a fluorescence signal output and the ultrahigh catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2, our proposed method could be used to

  6. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Polymers Doped with Fluorescent Probes. Application to Environmental Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollar, E; Villavieja, Mm; Gaspard, S; Oujja, M; Corrales, T; Georgiou, S; Domingo, C; Bosch, P; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been used to obtain thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene doped with fluorescent probes, amino aromatic compounds S5 and S6, that could be used to sense the presence of contaminating environmental agents. These dopants both in solution and inserted in polymeric films are sensitive to changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, increasing their fluorescence emission and/or modifying the position of their emission band. Films deposits on quartz substrates, obtained by irradiating targets with a Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm, 120 fs pulse) were analyzed by optical and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Injection Analysis-Mass Spectrometry. The transfer of the polymer and the probe to the substrate is observed to be strongly dependent on the optical absorption coefficient of the polymeric component of the target at the irradiation wavelength

  7. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  8. In vitro performance of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for dental calculus detection on human tooth root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; Alwaqyan, Abdulaziz Y

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of a red diode laser device, and its capability to detect dental calculus in vitro on human tooth root surfaces. On each of 50 extracted teeth, a calculus-positive and calculus-free root surface was evaluated by two independent examiners with a low-power indium gallium arsenide phosphide diode laser (DIAGNOdent) fitted with a periodontal probe-like sapphire tip and emitting visible red light at 655 nm wavelength. Laser autofluorescence intensity readings of examined root surfaces were scored on a 0-99 scale, with duplicate assessments performed using the laser probe tip directed both perpendicular and parallel to evaluated tooth root surfaces. Pearson correlation coefficients of untransformed measurements, and kappa analysis of data dichotomized with a >40 autofluorescence intensity threshold, were calculated to assess intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of the laser device. Mean autofluorescence intensity scores of calculus-positive and calculus-free root surfaces were evaluated with the Student's t -test. Excellent intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was found for DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence intensity measurements, with Pearson correlation coefficients above 94%, and kappa values ranging between 0.96 and 1.0, for duplicate readings taken with both laser probe tip orientations. Significantly higher autofluorescence intensity values were measured when the laser probe tip was directed perpendicular, rather than parallel, to tooth root surfaces. However, calculus-positive roots, particularly with calculus in markedly-raised ledges, yielded significantly greater mean DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence intensity scores than calculus-free surfaces, regardless of probe tip orientation. DIAGNOdent autofluorescence intensity values >40 exhibited a stronger association with calculus (36.6 odds ratio) then measurements of ≥5 (20.1 odds ratio) when the laser probe tip was advanced parallel to root surfaces. Excellent

  9. Measurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickly, Pamela; Stevens, Philip S.

    2018-01-01

    Reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration can provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric oxidation. Several recent studies have shown large discrepancies between measured and modeled OH concentrations in forested areas impacted by emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), where modeled concentrations were significantly lower than measurements. A potential reason for some of these discrepancies involves interferences associated with the measurement of OH using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique in these environments. In this study, a turbulent flow reactor operating at atmospheric pressure was coupled to a LIF-FAGE cell and the OH signal produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, ocimene, isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) was measured. To distinguish between OH produced from the ozonolysis reactions and any OH artifact produced inside the LIF-FAGE cell, an external chemical scrubbing technique was used, allowing for the direct measurement of any interference. An interference under high ozone (between 2 × 1013 and 10 × 1013 cm-3) and BVOC concentrations (between approximately 0.1 × 1012 and 40 × 1012 cm-3) was observed that was not laser generated and was independent of the ozonolysis reaction time. For the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene, the observed interference accounted for approximately 40 % of the total OH signal, while for the ozonolysis of ocimene the observed interference accounted for approximately 70 % of the total OH signal. Addition of acetic acid to the reactor eliminated the interference, suggesting that the source of the interference in these experiments involved the decomposition of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) inside the FAGE detection cell. Extrapolation of these measurements to ambient concentrations suggests that these interferences

  10. Development of megahertz laser-induced fluorescence for visualization of turbulence. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence is a key factor limiting the performance of fusion devices central to the development of fusion as an economically viable energy source. Laser techniques to visualize the temporal and spatial evolution of turbulence can be a valuable tool to aid in guiding or validating existing theoretical models. The objective of the Phase I and II effort was to determine the feasibility and develop a MegaHertz Alexandrite planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system for turbulence imaging. The requirements of the laser energy, pulse duration, and repetition rate, as well as the required signal-to-noise for evolution of turbulent structures in the plasma, need to be considered in the context of spatial and temporal scales. These quantities were evaluated for several experimental conditions. The ion species was selected on the basis of maximizing signal-to-noise, matching to the laser's tuning range, and compatibility with the plasma. The design of the laser system incorporates several state-of-the-art features that in combination produce a laser system having very novel characteristics. The basic requirement of this project is for a repetitively pulsed, 5 Hz laser system that produces a burst of 378 nm UV laser pulses, each of ∼50 mJ energy and ∼100 ns pulsewidth, where the number and the separation of the individual pulses can be varied between 10-20, and 1-5 μsec, respectively. A further consideration was matching the CCD camera characteristics, such as the frame rate and number of frames, to the burst of laser pulses which requires a rather unique CCD camera. Such a camera has been developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI). The camera has a unique frame storage capability on chip that can transfer a frame in one clock cycle and store, depending on the version, from 12-312 frames on the CCD chip before being read out. It also has sub-frame gating to capture and synchronize fast events such as a short laser pulse. The results of the Phase I

  11. Application of multi-step excitation schemes for detection of actinides and lanthanides in solutions by luminescence/chemiluminescence laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot Curie 6, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    The use of laser radiation with tunable wavelength allows the selective excitation of actinide/lanthanide species with subsequent registration of luminescence/chemiluminescence for their detection. This work is devoted to applications of the time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced chemiluminescence spectroscopy for the detection of lanthanides and actinides. Results of the experiments on U, Eu, and Sm detection by TRLIF (Time Resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence) method in blood plasma and urine are presented. Data on luminol chemiluminescence in solutions containing Sm(III), U(IV), and Pu(IV) are analyzed. It is shown that appropriate selectivity of lanthanide/actinide detection can be reached when chemiluminescence is initiated by transitions within 4f- or 5f-electron shell of lanthanide/actinide ions corresponding to the visible spectral range. In this case chemiluminescence of chemiluminogen (luminol) arises when the ion of f element is excited by multi-quantum absorption of visible light. The multi-photon scheme of chemiluminescence excitation makes chemiluminescence not only a highly sensitive but also a highly selective tool for the detection of lanthanide/actinide species in solutions. (author)

  12. A Lagrangian model for laser-induced fluorescence and its application to measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F.; Skiff, F.

    2018-01-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by a direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastable states that are produced from neutral gas particles and ions in other electronic states. If the laser intensity is increased to obtain a better LIF signal, then optical pumping can produce systematic effects depending on the collision rates which control metastable population and lifetime. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal for the case where metastables are produced directly from neutrals. This case requires more strict precautions and is important for discharges with energetic primary electrons and a high density of neutrals. Some of the results also apply to metastables produced from pre-existing ions. The simulations show that optical pumping broadening affects the ion velocity distribution function f0(v) and its first-order perturbation f1(v,t) when the laser intensity is increased above a certain level. The results also suggest that ion temperature measurements are only accurate when the metastable ions can live longer than the ion-ion collision mean free time. For the purposes of wave detection, the wave period has to be significantly shorter than the lifetime of metastable ions for a direct interpretation. It is more generally true that metastable ions may be viewed as test-particles. As long as an appropriate model is available, LIF can be extended to a range of environments.

  13. Laser-induced-fluorescence studies of fragment ions: CH+ and CD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, A.

    1981-08-01

    The dynamics of ion-molecule interactions within a mass selective rf quadrupole ion trap are studied for several ion-molecule systems. Laser induced fluorescence is used as a probe of the internal energy distributions of molecular ions under collision free conditions and under controlled collision conditions. The effects of collisions at near thermal energies (0.3 to 0.5 eV) are easily understood in terms of processes such as charge transfer and other energy transfer mechanisms. The A 1 PI - X 1 Σ + system of CH + and CD + has been examined under collision free conditions. The ions were produced from methane through electron impact ionization/dissociation. The observed energy distributions reflect the dynamical partitioning of dissociation exothermicity, excepting short lived electronic states. Many new transitions belonging to this electronic system have been observed and a reliable vibrational frequency for the X 1 Σ + state has been obtained. The radiative lifetimes of CH + and CD + A 1 PI(v = 0) states have been measured and a revised oscillator strength for the A-X transition has been derived from this data

  14. Measurement of changes in nuclear charge radii of 2r by laser-induced resonance fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangrskij, Yu.P.; Zemlyanoj, S.G.; Marinova, K.P.; Markov, B.N.; Khoang Tkhi Kim Khueh; Chan Kong Tam; Kul'dzhanov, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    The optical isotopic shifts of Zr stable isotopes have been measured in three atomic transitions of type 4d 2 5s 2 → 4d 2 5s5p using the technique of laser-induced resonance fluorescence. The changes of nuclear mean-square charge radius Δ 2 > have been determined. The extracted values of Δ 2 > are compared to predictions of the droplet model. It is shown that the droplet model calculations can be made to agree with the experimental results, if changes of nuclear dynamical octupole deformation and of surface diffuseness parameter are taken into account

  15. An operational fluorescence system for crop assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon

    2004-03-01

    The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.

  16. Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Lemmer, Uli; Mappes, Timo

    2011-04-25

    Laser light excitation of fluorescent markers offers highly sensitive and specific analysis for bio-medical or chemical analysis. To profit from these advantages for applications in the field or at the point-of-care, a plastic lab-on-a-chip with integrated organic semiconductor lasers is presented here. First order distributed feedback lasers based on the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM), deep ultraviolet induced waveguides, and a nanostructured microfluidic channel are integrated into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate. A simple and parallel fabrication process is used comprising thermal imprint, DUV exposure, evaporation of the laser material, and sealing by thermal bonding. The excitation of two fluorescent marker model systems including labeled antibodies with light emitted by integrated lasers is demonstrated.

  17. Simultaneous determination of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in macrophage RAW 264.7 cell extracts by microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmin; Li, Qingling; Wang, Xu; Xu, Kehua; Chen, Zhenzhen; Gong, Xiaocong; Liu, Xin; Tong, Lili; Tang, Bo

    2009-03-15

    A method for the first time to simultaneously determine superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in macrophage RAW 264.7 cell extracts by microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (MCE-LIF) was developed. 2-Chloro-1,3-dibenzothiazolinecyclohexene (DBZTC) and bis(p-methylbenzenesulfonyl) dichlorofluorescein (FS), two probes that can be specifically derivatized by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, were synthesized and used. Parameters influencing the derivatization and on-chip separation were optimized. With the use of a HEPES (20 mM, pH 7.4) running buffer, a 50 mm long separation channel, and a separation voltage of 1800 V, baseline separation was achieved within 48 s for the two derivatization products, DBZTC-oxide (DBO) and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The linearity ranges of the method were 0.08-5.0 and 0.02-5.0 microM with detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 10 nM (1.36 amol) and 5.6 nM (0.76 amol) for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time and peak area were less than 2.0% and 5.0%, respectively. The recoveries of the cell extract samples spiked with 1.0 microM standard solutions were 96.1% and 93.0% for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With the use of this method, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cell extracts were found to be 0.78 and 1.14 microM, respectively. The method has paved a way for simultaneously determining two or more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a biological system with high resolution.

  18. Beta-induced fluorescence detection in liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.; Massey, S.; Warwick, P.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of beta-induced fluorescence is used to determine the factors which influence the sensitivity of the technique as applied to liquid chromatography. Equations are presented for detector response and for signal-to-noise ratios and the theoretical response for a typical detector is compared with experimentally determined values. (author)

  19. A rate-equation model for polarized laser-induced fluorescence to measure electric field in glow discharge He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Watanabe, M.; Oda, T.

    1998-01-01

    Possibility of applying polarized laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for measuring the electric field in a plasma with a large collisional depolarization has been investigated. A rate equation model including the depolarization process was employed to analyze the time evolution of LIF polarization components. The polarized LIF pulse shapes observed in the sheath of a He glow discharge plasma were successfully reproduced, and the electric field distribution was obtained with high accuracy. (author)

  20. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  1. Balanced cross-rate model for saturated molecular fluorescence in flames using a nanosecond pulse length laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucht, R.P.; Sweeney, D.W.; Laurendeau, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The balanced cross-rate model is proposed to analyze laser-induced molecular fluorescence signals when the laser pulse length is of the order of nanoseconds. Nanosecond pulse length lasers. specifically Q-switched Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers, are attractive for saturated molecular fluorescence spectroscopy because of their high peak power and because of their short pulse length minimizes the risk of laser-induced chemistry. In the balanced cross-rate model, single upper and lower rotational levels are assumed to be directly coupled by the laser radiation. Because the laser-induced processes which couple these levels are so fast at saturation intensities, a steady state is established between the two levels within picoseconds. Provided that the total population of the two laser-coupled rotational levels is constant during the laser pulse, the total molecular population can be calculated from the observed upper rotational level population using a two-level saturation model and Boltzmann statistics. Numerical simulation of the laser excitation dynamics of OH in an atmospheric pressure H 2 /O 2 /N 2 flame indicates that the balanced cross-rate model will give accurate results provided that the rotational relaxation rates in the upper and lower sets of rotational levels are approximately equal

  2. Measurements of IO in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H.; Ingham, T.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Halogenated short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Transport of halogenated VSLS into the stratosphere occurs mainly in the tropics, where ascending warm air carries them aloft, and leads to catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone on a global scale and formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. The tropical marine environment is therefore an important region in which to study the effects of these short-lived halogen species on ozone depletion. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combines ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo, to reduce uncertainties in the amount of halogenated VSLS reaching the stratosphere, the associated ozone depletion, and the effects of a changing climate on these processes. In this work we present measurements of IO radicals made onboard the German research vessel Sonne during SHIVA, between Singapore and Manila. IO is formed via photolysis of iodine-containing source gases (e.g. I2, CH3I) to produce I atoms, which react with ozone. It is therefore an important species to consider when assessing the impacts of halogen chemistry on ozone depletion. Measurements of IO were made over a two-week period by the University of Leeds Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument, which excites IO radicals at λ ~ 445 nm and detects the resultant fluorescence at λ ~ 512 nm. A suite of supporting gas- and aqueous-phase measurements were also made, including concentrations of halocarbons (e.g. CHBr3, CH3I), trace pollutant gases (e.g. CO, O3, NOx), and biological parameters (e.g. abundance and speciation of phytoplankton). Preliminary data analysis indicates that IO was detected above the instrumental limit of detection (0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging

  3. Laser induced photochemical and photophysical processes in fuel reprocessing: present scenario and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, G.K.; Sarkar, S.K.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    State-of-art lasers can meet the very stringent requirements of nuclear technology and hence find application in varied areas of nuclear fuel cycle. Here, we discuss two specific applications in nuclear fuel reprocessing namely (a) add-on photochemical modifications of PUREX process where photochemical reactors replace the chemical reactors, and (b) fast, matrix independent sensitive laser analytical techniques. The photochemical modifications based on laser induced valency adjustment offers efficient separation, easy maintenance and over all reduction in the volume of radioactive waste. The analytical technique of time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF) has several attractive features like excellent sensitivity, element selective, and capability of on line remote process monitoring. For optically opaque solutions, optical excitation is detected by its conversion into thermal energy by non-radiative relaxation processes using the photo-thermal spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  4. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  5. Total Peroxy Nitrates (ΣPNs in the atmosphere: the Thermal Dissociation-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF technique and comparisons to speciated PAN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LaFranchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and its chemical analogues are increasingly being quantified in the ambient atmosphere by thermal dissociation (TD followed by detection of either the peroxyacyl radical or the NO2 product. Here we present details of the technique developed at University of California, Berkeley which detects the sum of all peroxynitrates (ΣPNs via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF of the NO2 product. We review the various deployments and compare the Berkeley ΣPNs measurements with the sums of PAN and its homologue species detected individually by other instruments. The observed TD-LIF ΣPNs usually agree to within 10% with the summed individual species, thus arguing against the presence of significant concentrations of unmeasured PAN-type compounds in the atmosphere, as suggested by some photochemical mechanisms. Examples of poorer agreement are attributed to a sampling inlet design that is shown to be inappropriate for high NOx conditions. Interferences to the TD-LIF measurements are described along with strategies to minimize their effects.

  6. Parallel detection experiment of fluorescence confocal microscopy using DMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gui, Kun; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-05-01

    Parallel detection of fluorescence confocal microscopy (PDFCM) system based on Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is reported in this paper in order to realize simultaneous multi-channel imaging and improve detection speed. DMD is added into PDFCM system, working to take replace of the single traditional pinhole in the confocal system, which divides the laser source into multiple excitation beams. The PDFCM imaging system based on DMD is experimentally set up. The multi-channel image of fluorescence signal of potato cells sample is detected by parallel lateral scanning in order to verify the feasibility of introducing the DMD into fluorescence confocal microscope. In addition, for the purpose of characterizing the microscope, the depth response curve is also acquired. The experimental result shows that in contrast to conventional microscopy, the DMD-based PDFCM system has higher axial resolution and faster detection speed, which may bring some potential benefits in the biology and medicine analysis. SCANNING 38:234-239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Laser-induced radiation microbeam technology and simultaneous real-time fluorescence imaging in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchway, Stanley W; Reynolds, Pamela; Parker, Anthony W; O'Neill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of nano- and microbeam techniques to induce and identify subcellular localized energy deposition within a region of a living cell provides a means to investigate the effects of low radiation doses. Particularly within the nucleus where the propagation and processing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (and repair) in both targeted and nontargeted cells, the latter being able to study cell-cell (bystander) effects. We have pioneered a near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser microbeam to mimic ionizing radiation through multiphoton absorption within a 3D femtoliter volume of a highly focused Gaussian laser beam. The novel optical microbeam mimics both complex ionizing and UV-radiation-type cell damage including double strand breaks (DSBs). Using the microbeam technology, we have been able to investigate the formation of DNA DSB and subsequent recruitment of repair proteins to the submicrometer size site of damage introduced in viable cells. The use of a phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX a marker for DSBs, visualized by immunofluorescent staining) and real-time imaging of fluorescently labeling proteins, the dynamics of recruitment of repair proteins in viable mammalian cells can be observed. Here we show the recruitment of ATM, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), and RAD51, an integral protein of the homologous recombination process in the DNA repair pathway and Ku-80-GFP involved in the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway as exemplar repair process to show differences in the repair kinetics of DNA DSBs. The laser NIR multiphoton microbeam technology shows persistent DSBs at later times post laser irradiation which are indicative of DSBs arising at replication presumably from UV photoproducts or clustered damage containing single strand breaks (SSBs) that are also observed. Effects of the cell cycle may also be investigated in real time. Postirradiation and fixed cells studies show that in G1 cells a fraction of multiphoton laser-induced DSBs is persistent for >6h

  8. Smartphone Cortex Controlled Real-Time Image Processing and Reprocessing for Concentration Independent LED Induced Fluorescence Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, Mate; Guttman, Andras

    2017-10-17

    We present the application of a smartphone anatomy based technology in the field of liquid phase bioseparations, particularly in capillary electrophoresis. A simple capillary electrophoresis system was built with LED induced fluorescence detection and a credit card sized minicomputer to prove the concept of real time fluorescent imaging (zone adjustable time-lapse fluorescence image processor) and separation controller. The system was evaluated by analyzing under- and overloaded aminopyrenetrisulfonate (APTS)-labeled oligosaccharide samples. The open source software based image processing tool allowed undistorted signal modulation (reprocessing) if the signal was inappropriate for the actual detection system settings (too low or too high). The novel smart detection tool for fluorescently labeled biomolecules greatly expands dynamic range and enables retrospective correction for injections with unsuitable signal levels without the necessity to repeat the analysis.

  9. Dissociation energies of six NO2 isotopologues by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and zero point energy of some triatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G; Jost, R; Sugny, D; Joyeux, M; Thiemens, M

    2004-10-15

    We have measured the rotationless photodissociation threshold of six isotopologues of NO2 containing 14N, 15N, 16O, and 18O isotopes using laser induced fluorescence detection and jet cooled NO2 (to avoid rotational congestion). For each isotopologue, the spectrum is very dense below the dissociation energy while fluorescence disappears abruptly above it. The six dissociation energies ranged from 25 128.56 cm(-1) for 14N16O2 to 25 171.80 cm(-1) for 15N18O2. The zero point energy for the NO2 isotopologues was determined from experimental vibrational energies, application of the Dunham expansion, and from canonical perturbation theory using several potential energy surfaces. Using the experimentally determined dissociation energies and the calculated zero point energies of the parent NO2 isotopologue and of the NO product(s) we determined that there is a common De = 26 051.17+/-0.70 cm(-1) using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The canonical perturbation theory was then used to calculate the zero point energy of all stable isotopologues of SO2, CO2, and O3, which are compared with previous determinations.

  10. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy by two-photon excitation for detection of hydrogen atoms in a periphery region of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Je; Kajiwara, Toshinori; Motoyama, Sumio; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori; Okada, Tatsuo; Maeda, Mitsuo

    1989-01-01

    For measurements of atomic hydrogen density in the periphery region of high temperature plasmas, laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS) by two-photon excitation (1s-3s, 3d) was developed. Based upon the theoretical estimates for laser source requirements, which indicated the laser energy and spectral width to be more than 10 mJ (assuming the pulse duration of 10 ns) and several tens of picometers around the wavelength of 205.1 nm, respectively, the first Stokes generation in deuterium gas of ArF laser output was adopted and shown to have the necessary performance. Through the LFS experiment employing the laser source, the minimum detectable limit of atomic hydrogen, normalized by a laser power and an observing solid angle, was demonstrated to be 1 x 10 14 [m -3 · MW · sr], which is usually sufficient for the above purpose, and the accuracy of the density determination was shown to be within a factor 2. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence measurements of turbulent chemical plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Aaron; Crimaldi, John

    2017-11-01

    In order to find prey, mates, and suitable habitat, many organisms must navigate through complex chemical plume structures in turbulent flow environments. In this context, we investigate the spatial and temporal structure of chemical plumes released isokinetically into fractal-grid-generated turbulence in an open channel flow. We first utilized particle image velocimetry (PIV) to characterize flow conditions (mean free stream velocities, turbulence intensities, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates, Taylor Reynolds numbers). We then implemented a newly developed high-resolution, high-speed, volumetric scanning laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for near time-resolved measurements of three-dimensional chemical plume structures. We investigated cases with and without a cylinder wake, and compare statistical (mean, variance, intermittency, probability density functions) and spectral (power spectrum of concentration fluctuations) characteristics of the chemical plume structure. Stretching and folding of complex three-dimensional filament structures during chaotic turbulent mixing is greatly enhanced in the cylinder wake case. In future experiments, we will implement simultaneous PIV and LIF, enabling computation of the covariance of the velocity and chemical concentration fluctuations and thus estimation of turbulent eddy diffusivities. NSF PHY 1555862.

  12. Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Junjuri, R.; Myakalwar, A.K.; Gundawar, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 0011-748X Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * Multivariate analysis * Principal component analysis * Explosive detection Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  13. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  14. Determination of uranium in geologic materials by laser-excited fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A laser-excited fluorescence method is described for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in rocks and soils. The limit of detection is less than 1 ppm, and the relative standard deviation ranges from 2.6 to 12.5%. The method was evaluated by using known geological reference samples

  15. Intensity and pressure dependence of resonance fluorescence of OH induced by a tunable UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, D. K.; Wang, C. C.; Hanabusa, M.

    1976-01-01

    The intensity and pressure dependence of the fluorescence spectrum of OH in the presence of N2 and H2O molecules was studied. Saturation of the absorption transition was observed at low pressures, and the corresponding fluorescence signal was found to vary as the square root of the exciting intensity. This observed dependence agreed with the predicted dependence which took into account the presence of laser modes in the spectrum of the exciting radiation. With full laser power incident, a saturation parameter as high as 3 x 10 to the 5th was observed. The fluorescence spectrum was found to peak at 3145 and at 3090 A, with the relative peak intensities dependent upon gas pressures and upon the particular rotational electronic transition used for excitation. It is concluded that vibrational relaxation of the electronically excited OH due to water vapor in the system plays a dominant role in determining the observed fluorescence spectrum.

  16. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, The density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N 2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n= 5x10''9 cm''-3 was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal US. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma

  17. Molecular basis of photochromism of a fluorescent protein revealed by direct 13C detection under laser illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Mal, Tapas Kumar; Waelchli, Markus; Fukano, Takashi; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Dronpa is a green fluorescent protein homologue with a photochromic property. A green laser illumination reversibly converts Dronpa from a green-emissive bright state to a non-emissive dark state, and ultraviolet illumination converts it to the bright state. We have employed solution NMR to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of the photochromism. The detail characterization of Dronpa is hindered as it is metastable in the dark state and spontaneously converts to the bright state. To circumvent this issue, we have designed in magnet laser illumination device. By combining the device with a 150-mW argon laser at 514.5 nm, we have successfully converted and maintained Dronpa in the dark state in the NMR tube by continuous illumination during the NMR experiments. We have employed direct-detection of 13 C nuclei from the carbon skeleton of the chromophore for detailed characterization of chromophore in both states of Dronpa by using the Bruker TCI cryoprobe. The results from NMR data have provided direct evidence of the double bond formation between C α and C β of Y63 in the chromophore, the β-barrel structure in solution, and the ionized and protonated state of Y63 hydroxyl group in the bright and dark states, respectively. These studies have also revealed that a part of β-barrel around the chromophore becomes polymorphic only in the dark state, which may be critical to make the fluorescence dim by increasing the contribution of non-emissive vibrational relaxation pathways.

  18. In-vacuum scattered light reduction with black cupric oxide surfaces for sensitive fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrgard, E B; Sitaraman, N; Barry, J F; McCarron, D J; Steinecker, M H; DeMille, D

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple and easy method for producing low-reflectivity surfaces that are ultra-high vacuum compatible, may be baked to high temperatures, and are easily applied even on complex surface geometries. Black cupric oxide (CuO) surfaces are chemically grown in minutes on any copper surface, allowing for low-cost, rapid prototyping, and production. The reflective properties are measured to be comparable to commercially available products for creating optically black surfaces. We describe a vacuum apparatus which uses multiple blackened copper surfaces for sensitive, low-background detection of molecules using laser-induced fluorescence.

  19. Detection of Counterfeit Tequila by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de la Rosa Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV light induced fluorescence study to discriminate fake tequila from genuine ones is presented. A portable homemade system based on four light emitting diodes (LEDs from 255 to 405 nm and a miniature spectrometer was used. It has been shown that unlike fake and silver tequila, which produce weak fluorescence signal, genuine mixed, rested, and aged tequilas show high fluorescence emission in the range from 400 to 750 nm. The fluorescence intensity grows with aging in 100% agave tequila. Such fluorescence differences can even be observed with naked eyes. The presented results demonstrate that the fluorescence measurement could be a good method to detect counterfeit tequila.

  20. Pancreatic tumor detection using hypericin-based fluorescence spectroscopy and cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Harish; Geary, Kevin; Fetterman, Harold R.; Saxton, Romaine E.

    2005-04-01

    Hypericin is a novel, highly fluorescent photosensitizer that exhibits selective tumor cell uptake properties and is particularly resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we have characterized hypericin uptake in human pancreatic tumor cells with relation to incubation time, cell number, and drug concentration. Ex vivo hypericin based fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to detect the presence of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c nude mice, as well as to quantify gross tumor burden. Hypericin based cytology of peritoneal lavage samples, using both one and two photon laser confocal microscopy, demonstrated more than a two-fold increase in fluorescence emission of pancreatic tumor cells as compared to control samples. In vitro treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with hypericin based photodynamic therapy showed tumor cell cytotoxicity in a drug dose, incident laser power, and time dependent manner. For these experiments, a continuous wavelength solid-state laser source (532 nm) was operated at power levels in the range of 100-400 mW. Potential applications of hypericin in tumor diagnosis, staging, and therapy will be presented.

  1. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence of TiD: analysis of the B4Γ-X4Φ transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, M

    2007-01-01

    A titanium hollow cathode lamp in combination with a dye laser and a monochromator has been used to resolve the laser-induced fluorescence of the TiD molecule. This has enabled the extension of the earlier rotational analysis of the (0,0) band of the B 4 Γ-X 4 Φ transition. In addition, the (1,1) band and part of the (2,2) band have been observed and analyzed. All earlier works on the TiD and TiH molecules concern the (0,0) band. The present work is the first to report experimentally determined equilibrium constants for TiD. For the ground state X 4 Φ the principal parameters are (in cm -1 ) A e =33.075, B e =2.7804, D e =6.819x10 -5 and α e =0.0466. By using the isotope relationships the corresponding equilibrium parameters for the TiH molecule are given

  3. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  4. Smart Drug Delivery System-Inspired Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Allochroic Effect Induced Dual-Modal Colorimetric and Fluorescent Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Luyang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Jiao, Lei; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe; Wei, Qin

    2018-02-06

    Numerous analytical techniques have been undertaken for the detection of protein biomarkers because of their extensive and significant applications in clinical diagnosis, whereas there are few strategies to develop dual-readout immunosensors to achieve more accurate results. To the best of our knowledge, inspired by smart drug delivery system (DDS), a novel pH-responsive modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was innovatively developed for the first time, realizing dual-modal colorimetric and fluorescent detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Curcumin (CUR) was elaborately selected as a reporter molecule, which played the same role of drugs in DDS based on the following considerations: (1) CUR can be used as a kind of pH indicator by the inherited allochroic effect induced by basic pH value; (2) the fluorescence of CUR can be quenched by certain nanocarriers as the acceptor because of the occurrence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), while recovered by the stimuli of basic pH value, which can produce "signal-on" fluorescence detection. Three-dimensional MoS 2 nanoflowers (3D-MoS 2 NFs) were employed in immobilizing CUR to constitute a nanoprobe for the determination of cTnI by virtue of good biocompatibility, high absorption capacity, and fluorescence quench efficiency toward CUR. The proposed DDS-inspired ELISA offered dual-modal colorimetric and fluorescent detection of cTnI, thereby meeting the reliable and precise analysis requirements. We believe that the developed dual-readout ELISA will create a new avenue and bring innovative inspirations for biological detections.

  5. Detection and speciation of transuranium elements in synthetic groundwater via pulsed-laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Bowers, D.L.; Doxtader, M.M.; Maroni, V.A.; Reed, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    High sensitivity methods for detection and speciation of complexed transuranium ions in synthetic basalt groundwater, and simplified analogs, are being developed which exploit advances in pulsed laser technology. The first demonstration of high sensitivity detection of a transuranium ion at temperatures significantly above ambient is reported using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). The existence of enhanced LPAS signal amplitudes with increasing temperature in aqueous solution is confirmed in LPAS spectra recorded at 30 C, 60 C and 90 C using micromolar concentrations of /sup 241/Am/sup 3+/. A detection sensitivity of 8.5 parts per trillion (weight basis) of /sup 244/Cm/sup 3+/ in a simplified basalt groundwater at 22 C has been achieved using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF). This corresponds to 1 x 10/sup 8/ Cm/sup 3+/ ions in the laser beam. The detailed spectroscopic information obtained by this method points to the existence of previously unobserved Cm/sup 3+/ species. A brief assessment of the applicability and sensitivity of LPAS and LIF methods for speciating transuranium ions in near-neutral pH aqueous solution, such as the groundwater expected in a basalt nuclear waste repository, is presented. 27 refs., 3 figs

  6. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n ∼ 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs

  7. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Swati, E-mail: swatijain.iitd@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, Sruti, E-mail: sruticiitd@gmail.com; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal, E-mail: harpal2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi (India)

    2016-05-15

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core–shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10{sup −19} g or 21 × 10{sup 4} bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 2} cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.Graphical Abstract.

  8. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal

    2016-01-01

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core–shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10"−"1"9 g or 21 × 10"4 bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 10"2 cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.Graphical Abstract

  9. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, Julien; Menut, Denis; Wodling, Pascal; Salmon, Laurent; Thro, Pierre-Yves; Chevillard, Sylvie; Ugolin, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10 5 nucleotides/μm 2 (i.e. 2 x 10 13 phosphorus atoms/cm 2 ). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling

  10. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, Julien [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Menut, Denis [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Wodling, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Salmon, Laurent [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Thro, Pierre-Yves [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Chevillard, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)], E-mail: nugolin@cea.fr

    2008-04-15

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10{sup 5} nucleotides/{mu}m{sup 2} (i.e. 2 x 10{sup 13} phosphorus atoms/cm{sup 2}). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling.

  11. Laser fluorescence on radioactive isotopes produced in very low yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, S.A.; Evans, D.E.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Warner, D.D.; Dancy, M.P.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I.S.; Walker, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators such as the NSF at Daresbury Laboratory are capable of producing a wide variety of radio-active beams. The intensities of the beams of atoms or ions are always modest, and ultra-sensitive methods are needed to observe laser-induced fluorescence. The fast ion-photon coincidence technique has been applied to neutron-deficient barium ions down to 120 Ba. Nuclear moments and changes in charge radii have been determined from the measured hyperfine splittings and isotope shifts. An abrupt increase in the mean square radius is observed at 121 Ba, large enough to disrupt the systematic staggering seen for the isotopic series. The hyperfine structure has also been observed for an isomeric state of 127 Ba which has a lifetime of about 2 seconds. The measurements lead to an unambiguous assignment of the spin of the isomer. Another technique has been tested with stable krypton atoms. Fluorescent photons in the VUV wavelength region are detected with a high efficiency using a channel plate detector. The background is small enough that it should be possible to measure hyperfine spectra on beams with fewer than 10 3 atoms per second

  12. A new Technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescence (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (author)

  13. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs

  14. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-07-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. A Novel Approach for Sub-Threshold Detection and Prevention of Laser Injury in Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    which laser-induced changes in the autofluorescence features of retina were observed in vivo following laser treatment. 10 Use or disclosure of...wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for multi spectral in vivo fluorescence imaging of animal retina following laser exposure. The imaging...system was optimized for retinal imaging in aged Brown Norway rats. In order to induce laser lesions in the retina in vivo, we integrated the surgical

  16. Laser induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of matrix isolated glyoxal: Evidence for exciplex formation in the  1Au and  3Au states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Allamandola, L.J.; Baas, F.; Koernig, S.; Greenberg, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (¿1Au¿¿1Ag) and phosphorescence (¿3Au¿¿1Ag) as well as absorption and excitation spectra of glyoxal in Ar, N2, and CO matrices have been measured at 12 K. Supplementary infrared absorption spectra have also been taken. Although the dominant band in the absorption and

  17. Fluorescence diffuse tomography for tumor detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalaeva, Irina V.; Orlova, Anna G.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Kibraeva, Elena A.; Zagainova, Elena V.; Turchin, Ilya V.

    2007-05-01

    Strong light scattering and absorption limit visualization of the internal structure of biological tissue. Only special tools for turbid media imaging, such as optical diffuse tomography, enable noninvasive investigation of the internal biological tissues, including visualization and intravital monitoring of deep tumors. In this work the preliminary results of fluorescence diffuse tomography (FDT) of small animals are presented. Using of exogenous fluorophores, targeted specifically at tumor cells, and fluorescent proteins expressed endogenously can significantly increase the contrast of obtained images. Fluorescent compounds of different nature, such as sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens), red fluorescing proteins and CdTe/CdSe-core/shell nanocrystals (quantum dots) were applied. The animal was scanned in the transilluminative configuration by low-frequency modulated light (1 kHz) from Nd:YAG laser with second harmonic generation at the wavelength of 532 nm or semiconductor laser at the wavelength of 655 nm. Photosens was injected intravenously into linear mice with metastazing Lewis lung carcinoma in dose 4 mg/kg. Quantum dots (5x10 -11 M) or protein DsRed2 (1-5x10 -6 M) in glass capsules (inner diameter 2-3 mm) were placed inside the esophagus of 7-day-old hairless rats (18-20 g) to simulate marked tumors. Cells of HEK-293 Phoenix line, transitory transfected with Turbo-RFP protein gene, were injected hypodermically to immunodeficient mice. This work demonstrates potential capabilities of FDT method for detection and monitoring of deep fluorescent-labeled tumors in animal models. Strong advantages of fluorescent proteins and quantum dots over the traditional photosensitizer for FDT imaging are shown.

  18. Spectroscopy and nonclassical fluorescence properties of single trapped Ba+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, J.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis reports on the setup and application of an experimental apparatus for spectroscopic and quantum optical investigations of a single Barium ion in a Paul trap. The realization of the apparatus, which consists of the ion trap in ultra high vacuum, two laser systems, and a photon counting detection system, is described in detail, with particular consideration of the noise sources like stray light and laser frequency instabilities. The two lasers at 493 nm and 650 nm needed to continuously excite resonance fluorescence from the Barium ion have been realized using diode lasers only. The preparation of a single localized Barium ion is described, in particular its optical cooling with the laser light and the minimization of induced vibration in the trapping potential. The purely quantum mechanical property of antibunching is observed by measuring the intensity correlation function of resonance fluorescence from the trapped and cooled ion. Interference properties of the single ion resonance fluorescence are investigated with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the measured high-contrast interference signal it is proven that each individual fluorescence photon interferes with itself. The fluorescence excitation spectrum, on varying one laser frequency, is also measured and exhibits dark resonances. These measurements are compared to calculations based on optical Bloch equations for the 8 atomic levels involved. Future experiments, in particular the detection of reduced quantum fluctuations (squeezing) in one quadrature component of the resonance fluorescence, are discussed. (author)

  19. Direct measurement of the concentration of metastable ions produced from neutral gas particles using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng; Skiff, Fred; Berumen, Jorge; Mattingly, Sean; Hood, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastables that are produced from neutral gas particles and existing ions in other electronic states. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal. The results show that under circumstances where the metastable ion population is coming directly from the ionization of neutrals (as opposed to the excitation of ground-state ions), the velocity distribution will only faithfully represent processes which act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. Therefore, it is important to know the ratio of metastable population coming from neutrals to that from existing ions to correct the LIF measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ratio of these two populations by externally launching an ion acoustic wave and comparing the wave amplitudes that are measured with LIF and a Langmuir probe using a lock-in amplifier. DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  20. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  1. Fluorescence imaging in the upper gastrointestinal tract for the detection of dysplasic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Mueller, Karsten; Voderholzer, W.; Weber-Eibel, J.; Dietel, M.; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-10-01

    During endoscopy of the esophagus fluorescence images were recorded at a delay of 20 ns after pulsed laser excitation simultaneously with conventional reflected white light images. To label malignant cells (dysplasia, tumor) 5-aminolaevulinic acid was applied prior to fluorescence guided bi-opsy. In this way pre-malignant and malignant lesions were detected not seen previously during routine endoscopy.

  2. Feasibility of Trace Alcohol Congener Detection and Identification Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jialiang; Wang Shangmin; Zhao Lixian; Liu Liying; Wang Dezhen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a feasible scheme is reported for the detection and identification of trace alcohol congeners that have identical elemental composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the scheme, an intensive pulsed laser is used to break down trace alcohol samples and the optical emission spectra of the induced plasma are collected for the detection and identification of alcohol molecules. In order to prepare trace alcohol samples, pure ethanol or methanol is bubbled by argon carrier gas and then mixed into matrix gases. The key issue for the scheme is to constitute indices from the LIBS data of the alcohol samples. Two indices are found to be suitable for alcohol detection and identification. One is the emission intensity ratio (denoted as H/C) of the hydrogen line (653.3 nm) to the carbon line (247.9 nm) for identification and the other is the ratio of the carbon line (as C/Ar) or the hydrogen line (as H/Ar) to the argon lines (866.7 nm) for quantitative detection. The calibration experiment result shows that the index H/C is specific for alcohol congeners while almost being independent of alcohol concentration. In detail, the H/C keeps a specific constant of 34 and 23 respectively for ethanol and methanol. In the meanwhile, the C/Ar and H/Ar indices respond almost linearly to the alcohol concentration below 1300 ppm, and are therefore competent for concentration measurement. With the indices, trace alcohol concentration measurement achieves a limit of 140 ppm using a laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. (plasma technology)

  3. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  4. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  5. Laser fluorescence determination of radioactive waste cotton fabric in the exploration of uranium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the dosage test the operational needs of the laser fluorescence determination of trace radioactive waste cotton fabric uranium research and exploration, to determine the sample ashing time, measured dosage of acidity and digestion and other technical parameters, gives the laser fluorescence determination of radioactive abandoned cotton fabric of trace uranium method. Method of high sensitivity, strong anti-interference, the detection limit of 0.025μg/g(Burning down dregs), relative standard deviation was 3.96%, the mean recovery 93.3%-103% for masks, gloves and other radioactive waste to the determination of trace uranium. (authors)

  6. A laser-induced-fluorescence visualization study of transverse, sonic fuel injection in a nonreacting supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.; Graves, J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reports work which has been conducted in the first phase of a research program which is to provide a data base of spatially-resolved measurements in nonreacting supersonic combustors. In the measurements, a nonintrusive diagnostic technique based on the utilization of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is employed. The reported work had the objective to conduct LIF visualization studies of the injection of a simulated fuel into a Mach 2.07 airstream for comparison with corresponding numerical calculations. Attention is given to injection from a single orifice into a constant-area duct, injection from a single orifice behind a rearward-facing step, and injection from staged orifices behind a rearward-facing step.

  7. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (<100 nm), a sensitive detection system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique

  8. Detection and Implications of Laser-Induced Raman Scattering at Astronomical Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric P. A. Vogt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser guide stars employed at astronomical observatories provide artificial wavefront reference sources to help correct (in part the impact of atmospheric turbulence on astrophysical observations. Following the recent commissioning of the 4 Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF on Unit Telescope 4 (UT4 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT, we characterize the spectral signature of the uplink beams from the 22-W lasers to assess the impact of laser scattering from the 4LGSF on science observations. We use the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Nasmyth B focus of UT4 to acquire spectra at a resolution of R≅3000 of the uplink laser beams over the wavelength range of 4750 Å–9350 Å. We report the first detection of laser-induced Raman scattering by N_{2}, O_{2}, CO_{2}, H_{2}O, and (tentatively CH_{4} molecules in the atmosphere above the astronomical observatory of Cerro Paranal. In particular, our observations reveal the characteristic spectral signature of laser photons—but 480 Å to 2210 Å redder than the original laser wavelength of 5889.959 Å—landing on the 8.2-m primary mirror of UT4 after being Raman-scattered on their way up to the sodium layer. Laser-induced Raman scattering, a phenomenon not usually discussed in the astronomical context, is not unique to the observatory of Cerro Paranal, but it is common to any astronomical telescope employing a laser guide star (LGS system. It is thus essential for any optical spectrograph coupled to a LGS system to thoroughly handle the possibility of a Raman spectral contamination via a proper baffling of the instrument and suitable calibrations procedures. These considerations are particularly applicable for the HARMONI optical spectrograph on the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT. At sites hosting multiple telescopes, laser-collision-prediction tools should also account for the presence of Raman emission from the uplink laser beam

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of UV pulse laser-induced damage performance of fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Wang, Fengrui; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Jiang, Xiaodong; Sun, Laixi; Ye, Xin; Li, Qingzhi; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo; Sun, Dunlu

    2017-11-24

    The surface laser damage performance of fused silica optics is related to the distribution of surface defects. In this study, we used chemical etching assisted by ultrasound and magnetorheological finishing to modify defect distribution in a fused silica surface, resulting in fused silica samples with different laser damage performance. Non-destructive test methods such as UV laser-induced fluorescence imaging and photo-thermal deflection were used to characterize the surface defects that contribute to the absorption of UV laser radiation. Our results indicate that the two methods can quantitatively distinguish differences in the distribution of absorptive defects in fused silica samples subjected to different post-processing steps. The percentage of fluorescence defects and the weak absorption coefficient were strongly related to the damage threshold and damage density of fused silica optics, as confirmed by the correlation curves built from statistical analysis of experimental data. The results show that non-destructive evaluation methods such as laser-induced fluorescence and photo-thermal absorption can be effectively applied to estimate the damage performance of fused silica optics at 351 nm pulse laser radiation. This indirect evaluation method is effective for laser damage performance assessment of fused silica optics prior to utilization.

  10. Effects of Depilation-Induced Skin Pigmentation and Diet-Induced Fluorescence on In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) and far-red fluorescence imaging (FRFI) were used to investigate effects of depilation-induced skin pigmentation and diet-induced background fluorescence on fluorescent signal amplitude and lymphatic contraction frequency in C57BL6 mice. Far-red fluorescent signal amplitude, but not frequency, was affected by diet-induced fluorescence, which was removed by feeding the mice an alfalfa-free diet, and skin pigmentation further impacted the amplitude mea...

  11. Detection of low-concentration ammonia using differential laser-induced fluorescence on vapochromic coordination polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dawei; Chapman, Glenn H.; Stevens, David; Gray, Bonnie; Leznoff, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The detection of ammonia in parts per millions range has been challenging in sensors research, and is of great importance for industrial applications. In previous literature, Vapochromic Coordination Polymers (VCP) were developed to achieve luminescence upon a targeted gas exposures. We investigate a specific VCP, Zn[Au(CN)2]2,as an ammonia sensing material. Upon high concentration ammonia exposure, the fluorescent peak under near-UV stimulation undergoes a spectral shift from 460nm to 520nm, while the intensity increases by 3 4X. However, at ammonia concentrations portable spectrometer (Photon Control SPM-002), and processed the data by separating the spectrum into two regions; (A) from 425 nm to 460 nm and (B) from 460nm to 500nm. Next, the integrated emissions under both regions were computed, and the value of shorter wavelength region (A) was subtracted from the longer wavelength one (B). When exposed to ammonia, region (A) reduces overall intensity while region (B) increases, resulting a signal starting from negative value and gradually increases to positive values, enabling the detection of 5ppm ammonia in less than 30 seconds gas exposure.

  12. Temperature measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The thermometric capability of a two-line fluorescence technique using iodine seed molecules in air is investigated analytically and verified experimentally in a known steady compressible flow field. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 295 K were measured in the flowfield using two iodine transitions accessed with a 30-GHz dye-laser scan near 543 nm. The effect of pressure broadening on temperature measurement is evaluated.

  13. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hübner, S.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: jjamvandermullen@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas. - Highlights: • Time resolved laser induced fluorescence at high repetition rate • Decay times as function of pressure, electron density and temperature • Measurement of total electron atom depopulation rates • Reasonable agreement of electron total rates with hard sphere approximations.

  14. Terahertz-Radiation-Enhanced Emission of Fluorescence from Gas Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the study of femtosecond laser-induced air plasma fluorescence under the illumination of terahertz (THz) pulses. Semiclassical modeling and experimental verification indicate that time-resolved THz radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence is dominated by the electron kinetics and the electron-impact excitation of gas molecules or ions. We demonstrate that the temporal waveform of the THz field could be retrieved from the transient enhanced fluorescence, making omnidirectional, coherent detection available for THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  15. Rotationally cooled laser induced fluorescence determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.A.; Hayes, J.M.; Small, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years the development of new highly selective and sensitive methods for the characterization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in complex mixtures has received considerable attention. High selectivity is associated here with the ability to distinguish between substitutional isomers of PAHs. Attainment of this selectivity with capillary column-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for complex mixtures is very difficult and time-consuming. Alternative approaches are, therefore, required. Given that the majority of PAHs fluoresce with reasonable quantum yields and that high sensitivities are afforded by fluorescence detection, the possibility of developing high-resolution fluorescence based techniques is attractive. This is all the more so if the technique's selectivity does not rely on physical separation, e.g., chromatography. In this paper discussion is limited to such techniques

  16. Ultrashort laser-pulse diagnostics for detection of ordering within an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Mariotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    A novel diagnostic method to detect ordering within one-dimensional ion beams in a storage ring is presented. The ions are simultaneously excited by a ultrashort pulsed laser (≅1 ps) at two different locations along the beam and fluorescence is detected by a group of four photomultipliers. Correlation in fluorescence signals is a firm indication that the ion beam has an ordered structure. (orig.)

  17. A very thin light sheet technique used to investigate meniscus shapes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a light sheet technique is described to accurately (50 μm) measure meniscus profiles in film formation problems. The use of a slit to create the thin (0.1 mm) laser sheet makes the technique easy to implement, and allows tunable sheet thickness. The low light intensity obtained through the slit is compensated by the induced fluorescence of the tested fluid, which provides good picture contrast. After video recording through a microscope, the actual meniscus is recovered by image processing and proper calibration. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on a coating flow experiment. Due to its good accuracy and ease of use, this technique is expected to provide useful quantitative information about meniscus problems, in particular for the validation of computational fluid dynamics CFD solutions of coating flows. (author)

  18. Influence of ethanol admixture on the determination of equivalence ratios in DISI engines by laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Michael; Lind, Susanne; Will, Stefan; Zigan, Lars

    2016-10-20

    In this work, the planar laser-induced fluorescence of a fuel tracer is applied for the analysis of mixture formation for various ethanol/iso-octane blends in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The tracer triethylamine (TEA) was added to pure iso-octane and ethanol as well as to their blends E20 and E85 for the measurement of the fuel/air ratio. In general, ethanol blending strongly affects the mixture formation process, which is caused by specific physical fuel properties influencing the evaporation process of ethanol in comparison to iso-octane. As interactions of the fuel and tracer fluorescence appear possible, TEA fluorescence was studied for different fuel blends in a cuvette, in a calibration cell under constant conditions, and in an optically accessible internal combustion engine at late injection timing. It was found that ethanol blending strongly affects the fluorescence intensity of TEA in the liquid phase, which can be explained by the interaction of the tracer and ethanol molecules. However, in the gas phase a quantification of the fuel/air ratio is possible for different ethanol fuel blends, which is demonstrated in a DISI engine. Under stratified charge conditions the engine results showed a significant impact of a high amount of ethanol on the mixture formation process, leading to a leaner mixture in comparison to iso-octane.

  19. Stepwise multiphoton activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanin detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; Mega, Yair; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-06-01

    The stepwise multiphoton activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave mode near infrared (NIR) laser, reveals a broad spectrum extending from the visible spectra to the NIR and has potential application for a low-cost, reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin are compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). By combining CRM with SMPAF, we can locate melanin reliably. However, we have the added benefit of eliminating background interference from other components inside mouse hair and skin. The melanin SMPAF signal from the mouse hair is a mixture of a two-photon process and a third-order process. The melanin SMPAF emission spectrum is activated by a 1505.9-nm laser light, and the resulting spectrum has a peak at 960 nm. The discovery of the emission peak may lead to a more energy-efficient method of background-free melanin detection with less photo-bleaching.

  20. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  1. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined

  2. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  3. Sensitive detection of chlorine in iron oxide by single pulse and dual pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedarnig, J. D.; Haslinger, M. J.; Bodea, M. A.; Huber, N.; Wolfmeir, H.; Heitz, J.

    2014-11-01

    The halogen chlorine is hard to detect in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) mainly due to its high excited state energies of 9.2 and 10.4 eV for the most intense emission lines at 134.72 nm and 837.59 nm, respectively. We report on sensitive detection of Cl in industrial iron oxide Fe2O3 powder by single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse (DP) LIBS measurements in the near infrared range in air. In compacted powder measured by SP excitation (Nd:YAG laser, 532 nm) Cl was detected with limit of detection LOD = 440 ppm and limit of quantitation LOQ = 720 ppm. Orthogonal DP LIBS was studied on pressed Fe2O3 pellets and Fe3O4 ceramics. The transmission of laser-induced plasma for orthogonal Nd:YAG 1064 nm and ArF 193 nm laser pulses showed a significant dependence on interpulse delay time (ipd) and laser wavelength (λL). The UV pulses (λL = 193 nm) were moderately absorbed in the plasma and the Cl I emission line intensity was enhanced while IR pulses (λL = 1064 nm) were not absorbed and Cl signals were not enhanced at ipd = 3 μs. The UV laser enhancement of Cl signals is attributed to the much higher signal/background ratio for orthogonal DP excitation compared to SP excitation and to the increased plasma temperature and electron number density. This enabled measurement at a very short delay time of td ≥ 0.1 μs with respect to the re-excitation pulse and detection of the very rapidly decaying Cl emission with higher efficiency.

  4. Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence of atomic oxygen in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Takezawa, Kei; Oda, Tetsuji

    2009-08-01

    Atomic oxygen is measured in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge using time-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. The discharge occurs in a 14 mm point-to-plane gap in dry air. After the discharge pulse, the atomic oxygen density decreases at a rate of 5×104 s-1. Simultaneously, ozone density increases at almost the same rate, where the ozone density is measured using laser absorption method. This agreement between the increasing rate of atomic oxygen and decreasing rate of ozone proves that ozone is mainly produced by the well-known three-body reaction, O+O2+M→O3+M. No other process for ozone production such as O2(v)+O2→O3+O is observed. The spatial distribution of atomic oxygen density is in agreement with that of the secondary streamer luminous intensity. This agreement indicates that atomic oxygen is mainly produced in the secondary streamer channels, not in the primary streamer channels.

  5. Laser induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of matrix isolated glyoxal - Evidence for exciplex formation in the A 1Au and a 3Au states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ijzendoorn, L. J.; Baas, F.; Koernig, S.; Greenberg, J. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence as well as infrared and visible absorption spectra of glyoxal in Ar, N2, and CO matrices are presented and analyzed. Glyoxal in its first excited electronic state is shown to form an exciplex with its nearest neighbors in all three matrices, and transitions normally forbidden dominate the emission spectra. The spectral characteristics of these complexes are similar to those of the Ar-glyoxal complex found in supersonic beam experiments. Due to the matrix cage effect, no vibrational predissociation is observed. The phosphorescence lifetime is determined and an upper limit is given for the fluorescence lifetime. This, in combination with the relative intensities of fluorescence and phosphorescence, can be used to place limits on the quantum yields of the various relaxation processes.

  6. Meta-analysis assessing potential of steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence for remote sensing detection of plant water, temperature and nitrogen stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander; Malenovský, Z.; Olejníčková, Julie; Gallé, A.; Rascher, U.; Mohammed, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 168, oct (2015), s. 420-436 ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence * passive sun-induced fluorescence * active laser-induced fluorescence * photosynthesis * stress * water * temperature * nitrogen * random-effects meta-analysis * FLEX satellite mission Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.881, year: 2015

  7. Laser-induced emission, fluorescence and Raman hybrid setup: A versatile instrument to analyze materials from cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Bai, X. S.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research project was the development of a hybrid system in laboratory coupling together three analytical techniques, namely laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Raman spectroscopy in a single instrument. The rationale for combining these three spectroscopies was to identify a material (molecular and elemental analysis) without any preliminary preparation, regardless of its organic or inorganic nature, on the surface and in depth, without any surrounding light interference thanks to time resolution. Such instrumentation would allow characterizing different materials from cultural heritage. A complete study on LIBS-LIF-Raman hybrid was carried out, from its conception to instrumental achievement, in order to elaborate a strategy of analysis according to the material and to be able to address conservation issues. From an instrumental point of view, condensing the three spectroscopies was achieved by using a single laser for excitation and two spectrometers (time-integrated and not time-integrated) for light collection. A parabolic mirror was used as collecting system, while three excitation sources directed through this optical system ensured the examination of a similar probe area. Two categories of materials were chosen to test the hybrid instrumentation on cultural heritage applications (copper corrosion products and wall paintings). Some examples are reported to illustrate the wealth of information provided by the hybrid, thus demonstrating its great potential to be used for cultural heritage issues. Finally, several considerations are outlined aimed at further improving the hybrid.

  8. Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin G; Goodlitt, Rochelle; Li, Rui; Smolke, Christina D; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2009-03-02

    A fluorescent biosensor is described for 2Fe2S clusters that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as illustrated here. 2Fe2S detection is based on the reduction of GFP fluorescence upon the 2Fe2S-induced dimerization of GFP-Grx2. This assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect submicromolar changes in 2Fe2S levels, thus making it suitable for high-throughput measurements of metallocluster degradation and synthesis reactions.

  9. MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Webster, Matthew; Lempert, Walter R; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R; Ivey, Christopher B; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time-correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

  10. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5–6 J/cm 2 ) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis. - Highlights: • Ablated ground-state species accumulated in a thin hemispherical boundary layer • Inside the layer, a cavity containing a small density of ablated species was formed. • The hemispherical layers of atoms and ions appeared at a nearly identical location. • The measured intensity peak variation was in good agreement with a model prediction. • We ascribed the dominant process for forming the layer to a three-body recombination

  11. Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging: Searching for Organics from the Dry Valleys of Queen Maud Land Antarctica to the Regolith and Ices of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Sattler, B.; Muller, J.-P.; Fisk, M.; Cousins, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths has been proposed as a nondestructive astrobiological rapid survey tool to search for amino and nucleic acids [1], microbial life [2], and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith [3, 4]. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources [5]. Of particular interest is the ability of excitation at 532 nm to detect photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, and ice sheets [6-8]. During the months of November and December 2008 we tested the technique as part of an extended international, interdisciplinary field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In this paper we review our recent laboratory experiments on the use of UV excitation for detection of PAHs doped on Mars analogue soils [9] and chasmo- and epilithic lichen communities within basaltic Iceland lavas. We present for the first time the results of our field experiments conducted during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition for in situ detection and quantification of photosynthetic biomass in the ice caps of annual and perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We discuss the advantages of using a nondestructive rapid survey photonic tools such as laser induced fluorescence imaging that can be easily implemented from lander, rover, airborne, or orbital platforms. The techniques presented can be utilized to monitor the microbial potential of large, critical ecosystems on Earth, or to facilitate the remote or manned search for organics and photosynthetic life on any terrestrial planet. References 1. Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Hug, W.F., McDonald, G.D., Tsapin, A.I., and Nealson, K.H. 2001. Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

  12. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  13. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E.; Redding, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual wavelength UV-LIF spectra-rotating drum impactor (RDI) technique was developed. • The technique was demonstrated by direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles. • More than 2000 LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles collected over three weeks in Djibouti were obtained and assigned to various fluorescence clusters. • The LIF spectra showed size- and time-sensitivity behavior with a time resolution of 3.6 h. - Abstract: We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2 mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and

  14. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le, E-mail: yongle.pan.civ@mail.mil [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Redding, Brandon [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A dual wavelength UV-LIF spectra-rotating drum impactor (RDI) technique was developed. • The technique was demonstrated by direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles. • More than 2000 LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosol particles collected over three weeks in Djibouti were obtained and assigned to various fluorescence clusters. • The LIF spectra showed size- and time-sensitivity behavior with a time resolution of 3.6 h. - Abstract: We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2 mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and

  15. Tunneling induced dark states and the controllable resonance fluorescence spectrum in quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Qin, Li; Liu, Yun; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy, a powerful tool for probing and manipulating quantum dots (QDs), has been used to investigate the resonance fluorescence spectrum from linear triple quantum dot molecules controlled by tunneling, using atomic physics methods. Interesting features such as quenching and narrowing of the fluorescence are observed. In such molecules the tunneling between the quantum dots can also induce a dark state. The results are explained by the transition properties of the dressed states generated by the coupling of the laser and the tunneling. Unlike the atomic system, in such quantum dot molecules quantum coherence can be induced using tunneling, requiring no coupling lasers, which will allow tunneling controllable quantum dot molecules to be applied to quantum optics and photonics. (paper)

  16. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  17. Techniques of laser spectroscopy in investigations of lanthanides' free atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmann, B.; Szawiola, G.; Jarosz, A.; Krzykowski, A.; Stefanska, D.; Dembczynski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Various experimental methods, used in Chair of Quantum Engineering and Metrology for determination of the hyperfine structure of electronic levels in lanthanides atoms and ions, are presented. In turn the spectroscopic methods on an atomic beam (laser induced fluorescence and laser-rf double resonance ABMR-LIRF), laser-rf double resonance in a Paul trap and spectroscopic methods in a hollow cathode discharge (optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence) are presented. Each method has been characterized with its potential accuracy and domain of application. The results achieved for the atoms and the ions of lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and europium have been published in numerous articles (compiled in the reference list).

  18. Determination of ammonium on an integrated microchip with LED-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuhua; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Li, Hai-Fang

    2012-01-01

    A simply fabricated microfluidic device integrated with a fluorescence detection system has been developed for on-line determination of ammonium in aqueous samples. A 365-nm light-emitting diode (LED) as an excitation source and a minor band pass filter were mounted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microchip for the purpose of miniaturization of the entire analytical system. The ammonium sample reacted with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) on-chip with sodium sulfite as reducing reagent to produce a fluorescent isoindole derivative, which can emit fluorescence signal at about 425 nm when excited at 365 nm. Effects of pH, flow rate of solutions, concentrations of OPA-reagent, phosphate and sulfite salt were investigated. The calibration curve of ammonium in the range of 0.018-1.8 microg/mL showed a good linear relationship with R2 = 0.9985, and the detection limit was (S/N = 3) 3.6 x 10(-4) microg/mL. The relative standard deviation was 2.8% (n = 11) by calculating at 0.18 microg/mL ammonium for repeated detection. The system was applied to determine the ammonium concentration in rain and river waters, even extent to other analytes fluorescence detection by the presented device.

  19. Profiling an electrospray plume by laser-induced fluorescence and Fraunhofer diffraction combined to mass spectrometry: influence of size and composition of droplets on charge-state distributions of electrosprayed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Dagany, Xavier; Boutou, Véronique; Broyer, Michel; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Mordehai, Alex; Love, Craig; Werlich, Mark; Fjeldsted, John; Stafford, George

    2012-07-14

    We investigated how physico-chemical properties of charged droplets are affected by the electrospray process, using simultaneous in situ measurements by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Fraunhofer diffraction and mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we implemented a laser-induced-fluorescence profiling setup in conjunction with a fast, high-resolution particle sizing scheme on a modified Agilent Jet Stream electrospray source coupled to a single quadrupole mass analyser. The optical setup permits us to profile the solvent fractionation and the size of the droplets as they evaporate in an electrospray plume by measuring both the angular scattering pattern and emission spectra of a solvatochromic fluorescent dye. Mass spectra are recorded simultaneously. These mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy investigations allow us to study the relation between the observed charge-state distributions of protein anions and physico-chemical properties of evaporating droplets in the spray plume. By mixing water with methanol, a refolding of cytochrome C is observed as the water percentage increases in the plume due to the preponderant evaporation of volatile methanol.

  20. Colloid Detection in Natural Ground Water from Ruprechtov by Laser-Induced Breakdown Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, W.; Geckeis, H.; Goetz, R. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: hauser@ine.fzk.de; Noseck, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Laciok, A. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Waste and Environmental Management Dept., Husinec-Rez, PSC 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    A borehole ground water sampling system and a mobile laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) equipment for colloid detection combined with a geomonitoring unit have been applied to characterize the natural background colloid concentration in ground waters of the Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Czech Republic). Ground water has been sampled using steel cylinders. To minimize artifacts during ground water sampling the contact to atmospheric oxygen has been excluded. The ground water samples collected in this way are transported to the laboratory where they have been connected to a series of flow-through detection cells. Argon gas is used to press the ground water through these detection cells for colloid analysis (LIBD), pH, Eh, electrical conductivity and oxygen content. After the above mentioned analysis additional samples are taken for chemical analysis by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC- and DOC-detection. Our data obtained by in-situ- and laboratory- measurements point out that the natural colloid concentration found at the Ruprechtov site is a strong function of the ground water ionic strength. The LIBD determined natural background colloid concentrations found at Ruprechtov are compared with data of studies performed in Aespoe (Sweden) and Grimsel (Switzerland)

  1. Review of laser-induced fluorescence methods for measuring rf- and microwave electric fields in discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, V.; Oks, E.

    1994-01-01

    Development of methods for measuring rf- or μ-wave electric fields E(t) = E 0 cosωt in discharge plasmas is of a great practical importance. First, these are fields used for producing rf- or μ-wave discharges. Second, the fields E(t) may represent electromagnetic waves penetrating into a plasma from the outside. This paper reviews methods for diagnostics of the fields E(t) in low temperature plasmas based on Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Compared to emission (passive) methods, LIF-methods have a higher sensitivity as well as higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Underlying physical effects may be highlighted by an example of LIF of hydrogen atoms in a plasma. After a presentation of the underlying physical principles, the review focuses on key experiments where these principles were implemented for measurements of rf- and μ-wave electric fields in various discharges

  2. Emission Characteristics of Laser-Induced Plasma Using Collinear Long and Short Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Liu, Renwei; Ikutomo, Akihiro; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Collinear long and short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was employed to clarify the emission characteristics from laser-induced plasma. The plasma was sustained and became stable by the long pulse-width laser with the pulse width of 60 μs under free running (FR) conditions as an external energy source. Comparing the measurement results of stainless steel in air using single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and DP-LIBS, the emission intensity was markedly enhanced using DP-LIBS. The temperature of plasma induced by DP-LIBS was maintained at a higher temperature under different gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power conditions compared with those measured using short SP-LIBS. Moreover, the variation rates of plasma temperatures measured using DP-LIBS were also lower. The superior detection ability was verified by the measurement of aluminum sample in water. The spectra were clearly detected using DP-LIBS, whereas it cannot be identified using SP-LIBS of short and long pulse widths. The effects of gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power were also discussed. These results demonstrate the feasibility and enhanced detection ability of the proposed collinear long and short DP-LIBS method.

  3. Ratiometric, single-dye, pH-sensitive inhibited laser-induced fluorescence for the characterization of mixing and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassagne, Tom; Simoëns, Serge; El Hajem, Mahmoud; Champagne, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Inhibited planar laser-induced fluorescence (I-PLIF) techniques are widely used for heat and mass transfer studies in fluid mechanics. They allow the visualization of instantaneous two-dimensional field of a passive or reactive scalar, providing that this scalar acts as an inhibitor to the fluorescence of a specific molecule, and that this molecule is homogeneously mixed in the fluid at a known concentration. Local scalar values are deduced from fluorescence recordings thanks to preliminary calibration procedure. When confronted with non-optically thin systems, however, the knowledge of the excitation intensity distribution in the region of interest is also required, and this information is most of the time hard to obtain. To overcome that problem, two-color ratiometric PLIF techniques ( {I}^ {r}-PLIF) have been developed. In these methods, the ratio of two different fluorescence wavelengths triggered by the same excitation is used as an indicator of the scalar value. Such techniques have been used for temperature measurements in several studies but never, to the author's knowledge, for pH tracking and acid-base mixing, despite the frequent use of the one-color version in mass transfer studies. In the present work, a ratiometric pH-sensitive-inhibited PLIF technique ( {I}_ {pH}^ {r}-PLIF) using fluorescein sodium as a single dye and applicable to complex geometries and flows is developed. Theoretical considerations show that the ratio of the two-color fluorescence intensities should only depend on the dye's spectral quantum yield, itself pH-dependent. A detailed spectrofluorimetric study of fluorescein reveals that this ratio strictly increases with the pH for two well-chosen spectral bands (fluorescence colors). A similar trend is found when using sCmos cameras equipped with optical filters to record fluorescence signals. The method is then experimented on a test flow, a turbulent acidic jet injected in an initially pH-neutral volume of fluid. The results obtained

  4. The diagnostic capability of laser induced fluorescence in the characterization of excised breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues is one of the major worldwide challenges that need a quantitative, fast and reliable technique in order to avoid personal errors in diagnosis. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique that has been applied for the characterization of biological tissues including breast tissue. Unfortunately, only few studies have adopted a quantitative approach that can be directly applied for breast tissue characterization. This work provides a quantitative means for such characterization via introduction of several LIF characterization parameters and determining the diagnostic accuracy of each parameter in the differentiation between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues. Extensive analysis on 41 lyophilized breast samples using scatter diagrams, cut-off values, diagnostic indices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, shows that some spectral parameters (peak height and area under the peak) are superior for characterization of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues with high sensitivity (up to 0.91), specificity (up to 0.91) and accuracy ranking (highly accurate).

  5. Analysis of discrete and continuous laser induced fluorescence spectra of the A 1Σsub(u)+-X 1Σsub(g)+ band system of Sr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.; Moeller, R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the gaseous Sr 2 excimer molecule have been measured. The spectra contain discrete molecular fluorescence series, regularly modulated continuous fluorescence and an unstructured continuum. Analysis of the molecular line spectra yields for the first time Dunham coefficients for the X 1 Σsub(g) + ground state and the A 1 Σsub(u) + excited state. Using the intensity distribution of the modulated continuum which is associated with bound-free transitions the repulsive potential of the ground state up to 3000 cm -1 above the dissociation limit has been determined. The unstructured continuum can be analyzed as due to two types of continuous fluorescence. The dissociation energy of Sr 2 has been determined to Dsub(e)(X) = 965 +- 45 cm -1 . (Auth.)

  6. Analysis of discrete and continuous laser induced fluorescence spectra of the A 1μ+sub(u) - X 1μ+sub(g) band system of SR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.; Moeller, R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the gaseous Sr 2 excimer molecule have been measured. The spectra contain discrete molecular fluorescence series, regularly modulated continuous fluorescence and an unstructured continuum. Analysis of the molecular line spectra yields for the first time Dunham coefficients for the X 1 μ + sub(g) ground state and the A 1 μ + sub(u) excited state. Using the intensity distribution of the modulated continuum which is associated with bound-free transitions the repulsive potential of the ground state up to 3000 cm - 1 above the dissociation limit has been determined. The unstructured continuum can be analyzed as due to two types of continuous fluorescence. The dissociation energy of Sr 2 has been determined to Dsub(e) (X) = 965 +- 45 cm - 1 . (Author)

  7. UV reactor flow visualization and mixing quantification using three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Varun; Roberts, Philip J W; Stoesser, Thorsten; Wright, Harold; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2011-07-01

    Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF) was applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze mixing in a lab-scale UV reactor consisting of one lamp sleeve placed perpendicular to flow. The recirculation zone and the von Karman vortex shedding that commonly occur in flows around bluff bodies were successfully visualized. Multiple flow paths were analyzed by injecting the dye at various heights with respect to the lamp sleeve. A major difference in these pathways was the amount of dye that traveled close to the sleeve, i.e., a zone of higher residence time and higher UV exposure. Paths away from the center height had higher velocities and hence minimal influence by the presence of sleeve. Approach length was also characterized in order to increase the probability of microbes entering the region around the UV lamp. The 3DLIF technique developed in this study is expected to provide new insight on UV dose delivery useful for the design and optimization of UV reactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Free Electron Laser Induced Forward Transfer Method of Biomaterial for Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaoru

    Biomaterial, such as chitosan, poly lactic acid, etc., containing fluorescence agent was deposited onto biology hard tissue, such as teeth, fingernail of dog or cat, or sapphire substrate by free electron laser induced forward transfer method for direct write marking. Spin-coated biomaterial with fluorescence agent of rhodamin-6G or zinc phthalochyamine target on sapphire plate was ablated by free electron laser (resonance absorption wavelength of biomaterial : 3380 nm). The influence of the spin-coating film-forming temperature on hardness and adhesion strength of biomaterial is particularly studied. Effect of resonance excitation of biomaterial target by turning free electron laser was discussed to damage of biomaterial, rhodamin-6G or zinc phtarochyamine for direct write marking

  9. Development of ultrasound-assisted fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Toyota, Shin; Wada, Kenji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Kawada, Norifumi; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma means tumors can be located by fluorescence. However, because of light scattering, it is difficult to detect ICG fluorescence from outside the body. We propose a new fluorescence imaging method that detects changes in the intensity of ICG fluorescence by ultrasound-induced temperature changes. ICG fluorescence intensity decreases as the temperature rises. Therefore, it should theoretically be possible to detect tissue distribution of ICG using ultrasound to heat tissue, moving the point of ultrasound transmission, and monitoring changes in fluorescence intensity. A new probe was adapted for clinical application. It consisted of excitation light from a laser, fluorescence sensing through a light pipe, and heating by ultrasound. We applied the probe to bovine liver to image the accumulation of ICG. ICG emits fluorescence (820 nm) upon light irradiation (783 nm). With a rise in temperature, the fluorescence intensity of ICG decreased by 0.85 %/°C. The distribution of fluorescent ICG was detected using an ultrasonic warming method in a new integrated probe. Modulating fluorescence by changing the temperature using ultrasound can determine where ICG accumulates at a depth, highlighting its potential as a means to locate hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Detecting aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces using ultraviolet time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Cloutis, E.

    2018-02-01

    Many aromatic organic molecules exhibit strong and characteristic fluorescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation. As laser excitation in the ultraviolet generates both fluorescence and resonantly enhanced Raman scattering of aromatic vibrational modes, combined Raman and fluorescence instruments have been proposed to search for organic compounds on Mars. In this work the time-resolved fluorescence of a suite of 24 compounds composed of 2-5 ringed alternant, non-alternant, and heterocyclic PAHs was measured. Fluorescence instrumentation with similar specifications to a putative flight instrument was capable of observing the fluorescence decay of these compounds with a sub-ns resolution. Incorporating time-resolved capabilities was also found to increase the ability to discriminate between individual PAHs. Incorporating time-resolved fluorescence capabilities into an ultraviolet gated Raman system intended for a rover or lander can increase the ability to detect and characterize PAHs on planetary surfaces.

  11. The spatial resolution of the porcine multifocal electroretinogram for detection of laser-induced retinal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Scherfig, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spatial resolution of a porcine multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) protocol by testing its ability to detect laser-induced retinal lesions. Furthermore, we wanted to describe time-dependent changes in implicit time and amplitude of the different mfERG peaks...

  12. Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Bililign

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing; namely laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS, and photoluminescence (PL techniques used in the detection of solids, liquids, aerosols, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

  13. A Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for Aircraft Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Thornberry, Troy D.; Ciciora, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Watts, Laurel A.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Bui, Thaopaul V.; Fahey, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development and testing of a new instrument for in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on airborne platforms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The instrument is based on the laser-induced fluorescence technique and uses the fifth harmonic of a tunable fiber-amplified semiconductor diode laser system at 1084.5 nm to excite SO2 at 216.9 nm. Sensitivity and background checks are achieved in flight by additions of SO2 calibration gas and zero air, respectively. Aircraft demonstration was performed during the NASA Volcano Plume Investigation Readiness and Gas-Phase and Aerosol Sulfur (VIRGAS) experiment, which was a series of flights using the NASA WB-57F during October 2015 based at Ellington Field and Harlingen, Texas. During these flights, the instrument successfully measured SO2 in the UTLS at background (non-volcanic) conditions with a precision of 2 ppt at 10 s and an overall uncertainty determined primarily by instrument drifts of +/- (16% + 0.9 ppt).

  14. Detection and Analysis of Enamel Cracks by Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Mi-Kyoung; Ku, Hye-Min; Kim, Euiseong; Kim, Hee-Eun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2016-03-01

    The ability to accurately detect tooth cracks and quantify their depth would allow the prediction of crack progression and treatment success. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the capabilities of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology in the detection of enamel cracks. Ninety-six extracted human teeth were selected for examining naturally existing or suspected cracked teeth surfaces using a photocuring unit. QLF performed with a digital camera (QLF-D) images were used to assess the ability to detect enamel cracks based on the maximum fluorescence loss value (ΔFmax, %), which was then analyzed using the QLF-D software. A histologic evaluation was then performed in which the samples were sectioned and observed with the aid of a polarized light microscope. The relationship between ΔFmax and the histology findings was assessed based on the Spearman rank correlation. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated to evaluate the validity of using QLF-D to analyze enamel inner-half cracks and cracks extending to the dentin-enamel junction. There was a strong correlation between the results of histologic evaluations of enamel cracks and the ΔFmax value, with a correlation coefficient of 0.84. The diagnostic accuracy of QLF-D had a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.98 for enamel inner-half cracks and a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 1.0 for cracks extending to the dentin-enamel junction. These results indicate that QLF technology would be a useful clinical tool for diagnosing enamel cracks, especially given that this is a nondestructive method. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) for high-throughput fluorescent mammalian cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chung, Aram; Kung, Yu-Chung; Teitell, Michael A.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2014-09-01

    We present a Pulsed Laser Activated Cell Sorter (PLACS) realized by exciting laser induced cavitation bubbles in a PDMS microfluidic channel to create high speed liquid jets to deflect detected fluorescent samples for high speed sorting. Pulse laser triggered cavitation bubbles can expand in few microseconds and provide a pressure higher than tens of MPa for fluid perturbation near the focused spot. This ultrafast switching mechanism has a complete on-off cycle less than 20 μsec. Two approaches have been utilized to achieve 3D sample focusing in PLACS. One is relying on multilayer PDMS channels to provide 3D hydrodynamic sheath flows. It offers accurate timing control of fast (2 m sec-1) passing particles so that synchronization with laser bubble excitation is possible, an critically important factor for high purity and high throughput sorting. PLACS with 3D hydrodynamic focusing is capable of sorting at 11,000 cells/sec with >95% purity, and 45,000 cells/sec with 45% purity using a single channel in a single step. We have also demonstrated 3D focusing using inertial flows in PLACS. This sheathless focusing approach requires 10 times lower initial cell concentration than that in sheath-based focusing and avoids severe sample dilution from high volume sheath flows. Inertia PLACS is capable of sorting at 10,000 particles sec-1 with >90% sort purity.

  16. Injection Seeded Laser for Formaldehyde Differential Fluorescence Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwemmer G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and development of an injection seeded Nd:YVO4 laser for use in a differential fluorescence lidar for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde profiles. A high repetition rate Q-switched laser is modified to accept injection seed input to spectrally narrow and tune the output. The third harmonic output is used to excite formaldehyde (HCHO fluorescence when tuned to a HCHO absorption line. Spectral confirmation is made with the use of a photoacoustic cell and grating spectrometer.

  17. An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; Lanigan, P M P; McGinty, J; Elson, D S; Requejo-Isidro, J; Munro, I; Galletly, N; McCann, F; Treanor, B; Oenfelt, B; Davis, D M; Neil, M A A; French, P M W

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is used widely in microscopy and macroscopic imaging applications for fields ranging from biomedicine to materials science. A critical component for any fluorescence imaging system is the excitation source. Traditionally, wide-field systems use filtered thermal or arc-generated white light sources, while point scanning confocal microscope systems require spatially coherent (point-like) laser sources. Unfortunately, the limited range of visible wavelengths available from conventional laser sources constrains the design and usefulness of fluorescent probes in confocal microscopy. A 'hands-off' laser-like source, electronically tunable across the visible spectrum, would be invaluable for fluorescence imaging and provide new opportunities, e.g. automated excitation fingerprinting and in situ measurement of excitation cross-sections. Yet more information can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), which requires that the light source be pulsed or rapidly modulated. We show how a white light continuum, generated by injecting femtosecond optical radiation into a micro-structured optical fibre, coupled with a simple prism-based tunable filter arrangement, can fulfil all these roles as a continuously electronically tunable (435-1150 nm) visible ultrafast light source in confocal, wide-field and FLIM systems

  18. Fluorescent determination of neptunium in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandruk, V.M.; Babaev, A.S.; Dem'yanova, T.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for direct determination of Neptunium in Plutonium using laser induced time resolved fluorescence method. The procedure based on measurement of fluorescence intensity of Neptunium followed its concentration in effective layer of pellet of calcium fluoride. Detection limit of determination of Neptunium is 2 10 -12 g. At the level of Neptunium content in Plutonium more than 5 ppm relative standard deviation is equal 0.08-0.12. For carrying out of single measurement it is necessary neither more nor less 5 mkg Plutonium

  19. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  20. Fluorescence-pumped photolytic gas laser system for a commercial laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The first results are given for the conceptual design of a short-wavelength gas laser system suitable for use as a driver (high average power ignition source) for a commercial laser fusion power plant. A comparison of projected overall system efficiencies of photolytically excited oxygen, sulfur, selenium and iodine lasers is described, using a unique windowless laser cavity geometry which will allow scaling of single amplifier modules to 125 kJ per aperture for 1 ns pulses. On the basis of highest projected overall efficiency, a selenium laser is chosen for a conceptual power plant fusion laser system. This laser operates on the 489 nm transauroral transition of selenium, excited by photolytic dissociation of COSe by ultraviolet fluorescence radiation. Power balances and relative costs for optics, electrical power conditioning and flow conditioning of both the laser and fluorescer gas streams are discussed for a system with the following characteristics: 8 operating modules, 2 standby modules, 125 kJ per module, 1.4 pulses per second, 1.4 MW total average power. The technical issues of scaling visible and near-infrared photolytic gas laser systems to this size are discussed

  1. Detection of radiation-induced brain necrosis in live rats using label-free time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Ma, Htet S. W.; Sridharan, Shamira; Hansen, Katherine; Klich, Melanie; Perks, Julian; Kent, Michael; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fragoso, Ruben; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating radiation-induced necrosis from recurrent tumor in the brain remains a significant challenge to the neurosurgeon. Clinical imaging modalities are not able to reliably discriminate the two tissue types, making biopsy location selection and surgical management difficult. Label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques have previously been shown to be able to delineate human brain tumor from healthy tissues. Thus, fluorescence lifetime techniques represent a potential means to discriminate the two tissues in real-time during surgery. This study aims to characterize the endogenous fluorescence lifetime signatures from radiation induced brain necrosis in a tumor-free rat model. Fischer rats received a single fraction of 60 Gy of radiation to the right hemisphere using a linear accelerator. Animals underwent a terminal live surgery after gross necrosis had developed, as verified with MRI. During surgery, healthy and necrotic brain tissue was measured with a fiber optic needle connected to a multispectral fluorescence lifetime system. Measurements of the necrotic tissue showed a 48% decrease in intensity and 20% increase in lifetimes relative to healthy tissue. Using a support vector machine classifier and leave-one-out validation technique, the necrotic tissue was correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Spectral contribution analysis also confirmed that the primary source of fluorescence contrast lies within the redox and bound-unbound population shifts of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A clinical trial is presently underway to measure these tissue types in humans. These results show for the first time that radiation-induced necrotic tissue in the brain contains significantly different metabolic signatures that are detectable with label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques.

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Neutral and Ionized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Cosmic Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Salma; Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma O'Brien, Ella; Foing, Bernard; Pascale, Ehrenfreund

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are considered the best carriers to account for the ubiquitous infrared emission bands. PAHs have also been proposed as candidates to explain the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), a series of absorption features seen on the interstellar extinction curve and are plausible carriers for the extended red emission (ERE), a photoluminescent process associated with a wide variety of interstellar environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted over the past two decades to characterize the physical and chemical properties of PAH molecules and ions in space. Absorption spectra of PAH molecules and ions trapped in solid matrices have been compared to the DIBs. Absorption spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have also been measured under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. The purpose of this study is to provide a new dimension to the existing spectroscopic database of neutral and single ionized PAHs that is largely based on absorption spectra by adding emission spectroscopy data. The measurements are based on the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique and are performed with the Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) of the COSmIC laboratory facility at NASA Ames laboratory. The PDN generates a plasma in a free supersonic jet expansion to simulate the physical and the chemical conditions in interstellar environments. We focus, here, on the fluorescence spectra of large neutral PAHs and their cations where there is a lack of fluorescence spectroscopy data. The astronomical implications of the data (e.g., ERE) are examined.

  3. Indirect fluorescence detection of native amino acids in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, W.G.; Yeung, E.S.

    1988-09-01

    Amino acids are but one of several important classes of small chemical compounds in biological chemistry that have an inherent lack of analytically useful physical properties. Amino acids, peptides, fatty acids, sugars, many mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids, and phosphorylated intermediates in glycolysis and metabolism show little, if any, UV or visible absorption, fluorescence, or electrochemical activity. As the emphasis of biochemical research shifts to smaller samples where, for example, picomolar quantities of amino acids are analyzed in gas phase protein sequencing or in microliter samples of the extracellular fluid of the mammalian brain, the analytical problem becomes even more challenging due to the small volume of sample available for analysis. In this work, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is performed on-column to detect the bands separated with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). CZE is an instrumental form of zone electrophoresis where chemical species are separated purely on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility, since no supporting gel is utilized. Both anions and cations can be separated in the same run because of the large electroosmotic flow generated in small diameter capillaries. This technique has already been used successfully in the rapid, efficient separation of dansyl-amino acids.

  4. A fluorescence detection of D-penicillamine based on Cu(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching system of protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2015-01-25

    In this contribution, a luminescent gold nanoclusters which were synthesized by bovine serum albumin as novel fluorescent probes were successfully utilized for the determination of D-penicillamine for the first time. Cupric ion was employed to quench the strong fluorescence of the gold nanoclusters, whereas the addition of D-penicillamine caused obvious restoration of fluorescence intensity of the Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system. Under optimum conditions, the increment in fluorescence intensity of Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system caused by D-penicillamine was linearly proportional to the concentration of D-penicillamine in the range of 2.0×10(-5)-2.39×10(-4) M. The detection limit for D-penicillamine was 5.4×10(-6) M. With the off-on fluorescence signal at 650 nm approaching the near-infrared region, the present sensor for D-penicillamine detection had high sensitivity and low spectral interference. Furthermore, the novel gold nanoclusters-based fluorescent sensor has been applied to the determination of D-penicillamine in real biological samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of OH free radical in magnetized sheet plasma crossed with vertical gas-flow by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonegawa, Akira; Takatori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Kazutaka; Takayama, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrated the production of OH free radicals in an argon magnetized sheet plasma crossed with vertical gas-flow mixed with an oxygen gas O 2 and a hydrogen gas H 2 . The density and the rotational-vibrational temperature of the OH free radicals were measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The density of OH free radicals increases with increasing O 2 gas-flow, while the high energy part of the electron-energy-distribution-function f e (E) above 8 eV decreases. These results suggest the high energy part of f e (E) is contributed to the dissociation of O 2 and the production of OH free radicals. (author)

  6. Detection of Anomalies in Citrus Leaves Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Morgan, Kelly T

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient assessment and management are important to maintain productivity in citrus orchards. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for rapid and real-time detection of citrus anomalies. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected from citrus leaves with anomalies such as diseases (Huanglongbing, citrus canker) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc), and compared with those of healthy leaves. Baseline correction, wavelet multivariate denoising, and normalization techniques were applied to the LIBS spectra before analysis. After spectral pre-processing, features were extracted using principal component analysis and classified using two models, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM resulted in a high average classification accuracy of 97.5%, with high average canker classification accuracy (96.5%). LIBS peak analysis indicated that high intensities at 229.7, 247.9, 280.3, 393.5, 397.0, and 769.8 nm were observed of 11 peaks found in all the samples. Future studies using controlled experiments with variable nutrient applications are required for quantification of foliar nutrients by using LIBS-based sensing.

  7. Novel physical chemistry approaches in biophysical researches with advanced application of lasers: Detection and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Koichi; Terazima, Masahide; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Novel methodologies utilizing pulsed or intense CW irradiation obtained from lasers have a major impact on biological sciences. In this article, recent development in biophysical researches fully utilizing the laser irradiation is described for three topics, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved thermodynamics, and manipulation of the biological assemblies by intense laser irradiation. First, experimental techniques for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy are concisely explained in Section 2. As an example of the recent application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to biological systems, evaluation of the viscosity of lipid bilayer membranes is described. The results of the spectroscopic experiments strongly suggest the presence of heterogeneous membrane structure with two different viscosity values in liposomes formed by a single phospholipid. Section 3 covers the time-resolved thermodynamics. Thermodynamical properties are important to characterize biomolecules. However, measurement of these quantities for short-lived intermediate species has been impossible by traditional thermodynamical techniques. Recently, development of a spectroscopic method based on the transient grating method enables us to measure these quantities and also to elucidate reaction kinetics which cannot be detected by other spectroscopic methods. The principle of the measurements and applications to some protein reactions are reviewed. Manipulation and fabrication of supramolecues, amino acids, proteins, and living cells by intense laser irradiation are described in Section 4. Unconventional assembly, crystallization and growth, amyloid fibril formation, and living cell manipulation are achieved by CW laser trapping and femtosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbling. Their spatio-temporal controllability is opening a new avenue in the relevant molecular and bioscience research fields. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of

  8. Development of high repetition rate nitric oxide planar laser induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo

    have obtained, for the first time by any known optical method, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) image sequences at ultrahigh (≥100kHz) frame rates, in particular NO PLIF image sequences, have been obtained in a Mach 2 jet. We also studied the possibility of utilizing a 250 kHz pulsed Nd:YVO 4 laser as the master oscillator. 10-pulse-10-mus spacing burst sequences with reasonably uniform burst envelope have been obtained. The total energy of the burst sequence is ˜2.5J.

  9. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  10. UV laser interaction with a fluorescent dye solution studied using pulsed digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2013-10-21

    A frequency tripled Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 355 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) has been used to pump Coumarin 153 dye solved in ethanol. Simultaneously, a frequency doubled pulse (532 nm) from the same laser is used to probe the solvent perpendicularly resulting in a gain through stimulated laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission. The resulting gain of the probe beam is recorded using digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two digital holograms without and with the pump beam were recorded. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and used to calculate the gain of the probe beam due to the stimulated LIF. In addition numerical data of the local temperature rise was calculated from the corresponding phase maps using Radon inversion. It was concluded that about 15% of the pump beam energy is transferred to the dye solution as heat while the rest is consumed in the radiative process. The results show that pulsed digital holography is a promising technique for quantitative study of fluorescent species.

  11. A light-up fluorescent probe for citrate detection based on bispyridinum amides with aggregation-induced emission feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Hang, Yandi; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Ji; Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Jianli

    2018-02-01

    Citrate is an important intermediate in the citric acid cycle, a vital metabolic pathway for animals, plants and bacteria. It is of great significance to detect its levels in human beings because several diseases may cause the abnormal of citrate. In this paper, a new turn-on fluorescent sensor (TPE-Py) using the classic tetraphenylethylene (TPE) as the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore and bipyridinium-based amides as the recognition receptor has been synthesized for the detection of citrate. The probe exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity to citrate with a relatively low detection limit (1.0 × 10 -7 M). The enhancement of the fluorescence is relevant with the AIE property based on the complexation of TPE-Py with citrate caused by the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between the bipyridinium diamides and citrate, which has been proved by 1 H NMR and mass spectra titration, scanning electronic microscope and dynamic light scattering analyses. More importantly, the quantification of citrate in artificial urine may develop TPE-Py fluorometric probe for the citrate detection in real biosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  13. RCRA materials analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Detection limits in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskelo, A.; Cremers, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) that this report supports is research, development, testing and evaluation of a portable analyzer for RCRA and other metals. The instrumentation to be built will be used for field-screening of soils. Data quality is expected to be suitable for this purpose. The data presented in this report were acquired to demonstrate the detection limits for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of soils using instrument parameters suitable for fieldable instrumentation. The data are not expected to be the best achievable with the high pulse energies available in laboratory lasers. The report presents work to date on the detection limits for several elements in soils using LIBS. The elements targeted in the Technical Task Plan are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, and zirconium. Data for these elements are presented in this report. Also included are other data of interest to potential customers for the portable LIBS apparatus. These data are for barium, mercury, cesium and strontium. Data for uranium and thorium will be acquired during the tasks geared toward mixed waste characterization

  14. Femtosecond laser irradiation of the fluorescent molecules-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Taiga; Shibata, Akimichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Molecular release from scaffolds is desired for tailoring cell-compatible tissue engineering. Several methods have been proposed to control molecular release, such as annealing, plasma treatment, and laser processing. In this study, we describe the alteration of Rhodamine B (RhB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) after femtosecond laser irradiation, which was evaluated on the basis of the water absorption and mass remaining. Fluorescence measurement of released RhB molecules revealed the acceleration of the molecular release upon 400-nm laser irradiation, whereas 800-nm laser irradiation did not induce a comparable degree of change compared with non-irradiated samples. The result of the water absorption measurement indicates that the large amount of water absorption of 400-nm laser-irradiated PLGA sample may accelerate the diffusion of the loaded molecules through absorbing water, which resulted in the faster molecular release.

  15. Liquid film characterization in horizontal, annular, two-phase, gas-liquid flow using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, P.S.C.; Martins, F.J.W.A.; Azevedo, L.F.A. [PUC-Rio, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sampaio, L.E.B. [LMTA/PGMEC, UFF, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Serfaty, R. [Petrobras R and D Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    A non-intrusive optical technique was developed to provide time-resolved longitudinal and cross-sectional images of the liquid film in horizontal annular pipe flow of air and water, revealing the interfacial wave behavior. Quantitative information on the liquid film dynamics was extracted from the time-resolved images. The planar laser-induced fluorescence technique was utilized to allow for optical separation of the light emitted by the film from that scattered by the air-water interface. The visualization test section was fabricated from a tube presenting nearly the same refractive index as water, which allowed the visualization of the liquid film at regions very close to the pipe wall. Longitudinal images of the liquid film were captured using a high-frame-rate digital video camera synchronized with a high-repetition-rate laser. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically detect the position of the air-water interface in each image frame. The thickness of the liquid film was measured at two axial stations in each processed image frame, providing time history records of the film thickness at two different positions. Wave frequency information was obtained by analyzing the time-dependent signals of film thickness for each of the two axial positions recorded. Wave velocities were measured by cross-correlating the amplitude signals from the two axial positions. For the film cross-section observations, two high-speed digital video cameras were used in a stereoscopic arrangement. Comparisons with results from different techniques available in literature indicate that the technique developed presents equivalent accuracy in measuring the liquid film properties. Time-resolved images of longitudinal and cross-section views of the film were recorded, which constitute valuable information provided by the technique implemented. (orig.)

  16. Laser induced autofluorescence for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Merlemis, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Sianoudis, I. A.; Batsi, O.; Christofidou, E.; Stratigos, A. J.; Katsambas, A. D.; Antoniou, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Non melanoma skin cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors among humans. A non-invasive technique, with high sensitivity and high specificity, would be the most suitable method for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignancies diagnostics, instead of the well established biopsy and histopathology examination. In the last decades, a non-invasive, spectroscopic diagnostic method was introduced, the laser induced fluorescence (LIF), which could generate an image contrast between different states of skin tissue. The noninvasiveness consists in that this biophotonic method do not require tissue sample excision, what is necessary in histopathology characterization and biochemical analysis of the skin tissue samples, which is worldwide used as an evaluation gold standard. The object of this study is to establish the possibilities of a relatively portable system for laser induced skin autofluorescence to differentiate malignant from nonmalignant skin lesions. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a Nd:YAG-3ω laser (λ=355 nm, 6 ns), used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements. A portable fiber-based spectrometer was used to record fluorescence spectra of the sites of interest. The ex vivo results, obtained with this spectroscopic technique, were correlated with the histopathology results. After the analysis of the fluorescence spectra of almost 60 skin tissue areas, we developed an algorithm to distinguish different types of malignant lesions, including inflammatory areas. Optimization of the data analysis and potential use of LIF spectroscopy with 355 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation of tissue autofluorescence for clinical applications are discussed.

  17. Femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob B.; Sands, Brian L.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Roy, Sukesh; Scofield, James; Gord, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (fs-TALIF) spectroscopy is employed to measure space- and time-resolved atomic-oxygen distributions in a nanosecond, repetitively pulsed, externally grounded, atmospheric-pressure plasma jet flowing helium with a variable oxygen admixture. The high-peak-intensity, low-average-energy femtosecond pulses result in increased TALIF signal with reduced photolytic inferences. This allows 2D imaging of absolute atomic-oxygen number densities ranging from 5.8   ×   1015 to 2.0   ×   1012cm-3 using a cooled CCD with an external intensifier. Xenon is used for signal and imaging-system calibrations to quantify the atomic-oxygen fluorescence signal. Initial results highlight a transition in discharge morphology from annular to filamentary, corresponding with a change in plasma chemistry from ozone to atomic oxygen production, as the concentration of oxygen in the feed gas is changed at a fixed voltage-pulse-repetition rate. In this configuration, significant concentrations of reactive oxygen species may be remotely generated by sustaining an active discharge beyond the confines of the dielectric capillary, which may benefit applications that require large concentrations of reactive oxygen species such as material processing or biomedical devices.

  18. Teaching laser-induced fluorescence of plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Sándor; Gádoros, Patrik; Kocsányi, László; Barócsi, Attila

    2016-11-01

    Plants convert carbon dioxide into sugars using the energy of sunlight. Absorbed light unused for conversion is dissipated primarily as heat with a small fraction re-emitted as fluorescence at longer wavelengths. One can use the latter to estimate photosynthetic activity. The illumination of intact leaves with strong light after keeping them in dark for tens of minutes results in a rapid increase followed by a slow decay of fluorescence emission from the fluorophore chlorophyll-a, called the Kautsky effect. This paper describes a laboratory practice that introduces students of physics or engineering into this research field. It begins with the spectral measurement of the fluorescence emitted by a plant leaf upon UV excitation. Then it focuses on the red and far-red components of the fluorescence emission spectrum characteristic to the chlorophyll-a molecule and presents an inexpensive demonstration of the Kautsky effect. As researchers use more complex measurement techniques and tools, the practice ends up with the demonstration of an intelligent fluorosensor, a compact tool developed for plant physiological research and horticulture applications together with a brief interpretation of some important fluorescence parameters.

  19. Teaching laser-induced fluorescence of plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenk, Sándor; Gádoros, Patrik; Kocsányi, László; Barócsi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Plants convert carbon dioxide into sugars using the energy of sunlight. Absorbed light unused for conversion is dissipated primarily as heat with a small fraction re-emitted as fluorescence at longer wavelengths. One can use the latter to estimate photosynthetic activity. The illumination of intact leaves with strong light after keeping them in dark for tens of minutes results in a rapid increase followed by a slow decay of fluorescence emission from the fluorophore chlorophyll -a , called the Kautsky effect. This paper describes a laboratory practice that introduces students of physics or engineering into this research field. It begins with the spectral measurement of the fluorescence emitted by a plant leaf upon UV excitation. Then it focuses on the red and far-red components of the fluorescence emission spectrum characteristic to the chlorophyll -a molecule and presents an inexpensive demonstration of the Kautsky effect. As researchers use more complex measurement techniques and tools, the practice ends up with the demonstration of an intelligent fluorosensor, a compact tool developed for plant physiological research and horticulture applications together with a brief interpretation of some important fluorescence parameters. (paper)

  20. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry; Brown, Jeff; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Steve; Brubaker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnsons arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  1. Pico- and femtosecond laser-induced crosslinking of protein microstructures: evaluation of processability and bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, S; Kaepylae, E; Kellomaeki, M [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, PO Box 692, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Terzaki, K; Fotakis, C; Farsari, M [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), N. Plastira 100, 70013, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Viitanen, J, E-mail: elli.kapyla@tut.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1300, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    This study reports the pico- and femtosecond laser-induced photocrosslinking of protein microstructures. The capabilities of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser to promote multiphoton excited crosslinking of proteins were evaluated by fabricating 2D and 3D microstructures of avidin, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and biotinylated bovine serum albumin (bBSA). The multiphoton absorption-induced photocrosslinking of proteins was demonstrated here for the first time with a non-toxic biomolecule flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as the photosensitizer. Sub-micrometer and micrometer scale structures were fabricated from several different compositions of protein and photosensitizer by varying the average laser power and scanning speed in order to determine the optimal process parameters for efficient photocrosslinking. In addition, the retention of ligand-binding ability of the crosslinked protein structures was shown by fluorescence imaging of immobilized biotin or streptavidin conjugated fluorescence labels. The surface topography and the resolution of the protein patterns fabricated with the Nd:YAG laser were compared to the results obtained with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. Quite similar grain characteristics and comparable feature sizes were achieved with both laser sources, which demonstrates the utility of the low-cost Nd:YAG microlaser for direct laser writing of protein microstructures.

  2. Pico- and femtosecond laser-induced crosslinking of protein microstructures: evaluation of processability and bioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, S; Kaepylae, E; Kellomaeki, M; Terzaki, K; Fotakis, C; Farsari, M; Viitanen, J

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the pico- and femtosecond laser-induced photocrosslinking of protein microstructures. The capabilities of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser to promote multiphoton excited crosslinking of proteins were evaluated by fabricating 2D and 3D microstructures of avidin, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and biotinylated bovine serum albumin (bBSA). The multiphoton absorption-induced photocrosslinking of proteins was demonstrated here for the first time with a non-toxic biomolecule flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as the photosensitizer. Sub-micrometer and micrometer scale structures were fabricated from several different compositions of protein and photosensitizer by varying the average laser power and scanning speed in order to determine the optimal process parameters for efficient photocrosslinking. In addition, the retention of ligand-binding ability of the crosslinked protein structures was shown by fluorescence imaging of immobilized biotin or streptavidin conjugated fluorescence labels. The surface topography and the resolution of the protein patterns fabricated with the Nd:YAG laser were compared to the results obtained with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. Quite similar grain characteristics and comparable feature sizes were achieved with both laser sources, which demonstrates the utility of the low-cost Nd:YAG microlaser for direct laser writing of protein microstructures.

  3. Excitation and deexcitation of N2 molecular levels. Induced fluorescence by electrons and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Fernandez-Mayoralas, A.

    1989-01-01

    The electron impact excitation followed by fluorescence induced by N 2 -laser absorption was used to study the lifetime of the lowest vibrational level of the B 3 π g electronic state of N 2 . The experimental result of this work is 13 + 1 μs. To measure the lifetime of B 3 π g (v=2,3,5,6,7,8) levels the delayed coincidence method by electron impact was use. The lifetime values were compared with recent experimental and theoretical results. The relative intensi-ties of 3 π g --- A 3 Σ Ω + system bands, in the range (6540-10500 A o ) was measured using a hollow cathode lamp as spectral source. The relative transition moments and its dependence versus the r-centroid was obtained. Total cross sections for electron scattering by N molecules in the range 600 - 5000 eV have been obtained from measurements of the attenuation of a linear electron beam. The results have been compared with available experimental cross sections and with theoretical calculations based on the first Born approximation. (Author)

  4. Next generation laser-based standoff spectroscopy techniques for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, Patrick J; Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E; Lucey, Paul G; Misra, Anupam K; Sharma, Shiv K; Taylor, G Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In the recent Mars 2020 Rover Science Definition Team Report, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sought the capability to detect and identify elements, minerals, and most importantly, biosignatures, at fine scales for the preparation of a retrievable cache of samples. The current Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity, has a remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument, a type of quantitative elemental analysis, called the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) that has shown that laser-induced spectroscopy instruments are not only feasible for space exploration, but are reliable and complementary to traditional elemental analysis instruments such as the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer. The superb track record of ChemCam has paved the way for other laser-induced spectroscopy instruments, such as Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have developed a prototype remote LIBS-Raman-fluorescence instrument, Q-switched laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy (QuaLITy), which is approximately 70 000 times more efficient at recording signals than a commercially available LIBS instrument. The increase in detection limits and sensitivity is due to our development of a directly coupled system, the use of an intensified charge-coupled device image detector, and a pulsed laser that allows for time-resolved measurements. We compare the LIBS capabilities of our system with an Ocean Optics spectrometer instrument at 7 m and 5 m distance. An increase in signal-to-noise ratio of at least an order of magnitude allows for greater quantitative analysis of the elements in a LIBS spectrum with 200-300 μm spatial resolution at 7 m, a Raman instrument capable of 1 mm spatial resolution at 3 m, and bioorganic fluorescence detection at longer distances. Thus, the new QuaLITy instrument fulfills all of the NASA expectations for proposed instruments.

  5. Measurement of OH radical density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We examined OH density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We ignited a premixed flame with CH4 /O2 / Ar mixture using a burner which worked as the ground electrode. The upper part of the flame was covered with a quartz tube, and we attached an aluminum electrode on the outside of the quartz tube. DBD inside the quartz tube was obtained between the aluminum electrode and the burner nozzle. The planar beam from a pulsed tunable laser excited OH in X2 Π (v'' = 0) to A2Σ+ (v' = 0) , and we captured two-dimensional distribution of the LIF intensity using an ICCD camera. We employed three pump lines of Q1(J=4, 8 and 10), and the rotational temperature of OH(X) was deduced from the ratio of the LIF intensities. The total density of OH was obtained from the LIF intensities and the rotational temperature. A principal experimental result was that no remarkable increase was observed in the OH density by the superposition of DBD. The correlation between the pulsed discharge current and the temporal variation of the OH density was not clear, suggesting that the oscillation of the OH density with a small amplitude is related to the transittion time constant between equilibrium and nonequilibrium combustion chemistries.

  6. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  7. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy to detect hepatic necrosis after normothermic ischemia: animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.

    2015-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.

  8. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laser fluorescence bronchoscope for localization of occult lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.; King, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging occult bronchogenic carcinoma by the fluorescence of previously-injected, tumor-specific compound hematoporphyrin-derivative has been assembled and successfully used to locate a tumor l mm thick. The violet excitation source is a krypton ion laser coupled to fused quartz fiber light conductor. An electrostatic image intensifier attached to a standard flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope provides a bright image even at relatively low irradiance. A red secondary filter rejects most reflected background and autofluorescence. Sensitivity and contrast capability of the system should permit detection of a tumor less than 0.1 mm thick

  10. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  11. Laser-induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    This dissertation discusses some of the new ways that lasers can be used to control the energy flow in a medium. Experimental and theoretical considerations of the laser-induced collision are discussed. The laser-induced collision is a process in which a laser is used to selectively transfer energy from a state in one atomic or molecular species to another state in a different species. The first experimental demonstration of this process is described, along with later experiments in which lasers were used to create collisional cross sections as large as 10 - 13 cm 2 . Laser-induced collisions utilizing both a dipole-dipole interaction and dipole-quadrupole interaction have been experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical aspects of other related processes such as laser-induced spin-exchange, collision induced Raman emission, and laser-induced charge transfer are discussed. Experimental systems that could be used to demonstrate these various processes are presented. An experiment which produced an inversion of the resonance line of an ion by optical pumping of the neutral atom is described. This type of scheme has been proposed as a possible method for constructing VUV and x-ray lasers

  12. Inclusion Detection in Aluminum Alloys Via Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2018-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown promise as a technique to quickly determine molten metal chemistry in real time. Because of its characteristics, LIBS could also be used as a technique to sense for unwanted inclusions and impurities. Simulated Al2O3 inclusions were added to molten aluminum via a metal-matrix composite. LIBS was performed in situ to determine whether particles could be detected. Outlier analysis on oxygen signal was performed on LIBS data and compared to oxide volume fraction measured through metallography. It was determined that LIBS could differentiate between melts with different amounts of inclusions by monitoring the fluctuations in signal for elements of interest. LIBS shows promise as an enabling tool for monitoring metal cleanliness.

  13. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  14. Simultaneous determination of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mitochondrial compartments of apoptotic HepG2 cells and PC12 cells based on microchip electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingling; Sun, Qianqian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xu; Li, Na; Yin, Miao; Xie, Yanxia; Li, Hongmin; Tang, Bo

    2012-06-05

    Determination of intracellular bioactive species will afford beneficial information related to cell metabolism, signal transduction, cell function, and disease treatment. In this study, the first application of a microchip electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (MCE-LIF) method for concurrent determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), i.e., superoxide (O(2)(-•)) and nitric oxide (NO) in mitochondria, was developed using fluorescent probes 2-chloro-1,3-dibenzothiazolinecyclohexene (DBZTC) and 3-amino,4-aminomethyl-2',7'-difluorescein (DAF-FM), respectively. Potential interference of intracellular dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and ascorbic acid (AA) for NO detection with DAF-FM was eliminated through oxidation of AA with the addition of ascorbate oxidase, followed by subsequent MCE separation. Fluorescent products of O(2)(-•) and NO, DBZTC oxide (DBO), and DAF-FM triazole (DAF-FMT) showed excellent baseline separation within 1 min with a running buffer of 40 mM Tris solution (pH 7.4) and a separating electric field of 500 V/cm. The levels of DBO and DAF-FMT in mitochondria isolated from normal HepG2 cells and PC12 cells were evaluated using this method. Furthermore, the changes of DBO and DAF-FMT levels in mitochondria isolated from apoptotic HepG2 cells and PC12 cells could also be detected. The current approach was proved to be simple, fast, reproducible, and efficient. Measurement of the two species with the method will be beneficial to understand ROS/RNS distinctive functions. In addition, it will provide new insights into the role that both species play in biological systems.

  15. A conformation-induced fluorescence method for microRNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aw, Sherry S; Tang, Melissa Xm; Teo, Yin Nah

    2016-01-01

    and quantify microRNAs may aid research into novel aspects of microRNA biology and contribute to the development of diagnostics. By introducing an additional stem loop into the fluorescent RNA Spinach and altering its 3' and 5' ends, we have generated a new RNA, Pandan, that functions as the basis for a micro......MicroRNAs play important roles in a large variety of biological systems and processes through their regulation of target mRNA expression, and show promise as clinical biomarkers. However, their small size presents challenges for tagging or direct detection. Innovation in techniques to sense......RNA sensor. Pandan contains two sequence-variable stem loops that encode complementary sequence for a target microRNA of interest. In its sensor form, it requires the binding of a target microRNA in order to reconstitute the RNA scaffold for fluorophore binding and fluorescence. Binding of the target micro...

  16. Contrast Induced by a Static Magnetic Field for Improved Detection in Nanodiamond Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singam, Shashi K. R.; Motylewski, Jaroslaw; Monaco, Antonina; Gjorgievska, Elena; Bourgeois, Emilie; Nesládek, Milos; Giugliano, Michele; Goovaerts, Etienne

    2016-12-01

    Diamond nanoparticles with negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are highly efficient nonblinking emitters that exhibit spin-dependent intensity. An attractive application of these emitters is background-free fluorescence microscopy exploiting the fluorescence quenching induced either by resonant microwaves (RMWs) or by an applied static magnetic field (SMF). Here, we compare RMW- and SMF-induced contrast measurements over a wide range of optical excitation rates for fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) and for NV centers shallowly buried under the (100)-oriented surface of a diamond single crystal (SC). Contrast levels are found to be systematically lower in the FNDs than in the SC. At low excitation rates, the RMW contrast initially rises to a maximum (up to 7% in FNDs and 13% in the SC) but then decreases steadily at higher intensities. Conversely, the SMF contrast increases from approximately 12% at low excitation rates to high values of 20% and 38% for the FNDs and SC, respectively. These observations are well described in a rate-equations model for the charged NV defect using parameters in good agreement with the literature. The SMF approach yields higher induced contrast in image collection under commonly applied optical excitation. Unlike the RMW method, there is no thermal load exerted on the aqueous media in biological samples in the SMF approach. We demonstrate imaging by SMF-induced contrast in neuronal cultures incorporating FNDs (i) in a setup for patch-clamp experiments in parallel with differential-interference-contrast microscopy, (ii) after a commonly used staining procedure as an illustration of the high selectivity against background fluorescence, and (iii) in a confocal fluorescence microscope in combination with bright-field microscopy.

  17. Pressure and temperature dependence of laser-induced fluorescence of Sm:YAG to 100 kbar and 700 degree C and an empirical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, N.J.; Schiferl, D.

    1990-01-01

    The inability to measure pressure with accuracy at high temperature has been a hindrance to the development of simultaneous high-temperature, high-pressure experimental techniques. The results of recent laser-induced fluorescence studies at high temperature and high pressure indicate that Sm:YAG is a promising pressure calibrant with very low-temperature sensitivity. The most intense feature in the fluorescence spectrum is a doublet at 16186.5 cm -1 . The Sm:YAG doublet exhibits a pressure-induced peak shift comparable to the R 1 shift of ruby. However, the temperature-induced shift of the doublet is almost two orders of magnitude less than that observed for the R 1 peak. Simultaneous high-pressure-temperature experiments indicate that the pressure and temperature effects on the frequency and line shape can be added linearly. An empirical model based on the linear combination of pressure dependent frequency shift and temperature dependent linewidth and intensity ratio successfully predicts the doublet line shape at simultaneous pressure and temperature. Use of the model facilitates measurement of peak position at high temperature resulting in improved accuracy and repeatability of the pressure determination. Pressure measurements at 400 degree C and 40 kbar based on the Sm:YAG doublet peak position agree with the temperature-corrected ruby R 1 pressure measurement to within 3 kbar. At 15 kbar and 900 degree C the uncertainty in the Sm:YAG fluorescence peak wavelength is 5 cm -1 due to temperature-induced line broadening; this corresponds to an uncertainty in the pressure determination of ±2.5 kbar. The high thermal and chemical stability of YAG materials make Sm:YAG an ideal pressure calibrant for high-temperature applications

  18. Laser fluorescent diagnostics of a plasma of combustion products with an alkali additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, A.V.; Nefedov, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    Methods of laser fluorescent determination of sodium atom and hydroxyl molecule (impurity fire component) concentration are described. A method of wide-band detection is presented in detail. A monochromator, its transmission band allowing one to detect all rotational lines of hydroxyl electron-vibrational transition, is used as wide-bond filter. High efficiency of using the methods described in studying the combustion chemistry, kinetics of sodium atom compound production in combustion product plasma and pre-electrode processes is demonstrated. 95 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Li, Xin; Lou, Yue; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Ran; Yan, Debao; Zhao, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence(LIFS), which is one of most effective discrimination methods to identify the material at the molecular level by inducing fluorescence spectrum, has been popularized for its fast and accurate probe's results. According to the research, violet laser or ultraviolet laser is always used as excitation light source. While, There is no atmospheric window for violet laser and ultraviolet laser, causing laser attenuation along its propagation path. What's worse, as the laser reaching sample, part of the light is reflected. That is, excitation laser really react on sample to produce fluorescence is very poor, leading to weak fluorescence mingled with the background light collected by LIFS' processing unit, when it used outdoor. In order to spread LIFS to remote probing under the complex background, study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel is a meaningful work. Enhancing the fluorescence intensity and inhibiting background light both can improve fluorescence' signal-noise ratio. In this article, three different approaches of inhibiting background light are discussed to improve the signal-noise ratio of LIFS. The first method is increasing fluorescence excitation area in the proportion of LIFS' collecting field by expanding laser beam, if the collecting filed is fixed. The second one is changing field angle base to accommodate laser divergence angle. The third one is setting a very narrow gating circuit to control acquisition circuit, which is shortly open only when fluorescence arriving. At some level, these methods all can reduce the background light. But after discussion, the third one is best with adding gating acquisition circuit to acquisition circuit instead of changing light path, which is effective and economic.

  20. Kilohertz VLIF (volumetric laser induced fluorescence) measurements in a seeded free gas-phase jet in the transitionally turbulent flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Xu, Wenjiang; Ma, Lin

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the demonstration of instantaneous three-dimension (3D) measurements in turbulent flows at repetition rates up to 10 kHz using VLIF (volumetric laser induced fluorescence). The measurements were performed based on the LIF signal of iodine (I2) vapor seeded in the flow. The LIF signals of I2 vapor were generated volumetrically by a thick laser slab and then simultaneously captured by a total of seven cameras from different perspectives, based on which a 3D tomographic reconstruction was performed to obtain the 3D distribution of I2 vapor concentration. Single-shot measurements obtained in a duration of hundreds of nanoseconds (limited by the pulse duration of the excitation laser) were demonstrated in a 50 × 50 × 50 mm3 at a repetition rate up to 10 kHz. These measurements demonstrated the feasibility and potential of VLIF for resolving the 4D spatiotemporal dynamics of turbulent flows. Based on the experimental results obtained, this work also studied the VLIF signal level and its effects on the reconstruction accuracy under different the measurement conditions, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of performing high speed VLIF measurements.

  1. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  2. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  3. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA; Hartemann, Frederic V [San Ramon, CA; McNabb, Dennis P [Alameda, CA; Pruet, Jason A [Brentwood, CA

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  4. Study of 660 nm laser-induced photoluminescence of chlorophyll-a and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y; Zhang, D X; Zhang, H J

    2007-01-01

    Based on the phenomenon of chlorophyll a photoluminescence, this paper introduces a new method to measure the chlorophyll a content, using 660nm laser diode as a new kind of light source to stimulate fluorescence as well as combining a fiber and spectrum technique. We analyze the characteristics of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll a and then put forward the new method using two parameters, the relative fluorescence intensity and fluorescence intensity ratio F685/F735, to measure the chlorophyll a content in the water and green leaves respectively. The experimental results indicate that it is completely feasible to give a visual judgment for chlorophyll a content, according to the fluorescence emission spectrum of chlorophyll a. Subsequently, it is verified by three kinds of typical applications. All of these provide a new kind of light source to develop the chlorophyll a fluorometry and further give a technical foundation of on-spot monitoring the chlorophyll a content in the ocean or in green leaves

  5. X-Ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of Roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); El Hassan, A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale Firenze (Italy); Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Diaz Pace, D. [Institute of Physics ' Arroyo Seco' , Faculty of Science, Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scuotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we present the results of a study performed on a large collection of silver Roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking connection between the 'quality' of the silver alloy and some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used to classify a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The comparison with other contemporary denarii disproves a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied a large collection of Roman republican silver denarii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF and LIBS allowed to determine the precious metal content of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation of the 'quality' of the alloy with some contemporary events was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study allowed to controvert a recent theory on the so called 'serrated' denarii.

  6. Direct determination of uranium in soil, rock, ore and biological samples by laser-induced fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhen; Zhang Yanan

    1993-03-01

    A laser-induced fluorometric method with modified J-22 anti-interferent fluorescent reagent for directly determining the uranium in soil, rock, ore, geochemical, biological and other samples has been studied. The effects of external ions and dilution law of sample are examined in detail. A method for correcting inner effect is proposed. A mixed solution of 0.25% NaOH-10% J-22 is prepared which can be added to the sample cuvette for direct measurement without any pre-adjustment of acidity. Therefore, it is much simpler for operation and reduces the loss and contamination of uranium. By changing the laser fluorometer sensitivity (400 ∼ 200), up to 3000 ng uranium in the cuvette can be detected. Thus, both analytical accuracy and detectable range are improved. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and applicable to various uranium-bearing samples. The detection limit is better than 0.05 μgU/g. The relative standard deviation is ≤+-5% for the rock reference samples of 0.95, 84.8, 669 and 7240 μgU/g

  7. Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for the Detection of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Sugito, H.; Setia Budi, W.; Yoyo Wardaya, A.

    2018-01-01

    A rapid detection of heavy metals in soil was presented by the metal-assisted gas plasma method using specific characteristics of a pulsed, transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. The soil particles were placed in a hole made of acrylic plate. The sample was covered by a to prevent the soil particles from being blown off. The mesh also functioned to initiate a luminous plasma. When a TEA CO2 laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the soil sample, passing through the metal mesh, some of the laser energy was used to generate the gas plasma on the mesh surface, and the remaining laser energy was employed to ablate the soil particles. The fine, ablated soil particles moved into the gas plasma region to be dissociated and excited. Using this technique, analysis can be made with reduced sample pretreatment, and therefore a rapid analysis can be performed efficiently. The results proved that the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the emission spectral lines is much better for the case of the present method (mesh method) compared to the case of standard laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using the pellet method. Rapid detection of heavy metal elements in soil has been successfully carried out. The detection limits of Cu and Hg in soil were estimated to be 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The present method has good potential for rapid and sensitive detection of heavy metals in soil samples.

  8. Laser-induced capillary leakage for blood biomarker detection and vaccine delivery via the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey H; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-01

    Circulation system is the center for coordination and communication of all organs in our body. Examination of any change in its analytes or delivery of therapeutic drugs into the system consists of important medical practice in today's medicine. Two recent studies prove that brief illumination of skin with a low powered laser, at wavelengths preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin, increases the amount of circulating biomarkers in the epidermis and upper dermis by more than 1,000-fold. When probe-coated microneedle arrays are applied into laser-treated skin, plasma blood biomarkers can be reliably, accurately, and sufficiently quantified in 15∼30 min assays, with a maximal detection in one hr in a manner independent of penetration depth or a molecular mass of the biomarker. Moreover, the laser treatment permits a high efficient delivery of radiation-attenuated malarial sporozoites (RAS) into the circulation, leading to robust immunity against malaria infections, whereas similar immunization at sham-treated skin elicits poor immune responses. Thus this technology can potentially instruct designs of small, portable devices for onsite, in mobile clinics, or at home for point-of-care diagnosis and drug/vaccine delivery via the skin. Laser-induced capillary leakage (a) to induce extravasation of circualing molecules only (b) or facilitate entry of attenuated malaria sporozoites into the capillary (c). Skin illumination with a laser preferably absorbed by hemoglobin causes dilation of the capillary beneath the skin. The extravasated molecules can be sufficiently measured in the skin or guide sporozoites to enter the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Limitations on the use of the planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence technique in diesel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Desantes; J.V. Pastor; J.M. Pastor; J.E. Julia [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT Motores Termicos

    2005-12-01

    The Planar Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (PLIEF) technique is widely used to visualize and measure the fuel concentration fields in both liquid and vapor phases of DI Diesel sprays. However, the real limitations of the PLIEF technique in Diesel sprays and the accuracy of the results obtained are still a source of controversy. In this work, a complete methodology for maximum penetration and fuel concentration measurements in evaporating conditions in Diesel sprays has been developed and the reliability of the results obtained has been investigated. The methodology includes new procedures for measuring both liquid and vapor phases, adapting, when necessary, correlations available in the literature for calibration. An experimental matrix of nine test points with different injection pressures and combustion chamber densities has been performed. A critical analysis of the different error sources for proper quantification is made. Results have shown that macroscopic features can be accurately determined using the PLIEF technique, but for fuel concentration measurements special considerations have to be taken into account, particularly in the regions where liquid and vapor coexist. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Behaviour of atomic oxygen in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge measured by laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Yamashita, Youta; Takezawa, Kei; Oda, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is measured in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). The ground-level atomic oxygen is excited to the 3p 3 P state by two-photon absorption at 226 nm. Negative (-40 kV) or positive (+30 kV) pulsed DBD occurs in an O 2 -N 2 mixture at atmospheric pressure. The pulse width of the DBD current is approximately 50 ns. The TALIF experiment shows that the decay rate of atomic oxygen increases linearly with O 2 concentration. This result proves that atomic oxygen decays mainly by the third-body reaction, O + O 2 + M → O 3 + M. The rate coefficient of the third-body reaction is estimated to be 2.2 x 10 -34 cm 6 s -1 in the negative DBD and 0.89 x 10 -34 cm 6 s -1 in the positive DBD. It is shown that the decay rate of atomic oxygen increases linearly with humidity. This can explain the well-known fact that ozone production in DBD is suppressed by increasing humidity

  11. Bioconjugated fluorescent silica nanoparticles for the rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemadi, Ahmad; Ekrami, Alireza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Akhlaghi, Lame; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ali Reza; Razmjou, Elham

    2015-05-01

    Rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica based on fluorescent silica nanoparticle (FSNP) indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was evaluated. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized using Stöber's method, with their surface activated to covalently bind to, and immobilize, protein A. For biolabeling, FSNP was added to conjugated E. histolytica trophozoites with monoclonal anti-E. histolytica IgG1 for microscopic observation of fluorescence. Fluorescent silica nanoparticle sensitivity was determined with axenically cultured E. histolytica serially diluted to seven concentrations. Specificity was evaluated using other intestinal protozoa. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles detected E. histolytica at the lowest tested concentration with no cross-reaction with Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Blastocystis sp., or Giardia lamblia. Visualization of E. histolytica trophozoites with anti-E. histolytica antibody labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was compared with that using anti-E. histolytica antibody bioconjugated FSNP. Although FITC and FSNP produced similar results, the amount of specific antibody required for FITC to induce fluorescence of similar intensity was fivefold that for FSNP. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles delivered a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and highly sensitive and specific method of detecting E. histolytica. Further study is needed before introducing FSNP for laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  13. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Song, Kyu Seok; Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Chul Joong; Han, Phil Soon

    1992-01-01

    Electric discharge type atomic vaporizer is developed for the spectroscopic study on actinide elements. Laser induced fluorescence study on actinide elements is performed by using this high temperature type atomizer. For the effective photoionization of elements, copper vapor laser pumped dye laser and electron beam heating type atomic vaporizer are built and their characteristics are measured. In addition, resonance ionization mass spectroscopic analysis for lead sample as well as laser induced fluorescence study on uranium sample in solution phase is made. (Author)

  14. Dye laser spectrometer for the analysis of pulsed vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Robertson, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A pulsed dye laser spectrometer which is used to obtain detailed single shot spectroscopic measurements of the plasma in a pulsed vacuum arc was developed. The capabilities of this spectrometer are indicated by the detection of laser induced fluorescence signals from 10 6 neutral Ti atoms in the plasma of a pulsed vacuum arc with a Ti anode. (U.S.)

  15. Tools for the quantitative analysis of sedimentation boundaries detected by fluorescence optical analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system.

  16. The use of vitamins as tracer dyes for laser-induced fluorescence in liquid flow applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zähringer, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Tracers commonly used in experimental flow studies are mostly nocuous to the environment and human health. Particularly, in large flow installations, this can become a problem. In this study, a solution of this problem is presented, based on using water-soluble vitamins. Five of them are examined here for their applicability in flow studies. Vitamins B2 and B6 turned out to be the most promising candidates, and the dependency of their fluorescence intensity on parameters like concentration, laser energy, temperature, and pH are determined for two commonly used laser excitation wavelengths (532, 355 nm). Two examples of application in a static mixer and a spray flow are shown and demonstrate the applicability of the vitamin tracers.

  17. Research of the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection for multifunctional nutrition analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhengyuan; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda

    2017-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer which integrates absorbance detection, fluorescence detection, time-resolved fluorescence detection, biochemical luminescence detection methods, can make efficient detection and analysis for a variety of human body nutrients. This article focuses on the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection system. The two systems are modular in design and controlled by embedded system, to achieve automatic measurement according to user settings. In the optical path design, the application of confocal design can improve the optical signal acquisition capability, and reduce the interference. A photon counter is used for detection, and a high performance counter module is designed to measure the output of photon counter. In the experiment, we use neutral density filters and potassium dichromate solution to test the absorbance detection system, and use fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC for fluorescence detection system performance test. The experimental results show that the absorbance detection system has a detection range of 0 4OD, and has good linearity in the detection range, while the fluorescence detection system has a high sensitivity of 1pmol/L concentration.

  18. A versatile interaction chamber for laser-based spectroscopic applications, with the emphasis on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotný, J.; Brada, M.; Petrilak, M.; Prochazka, D.; Novotný, K.; Hrdička, A.; Kaiser, J.

    2014-01-01

    The technical note describes the interaction chamber developed particularly for the laser spectroscopy technique applications, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman Spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The chamber was designed in order to provide advanced possibilities for the research in mentioned fields and to facilitate routine research procedures. Parameters and the main benefits of the chamber are described, such as the built-in module for automatic 2D chemical mapping and the possibility to set different ambient gas conditions (pressure value and gas type). Together with the chamber description, selected LIBS application examples benefiting from chamber properties are described. - Highlights: • Development of the interaction chamber for LIBS applications • Example of automated chemical mapping of lead in a chalcopyrite sample • Example of LIBS measurement of fluorine in underpressure • Overview of chamber benefits

  19. Prospects of real-time single-particle biological aerosol analysis: A comparison between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddows, D.C.S.; Telle, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the prospects of real-time, in situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied for the identification and classification of bio-aerosols (including species of potential bio-hazard) within common urban aerosol mixtures. In particular, we address the issues associated with the picking out of bio-aerosols against common background aerosol particles, comparing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with data from a mobile single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The data from the latter provide statistical data over an extended period of time, highlighting the variation of the background composition. While single-particle bio-aerosols are detectable in principle, potential problems with small (∼ 1 μm size) bio-aerosols have been identified; constituents of the air mass other than background aerosols, e.g. gaseous CO 2 in conjunction with common background aerosols, may prevent unique recognition of the bio-particles. We discuss whether it is likely that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on its own can provide reliable, real-time identification of bio-aerosol in an urban environment, and it is suggested that more than one technique should be or would have to be used. A case for using a combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman (and/or) laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is made

  20. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.

    2011-11-07

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  1. The 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inspection to detect the nutrient elements in freshly cut carrot samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasari, N.; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to detect the nutrient elements contained in fresh carrot. Nd:YAG laser the wavelength of 1064 nm was employed in the experiments for ablation. Employing simple set-up of LIBS and preparing the sample with less step method, we are able to detect 18 chemical elements including some fundamental element of carrot, i.e Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, and Mn. By applying normalized profiles calculation on some of the element, we are able to compare the concentration level of each element of the outer and inner part of carrot.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  3. Recent development of fluorescent imaging for specific detection of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Eiji; Morii, Takashi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Increasing recent studies on fluorescent imaging for specific detection of tumors are described here on strategies of molecular targeting, metabolic specificity and hypoxic circumstance. There is described an instance of a conjugate of antibody and pH-activable fluorescent ligand, which specifically binds to the tumor cells, is internalized in the cellular lysozomes where their pH is low, and then is activated to become fluorescent only in viable tumor cells. For the case of metabolic specificity, excessive loading of the precursor (5-aminolevulinic acid) of protoporphyrin IX (ppIX), due to their low activity to convert ppIX to heme B, results in making tumors observable in red as ppIX emits fluorescence (red, 585 nm) when excited by blue ray of 410 nm. Similarly, imaging with indocyanine green which is accumulated in hepatoma cells is reported in success in detection of small lesion and metastasis when the dye is administered during operation. Reductive reactions exceed in tumor hypoxic conditions, of which feature is usable for imaging. Conjugates of nitroimidazole and fluorescent dye are reported to successfully image tumors by nitro reduction. Authors' UTX-12 is a non-fluorescent nitroaromatic derivative of pH-sensitive fluorescent dye seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), and is designed for the nitro group, the hypoxia-responding sensor, to be reduced in tumor hypoxic conditions and then for the aromatic moiety to be cleaved to release free SNARF. Use of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) for imaging has been also reported in many. As above, studies on fluorescent imaging for specific detection of tumors are mostly at fundamental step but its future is conceivably promising along with advances in other technology like fluorescent endoscopy and multimodal imaging. (author)

  4. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  5. Fluorescent QDs-polystyrene composite nanospheres for highly efficient and rapid protein antigen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changhua; Mao, Mao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Yuan, Hang [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Shen, Huaibin [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Wu, Feng; Ma, Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Li, Lin Song, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, high-quality carboxyl-functionalized fluorescent (red, green, and blue emitting) nanospheres (46-103 nm) consisting of hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) and polystyrene were prepared by a miniemulsion polymerization approach. This miniemulsion polymerization approach induced a homogeneous distribution and high aqueous-phase transport efficiency of fluorescent QDs in composite nanospheres, which proved the success of our encoding QDs strategy. The obtained fluorescent nanospheres exhibited high stability in aqueous solution under a wide range of pH, different salt concentrations, PBS buffer, and thermal treatment at 80 Degree-Sign C. Based on the red emitting composite nanosphere, we performed fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips for high-sensitivity and rapid alpha-fetal protein detection. The detection limit reached 0.1 ng/mL, which was 200 times higher than commercial colloidal gold-labeled LFIA strips, and it reached similar detection level in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

  6. Intrinsic fluorescence for cervical precancer detection using polarized light based in-house fabricated portable device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Bharat Lal; Singh, Pankaj; Sah, Amar Nath; Pandey, Kiran; Agarwal, Asha; Pantola, Chayanika; Pradhan, Asima

    2018-01-01

    An in-house fabricated portable device has been tested to detect cervical precancer through the intrinsic fluorescence from human cervix of the whole uterus in a clinical setting. A previously validated technique based on simultaneously acquired polarized fluorescence and polarized elastic scattering spectra from a turbid medium is used to extract the intrinsic fluorescence. Using a diode laser at 405 nm, intrinsic fluorescence of flavin adenine dinucleotide, which is the dominant fluorophore and other contributing fluorophores in the epithelium of cervical tissue, has been extracted. Different grades of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) have been discriminated using principal component analysis-based Mahalanobis distance and linear discriminant analysis. Normal, CIN I and CIN II samples have been discriminated from one another with high sensitivity and specificity at 95% confidence level. This ex vivo study with cervix of whole uterus samples immediately after hysterectomy in a clinical environment indicates that the in-house fabricated portable device has the potential to be used as a screening tool for in vivo precancer detection using intrinsic fluorescence.

  7. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

    2013-07-29

    We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

  8. Characterisation of an inlet pre-injector laser induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of ambient hydroxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, A.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Kubistin, D.; Regelin, E.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Martinez, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are challenging due to a high reactivity and consequently low concentration. The importance of OH as an atmospheric oxidant has resulted in a sustained effort leading to the development of a number of analytical techniques. Recent work has indicated that the laser-induced fluorescence of the OH molecules method based on the fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (LIF-FAGE) for the measurement of atmospheric OH in some environments may be influenced by artificial OH generated within the instrument, and a chemical method to remove this interference was implemented in a LIF-FAGE system by Mao et al. (2012). We have applied this method to our LIF-FAGE HORUS (HydrOxyl Radical Measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy) system, and developed and deployed an inlet pre-injector (IPI) to determine the chemical zero level in the instrument via scavenging the ambient OH radical. We describe and characterise this technique in addition to its application at field sites in forested locations in Finland, Spain, and Germany. Ambient measurements show that OH generated within the HORUS instrument is a non-negligible fraction of the total OH signal, which can comprise 30% to 80% during the day and 60% to 100% during the night. The contribution of the background OH varied greatly between measurement sites and was likely related to the type and concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at each particular location. Two inter-comparisons in contrasting environments between the HORUS instrument and two different chemical ionisation mass spectrometers (CIMS) are described to demonstrate the efficacy of the inlet-pre-injector and the necessity of the chemical zeroing method in such environments.

  9. Investigation of Gas Seeding for Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisman, C. J.; Johansen, C. T.; Bathel, B. F.; Danehy, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the gas-seeding strategies required for planar laser-induced fluorescence in a Mach 10 (approximately Mach 8.2 postshock) airflow were performed. The work was performed to understand and quantify the adverse effects associated with gas seeding and to assess various types of seed gas that could potentially be used in future experiments. In prior experiments, NO and NO2 were injected through a slot near the leading edge of a flatplate wedge model used in NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 air tunnel facility. In this paper, nitric oxide, krypton, and iodine gases were simulated at various injection rates. Simulations showing the deflection of the velocity boundary layer for each of the cases are presented. Streamwise distributions of velocity and concentration boundary-layer thicknesses, as well as vertical distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass distributions, are presented for each of the cases. A comparison between simulated streamwise velocity profiles and experimentally obtained molecular tagging velocimetry profiles using a nitric oxide seeding strategy is performed to verify the influence of such a strategy on the boundary layer. The relative merits of the different seeding strategies are discussed. The results from a custom solver based on OpenFOAM version 2.2.1 are compared against results obtained from ANSYS® Fluent version 6.3.

  10. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Brian J.; Maisto, Pietro; Lowe, K. Todd; Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Tiemsin, Patsy I.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene latex sphere particles are widely used to seed flows for velocimetry techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). These particles may be doped with fluorescent dyes such that signals spectrally shifted from the incident laser wavelength may be detected via Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An attractive application of the LIF signal is achieving velocimetry in the presence of strong interference from laser scatter, opening up new research possibilities very near solid surfaces or at liquid/gas interfaces. Additionally, LIF signals can be used to tag different fluid streams to study mixing. While fluorescence-based PIV has been performed by many researchers for particles dispersed in water flows, the current work is among the first in applying the technique to micron-scale particles dispersed in a gas. A key requirement for such an application is addressing potential health hazards from fluorescent dyes; successful doping of Kiton Red 620 (KR620) has enabled the use of this relatively safe dye for fluorescence PIV for the first time. In this paper, basic applications proving the concept of PIV using the LIF signal from KR620-doped particles are exhibited for a free jet and a twophase flow apparatus. Results indicate that while the fluorescence PIV techniques are roughly 2 orders of magnitude weaker than Mie scattering, they provide a viable method for obtaining data in flow regions previously inaccessible via standard PIV. These techniques have the potential to also complement Mie scattering signals, for example in multi-stream and/or multi-phase experiments.

  11. Novel estimation of the humification degree of soil organic matter by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina, E-mail: edilene@iq.unesp.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); São Paulo State University—UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, 14801-970 Rua Prof. Francisco Degni, 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Ednaldo José, E-mail: ednaldo.ferreira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Villas-Boas, Paulino Ribeiro, E-mail: paulino.villas-boas@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Senesi, Giorgio Saverio, E-mail: giorgio.senesi@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, Bari 70126 (Italy); Carvalho, Camila Miranda, E-mail: camilamc@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Romano, Renan Arnon, E-mail: renan.romano@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Martin-Neto, Ladislau, E-mail: ladislau.martin@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-09-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes an important reservoir of terrestrial carbon and can be considered an alternative for atmospheric carbon storage, contributing to global warming mitigation. Soil management can favor atmospheric carbon incorporation into SOM or its release from SOM to atmosphere. Thus, the evaluation of the humification degree (HD), which is an indication of the recalcitrance of SOM, can provide an estimation of the capacity of carbon sequestration by soils under various managements. The HD of SOM can be estimated by using various analytical techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy. In the present work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate the HD of SOM was evaluated for the first time. Intensities of emission lines of Al, Mg and Ca from LIBS spectra showing correlation with fluorescence emissions determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) reference technique were used to obtain a multivaried calibration model based on the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) method. The values predicted by the proposed model (A-LIBS) showed strong correlation with LIFS results with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.87. The HD of SOM obtained after normalizing A-LIBS by total carbon in the sample showed a strong correlation to that determined by LIFS (0.94), thus suggesting the great potential of LIBS for this novel application. - Highlights: • Humification degree of soil organic matter (HD) • Importance of soil organic matter HD in keeping carbon in soil • Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) for HD estimation (reference method) • New LIBS application to predict HD.

  12. Fluorescence detection of esophageal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2008-06-01

    White-light endoscopy is well-established and wide used modality. However, despite the many technological advances that have been occurred, conventional endoscopy is suboptimal and usually detects advanced stage lesions. The limitations of standard endoscopy initiate development of spectroscopic techniques, additional to standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most sensitive approaches is fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal mucosa for neoplasia detection. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20 mg/kg weight. Excitation source has max of emission at 405 nm and light is delivered by the standard light guide of the endoscopic equipment. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to reabsorption of blood. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of 5-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  13. Dual time-resolved temperature-jump fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy for the study of fast protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caitlin M; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2017-05-05

    Time-resolved temperature-jump (T-jump) coupled with fluorescence and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for monitoring protein dynamics. Although IR spectroscopy of the polypeptide amide I mode is more technically challenging, it offers complementary information because it directly probes changes in the protein backbone, whereas, fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive to the environment of specific side chains. With the advent of widely tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) it is possible to efficiently probe multiple IR frequencies with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here we describe a dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectrometer and its application to study protein folding dynamics. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser provides the T-jump source for both time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectroscopy, which are probed by a QCL and Ti:Sapphire laser, respectively. The Ho:YAG laser simultaneously pumps the time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectrometers. The instrument has high sensitivity, with an IR absorbance detection limit of jump induced difference spectrum from 50ns to 0.5ms. This study demonstrates the power of the dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectroscopy to resolve complex folding mechanisms by complementary IR absorbance and fluorescence measurements of protein dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorescence fluctuation of Rhodamine 6G dye for high repetition rate laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Patel, Hemant K.; Dixit, S.K.; Vora, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G dye for stationary and flowing liquid medium, excited by copper vapor laser, operating at 6 kHz pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. Large fluctuations in spectral width (about 5 nm) and spectral intensity in the fluorescence from stationary dye solution were observed, while fluctuations in the spectral width diminish in a flowing dye medium. However, this increases spectral intensity and slightly red shifts the fluorescence peak emission wavelength. Theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the observed results by incorporating the temperature induced refractive index, beam deflection and spectral variation in stationary dye solution. Numerical analysis of thermal load and contour of temperature in the optical pumped region inside the dye cell in stationary, 0.2 and 1.5 m/s flow velocity was also investigated to support our analysis. - Highlights: ► High repetition rate excitation generates inhomogeneity in the gain medium. ► Fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G in stationary and flowing medium was carried out. ► Fluorescence fluctuations lessen in flowing medium in contrast to stationary medium. ► Our theoretical and numerical analysis enlightens the experimented outcome trend.

  15. Evaluation of an inductively-coupled plasma with an extended-sleeve torch as an atomization cell for laser-excited fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, M A; Uchida, H; Winefordner, J D

    1983-05-01

    An inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) with an extended-sleeve torch has been evaluated as an atomization cell for laser-excited fluorescence spectrometry. Limits of detection for 20 lines are given. The detection power is almost equivalent to that obtained by excitation with a hollow-cathode lamp. Interelement effects and spectral interferences are discussed.

  16. Fluorescence imaging of ion distributions in an inductively coupled plasma with laser ablation sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Lance M.; Ellis, Wade C.; Jones, Derick D.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution images of the spatial distributions of Sc II, Ca II, and Ba II ion densities in the 10 mm upstream from the sampling cone in a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence. Images were obtained for each analyte as a function of the carrier gas flow rate with laser ablation (LA) sample introduction and compared to images with solution nebulization (SN) over the same range of flow rates. Additionally, images were obtained using LA at varying fluences and with varying amounts of helium added to a constant flow of argon gas. Ion profiles in SN images followed a pattern consistent with previous work: increasing gas flow caused a downstream shift in the ion profiles. When compared to SN, LA led to ion profiles that were much narrower radially and reached a maximum near the sampling cone at higher flow rates. Increasing the fluence led to ions formed in the ICP over greater axial and radial distances. The addition of He to the carrier gas prior to the ablation cell led to an upstream shift in the position of ionization and lower overall fluorescence intensities. - Highlights: • We map distributions of analytes in the ICP using laser ablation sample introduction. • We compare images from laser ablation with those from a pneumatic nebulizer. • We document the effects of water added to the laser ablation aerosol. • We compare distributions from a metal to those from crystalline solids. • We document the effect of laser fluence on ion distributions

  17. Development of 2D laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system in high-density helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigahara, Naoto; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masaki; Yamagata, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Lifetimes of most electric propulsion devices are limited owing to electrode erosion and contamination by plasmas. To overcome this problem, a Helicon Electrodeless Advanced Thruster (HEAT) was proposed by our research team. This scheme employs a high-density (∼10 13 cm -3 ) helicon plasma accelerated by the Lorentz force, which is produced by various acceleration methods. For feasibility of this method, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system was developed. The LIF is a powerful tool for plasma diagnostics because it is a non-invasive method that allows high spatial resolution. Using the LIF, it is possible to deduce velocity distribution functions of different particles (ions, atoms, and molecules). In this paper, we report the details of our novel 2D LIF system as well as some preliminary experimental results. Argon ion velocity distributions at different axial and radial locations were obtained using the novel 2D system. Ion velocity was greatest (∼ 2.8 km/s) at z = -24 cm among all the points measured along the z-axis. Velocity values were approximately 2.7 and 3.2 km/s for radial positions of r = 0 and 3 cm, respectively. Ion temperature values were approximately 0.56 and 0.61 eV at r = 0 and 3 cm, respectively. (author)

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Decay of 2-Methyl-, 2-Methoxy-, and 2-Ethylnaphthlene on α-Alumina during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradly B. Baer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay of electronically excited molecular films of 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MN, 2-methoxynaphthalene (2-MeON, and 2-ethylnaphthalene (2-EN on a crystal of α-alumina was monitored as a function of temperature with temperature programmed desorption (TPD experiments. By assuming an exponential decay, the rate constants of the relaxation to the ground state were observed to have two components (±20% by laser induced fluorescence (LIF. For the 2-MeON, 2-MN, and 2-EN excimer, the longer components were 35, 25, and 23 × 106 s−1, respectively. Rate constants for the trap fluorescence for 2-MeON, 2-MN, and 2-EN were 100, 44, and 23×106 s−1, respectively. In separate experiments, the effect of a molecule that does not fluoresce and has a lower desorption temperature than the fluorophores was studied by deposition of a bilayer. 1-Chlorohexane (1-CH was chosen as the second layer to the fluorophore and the results gave clues to the complexity of the surface dynamics that occur as the surface is heated. For these bilayer systems, a second excimer formed during the TPD subsequent to the desorption of 1-CH, and their rates are given in parenthesis: for 2-MeON, 2-MN, and 2-EN, the long components were 30 (36, 25 (45, and 23 (42 × 106 s−1, respectively.

  19. Improving the competency of dental hygiene students in detecting dental restorations using quantitative light-induced fluorescence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hye-Young; Jung, Hoi-In; Lee, Jeong-Woo; de Jong, Elbert de Josselin; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology in detecting dental restorations by comparing the detection ability of dental hygiene students between using conventional visual inspection alone and visual inspection combined with QLF technology. The subjects of this study comprised 92 dental hygiene students. The students assigned to the control group only used white-light images to visually assess the mouth environment, while those in the experimental group additionally used fluorescence images. Using the test results of an experienced inspector as a reference value, the agreement between the reference value and the evaluation results of the students in the experimental and control groups was evaluated using Cohen's kappa and the percentage agreement. The subjects were then classified into groups covering three percentage ranges according to the score distribution and agreement values of the three groups were compared. The percentage agreement was calculated according to the type of dental restorations. The mean kappa value was significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (0.70 vs 0.60, ptechnology increased by 8% more in the middle and bottom percentage groups than in the top percentage group (ptechnology with conventional visual inspections could improve the ability to detect dental restorations and distinguish sound teeth from aesthetic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Behaviour of atomic oxygen in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge measured by laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ryo [High Temperature Plasma Center, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 227-8568 (Japan); Yamashita, Youta [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Takezawa, Kei [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Oda, Tetsuji [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2005-08-21

    Atomic oxygen is measured in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). The ground-level atomic oxygen is excited to the 3p {sup 3}P state by two-photon absorption at 226 nm. Negative (-40 kV) or positive (+30 kV) pulsed DBD occurs in an O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixture at atmospheric pressure. The pulse width of the DBD current is approximately 50 ns. The TALIF experiment shows that the decay rate of atomic oxygen increases linearly with O{sub 2} concentration. This result proves that atomic oxygen decays mainly by the third-body reaction, O + O{sub 2} + M {yields} O{sub 3} + M. The rate coefficient of the third-body reaction is estimated to be 2.2 x 10{sup -34} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} in the negative DBD and 0.89 x 10{sup -34} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} in the positive DBD. It is shown that the decay rate of atomic oxygen increases linearly with humidity. This can explain the well-known fact that ozone production in DBD is suppressed by increasing humidity.

  1. Detection of laser damage by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchet, P.M.; Campbell, I.H.; Adar, F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that Raman miroscopy is a sensitive and quantitative tool to detect and characterize laser-induced damage in solids. After damage is induced with single or multiple high power laser pulses, a Raman microprobe maps the surface of the sample with one micron spatial resolution. By performing accurate measurements of the Stokes line, the authors have been able to measure stress, strain and crystallinity in various samples which had been exposed to high intensity pulses. These results are compared to those obtained using conventional tools such as Nomarski microscopy. Major advantages of Raman microscopy include sensitivity to subtle structural modifications and the fact that it gives quantitative measurements

  2. In situ detection of the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in tumour cells by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenshuang; Tang, Xiaoling; Li, Yong; Sun, Yang; Kong, Jilie; Qingguang, Ren

    2016-08-01

    The use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer is not yet clear for human clinical applications, which is primarily due to the lack of a better understanding of the action mechanisms and cellular consequences of the direct exposure of cells to these NPs. In this work, the authors have selected zinquin ethyl ester, a Zn(2+)-specific fluorescent molecular probe, to efficiently differentiate ZnO NPs and Zn(2+), and combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to in situ study the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in cancer cell system through detecting the change of Zn(2+) level over time. During the experiments, the authors have designed the test group ZnO-2 in addition to assess the influence of a long-term storage on the characteristics of ZnO NPs in aqueous solution, and the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in cancer cell system. After three-month storage at room temperature, the release process became earlier and faster, which was consistent with previous results of transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and PL spectra. It is a good detection method that combination of Zn(2+)-specific fluorescent molecular probe and CLSM, which will be helpful for ZnO NPs using in clinical research.

  3. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  4. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of sputtered uranium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.B.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy was used to study the sputtering of 99.8% 238 U metal foil when bombarded by normally incident 500 to 3000 eV Ne + , Ar + , Kr + , and O 2 + . A three-level atom model of the LIF processes is developed to interpret the observed fluorescent emission from the sputtered species. The model shows that close attention must be paid to the conditions under which the experiment is carried out as well as to the details of the collision cascade theory of sputtering. Rigorous analysis shows that when properly applied, LIF can be used to investigate the predictions of sputtering theory as regards energy distributions of sputtered particles and for the determination of sputtering yields. The possibility that thermal emission may occur during sputtering can also be tested using the proposed model. It is shown that the velocity distribution (either the number density or flux density distribution, depending upon the experimental conditions) of the sputtered particles can be determined using the LIF technique and that this information can be used to obtain a description of the basic sputtering mechanisms. These matters are discussed using the U-atom fluorescence measurements as a basis. The relative sputtering yields for various incident ions on uranium were also measured for the first time using the LIF technique. A surprisingly high fraction of the sputtered uranium atoms were found to occupy the low lying metastable energy levels of U(I). The population of the sputtered metastable atoms were found approximately to obey a Boltzman distribution with an effective temperature of 920 +- 100 0 K. 41 references

  5. Electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucelio, R.Q.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    A dye laser pumped by a high-repetition-rate copper vapor laser was used as the excitation source to determine indium at parts-per-trillion level by electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ETA-LEAFS). A comparison was made between wall atomization, in pyrolytic and nonpyrolytic graphite tubes, and platform atomization. The influence of several chemical modifiers either in solution or precoated in the graphite tube was evaluated. The influence of several acids and NaOH in the analyte solution was also studied. Optimization of the analytical conditions was carried out to achieve the best signal-to-background ratio and consequently an absolute limit of detection of 1 fg. Some possible interferents of the method were evaluated. The method was evaluated by determining indium in blood, urine, soil, and urban dust samples. Recoveries between 99.17 and 109.17% are reported. A precision of 4.1% at the 10 ng g -1 level in water standards was achieved. copyright 1998 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  6. On the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, C.

    2003-01-01

    Time-resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used for speciation studies. While the former has been used for long time, the latter is rather new in the field of speciation. These two techniques have different advantages such as sensitivity (especially for TRLIF), selectivity and multielement capabilities (in case of ES-MS). Examples obtained from studies carried out within the CEA are presented. Concerning TRLIF, emphasis is put on uranyl ion speciation in nitric acid to phosphoric acid going through hydroxo complexes. Concerning ES-MS, humic substances identification as well as speciation of cesium, zirconium, thorium and uranyl ions in various complexing media are presented. Comparisons of TRLIF and ES-MS results are made in the case of uranyl hydroxo complexes and favourably compared with OECD data. Trends for these two techniques are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Effective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) detection using double pulse at optimum configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jin; Yoh, Jack J

    2011-08-01

    A short laser pulse is irradiated on a sample to create a highly energetic plasma that emits light of a specific peak wavelength according to the material. By identifying different peaks for the analyzed samples, their chemical composition can be rapidly determined. The characteristics of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma are strongly dependent on the ambient conditions. Research aimed at enhancing LIBS intensity is of great benefit in advancing LIBS for the exploration of harsh environments. By using double-pulse LIBS, the signal intensity of Al and Ca lines was enhanced by five times compared to the single-pulse signal. Also, the angles of the target and detector are adjusted to simulate samples of arbitrary shape. We verified that there exists an optimal angle at which specific elements of a test sample may be detected with stronger signal intensity. We provide several optimum configurations for the LIBS system for maximizing the signal intensity for the analysis of a nonstandard aluminum sample.

  8. Imaging time-resolved electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry for determination of mercury in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Alain; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Deschamps, Laure; Giamarchi, Philippe

    2011-06-15

    In this study, direct determination of mercury at the nanogram per liter level in the complex seawater matrix by imaging time-resolved electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ITR-ETA-LEAFS) is described. In the case of mercury, the use of a nonresonant line for fluorescence detection with only one laser excitation is not possible. For measurements at the 253.652 nm resonant line, scattering phenomena have been minimized by eliminating the simultaneous vaporization of salts and by using temporal resolution and the imaging mode of the camera. Electrothermal conditions (0.1 M oxalic acid as matrix modifier, low atomization temperature) have been optimized in order to suppress chemical interferences and to obtain a good separation of specific signal and seawater background signal. For ETA-LEAFS, a specific response has been obtained for Hg with the use of time resolution. Moreover, an important improvement of the detection limit has been obtained by selecting, from the furnace image, pixels collecting the lowest number of scattered photons. Using optimal experimental conditions, a detection limit of 10 ng L(-1) for 10 μL of sample, close to the lowest concentration level of total Hg in the open ocean, has been obtained.

  9. Detection sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Cr II in liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Nilesh K.; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Kumar, Akshaya; Thakur, Surya N.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been evaluated for detection of toxic metals such as Cr in water. Pure aqueous solutions (unitary matrix) with variable Cr concentration were used to construct calibration curves and to estimate the LIBS limit of detection (LOD). The calibration curves for Cr in a binary matrix (Cr plus Cd) and a tertiary matrix (Cr plus Cd and Co) were used to evaluate the matrix effect on the LOD. The LOD for Cr was found to be 1.1, 1.5, and 2.0 ppm (parts in 10 6 ) in a unitary, binary, and tertiary matrix, respectively. Once calibrated, the system was utilized for the detection and quantification of the Cr in tannery wastewater collected from different locations in the industrial area of Kanpur, India, where Cr concentrations were determined to be far higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit of 0.05 ppm

  10. Photoacoustic-fluorescence in vitro flow cytometry for quantification of absorption, scattering and fluorescence properties of the cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedosekin, D. A.; Sarimollaoglu, M.; Foster, S.; Galanzha, E. I.; Zharov, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry is a well-established analytical tool that provides quantification of multiple biological parameters of cells at molecular levels, including their functional states, morphology, composition, proliferation, and protein expression. However, only the fluorescence and scattering parameters of the cells or labels are available for detection. Cell pigmentation, presence of non-fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles cannot be reliably quantified. Herewith, we present a novel photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry design for simple integration of absorbance measurements into schematics of conventional in vitro flow cytometers. The integrated system allow simultaneous measurements of light absorbance, scattering and of multicolor fluorescence from single cells in the flow at rates up to 2 m/s. We compared various combinations of excitation laser sources for multicolor detection, including simultaneous excitation of PA and fluorescence using a single 500 kHz pulsed nanosecond laser. Multichannel detection scheme allows simultaneous detection of up to 8 labels, including 4 fluorescent tags and 4 PA colors. In vitro PA-fluorescence flow cytometer was used for studies of nanoparticles uptake and for the analysis of cell line pigmentation, including genetically encoded melanin expression in breast cancer cell line. We demonstrate that this system can be used for direct nanotoxicity studies with simultaneous quantification of nanoparticles content and assessment of cell viability using a conventional fluorescent apoptosis assays.

  11. Emission spectrum and relaxation kinetics of SO2 induced by 266 nm laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyin; Zhang, Lianshui; Jin, Yidong

    2010-09-15

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission spectrum of SO(2) in the range of 270.0-470.0 nm has been obtained with the quadruple harmonic output (266 nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as excitation source. The spectrum is composed of a continuous envelope in the short wavelength side, while it shows the character of banded structure superimposed on a continuous one in the long wavelength region. Fluorescence emission from the hybrid states of A(1)A(2)+B(1)B(1) and X(1)A(1)+B(1)B(1) forms the continuous envelope and phosphorescence emission from the triplet state a(3)B(1) forms the banded progression. It is also found that direct emission from laser excited states is very weak. The primary portion of the emission is from the energy levels populated by collision relaxation or collision induced intersystem crossing process. The harmonic frequencies and inharmonic coefficients of the symmetric stretching vibration and the bending vibration of X(1)A(1) state are derived from the ascription of the phosphorescence progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of an inlet pre-injector laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, A.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Kubistin, D.; Regelin, E.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Martinez, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric measurements of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are challenging due to a high reactivity and consequently low concentration. The importance of OH as an atmospheric oxidant has motivated a sustained effort leading to the development of a number of highly sensitive analytical techniques. Recent work has indicated that the laser-induced fluorescence of the OH molecules method based on the fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (LIF-FAGE) for the measurement of atmospheric OH in some environments may be influenced by artificial OH generated within the instrument, and a chemical method to remove this interference was implemented in a LIF-FAGE system by Mao et al. (2012). While it is not clear whether other LIF-FAGE instruments suffer from the same interference, we have applied this method to our LIF-FAGE HORUS (Hydroxyl Radical Measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy) system, and developed and deployed an inlet pre-injector (IPI) to determine the chemical zero level in the instrument via scavenging the ambient OH radical. We describe and characterise this technique in addition to its application at field sites in forested locations in Finland, Spain and Germany. Ambient measurements show that OH generated within the HORUS instrument is a non-negligible fraction of the total OH signal, which can comprise 30 to 80% during daytime and 60 to 100% during the night. The contribution of the background OH varied greatly between measurement sites and was likely related to the type and concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at each particular location. Two inter-comparisons in contrasting environments between the HORUS instrument and two different chemical ionisation mass spectrometers (CIMS) are described to demonstrate the efficacy of IPI and the necessity of the chemical zeroing method for our LIF-FAGE instrument in such environments.

  13. Make Caffeine Visible: a Fluorescent Caffeine “Traffic Light” Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Zhai, Duanting; Er, Jun Cheng; Zhang, Liyun; Kale, Anup Atul; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding contribute to their interactions while dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate the change of Caffeine Orange ambient environment induces its fluorescence emission. To utilize this probe in real life, we developed a non-toxic caffeine detection kit and tested it for caffeine quantification in various beverages. Naked-eye sensing of various caffeine concentrations was possible based on color changes upon irradiation with a laser pointer. Lastly, we performed the whole system on a microfluidic device to make caffeine detection quick, sensitive and automated.

  14. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection.

  15. Development of an electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry procedure for direct measurements of arsenic in d