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  1. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.

    2001-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole

  2. Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using

  3. Crystalline Bedrock Geology, Faulting, and Crustal Architecture in the Larse Region of the Transverse Ranges, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Spanning the Transverse Ranges (TR) between the northern Los Angeles Basin and the western Mojave Desert (MD), the LARSE lines transect several distinct crystalline blocks: western Transverse Ranges (WTR), San Gabriel Mts-Soledad Basin (SGM), Sierra Pelona (SP), and Liebre Mtn. Juxtaposition of disparate blocks evolved during late Cenozoic (Cz) plate-margin reorganization of early Miocene and older paleogeologic and paleotectonic patterns. Crystalline basement rocks, ranging in age from Proterozoic to mid-Cz, constrain tectonic and near-surface crustal evolution of the region in various ways: (1) by their spatial distribution, (2) by basement-derived clast-types in Cz deposits, and (3) by the age and distribution of weathered zones developed on exhumed basement. Reassembly of paleogeologic patterns in the crystalline terrane of S California provides measurements of overall displacement on strike-slip faults of the San Andreas system. In the LARSE region, right-lateral displacements are demonstrable for the San Gabriel fault (SGF) in the SGM (22-23 km), the Vasquez Creek fault (5-15 km), and the SGF NW of the SGM (42-43 km). Displacement on the San Andreas fault NW of the TR (295 km) is partitioned onto the San Andreas-San Francisquito-Fenner-Clemens Well fault (100 km) and the SGF in the TR, and the post-5 Ma San Andreas fault in and south of the TR (ranging from 160 km along the MD-TR segment to 180 km along the Salton Trough segment). Left-lateral displacement has been demonstrated for the Santa Monica-Raymond fault (11-15 km), the Santa Ynez fault (0 km at its E end to as much as 37 km), and the Garlock fault (48-64 km along its central reach and perhaps as little as 12 km along its western reach). The Vasquez Creek and Santa Monica-Raymond faults are conjugate. Pre-Late Miocene extensional deformation is associated with exhumation of the Pelona Schist in SP and the Chocolate Mts and with ENE-trending left-separation faults in SGM. Reverse displacements are

  4. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  5. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Jordan, C.; Dickey, John M.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  6. Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande, José R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae, and Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae are described and illustrated from the summit areas of Sierra de Maigualida in the Gua - yana Highlands of southern Venezuela. To date, one genus, 32 spe cies, one subspecies, and one variety of angiosperms are known only from the Maigualida meadows and shrublands, between 1800 m and the highest elevation areas at 2400 m. Here we describe the first iteroparous species for the genus Sohnreyia K. Krause, a Turnera L. species with apically villose, apiculate petals, and a Siphocampylus Pohl species with aculeiform hairs and pinnatisect leaves. The new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus, together with S. Tillettii Steyerm., represents a morphologically distinct subgroup within the genus.

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas procedentes de las cumbres de la Sierra de Maigualida: Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae y Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae. Hasta ahora un género, 32 especies, una subespecie y una variedad de angiospermas se conocen exclusivamente de la Sierra de Maigualida, y todas ellas proceden de herbazales y arbustales desarrollados entre los 1800 m y las áreas más altas, a 2400 m. Aquí, se describen por primera vez una especie iterópara del género Sohnreyia K. Krause (Rutaceae, una especie de Turnera L. con pétalos apiculados apicalmente vilosos y una especie de Siphocampylus Pohl con pelos aculeiformes y hojas pinnatisectas. La nueva especie Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus representa

  7. Musci austro-africani II. Bryophyte collections in southern Africa and southern African type specimens in the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Magill

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of bryological collections and collectors in southern Africa introduces a catalogue of southern African type specimens housed in the National Herbarium, Pretoria. The type catalogue, arranged alphabetically by basionym, includes correct names, type status and label data.

  8. A COMPLETE ATLAS OF H I ABSORPTION TOWARD H II REGIONS IN THE SOUTHERN GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY (SGPS I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, J. M.; Dawson, J. R. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We present a complete catalog of H I emission and absorption spectrum pairs, toward H II regions, detectable within the boundaries of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS I), a total of 252 regions. The catalog is presented in graphical, numerical, and summary formats. We demonstrate an application of this new data set through an investigation of the locus of the Near 3 kpc Arm.

  9. Comparative pathogenicity in Swiss mice of Trypanosoma cruzi IV from northern Brazil and Trypanosoma cruzi II from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Sheila Karina Lüders; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Gabriel, Maristela; de Araújo, Silvana Marques; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas

    2014-11-01

    The geographical heterogeneity of Chagas disease (ChD) is mainly caused by genetic variability of the etiological agent Trypanosoma cruzi. Our hypothesis was that the pathogenicity for mice may vary with the genetic lineage (or Discrete Typing Unit - DTU) of the parasite. To test this hypothesis, parasitological and histopathological evaluations were performed in mice inoculated with strains belonging to the DTU T. cruzi IV (TcIV) from the State of Amazonas (northern Brazil), or the DTU T. cruzi II (TcII) from the State of Paraná (southern Brazil). Groups of 10 Swiss mice were inoculated with eight strains of TcIV obtained from acute cases (7) from two outbreaks of orally acquired ChD, and from the triatomine Rhodnius robustus (1) from Amazonas; and three strains of TcII obtained from chronic patients in Paraná. We evaluated the pre-patent period, patent period, maximum peak of parasitemia, day of maximum peak of parasitemia, area under the parasitemia curve, inflammatory process, and tissue parasitism in the acute phase. TcIV was less virulent than TcII, and showed significantly (p < 0.005) lower parasitemia levels. Although the levels of tissue parasitism did not differ statistically, mice infected with TcIV displayed significantly (p < 0.001) fewer inflammatory processes than mice infected with TcII. This supported the working hypothesis, since TcIV from Amazonas was less pathogenic than TcII from Paraná; and agreed with the lower severity of human cases of ChD in the Amazon region.

  10. The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II. Catalog of Variable Stars. I. Characterization of Three Southern Target Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Chini, R; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Kirste, S; Lemke, R; Murphy, M; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R

    2013-01-01

    A photometric survey of three Southern target fields with BEST II yielded the detection of 2,406 previously unknown variable stars and an additional 617 stars with suspected variability. This study presents a catalog including their coordinates, magnitudes, light curves, ephemerides, amplitudes, and type of variability. In addition, the variability of 17 known objects is confirmed, thus validating the results. The catalog contains a number of known and new variables that are of interest for further astrophysical investigations, in order to, e.g., search for additional bodies in eclipsing binary systems, or to test stellar interior models. Altogether, 209,070 stars were monitored with BEST II during a total of 128 nights in 2009/2010. The overall variability fraction of 1.2-1.5% in these target fields is well comparable to similar ground-based photometric surveys. Within the main magnitude range of $R\\in\\left[11,17\\right]$, we identify 0.67(3)% of all stars to be eclipsing binaries, which indicates a completen...

  11. THE BERLIN EXOPLANET SEARCH TELESCOPE II CATALOG OF VARIABLE STARS. I. CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE SOUTHERN TARGET FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kabath, P.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R. [Institut für Planetenforschung, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Chini, R.; Lemke, R. [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Murphy, M., E-mail: thomas.fruth@dlr.de [Departamento de Física, Universidad Católica del Norte, P.O. 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2013-11-01

    A photometric survey of three southern target fields with BEST II yielded the detection of 2406 previously unknown variable stars and an additional 617 stars with suspected variability. This study presents a catalog including their coordinates, magnitudes, light curves, ephemerides, amplitudes, and type of variability. In addition, the variability of 17 known objects is confirmed, thus validating the results. The catalog contains a number of known and new variables that are of interest for further astrophysical investigations, in order to, e.g., search for additional bodies in eclipsing binary systems, or to test stellar interior models. Altogether, 209,070 stars were monitored with BEST II during a total of 128 nights in 2009/2010. The overall variability fraction of 1.2%-1.5% in these target fields is well comparable to similar ground-based photometric surveys. Within the main magnitude range of R in [11, 17], we identify 0.67(3)% of all stars to be eclipsing binaries, which indicates a completeness of about one third for this particular type in comparison to space surveys.

  12. 2MTF II. New Parkes 21-cm observations of 303 southern galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Tao; Masters, Karen L; Springob, Christopher M; Macri, Lucas M; Koribalski, Barbel S; Jones, D Heath; Jarrett, Tom H; Crook, Aidan C

    2013-01-01

    We present new 21-cm neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of spiral galaxies for the 2MASS Tully Fisher (2MTF) survey. Using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope multibeam system we obtain 152 high signal-to-noise HI spectra from which we extract 148 high-accuracy (< 5% error) velocity widths and derive reliable rotation velocities. The observed sample consists of 303 southern (\\delta < -40\\deg) galaxies selected from the MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) with K_s <11.25 mag, cz < 10,000 km/s and axis ratio b/a < 0.5. The HI observations reported in this paper will be combined with new HI spectra from the Green Bank and Arecibo telescopes, together producing the most uniform Tully-Fisher survey ever constructed (in terms of sky coverage). In particular, due to its near infrared selection, 2MTF will be significantly more complete at low Galactic latitude (|b|<15\\deg) and will provide a more reliable map of peculiar velocities in the local universe.

  13. Absolute parameters of eclipsing binaries in Southern Hemisphere sky - II: QY Tel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, A.; Sürgit, D.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; van Heerden, H. P.; Manick, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the neglected southern eclipsing binary star, QY Tel. Spectroscopic observations were carried out at the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013. New radial velocity curves from this study and V light curves from the All Sky Automated Survey were solved simultaneously using modern light and radial velocity curve synthesis methods. The final model describes QY Tel as a detached binary star where both component stars fill at least half of their Roche limiting lobes. The masses and radii were found to be 1.32 (± 0.06) M⊙, 1.74 (± 0.15) R⊙ and 1.44 (± 0.09) M⊙, 2.70 (± 0.16) R⊙ for the primary and secondary components of the system, respectively. The distance to QY Tel was calculated as 365 (± 40) pc, taking into account interstellar extinction. The evolution case of QY Tel is also examined. Both components of the system are evolved main-sequence stars with an age of approximately 3.2 Gy, when compared to Geneva theoretical evolution models.

  14. Photoprotection and recovery of photosystem II in the Southern Ocean phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tomoyo; Makabe, Ryosuke; Sampei, Makoto; Hattori, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    The future shoaling of surface mixed layer depth due to global warming will expose natural assemblages of phytoplankton to increased mean light. Under these conditions, photoprotective acclimation against high light can determine ecological success. We investigated photoprotective responses to sunlight and recovery from photodamage of photosystem II (PSII) in natural assemblages north and south of the Polar Front (PF). The decrease in the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of PSII during direct sunlight exposure for 2 h was moderated progressively by the enhancement of diatoxanthin synthesis. When the light-exposed cells were incubated under three reduced light conditions, Fv/Fm recovered to more than the initial values north of the PF but did not reach initial values south of the PF. Temperatures higher in the north than the south of the PF could have induced the faster recovery from photodamage of PSII in assemblages north of the PF. These northern assemblages may be able to acclimate to fast-changing light conditions.

  15. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  16. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    Recent mesoscale iron fertilization studies in the Southern Ocean (e.g. SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX) have demonstrated the importance of iron as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in these high nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Results of these experiments have demonstrated that factors which influence the biological availability of the iron supplied to phytoplankton are crucial in bloom development, longevity, and generation of carbon export flux. These findings have important implications for the future development of iron fertilization protocols to enhance carbon sequestration in high-latitude oceans. In particular, processes which lead to the mobilization and retention of iron in dissolved form in the upper ocean are important in promoting continued biological availability of iron. Such processes can include photochemical redox cycling, which leads to the formation of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), within iron-enriched waters. Creation of effective fertilization schemes will thus require more information about Fe(II) photoproduction in Southern Ocean waters as a means to retain new iron within the euphotic zone. To contribute to our knowledge base in this area, this project was funded by DOE with a goal of characterizing the production and retention of dissolved Fe as Fe(II) in an area of the southern Drake Passage near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge, a region with a strong recurrent chlorophyll gradient which is believed to be a site of natural iron enrichment in the Southern Ocean. This area was the focus of a multidisciplinary NSF/OPP-funded investigation in February 2004 (OPP02-30443, lead PI Greg Mitchell, SIO/UCSD) to determine the influence of mesoscale circulation and iron transport with regard to the observed patterns in sea surface chlorophyll in the region near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge. A number of parameters were assessed across this gradient in order to reveal interactions between plankton community structure and iron distributions

  17. An Assessment of Southern Ocean Water Masses and Sea Ice During 1988-2007 in a Suite of Interannual CORE-II Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephanie M.; Farneti, Riccardo; Uotila, Petteri; Griffies, Stephen M.; Marsland, Simon J.; Bailey, David; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Howard, Armando; Kelley, Maxwell; Leboissetier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We characterise the representation of the Southern Ocean water mass structure and sea ice within a suite of 15 global ocean-ice models run with the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) protocol. The main focus is the representation of the present (1988-2007) mode and intermediate waters, thus framing an analysis of winter and summer mixed layer depths; temperature, salinity, and potential vorticity structure; and temporal variability of sea ice distributions. We also consider the interannual variability over the same 20 year period. Comparisons are made between models as well as to observation-based analyses where available. The CORE-II models exhibit several biases relative to Southern Ocean observations, including an underestimation of the model mean mixed layer depths of mode and intermediate water masses in March (associated with greater ocean surface heat gain), and an overestimation in September (associated with greater high latitude ocean heat loss and a more northward winter sea-ice extent). In addition, the models have cold and fresh/warm and salty water column biases centred near 50 deg S. Over the 1988-2007 period, the CORE-II models consistently simulate spatially variable trends in sea-ice concentration, surface freshwater fluxes, mixed layer depths, and 200-700 m ocean heat content. In particular, sea-ice coverage around most of the Antarctic continental shelf is reduced, leading to a cooling and freshening of the near surface waters. The shoaling of the mixed layer is associated with increased surface buoyancy gain, except in the Pacific where sea ice is also influential. The models are in disagreement, despite the common CORE-II atmospheric state, in their spatial pattern of the 20-year trends in the mixed layer depth and sea-ice.

  18. Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Mario N.; Solman, Silvina A. [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA-CONICET/UBA) DCAO (FCEyN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Piso 2, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabre, Maria Fernanda [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA-CONICET/UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Piso 2, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-06-15

    We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090. There are a few quantitative differences between the two regional scenarios. The simulated changes are larger for the A2 than the B2 scenario, although with few qualitative differences. For the two regional scenarios, the warming in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and northeastern Argentina is particularly large in spring. Over the western coast of South America both scenarios project a general decrease in precipitation. Both the A2 and B2 simulations show a general increase in precipitation in northern and central Argentina especially in summer and fall and a general decrease in precipitation in winter and spring. In fall the simulations agree on a general decrease in precipitation in southern Brazil. This reflects changes in the atmospheric circulation during winter and spring. Changes in mean sea level pressure show a cell of increasing pressure centered somewhere in the southern Atlantic Ocean and southern Pacific Ocean, mainly during summer and fall in the Atlantic and in spring in the Pacific. In relation to the pressure distribution in the control run, this indicates a southward extension of the summer mean Atlantic and Pacific subtropical highs. (orig.)

  19. Diversity and abundance of deep-sea Isopoda along the Southern Polar Front: Results from the SYSTCO I and II expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Brandt, A.; Brix, S.

    2014-10-01

    For the investigation of the diversity and composition of deep-sea Isopoda in the Polar Front of the Southern Ocean two expeditions were performed, ANtartic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity: colonization history and recent community patterns-SYSTem COupling (ANDEEP-SYSTCO I, 2007/2008) and SYSTCO II (2012). Samples were taken in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Polar Front (52°S) within a depth range between 2752 and 4327 m using an epibenthic sledge. From nine stations, located in four different geographic areas, a total of 107 species from 476 specimens were identified, 99% belonged to the suborder Asellota. Haploniscidae was the most dominant family in terms of abundance, followed by Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae. However, Munnopsidae were the most diverse followed by Desmosomatidae and Haploniscidae. The majority of species (53%) did not occur frequently indicating a patchy distribution; only one species, Haploniscus spinifer Hansen, 1916, was found at almost all stations comprising more than 10% of all sampled specimens. Isopod abundance was generally low in the Polar Front compared to other regions of the Southern Ocean, like the Weddell Sea. Diversity strongly varied between stations even within the same sampling area, it was highest around a depth of 3000 m with 48 species found at station 13-16 at 0°E. Surface chl a concentration, received from satellite images as a measure for food supply, was compared with isopod abundance and diversity, however, no clear pattern could be observed. Analysis of the species composition of Isopoda revealed in general terms that deep-sea stations within the same depth range build one cluster. Also the sampling year, the geographic area or salinity turned out to be possible factors affecting species composition. The deep-sea area along the Southern Polar Front is characterized by low numbers of specimens but shelters a relatively high level of isopod diversity with species also known from other regions of the Atlantic.

  20. Effect of pectin on adsorption of Cu(II) by two variable-charge soils from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru-hai; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yuan-chun; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-12-01

    The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II). The effect of pectin decreased with rising pH in the pH range 3.5-6.0, although the extent of electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) by both soils was markedly greater over the pH range. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement of soil colloids indicated that adsorption of pectin by the soils made the negative charge on both soils more negative, which was responsible for the increase in the electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) induced by the addition of pectin. In conclusion, pectin-enhanced adsorption of Cu(II) especially at low pH would be beneficial to the soils as it would decrease the activity and mobility of Cu(II) in acidic variable-charge soils.

  1. Simultaneous patch testing with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and their ingredients in southern Sweden between 2009 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2017-07-07

    Fragrance mix I (FM I) and fragrance mix II (FM II) are included in the European baseline series as screening substances for fragrance contact allergy. To investigate the frequency of allergic reactions to FM I, FM II and their ingredients in consecutively patch tested patients. A retrospective analysis of data from 4430 patients patch tested between 2009 and 2015 was performed. Of the patients, 6.5% were FM I-positive and 3.2% were FM II-positive. Forty-five per cent of FM I-positive patients did not have positive reactions to FM I ingredients. Thirty-five per cent of those who were FM II-positive did not have positive reactions to FM II ingredients. Twenty-seven per cent of those with positive reactions to one or more of the FM I ingredients were FM I-negative, and 36% of those who had positive reactions to one or more of the FM II ingredients were FM II-negative. The allergens with the highest pick-up rates were Evernia prunastri (1.8%), cinnamal (1.3%), citral (1.2%), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (1.2%). Significant differences were observed in the proportions of positive reactions to FM I, FM II, eugenol, isoeugenol, and farnesol when results from patch testing with materials from different suppliers were compared. There is a risk of missing fragrance contact allergy when testing with only the fragrance mixes is performed. The use of preparations from different suppliers may affect the patch test results. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II) V. Exploring a local underdensity in the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Boehringer, Hans; Bristow, Martyn; Collins, Chris A

    2014-01-01

    Several claims have been made that we are located in a locally underdense region of the Universe based on observations of supernovae and galaxy density distributions. Two recent studies of K-band galaxy surveys have provided new support for a local underdensity in the galaxy distribution out to distances of 200 - 300 Mpc. If confirmed, such large local underdensities would have important implications on the interpretation of local measurements of cosmological parameters. Galaxy clusters have been shown to be ideal probes to trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. In this paper we study the local density distribution in the southern sky with the X-ray detected galaxy clusters from the REFLEX II cluster survey. From the normalized comoving number density of clusters we find an average underdensity of ~30 - 40% in the redshift range out to z ~0.04 (~170 Mpc) in the southern extragalactic sky with a significance larger than 3.4sigma. On larger scales from 300 Mpc to over 1 Gpc the density distribution ap...

  3. Australian Assassins, Part II: A review of the new assassin spider genus Zephyrarchaea (Araneae, Archaeidae) from southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae from southern Australia are revised, with a new genus (Zephyrarchaea gen. n.) and nine new species described from temperate, mesic habitats in southern Victoria, South Australia and south-western Western Australia: Zephyrarchaea austini sp. n., Zephyrarchaea barrettae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea grayi sp. n., Zephyrarchaea janineae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea marae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea marki sp. n., Zephyrarchaea melindae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea porchi sp. n. and Zephyrarchaea vichickmani sp. n. Specimens of the type species, Zephyrarchaea mainae (Platnick, 1991), comb. n., are redescribed from the Albany region of Western Australia, along with the holotype female of Zephyrarchaea robinsi (Harvey, 2002) comb. n. from the Stirling Range National Park. The previously described species Archaea hickmani Butler, 1929 from Victoria is here recognised as a nomen dubium. A key to species and multi-locus molecular phylogeny complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22639534

  4. Nitrogen fixation in the Southern Ocean: a case of study of the Fe-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS II cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N2 fixation rates were measured during the KEOPS2 cruise in the HNLC area of Southern Ocean and in naturally iron-fertilized waters (Kerguelen Island 49.25° S, 69.58° E using the 15N isotopic technique. We detected N2 fixation within the mixed layer at all stations, from the surface to 140 m depth. The data shows high variability with rates ranging between 0.42 and 20.11 nmol N L−1 d−1. The highest rates were concentrated in the euphotic layer and maximum values were obtained north of polar front (station F-L, which coincide with a positive N* ([NO3]–16[PO4], high chlorophyll concentration and dissolved iron. N2 fixation rates were also obtained in stations with moderate (A3-2; E-4W and also low (R-2 iron levels as well as Chl a, suggesting that beside the microbial biomass, its composition/structure is a driving factor controlling N2 fixation activities. Molecular analysis showed a diazotrophic community dominated by heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Size fractioned experiments indicated that most of N2 fixating activities came from 2 fixation is occurring in the Southern Ocean, at rates exceeding previous reports for high latitudes. Our findings suggest an indirect role of dFe in the regulation of N2 fixation through the enhancement of regenerated primary production and the availability of phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter, which in turn may stimulate heterotrophic bacterioplankton.

  5. Fluxes in H\\alpha and Ca II H and K for a sample of Southern stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cincunegui, C; Mauas, P J D; Cincunegui, Carolina; D\\'iaz, Rodrigo F.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The main chromospheric activity indicator is the S index, which is esentially the ratio of the flux in the core of the Ca II H and K lines to the continuum nearby, and is well studied basically for stars from F to K. Another usual chromospheric proxy is the H\\alpha line, which is beleived to be tightly correlated with the Ca II index. In this work we characterize both chromospheric activity indicators, one associated with the H and K Ca II lines and the other with H\\alpha, for the whole range of late type stars, from F to M. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We use a total of 917 flux-calibrated spectra for 109 stars which range from F6 to M5. We statistically study these two indicators for stars of different activity levels and spectral types. We directly derive the conversion factor which translate the known S index to flux in the Ca II core...

  6. Thermal usage of drainage water at the southern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the southern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for a tropical greenhouse, fish breeding, a wellness-spa, district heating, and individual heat-pumps as well as for heating the Alp Transit visitor centre. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions to be obtained in fossil fuel use. The high sensitivity of the energy price with respect to electricity prices and the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  7. Polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea II: Demography and population growth in relation to sea ice conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M.; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This is a demographic analysis of the southern Beaufort (SB) polar bear population. The analysis uses a female-dominant stage-classified matrix population model in which individuals are classified by age and breeding status. Parameters were estimated from capture-recapture data collected between 2001 and 2006. We focused on measures of long-term population growth rate and on projections of population size over the next 100 years. We obtained these results from both deterministic and stochastic demographic models. Demographic results were related to a measure of sea ice condition, ice(t), defined as the number of ice-free days, in year t, in the region of preferred polar bear habitat. Larger values of ice correspond to lower availability of sea ice and longer ice-free periods. Uncertainty in results was quantified using a parametric bootstrap approach that includes both sampling uncertainty and model selection uncertainty.

  8. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    detailed images we need for earthquake hazard assessment. Air gun bursts, generated in the Salton Sea along extensions of our onshore seismic lines, also were utilized as sound-wave sources. Temporary deployments of portable land seismometers, as well as ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) on the floor of the Salton Sea, recorded the energy from the land shots and air gun bursts. SSIP is similar to the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiments of 1994 and 1999 (LARSE I and II, respectively; Murphy and others, 1996; Fuis and others, 2001). The LARSE surveys demonstrated that the USGS and collaborators can safely and effectively conduct seismic imaging surveys in urban and nonurban areas, on lands owned and/or managed by many different types of agencies and entities. Information was produced that could not have been obtained any other way, and this information was key to changing the leading ideas about earthquake hazards at that time in the Los Angeles region. These surveys produced no significant environmental impact or damage to structures, and they did not trigger earthquakes.

  9. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  10. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marites B. Sanguila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.

  11. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguila, Marites B.; Cobb, Kerry A.; Siler, Cameron D.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Brown, Rafe M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region) appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species) of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion. PMID:27833422

  12. Crustal structure and tectonics from the Los Angeles basin to the Mojave Desert, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Ryberg, T.; Godfrey, N. J.; Okaya, D. A.; Murphy, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic refraction and low-fold reflection survey, known as the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), was conducted along a transect (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. The chief result of this survey is an interpreted cross section that addresses a number of questions regarding the crustal structure and tectonics of southern California that have been debated for decades and have important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. The results (or constraints) are as follows. (1) The maximum depth of the Los Angeles basin along line 1 is 8 9 km. (2) The deep structure of the Sierra Madre fault zone in the northern San Gabriel Valley is as follows. The Duarte branch of the Sierra Madre fault zone forms a buried, 2.5-km-high, moderately north dipping buttress between the sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the San Gabriel Valley and the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. (For deeper structure, see following.) (3) There are active crustal décollements in southern California. At middle-crustal depths, the Sierra Madre fault zone appears to sole into a master décollement that terminates northward at the San Andreas fault and projects southward beneath the San Gabriel Valley to the Puente Hills blind thrust fault. (4) The dip and depth extent of the San Andreas fault along line 1 dips steeply (˜83°) northward and extends to at least the Moho. (5) The subsurface lateral extent of the Pelona Schist in southern California is as follows. Along line 1, the Pelona Schist underlies much, if not all of the San Gabriel Mountains south of the San Andreas fault to middle-crustal depths. North of the San Andreas fault, it is apparently not present along the transect.

  13. Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation frequency and antithrombin activity levels in 120 of deep venous thrombosis and 150 of cerebral infarction patients in a single center in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-sen; Tang, Yang-ming; Tang, Mei-qing; Qing, Zi-Ju; Shu, Chang; Tang, Xiang-qi; Deng, Ming-yang; Tan, Li-ming

    2010-09-01

    Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation shows a relatively high frequency in western population. Some studies suggest that the mutation is an independent genetic risk factor both for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for arterial thrombosis, but whether the mutation has racial difference or has a general significance for thrombophilia remains unclear. In this study we performed an analysis of the prevalence of the mutation in Chinese southern population; Also, the antithrombin activity levels were evaluated in each investigated individual. The studies included 120 patients with DVT, 150 patients with cerebral infarction, and 110 controls. The mutation was detected using polymerase chain reaction/PvuII restrictive fragment length polymorphism procedures. Antithrombin activity assay was done using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that no antithrombin Cambridge II mutation was detected in all three groups (DVT, cerebral infarction and controls), the incidence was 0/380. Plasma antithrombin activity was 91.37% +/- 16.15% in the DVT patients and 102.68% +/- 13.10% in the controls; the antithrombin activity was significantly reduced in the DVT group (P Cambridge II mutation has a racial difference, and may not be a valuable risk factor of thrombophilia in Asian population, and antithrombin deficiency remains a major genetic risk factor for DVT patients in China.

  14. Influence of urban runoff, inappropriate waste disposal practices and World War II on the heavy metal status of sediments in the southern half of Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, CNMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Gary R W; Emborski, Carmen A; Habana, Nathan C; Starmer, John A

    2014-04-15

    Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed.

  15. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  16. Use of heat from the drainage water at the southern end of the Gotthard low-level rail tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the possibilities of using the drainage water at the southern end of the Gotthard low-level railway tunnel in Switzerland as a source of heat for several possible projects. The drainage water, estimated at 80 - 460 litres per second at a temperature of 30 - 35 {sup o}C, could possibly be used for heating greenhouses, providing a combined tropical greenhouse and fish farm, heating a wellness-spa, or for district heating or the heating of particular buildings. The thermal use of the water and its further use as drinking water is also considered. Figures on energy yields and costs are presented and estimates of the savings in fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions are quoted.

  17. A catalogue of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. - II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l = 289deg - 338deg)

    CERN Document Server

    Woudt, P A; Woudt, Patrick A.; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C.

    2001-01-01

    In this second paper of the catalogue series of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we report on the deep optical galaxy search in the Crux region (289deg = 0.2 arcmin were identified in this ~850 square degree area: 3759 galaxies in the Crux region and 4423 galaxies in the Great Attractor region. Of the 8182 galaxies, 229 (2.8%) were catalogued before in the optical (3 in radio) and 251 galaxies have a reliable (159), or likely (92) cross-identification in the IRAS Point Source Catalogue (3.1%). A number of prominent overdensities and filaments of galaxies are identified. They are not correlated with the Galactic foreground extinction and hence indicative of extragalactic large-scale structures. Redshifts obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for 518 of the newly catalogued galaxies in the Crux and Great Attractor regions (Fairall et al. 1998; Woudt et al. 1999) confirm distinct voids and clusters in the area here surveyed. With this optical galaxy search, we have reduced the widt...

  18. Probing the Physics of Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies II: The Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; James, Bethan; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the \\emph{Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey} (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) mounted on the ANU 2.3m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of $38\\times25$~ arcsec at a spectral resolution of $R=7000$ in the red ($530-710$nm), and $R=3000$ in the blue ($340-560$nm). {From these data cubes we have extracted the Narrow Line Region (NLR) spectra from a 4 arc sec aperture centred on the nucleus. We also determine the H$\\beta$ and [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the H$\\beta$ and \\lOIII\\ luminosities {determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed.} We present a set of images of the galaxies in [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007, [NII]~$\\lambda$6584 and H$\\alpha$ which serve to delineate the spatial extent of th...

  19. The Bochum Survey of the Southern Galactic Disk: II. Follow-up measurements and multi-filter photometry for 1323 square degrees monitored in 2010-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Hackstein, M; Haas, M; Ramolla, M; Nunez, F Pozo; Dominguez, A Barr; Kaderhandt, L; Thomsch, K; Niedworok, N; Westhues, Ch; Chini, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series describing the southern Galactic Disk Survey (GDS) performed at the Universit\\"atssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile. Haas et al. (2012, Paper I) presented the survey design and a the characteristics of the observations and data. They identified ~2200 variable stars in an area of 50 square degrees with more than 50 observations in 2011. Here we present the first complete version of the GDS covering all 268 fields with 1323 square degrees along the Galactic disk including revised data from Paper I. The individual fields were observed up to 272 times and comprise a maximum time span between September 2010 and May 2015. We detect a total of 64151 variable sources, which are presented in a catalog including some of their properties and their light curves. A comparison with the International Variable Star Index (VSX) and All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) indicates that 56794 of these sources are previously unknown variables. Furthermore, we present UBVr'i'z' photomet...

  20. Parkes HI observations of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l ~ 289 degree to 338 degree)

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Anja C; Henning, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    As part of our programme to map the large-scale distribution of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we observed 314 optically-selected, partially-obscured galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) in the Crux and Great Attractor (GA) regions. The observations were conducted with the Parkes 64m radio telescope, in a single-pixel pointed mode, reaching an rms noise level of typically 2-6 mJy over the velocity search range of 400

  1. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit.

  2. HIV-1 diversity, drug-resistant mutations, and viral evolution among high-risk individuals in phase II HIV vaccine trial sites in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Qi

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevalence in Guangxi, China, has been growing since 1996, when the first case was reported. Over half of HIV-1 positive patients in Guangxi Province were injecting drug users (IDUs, possibly because of the province's location near drug-trafficking routes. Since a phase II HIV vaccine trial is ongoing there, a current characterization of the subtypes of HIV-1 among IDUs in Guangxi would provide critical information for future HIV vaccine trials, as well as further control and prevention of HIV-1 transmission. Thus, we conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation of HIV-1 samples from 2008-2010 among IDUs in multiple cities in Guangxi Province. Our results, based on the gag/pol fragment, indicated a very high proportion (78.47% of HIV-1 CRF08_BC recombinants, some CRF01_AE (15.38% recombinants, and a low proportion of CRF07_BC (6.15% recombinants among the IDUs. The high proportion of CRF08 HIV-1 strains among recent IDUs matches the vaccine candidate constructs. However, future vaccine development should also incorporate CRF01-targeted vaccine candidates. Distinct Env sequence evolution patterns were observed for CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE, indicating that different local selection pressures have been exerted on these two HIV-1 subtypes. Unique drug-resistant mutations were also detected, and our data indicate that HIV treatment programs should consider pre-existing drug-resistant mutations.

  3. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  4. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY SCREENING OF 500 INFANTS IN A LEVEL II NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AT A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the leading cause of infant blindness and predominantly affects premature, low birth weight babies.1 India and other middle-income countries are said to be suffering from the ‘third epidemic’. ROP is multi-factorial and early detection and treatment of threshold ROP with timely laser treatment results in excellent outcome.3-8 OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the yield of ROP in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at a Government Medical College Hospital in Mandya district. 2. To determine disease characteristics and outcome of treatment. METHODOLOGY: The study is a prospective analysis of infants admitted during March 1st 2009 and November 30th, 2011(33 months at the NICU of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS Hospital. All infants weighing

  5. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) data collected in Indian Ocean, Southern Pacific and Southern Atlantic Ocean during Discovery Investigations project from 1931-01-02 to 1951-10-18 by Discovery II, data were acquired from the NMFS-COPEPOD database (NODC Accession 0071064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) data collected in Indian Ocean, Southern Pacific and Southern Atlantic Ocean during Discovery Investigations project from...

  6. Higher rate of hepatitis events in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D genotype II infection: a cohort study in a medical center in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Sy, Cheng-Len; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and impact of hepatitis δ virus (HDV) on hepatic outcomes and virological and immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in northern Taiwan have been reported. However, the epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in HIV-HBV coinfection patients in southern Taiwan remains uncertain. In this cohort study, a total of 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV were identified between January 1, 2009 and May 30, 2012. The seroprevalence of anti-HDV antibodies, HDV genotyping, clinical manifestations and hepatic outcomes were compared between the patients with and without HDV coinfection, and laboratory examinations and hepatic outcomes were recorded. Among the 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV, seven were seropositive for HDV (10.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in risk factors for acquiring HIV infection. During a median observation period of 27.8 months, the adjusted hazard ratio of HDV and HBV genotype (type B vs. non-type B) on hepatitis flare-ups were 62.132 (p = 0.04) and 0.028 (p = 0.01), respectively. All seven patients had genotype II and were HDV viremic. The phylogenetic tree analysis and clinical history evaluation did not identify any clusters of HDV infection. HDV infection resulted in higher rate of hepatitis flare-ups, but it did not have a statistical significance on HIV progression and immunological response to HAART. Whether higher rate of HDV viremia has worse impact on the hepatic outcomes requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  8. Is Information Enough? User Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Report to the World Bank, AFTE1-ENVGC. Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in Sub{sub S}aharan Africa, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto; Kingamkono, Robert; Hochobeb, Ben

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, long-lead climate forecasts have been developed and used to predict the onset of El Nino events and their impact on climate variability. This report discusses user responses to seasonal climate forecasts in southern Africa, with an emphasis on small-scale farmers in Namibia and Tanzania. The study examines how farmers received and used the forecasts in the agricultural season of 1997/1998. It also summarises a workshop on user responses to seasonal forecasts in southern Africa. Comparison of case studies across south Africa revealed differences in forecast dissemination strategies and in the capacity to respond to extreme events. However, improving these strategies and the capacity to respond to the forecasts would yield net profit to agriculture in southern Africa. In anticipation of potential changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme events associated with global climate change, there clearly is a need for improved seasonal forecasts and improved information dissemination.

  9. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  10. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  11. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  12. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in Guaraní Indians, Southern Brazil Vírus linfotrópico de células T-humanas do tipo II em Índios Guaraní, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Menna-Barreto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II is found in many New World Indian groups on the American continent. In Brazil, HTLV-II has been found among urban residents and Indians in the Amazon region, in the North. Guaraní Indians in the South of Brazil were studied for HTLV-I/II infection. Among 52 individuals, three (5.76% showed positive anti-HTLV-II antibodies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. This preliminary report is the first seroepidemiological study showing HTLV-II infection among Indians in the South of Brazil.O vírus linfotrópico de células T-humanas do tipo II (HTLV-II é identificado em muitos grupos de ameríndios. No Brasil, tem sido encontrado em indivíduos da população urbana, bem como em índios oriundos da região Amazônica. Os Índios Guaraní, do Sul do país, foram investigados para infecção por HTLV-I/II. Três indivíduos, oriundos de uma amostra de 52 índios, demonstraram sororeatividade para HTLV-II (ensaio imunoenzimático e Western blot. Este estudo preliminar foi o primeiro a identificar a presença de infecção por HTLV-II em ameríndios do Sul do Brasil.

  13. Two lithospheric profiles across southern California derived from gravity and seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, T.; Mooney, W.D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present two detailed 2-D density transects for the crust and uppermost mantle across southern California using a linear gravity inversion technique. This technique parameterizes the crust and upper mantle as a set of blocks that are based on published geologic and seismic models. Each block can have a range of densities that are constrained where possible by borehole measurements, seismic velocities, and petrologic data. To further constrain the models, it is assumed that the lithosphere is close to isostatic equilibrium at both ends of the profiles, in the deep ocean and east of the Mojave Desert. We calculate the lithostatic pressure variations field for the whole cross section to rule out the geophysically insignificant solutions. In the linear equation, ?? = a + bV (V, seismic P-wave velocity; ??, density), which approximates the mantle density-velocity (??-V) relationship, different coefficients for b were evaluated. Lower coefficients (b 0.3) imply that other effects, such as composition and/or metamorphic changes, play an important role in the mantle. Density models were constructed with the coefficient b ranging from 0 to 0.6. The results indicate that a high b value in the mantle ??-V relationship is associated with less dense crust in the Mojave block and more dense crust in the Catalina schist block. In the less dense Mojave block, the average density of the whole crust is ???2.75 g/cm3, while that of the lower crust is ???2.72 g/cm3. These densities imply a high silica content in the crust, and a minor fraction of basic rock in the lower crust, or perhaps the absence of a basaltic layer altogether. By comparison, the average density of a typical continental stable platform is ???2.85 g/cm3. Models with higher b coefficients (0.5-0.6) are characterized by a large isostatic imbalance. On the other hand, lower b values (0-0.2) require a consolidated whole crust density in the Mojave Desert of ???2.78 g/cm3, and a lower crust density of ???2.89 g/cm3

  14. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  15. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of ... The application of analytical procedures in the audit process: A South African ...

  16. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  17. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  18. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  19. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  20. Th.G. Sahama’s (1910–1983 volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part II. Minerals of granitic pegmatites and other mineral occurrences of eastern and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmari Haapala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight mineralogical expeditions during 1961–1974 to pegmatites and other mineral occurrences of eastern and southern Africa produced abundant research material. Dr. O. v. Knorring from University of Leeds, U.K., participated in some expeditions, and ProfessorsJ.M. Correia Neves and J.E. Lopes Nunes participated in the study the granite pegmatites of Zambezia, northeastern Mozambique, where in the 1960’s and 1970’s were active mining operations. From the Zambezian pegmatites, Sahama and his coworkers and assistants published studies on the Ta-Nb minerals (tantalite-columbite, wodginite, ixiolite,niobian wolframite, niobian rutile as well as the bismuth and antimony minerals, including a new mineral, “natural monoclinic bismuth vanadate”(later named clinobisvanite. As a result of a systematic research, based on geochemical deductions, a new mineral, hafnon, was found as the high hafnium member of the isomorphic zircon-hafnon series. From the Buranga pegmatite in Rwanda, several phosphate minerals, including a new mineral species, burangaite, were described. In connection with the mineralogical research ofthe tungsten deposits of Uganda and Rwanda, two new secondary tungsten minerals, mpororoite and cerotungstite, were found. From Madagascar, Sahama collected material for mineralogical studies of sapphirine and kornerupine, and from Namibia, a new mineralspecies, namibite, was described.

  1. Late summer occurrence of shorebirds on the southern Nushagak Peninsula, Alaska, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The occurrence of shorebirds was documented along the southern tip of the Nushagak Peninsula on the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) from 3 August to II...

  2. Southern (In)hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the…

  3. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  4. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  5. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  6. Southern Vietnam since 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Bao

    1995-01-01

    Discusses social and political changes in southern Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Describes anti-U.S. propaganda used in the schools and media in the years immediately following the war. Contends that younger Vietnamese look forward to a closer relationship with the United States and its people. (CFR)

  7. 'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

  8. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  9. Esponjas tetraxonidas do litoral sul-brasileiro: II-material coletado pelo N/Oc. "prof. W. Besnard" durante o programa Rio Grande do Sul Tetraxonid sponges occurring in southern Brazil: II-material collected by R/V "prof. W. Besnard" during the Rio Grande do Sul program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothes de Moraes

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available É descrita no presente trabalho uma serie de esponjas tetraxonidas, co letadas no Atlântico Sul entre Cidreira e Sarita, pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard", durante o período de junho a dezembro de 1968, com dados sobre a salinidade e a temperatura dos pontos de coleta, bem como sobre a distribuição geográfica e batimêtrica dos exemplares estudados.Six species of tetraxonid sponges occurring in southern Brazil are studied: Jaspis johnstoni (Schmidt, 1862; Geodia eosaster (Sollas, 1888; Erylus oxyaster Lendenfeld, 1910; Pachastrella monilifera Schmidt, 1868; Sphinctrella cribrifera (Sollas, 1886 and Coscinospongia typus (Schmidt, 1870 . Data are also given on the temperature and salinity for the oceanographie stations where the specimens were collected in the South Atlantic coast at Rio Grande do Sul (Lat. 30º60'S - 33º29'S and Long. 49º13'W - 50º44'W. The collections were made by R/V. "Prof . W. Besnard", from 150-284 m depth, during the period of June to December, 1968. All species are recorded for the first time for the coast of Rio Grande do Sul. Morphological characteristics and spicular structure of the specimens are described and illustrated. Spicular measures are also given for the material studied.

  10. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Exposure to Pb above permissible limit (50 ppb in water) .... taken and analyzed for residual metal concentration determination. ..... loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity up to five cycles of reuse of.

  11. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  12. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  13. Tintininos (Ciliophora, Tintinnina de águas subtropicais na região Sueste-Sul do Brasil: II. Famílias Dictyocystidae, Rhabdonellidae, Tintinnidae e Xystonellidae Tintinnids (Ciliophora, Tintinnina from subtropical waters of the Southern Brazil: II. Families Dictyocystidae, Rhabdonellidae, Tintinnidae and Xystonellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Felício Fernandes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo segue um trabalho prévio sobre o levantamento taxonômico dos tintininos (Subordem Tintinnina coletados em águas subtropicais do sul do Brasil (22°S-34°S. As amostras foram baseadas em diferentes cruzeiros oceanográficos cobrindo águas de plataforma e oceano. As espécies pertencentes às Famílias Dictyocystidae, Rhabdonellidae, Tintinnidae e Xystonellidae foram descritas, e uma discussão geral referente à biogeografia de tintininos e à distribuição vertical na coluna de água observada em cruzeiros oceanográficos foi realizada. Para todas as espécies foram fornecidos descrições, medidas e desenhos, bem como comentários sobre a taxonomia e resultados sobre as distribuições horizontal e vertical na coluna de água. A riqueza em espécies foi elevada (87 táxons infragenéricos, e algumas das espécies como Climacocylis scalaria, Eutintinnus spp., Salpingacantha spp., Salpingella spp. e Steenstrupiella gracilis, não haviam sido registradas na região anteriormente. Dezenove species são novos registros para o Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental.This study follows a previous work on the taxonomic survey on tintinnids (Suborder Tintinnina collected in subtropical waters of the Southern Brazil (22°S-34°S. Samples were based in different oceanographic cruises covering shelf and oceanic waters. Here, the species belonging to Families Dictyocystidae, Rhabdonellidae, Tintinnidae and Xystonellidae were described, and a general discussion regarding the tintinnid biogeography and the vertical distribution observed in some of the oceanographic cruises were carried out. For all of species the descriptions, measurements and drawings, as well comments on the taxonomy and results on horizontal and vertical distributions on the water column were furnished. The species richness was high (87 infrageneric taxa, and some species like Climacocylis scalaria, Eutintinnus spp., Salpingacantha spp., Salpingella spp. and Steenstrupiella

  14. The gelechiid fauna of the southern Ural Mountains, part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junnilainen, Jari; Karsholt, Ole; Nupponen, Kari

    mongolica Povolný, 1975, and Anarsia sibirica Park & Ponomarenko, 1996. The following species are newly recorded from Russia: Apatetris kinkerella (Snellen, 1876), Catatinagma trivittellum Rebel, 1903, Megacraspedus balneariellus (Chrétien, 1907), Megacraspedus niphorrhoa (Meyrick, 1926), Chrysoesthia...

  15. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks II. Southern Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gisela A; Cieza, Lucas A; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merín, Bruno; Castelli, Analía V Smith; Allen, Lori E; Morrell, Nidia; 10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/79

    2012-01-01

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from lsim1 to 10 M JUP, and accretion rates ranging from lsim10-11 to 10-7.7 M \\odot yr-1. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, ph...

  16. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC (ESA), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Smith Castelli, Analia V. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allen, Lori E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-04-10

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  17. Meat studies of indigenous Southern African cattle. II. Textural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    correlated negatively with percentage cooking loss (-0,57'\\ though poorly ... This study assesses the com- .... The pre- and post-mortem procedure, including carcass com- position .... aromatic compounds (patterson, 1975; Cross et ai., 1986).

  18. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  19. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  20. Characteristics of Summertime Circulation Patterns for Southern Taiwan's Monsoon Rainfall from July to September

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Chung Ko and Yi-Shuan Tzeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the circulation features associated with summer monsoon rainfall over southern Taiwan from July through September over the period 1974 - 2001. Four types of monsoon systems, Monsoon I, I-TC, II and II-TC, are identified based on the daily rainfall data of 4 observational stations over southern Taiwan and the daily wind direction data of Lanyu. The total rainfall amount of Monsoon I and I-TC is much greater than that for Monsoon II and II-TC because the former two have more moisture. Monsoon I is characterized by a strong southwesterly flow over southern Taiwan due to the tightening of the pressure gradient between the monsoon trough and subtropical high over the western North Pacific. The Monsoon I-TC pattern exhibits a deep monsoon trough along with an anomalous cyclone near the East China Sea; this pattern drives a large volume of moisture that causes heavy rainfall over southern Taiwan. The circulation patterns of Monsoon I and I-TC resemble the flow pattern during the Mei-Yu or _ _ season from May through mid-July. The Monsoon II pattern reveals a trough south of Taiwan and accompanied by a strong ridge north to it. The convection is located near the southern flank of the monsoon trough. The circulation pattern of Monsoon II-TC yields a deep trough south of the westward protruding subtropical ridge. Additionally, the Monsoon II-TC is less significant because of the wide variety of the TC locations. The Monsoon II and II-TC patterns are similar to the Pacific-Japan (PJ pattern that can affect weather in the East Asian summer monsoon area.

  1. Análise da mutação G20210A no gene da protrombina (fator II em pacientes com suspeita de trombofilia no sul do Brasil Analysis of prothrombin G20210A mutation (factor II in patients with suspected trombophilia in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Edgar Herkenhoff

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A protrombina (fator II é uma proteína sanguínea sintetizada no fígado com a presença de vitamina K. É a precursora da trombina, que induz a formação de fibrina. Foi descrita uma mutação no gene da protrombina G20210A, associada diretamente a altos níveis de protrombina no sangue e, consequentemente, à trombofilia. Essa variante alélica consiste em mutação pontual, também chamada de polimorfismo de nucleotídeo simples (SNP, ocasionando a troca de uma guanina por uma adenina no nucleotídeo 20210, localizado em um sítio de clivagem do precursor do ácido ribonucleico mensageiro (mRNA. Essa troca caracteriza o alelo A e a ausência da mutação do alelo G. OBJETIVO: Quantificar o número de indivíduos homozigotos para alelo G, homozigotos para alelo A e heterozigotos, cujas amostras foram enviadas para o laboratório Genolab Análises Genéticas, abrangendo os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2009 a 10 de outubro de 2010. MÉTODOS: Análise de mutação pontual por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos o número de 243 indivíduos e desse total 51,03% eram oriundos do estado do Paraná, enquanto 48,97%, oriundos do estado de Santa Catarina. Do total analisado, 88,89% possuíam o genótipo para homozigoto G, e nenhum indivíduo foi encontrado com mutação para homozigoto A. Apenas 11,11% possuíam genótipo heterozigoto. O estado de Santa Catarina apresentou frequência superior para genótipo heterozigoto em relação ao Paraná. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou que é recomendável a identificação do genótipo para esse gene em pacientes com suspeita de trombofilia nos dois estados.INTRODUCTION: Prothrombin (factor II is a blood protein synthesized in the liver in the presence of vitamin K. It is a thrombin precursor, which induces fibrin formation. Prothrombin G20210A mutation and high prothrombin levels have been closely associated

  2. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  3. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  4. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  5. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  6. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  7. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  8. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  9. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  10. IFU spectroscopy of southern PNe: III

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Basurah, H M; Amer, M A; Alsulami, R; Alruhaili, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe integral ?eld spectroscopic observations of four southern Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe), M3-4, M3-6, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 covering the spectral range, 3400-7000?A.We derive the ionisation structure, the physical conditions, the chemical compositions and the kinematical characteristics of these PNe and ?nd good agreement with previous studies that relied upon the long-slit technique in their co-spatial area. From their chemical compositions as well as their spatial and kinematic characteristics, we determined that Hen2-29 is of the Peimbert Type I (He and N rich), while the other three are of Type II. The strength of the nebular He II line reveals that M3-3, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 are of mid to high excitation classes while M3-6 is a low excitation planetary nebula (PN). A series of emission-line maps extracted from the data cubes were constructed for each PN to describe its overall structure. These show remarkable morphological diversity. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of M3-6, shows...

  11. Felipe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo Canal

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la monumental Historia de España que bajo la prestante y acertadísima dirección de don Ramón Menéndez Pidal se comenzó a dar a la prensa desde 1954 por la Editorial Espasa Calpe S. A., aparecieron en 1958 dos tomos dedicados al reinado de Felipe II; aquella época en que el imperio español alcanzó su unidad peninsular juntamente con el dilatado poderío que le constituyó en la primera potencia de Europa.

  12. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  13. Southern Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed

  14. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua D. Wright; Victoria M. Esses

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners...

  15. The distribution of the standing crop of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean, 02 January 1932 to 18 October 1951 (NODC Accession 0000842)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using net casts in the Southern Ocean from the DISCOVERY II. Data were collected from 02 January 1932 to 18 October 1951. Data were...

  16. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  17. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  18. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  19. Southern Cosmology Survey I: Optical Cluster Detections and Predictions for the Southern Common-Area Millimeter-Wave Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Jimenez, Raul; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Verde, Licia; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Roche, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    We present first results from the Southern Cosmology Survey, a new multiwavelength survey of the southern sky coordinated with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a recently commissioned ground-based mm-band Cosmic Microwave Background experiment. This article presents a full analysis of archival optical multi-band imaging data covering an 8 square degree region near right ascension 23 hours and declination -55 degrees, obtained by the Blanco 4-m telescope and Mosaic-II camera in late 2005. We describe the pipeline we have developed to process this large data volume, obtain accurate photometric redshifts, and detect optical clusters. Our cluster finding process uses the combination of a matched spatial filter, photometric redshift probability distributions and richness estimation. We present photometric redshifts, richness estimates, luminosities, and masses for 8 new optically-selected clusters with mass greater than $3\\times10^{14}M_{\\sun}$ at redshifts out to 0.7. We also present estimates for the expec...

  20. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  1. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  2. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  3. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  4. AUGO II: A Comprehensive Subauroral Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory II (AUGO II) is a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory designed for routine automated optical and magnetic observation of the aurora. Becoming operational in February 2012, AUGO II has six temperature/humidity controlled observation rooms, each equipped with a 1.5 meter diameter acrylic dome custom fabricated for wide spectral transparency. AUGO II is located approximately 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, in Alberta, Canada, on the southern edge of the auroral zone (Geodetic coordinates: latitude 54 36' 10", longitude 113 38' 40" west. CGM coordinates: latitude 61.7, longitude 306.8, L-value 4.5). AUGO II is sufficiently isolated from urban development that skies are dark enough during winter months to allow optical studies of faint phenomena, such as H-beta studies of proton precipitation aurora, currently underway. The observatory's modest residence can accommodate six persons, allowing groups to live and work with their instruments for the duration of their research campaign without leaving the site. AUGO II's inaugural guest research campaign was reported successful, and resulted in a permanent VLF/LF radio experiment being deployed at the observatory's expansive site. We are hopeful more research groups will take advantage of this unique facility and help realize its full potential.

  5. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  6. Serological survey of Q fever in Crete, southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranakis, Iosif; Kokkini, Sofia; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Sandalakis, Vassillios; Pasparaki, Eirini; Minadakis, Georgios; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligatory intracellular bacterium with worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii phase II antibodies in two different groups (high and low risk) of healthy human population and investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in the island of Crete (southern Greece). Collection and testing by IFA of 493 sample sera for IgG and IgM antibodies against C. bumetii phase II antigen indicated a prevalence of IgG antibodies of 48.7%. Of the seropositive individuals, 34% also revealed IgM seropositive antibody titers. Analysis of 225 sample sera by IFA from high risk population presented a prevalence for C. burnetii of 62.2%. Our findings revealed that C. burnetii is highly endemic in Crete, indicating a high exposure of the population to the pathogen regardless of occupation or place of residence.

  7. An Activity Catalogue of Southern Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; McCarthy, C; Marcy, G W; Pinfield, D J; Carter, B D; Penny, A J

    2006-01-01

    We have acquired high-resolution echelle spectra of 225 F6-M5 type stars in the southern hemisphere. The stars are targets or candidates to be targets for the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. Ca$\\small{\\rmn{\\textsc{II}}}$~HK line cores were used to derive activity indices for all of these objects. The indices were converted to the Mt. Wilson system of measurements and log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$ values determined. A number of these stars had no previously derived activity indices. In addition we have also included the stars from Tinney et al. (2002) using our Mt. Wilson calibration. The radial-velocity instability (also known as jitter) level was determined for all 21 planet-host stars in our dataset. We find the jitter to be at a level considerably below the radial-velocity signatures in all but one of these systems. 19 stars from our sample were found to be active (log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$~$>$~-4.5) and thus have high levels of jitter. Radial-velocity analysis for planetary companions to these stars should pr...

  8. [Childhood genetic renal diseases in southern Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Shalev, Hanna

    2010-03-01

    Genetic kidney diseases (GKDs) are an important and well-known entity in pediatric nephrology. Advances in genetic and molecular approaches in the last 15 years have enabled elucidation of the underlying molecular defects in many of these disorders. Herein, the authors summarize the progress that has been made over this period in disclosing the molecular basis of several novel GKDs which were characterized in this area and include Bartter syndrome type IV, type II Bartter syndrome and transient neonatal hyperkalemia, cystinuria and mental retardation, familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile nephronophthisis and familial hemolytic uremic syndrome with factor H deficiency. Retrospective analysis of the authors' data reveals that GKDs are over-represented among the pediatric population in southern Israel. GKD are seen 4 times more often than end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and comprise 38% of all cases of ESRD in our area. This high rate of GKD is mainly due to the high frequency of consanguineous marriages that prevails in this area. Understanding of the genetic and molecular background of these diseases is a result of a fruitful collaboration between the pediatric nephrologists and scientists, and has a direct implication on the diagnosis and treatment of the affected families.

  9. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  10. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  11. Megaconferences: view from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available specifically to the following events: United Na- tions Water Conference in Mar del Plata (1977), Dublin Conference (1992), United Nations Confe- rence on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992), Bonn Consultation (2001), Jo- hannesburg Summit... based on first-hand experience. 12 Megaconferences: View from Southern Africa 251 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Mar del Plata, 1977 Dublin, 1992 Rio de Jane iro, 1992 Marrakech, 1997 The Hague, 2000 Bonn, 2001 Johannesburg, 2002 Japan...

  12. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  13. Conjugate observations of Saturn's northern and southern H3+ aurorae

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Cowley, Stan W H; Badman, Sarah V; Moore, Luke; Miller, Steve; Tao, Chihiro; Baines, Kevin H; Blake, James S D

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of recent high spatial and spectral resolution ground-based infrared observations of H3+ spectra obtained with the 10-metre Keck II telescope in April 2011. We observed H3+ emission from Saturn's northern and southern auroral regions, simultaneously, over the course of more than two hours, obtaining spectral images along the central meridian as Saturn rotates. Previous ground-based work has derived only an average temperature of an individual polar region, summing an entire night of observations. Here we analyse 20 H3+ spectra, 10 for each hemisphere, providing H3+ temperature, column density and total emission in both the northern and southern polar regions simultaneously, improving on past results in temporal cadence and simultaneity. We find that: 1) the average thermospheric temperatures are 527+/-18 K in northern Spring and 583+/-13 K in southern Autumn, respectively; 2) this asymmetry in temperature is likely to be the result of an inversely proportional relationship between the t...

  14. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  16. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  17. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Houri, Ohad; Bazarsky, Elina; Berkowitz, Anat; Bulkowstein, Shlomi; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective, population-based study was to characterize demographically and clinically cystic-echinococcosis (CE) in southern Israel, between 2005 and 2012. Newly-diagnosed (nd-CE) and past-diagnosed (pd-CE, diagnosed before the study) cases were defined. Two populations live in southern-Israel, receiving medical treatment at a single hospital: the Jewish and the Bedouin populations (resembling resource-rich and resource-poor populations, respectively). 126 CE cases were identified; 55 nd-CE and 71 pd-CE. Mean annual nd-CE incidence per 100,000 in the Bedouin and Jewish populations were 2.7 ± 1.2 and 0.4 ± 0.3, respectively (Pborn outside Israel. Liver and lung involvement were recorded in 85.7% and 15.1% of overall-CE, respectively. Abdominal pain, cough, fever, eosinophilia and asymptomatic disease were documented in 63.6%, 32.7%, 27.3%, 41.5% and 12.7% of nd-CE, respectively. Serology sensitivity for first test and any positive test were 67.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and X-ray diagnosis were documented in 79.2%, 58.4% and 17.0% of overall-CE, respectively, with ultrasonography mainly used in liver-CE and X-ray in lung-CE. Treatment included surgery and albendazole in 50.0% and 55.3% of CE, respectively. We conclude that CE is endemic in southern-Israel among the Bedouin population, while disease is probably mainly imported in the Jewish population. Liver involvement and eosinophilia rates were high compared with those of other endemic regions, possibly due to differences in the timing of diagnosis. These findings may help developing treatment and prevention strategies.

  18. The Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L. Nicolaci; Willmer, C. N. A.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Chaves, O. L.; Rité, C.; Maia, M. A. G.; Geller, M. J.; Latham, D. W.; Kurtz, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Ramella, M.; Fairall, A. P.; Smith, C.; Lípari, S.

    1998-07-01

    We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for 5369 galaxies with m_B Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-Observatório Nacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the South African Astronomical Observatory.

  19. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  20. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    been further delays to the F-35 System Development and Demonstration ( SDD ) program. As a result, the SDB II integration will be accomplished as a...follow-on integration to the F-35 SDD . SDB II OT&E on the F-35 will not be completed by the FRP threshold of October 2019, thus delaying the FRP decision

  1. Wind as a Long-Distance Dispersal Vehicle in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jesús; Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Cabezas, Francisco; Burgaz, Ana R.; Martínez, Isabel

    2004-05-01

    Anisotropic (direction-dependent) long-distance dispersal (LDD) by wind has been invoked to explain the strong floristic affinities shared among landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere. Its contribution has not yet been systematically tested because of the previous lack of global data on winds. We used global winds coverage from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration SeaWinds scatterometer to test whether floristic similarities of Southern Hemisphere moss, liverwort, lichen, and pteridophyte floras conform better with (i) the anisotropic LDD hypothesis, which predicts that connection by ``wind highways'' increases floristic similarities, or (ii) a direction-independent LDD hypothesis, which predicts that floristic similarities among sites increase with geographic proximity. We found a stronger correlation of floristic similarities with wind connectivity than with geographic proximities, which supports the idea that wind is a dispersal vehicle for many organisms in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  4. Southern Living and Southern Voices: Models of Regional Magazine Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, John W.

    This paper examines the phenomenon of magazine success and failure as demonstrated by two regional magazines, "Southern Living" and "Southern Voices." The former, a combination of articles about food, travel, sports, and other positive aspects of southern life, was quickly accepted by its readers and advertisers and began…

  5. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  6. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  7. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data...

  8. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project is a collaborative online bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. This paper introduces the partners, briefly summarizes the purpose of the project, describes the progress and challenges encountered thus far, and discusses the intended project outcomes and impacts.

  9. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in spring 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends, and likely future of southern forests. A descriptive assessment such as SFRA can be used to highlight the major dynamics and uncertainties at play within a region's forested ecosystems, thereby focusing public discourse. Because...

  10. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  11. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  12. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  13. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  14. Espécies de Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota do litoral centro-sul do estado de São Paulo III: Grupos químicos equinocárpico e stíctico Species of Parmotrema sensu strict (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota from the central-southern coast of São Paulo state II: Chemical groups equinocarpic and stictic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento das espécies pertencentes aos gêneros de grandes parmélias do litoral centro-sul do Estado de São Paulo revelou a ocorrência de sete espécies de Parmotrema sensu stricto (talos foliosos de lobos arredondados em geral com mais de 0,5 cm larg. com margens inferiores não rizinadas contendo como constituintes químicos medulares os ácidos equinocárpico ou stíctico. São tipicamente reconhecidos pela forte cor amarela que resulta dos testes de coloração com hidróxido de potássio. São apresentados chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações baseados em material brasileiro.In a survey of the species pertaining to genera of large parmeliae occurring in the coastal areas of the central-southern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil, seven species of Parmotrema sensu stricto (foliose thalli with rounded lobes usually more than 0.5 mm wide with nude lower margins containing equinocarpic or stictic acids as the main medullar substances were found. These are typically recognized by the strong yellow- staining potassium hydroxide spot test. An identification key, descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Brazilian material are provided for these species.

  15. Effects of Peanut Shell Biochar on the Adsorption of Cd(II) by Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wen, Dong; Zhu, Qihong; Zhu, Hanhua; Zhang, Yangzhu; Huang, Daoyou

    2017-03-01

    Soil from an experimental paddy field in southern China was incubated with peanut shell biochar to investigate effects of this additive on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of Cd(II) using batch methods. Incorporation of biochar increased adsorption of Cd(II) by the paddy soil at 20, 25, and 30°C; this trend was apparent both with increasing quantities of biochar and rising temperature. Incorporation of biochar primarily enhanced the non-electrostatic adsorption of Cd(II). In addition, supplementation with biochar decreased the adsorption rate of Cd(II), which decreased with increasing quantities of biochar. The Langmuir constant b and Freundlich constant kf both increased with greater quantities of biochar at different temperatures. Adsorption of Cd(II) was an endothermic process and occurred spontaneously. Incorporation of biochar decreased availability and mobility of Cd(II) to plants primarily through increased non-electrostatic adsorption of Cd(II) by paddy soil.

  16. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  17. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  18. Hydrosol II Project; El Proyecto Hydrosol II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Martinez, A.

    2008-07-01

    At present energy production is based on the combustion of fossil fuels and is the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions, which is to say it is the main cause of the climate change that is affecting the planet. On a worldwide scale, the use of solar concentration systems with systems capable of dissociating water is considered, from both an energy and an economic standpoint, as the most important long-term goal in the production of solar fuels to reduce the costs of hydrogen and to ensure practically zero carbon dioxide emissions. The Hydrosol II project has the largest pilot plant of its kind, and the Hydrosol II reactors will be capable of breaking up the water molecule on the basis of thermochemical cycles at moderate temperatures. The Hydrosol II project pilot plant is now a reality, located in the SSPS heliostats field of the Almeria Solar Platform. (Author)

  19. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  20. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  1. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  2. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: July 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  3. Waterfowl production survey: July 1997: Southern Manitoba

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  4. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  5. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  6. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  7. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  10. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  11. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  12. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  15. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  16. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  17. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  18. Waterfowl production survey for southern Manitoba: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  19. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...

  1. Census summary of southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Census summary of southern sea otter 2016" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the...

  2. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  3. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  4. Star forming regions of the southern galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Er, J. W., the molecular gas, a

    1987-01-01

    A catalog of southern dust cloud properties is being compiled to aid in the planning and analysis of radio spectral line surveys in the southern hemisphere. Ultimately, images of dust temperature and column density will be produced. For the interim, a list of the 60 and 100 micron fluxes was prepared for the cores and adjacent backgrounds of 65 prominent dust clouds. Dust temperatures and column densities were derived.

  5. A brief study on the imprints of seismo tectonic activities in the crust of central and southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, K.M.

    and structural re-adjustments (ii) earth tremors and sedimentary layerand basement beforeGSE of Dec2004 Southern Bay of Bellgal The effect of GSE is more in southern Bayof Bengal between Nagapattinam and Pondicherry. This pan is a structurally controlled basin....Previousresults indicate that IT Imprintsof seismo tectonicactivities inthe crustof pans of Bay of Bengal --~ . i' . " " "'. ,. Fig.S. Sarellirederil'ed gral'iry allomaly data of Hm' of BellRalsho'A'i1ll!the imprillls of cru.\\.talstructure alld glm'in' lows (After Salld...

  6. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Equipment and the Joint Mission Planning System. The SDB II Program will develop and field a single-weapon USAF storage container and a dual DoN weapon...weapon directly impacted the target but did not detonate. Due to a lack of telemetry data, because live fire test assets are not equipped with telemetry

  7. Deglacial changes of the southern margin of the southern westerly winds revealed by terrestrial records from SW Patagonia (52°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Cárdenas, M. L.; Sagredo, E. A.

    2012-05-01

    Much of the ongoing discussion regarding synchrony or bipolar asynchrony of paleoclimate events has centered on the timing and structure of the last glacial termination in the southern mid- latitudes, in particular the southwestern Patagonian region (50°-55°S). Its location adjacent to the Drake Passage and near the southern margin of the southern westerly winds (SWW) allows examining the postulated links between the Southern Ocean-SWW coupled system and atmospheric CO2 variations through the last glacial termination. Results from two sites located in the Última Esperanza area (52°S) allow us to infer SWW-driven changes in hydrologic balance during this critical time interval. These findings indicate peatland development under temperate/wet conditions between 14,600 and 14,900 cal yr BP, followed by cooling and a lake transgressive phase that led to a shallow lake during the early part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, 13,600-14,600 cal yr BP), followed in turn by a deeper lake and modest warming during Younger Dryas time (YD, ˜11,800-13,000 cal yr BP), superseded by terrestrialization and forest expansion at the beginning of the Holocene. We propose that the SWW (i) strengthened and shifted northward during ACR time causing a precipitation rise in northwestern and southwestern Patagonia coeval with mid- and high-latitude cooling and a halt in the deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise; (ii) shifted southward during YD time causing a precipitation decline/increase in NW/SW Patagonia, respectively, high-latitude warming, and invigorated CO2 release from the Southern Ocean; (iii) became weaker between ˜10,000 and 11,500 cal yr BP causing a precipitation decline throughout Patagonia, concurrent with peak mid- and high-latitude temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  8. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae: Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Sen Yong

    Full Text Available Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia and southern hemisphere (Indonesia were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2 genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94% was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77% and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%. This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  9. The influence of historical climate changes on Southern Ocean marine predator populations: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jane L; Emmerson, Louise M; Miller, Karen J

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid physical and biological changes that are likely to have profound implications for higher-order predators. Here, we compare the long-term, historical responses of Southern Ocean predators to climate change. We examine palaeoecological evidence for changes in the abundance and distribution of seabirds and marine mammals, and place these into context with palaeoclimate records in order to identify key environmental drivers associated with population changes. Our synthesis revealed two key factors underlying Southern Ocean predator population changes; (i) the availability of ice-free ground for breeding and (ii) access to productive foraging grounds. The processes of glaciation and sea ice fluctuation were key; the distributions and abundances of elephant seals, snow petrels, gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguins all responded strongly to the emergence of new breeding habitat coincident with deglaciation and reductions in sea ice. Access to productive foraging grounds was another limiting factor, with snow petrels, king and emperor penguins all affected by reduced prey availability in the past. Several species were isolated in glacial refugia and there is evidence that refuge populations were supported by polynyas. While the underlying drivers of population change were similar across most Southern Ocean predators, the individual responses of species to environmental change varied because of species specific factors such as dispersal ability and environmental sensitivity. Such interspecific differences are likely to affect the future climate change responses of Southern Ocean marine predators and should be considered in conservation plans. Comparative palaeoecological studies are a valuable source of long-term data on species' responses to environmental change that can provide important insights into future climate change responses. This synthesis highlights the importance of protecting productive foraging grounds

  10. Seasonal Variation of Ozone in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere: Southern Tropics are Different from Northern Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wang, Lei,; Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the seasonal behavior of ozone by using measurements from various instruments including ozonesondes, Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II. We find that the magnitude of the annual variation in ozone, as a percentage of the mean ozone, exhibits a maximum at or slightly above the tropical tropopause. The maximum is larger in the northern tropics than in the southern tropics, and the annual maximum of ozone in the southern tropics occurs 2 months later than that in the northern tropics, in contrast to usual assumption that the tropics can be treated as a horizontally homogeneous region. The seasonal cycles of ozone and other species in this part of the lower stratosphere result from a combination of the seasonal variation of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the seasonal variation of tropical and midlatitude mixing. In the Northern Hemisphere, the impacts of upwelling and mixing between the tropics and midlatitudes on ozone are in phase and additive. In the Southern Hemisphere, they are not in phase. We apply a tropical leaky pipe model independently to each hemisphere to examine the relative roles of upwelling and mixing in the northern and southern tropical regions. Reasonable assumptions of the seasonal variation of upwelling and mixing yield a good description of the seasonal magnitude and phase in both the southern and northern tropics. The differences in the tracers and transport between the northern and southern tropical stratospheres suggest that the paradigm of well-mixed tropics needs to be revised to consider latitudinal variations within the tropics.

  11. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  12. Rom II-forordningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pii, Tine; Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret.......Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret....

  13. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  14. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern Railroad...

  15. The Holothurioidea (Echinodermata) collected during the Tyro Mauritania-II expedition 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.

    1993-01-01

    During the tyro Mauritania-II expedition (5-21.vi.1988) 15 holothurian species were collected between 19 and 1,900 m depth. Twelve species are new to the fauna of Mauritania, including Paracucumaria deridderae spec. nov. Mauritania represents the southern distribution limit of four species also know

  16. The Holothurioidea (Echinodermata) collected during the Tyro Mauritania-II expedition 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.

    1993-01-01

    During the tyro Mauritania-II expedition (5-21.vi.1988) 15 holothurian species were collected between 19 and 1,900 m depth. Twelve species are new to the fauna of Mauritania, including Paracucumaria deridderae spec. nov. Mauritania represents the southern distribution limit of four species also know

  17. Southern Ocean Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Fields during the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, O.; Gersonde, R.; Lohmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    Diatom assemblages preserved in 18 sediment cores recovered in the eastern Indian, Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean are used for the reconstruction of the variability of summer sea surface temperature (SSST) and sea ice concentration during the Last Interglacial (LIG) or Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS 5). The large coverage of the core sites allows for reconstructions on latitudinal and longitudinal transects across the Southern Ocean and thus for the comparison of the environmental signal evolution in different sedimentary basins of the Southern Ocean. Such information is crucial for the understanding of climate signal propagation in the Southern Ocean and on inter-hemispheric scale. The quantitative temperature and sea ice records are derived with newly established diatom-based transfer functions at millennial to centennial resolution. Stratigraphic age assignment relies on a combination of oxygen isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, core-core correlation using physical, geochemical and microfossil abundance pattern together with a tuning of sediment core signals with climate records in Antarctic ice cores. All records display a rapid transition from glacial (MIS 6) to MIS 5 conditions to reach maximum temperatures in the latest MIS 6/MIS 5 transition (Termination II) and the early LIG attributed to MIS 5.5. The amplitude of the SSST change is up to 5°C, with generally smaller values in the Pacific sector. During this period Southern Ocean temperature may exceed modern surface temperatures by up to 3°C and the winter sea ice edge is located south of the modern ice edge. Higher resolution cores display short-term temperature rebounds during the Termination II warming. Such cold rebounds are not discerned in the ice core records. The Southern Ocean warming could be triggered by precessional changes influencing high latitude summer insolation and potentially be accelerated by feedback mechanisms such as the reduction of surface albedo (sea ice

  18. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  19. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  20. (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Sta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Konne

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch. Stabilized Magnetic ... initial metal concentration and contact time on the removal processes was investigated. The results .... India) supplied NaOH and the Fe salts.

  1. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  2. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siudek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following periods: November 2005–June 2006 and October 2007–January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg and Hg(II were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic – the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L−1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants. During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m−2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  3. Class II genes of miniature swine. II. Molecular identification and characterization of B (beta) genes from the SLAc haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K; Sachs, D H; Germana, S; el-Gamil, M; Hirsch, F; Gustafsson, K; LeGuern, C

    1990-01-01

    Genomic clones corresponding to class II beta genes of the SLAc haplotype of miniature swine have been isolated and characterized. These genes have been grouped into seven non-overlapping clusters on the basis of restriction mapping. Ordering of exons within each cluster was accomplished by hybridization of Southern blots of restriction fragments with exon-specific probes. The two clusters (clusters 2 and 3) encoding the DRB and DQB genes were identified on the basis of hybridization with locus-specific 3' untranslated cDNA probes. Cluster 4 contained exons of both DOB and DQB genes, the basis for which remains to be determined. The remaining four clusters (1, 5, 6, 7) were identified as containing DP, DR, and DO coding sequences, respectively, on the basis of sequence analysis. The porcine class II region appears very similar to that of man in number and nature of the class II genes identified and in the intron/exon organization of corresponding genes.

  4. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  6. Strongly luminescing ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) binuclear complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R.; Baucom, D.A.; Rillema, D.P.

    1986-10-08

    Two strongly luminescing complexes, ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) homobinuclear complex and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) heterobinuclear complex, have been prepared and characterized. The organic part of the complex is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2' bipyridine dimer. The luminescence behavior of the homobinuclear and heterobinculear complexes was found to be comparable to that of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/, although the luminescence maxima were shifted from 615 to 620 nm. These complexes exhibit good stability due to the bidentate chelating capability of the bridging ligand. These new complexes can provide the opportunity for detailed photophysical studies related to donor-acceptor interactions and to the possibility of two simultaneous single-electron transfer events. 17 references, 2 figures.

  7. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  8. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  9. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  10. What causes the inverse relationship between primary production and export efficiency in the Southern Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Henson, Stephanie A.; Cavan, Emma; Georges, Clément; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ceballos-Romero, Elena; Zubkov, Mike; Sanders, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    The ocean contributes to regulating atmospheric CO2 levels, partly via variability in the fraction of primary production (PP) which is exported out of the surface layer (i.e., the e ratio). Southern Ocean studies have found that contrary to global-scale analyses, an inverse relationship exists between e ratio and PP. This relationship remains unexplained, with potential hypotheses being (i) large export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in high PP areas, (ii) strong surface microbial recycling in high PP regions, and/or (iii) grazing-mediated export that varies inversely with PP. We find that the export of DOC has a limited influence in setting the negative e ratio/PP relationship. However, we observed that at sites with low PP and high e ratios, zooplankton-mediated export is large and surface microbial abundance low suggesting that both are important drivers of the magnitude of the e ratio in the Southern Ocean.

  11. Mod II engine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  12. DUMAND II status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T. (ICRR, University of Tokyo, Japan (JP)); Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P.E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J.G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J.J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O' Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V.Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C.E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V.J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K.K. (University of Bern, Switzerland (CH) Boston University, (USA) University of Hawaii, (USA) University of Kiel, Germany (DE) Kobe University, Japan (JP) Kinki University, Japan (JP) Okayama Science University, Japan (JP) Scripps Institute of Oceanography, (USA) Tohoku University, Japan (JP) ICRR, University of tokyo, Japan (JP) NLHEP Tsukuba, Japan (JP) Vanderbilt University, (USA) University of Washington, (US

    1991-04-05

    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  13. DUMAND II status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, T.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P. E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P. K. F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J. G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J. J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O'Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V. Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C. E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V. J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K. K.

    1991-04-01

    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  14. Ecuaciones Diferenciales II

    OpenAIRE

    Mañas Baena, Manuel; Martínez Alonso, Luis

    2015-01-01

    En este manual se revisan diferentes aspectos sobre las ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales de utilidad para los físicos. Se elaboraron como notas de clase de la asignatura Ecuaciones II, del plan 1993 de la Licenciatura de Física de la UCM. Actualmente cubre un 75% de la asignatura Métodos Matemáticos II del Grado de Física de la UCM.

  15. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  16. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  17. Abundance, distribution and status of African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in dry savanna woodlands in southern Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, E.; Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Zinhiva, H.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance, distribution and status of baobabs (Adansonia digitata L.) in three land categories namely, (i) plains, (ii) riverine and rocky outcrops, and (iii) development areas, in southern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe, were determined. Baobabs were sampled between April an

  18. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in

  19. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  20. Southern Polar Front macroecological and biogeographical insights gained from benthic Ostracoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Simone N.; Vital, Helenice; Brandt, Angelika

    2014-10-01

    The Southern Ocean is one of the least known marine ecosystems on Earth, but the importance of understanding its biological and geochemical characteristics are urgent, because of the fast changing climate. Primary productivity is a key factor in ecosystem functioning, since this is the only process (except for the rare chemosynthesis) transforming solar energy into organic material, which can later be processed by all other living beings. Herein we investigate how primary productivity in the euphotic zone influences the biodiversity on the sea bed at abyssal depths, using Ostracoda (Crustacea) as a model. We also discuss the biogeographical pattern of the ostracod fauna. Samples collected from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean close to the Southern Polar Front (i.e. ~51°S) during the SYSTCO II expedition are the basis for our analyses. For the statistical tests, we used samples collected with an epibenthic sledge, which has the advantages of sampling a far larger area than traditional gears (i.e. grabs and corers), and also collect Myodocopida and Halocyprida rarely recorded in ostracod studies. However, because of its large mesh size (i.e. 300 and 500 μm) the epibenthic sledge fails to recover small sized ostracods. Most benthic and benthopelagic ostracod species inhabiting the Southern Polar Front region are either endemic to the Southern Ocean or occur close to it. We conclude that ostracod assemblages living below areas of high primary productivity seem to be different to those below low productivity zones, but that assemblages living west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are not significantly distinct from the ones living to the east of this putative barrier.

  1. Contribuição ao levantamento da carta planorbídica do Estado de São Paulo: Pesquisa de focos com formas evolutivas do Schistosoma mansoni. II. Município de Peruibe (Litoral Sul do Estado de São Paulo Contribution to the survey of the planorbid chart of the State of São Paulo (Brazil: Investigation of foci with evolutive forms of Schistosoma mansoni. II. Peruibe county (Southern coast of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Demar Perez

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Em levantamento realizado em Peruibe, em janeiro de 1966, foram identificados focos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infestados com formas evolutivas do Schistosoma mansoni.In this work the occurence of Biomphalaria tenagophila naturally parasited by evolutive forms of Schistosoma mansoni is registered in the city of Peruibe, situated in the Southern Littoral of the State of São Paulo (Brazil. Besides B. tenagophila, in the region it occurs also Drepanotrema cimex, a species not proved to be a host of Schistosoma mansoni and whose occurence had not yet been recorded in Peruibe.

  2. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  3. Present and Past Impact of Glacially Sourced Dust on Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, E. M.; Winckler, G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    An increase in iron-containing dust flux and a more efficient biological pump in the Southern Ocean have been associated with the CO2 drawdown and global cooling of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). While iron (Fe) mineralogy is known to affect Fe bioavailability through its impact on Fe solubility, there are limited studies investigating the importance of Fe mineralogy in dust fluxes to the Southern Ocean, and no previous studies investigating interactions between eukaryotic phytoplankton and particulate-phase Fe in natural dusts applicable to Southern Ocean environments. Since physically weathered bedrock becomes less soluble as it becomes weathered and oxidized, we hypothesized that glacially sourced dusts would contain more Fe(II)-rich primary minerals and would be more bioavailable than dusts from areas not impacted by glaciers. We used a series of natural dusts from Patagonia as the sole Fe source in incubation experiments with the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and evaluated Fe bioavailability using culture growth rates, cell density, and variable fluorescence. Monod curves were also used to evaluate the efficiency of the different particulates as sources of nutrient Fe. Using these Monod curves fit to growth rates plotted against particulate Fe concentrations, we observed that 1) Fe(II)-rich primary silicates were significantly more effective as an Fe source to diatoms than Fe(III)-rich oxides, that 2) Fe(II) content itself was responsible for the difference in Fe bioavailability/efficiency of the Fe nutrient source, and that 3) surface interactions with the particulates were important. In an effort to explore the possibility that Fe mineralogy impacted Fe bioavailability in past oceans, we will present our hypotheses regarding productivity and Fe mineralogy/bioavailability through the last glacial cycle.

  4. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  5. Development of Southern Cross University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  6. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  7. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably similar prevalence. ... Physical health suffers in this environment with malaria and dysentery ... working in the. Southern Sudan or those Healthcare. Professionals in other parts of the world seeking ... return from internal and external displacement. Drugs and ...

  8. Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical

  9. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17,580 l...

  10. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibeso Luswata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  11. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  12. Southern Africa - a giant natural photochemical reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diab, RD

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The analogy of a ‘giant natural photochemical reactor’ is extended in this paper to the central and southern African tropics, where tropospheric ozone enhancement occurs over a vast geographical area from the Congo to South Africa, and over a long...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  14. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  15. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  16. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  17. Uranium reconnaissance survey in southern Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civetta, L.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Orsi, G.; Perrone, V.; Zupetta, A.; Giunta, G.; Ippolito, F.

    1981-09-01

    The southern provinces of Sudan (Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal and el Buheyrat) have been investigated by geological and geochemical methods for uranium and thorium. Results of radiometric measurements permitted the identification of a target area for follow-up work, favourable to host a roll-type uranium deposit.

  18. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    range of frequencies used an inverse -square frequency dependence approximately holds. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption...Tecnológico under Proyecto No 1940934. Annex The percentage probability, QA, that an absorption A dB is exceed, is given as: Where Am is

  19. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  20. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  1. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  2. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with th

  3. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  4. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  7. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  8. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome add

  9. The reporting revolution - the southern endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The need for expeditious portrayal of statewide inventory findings is paramount. Demand is intensifying. Yet, to date, relaying data results and analysis through traditional publications has been extremely time consuming. To address this issue, southern forest inventory and analysis (FIA) reporting is in transition. This article discusses the evolution of authorship,...

  10. The reporting revolution—the southern endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown

    2009-01-01

    The need for expeditious portrayal of statewide inventory findings is paramount. Demand is intensifying. Yet, to date, relaying data results and analysis through traditional publications has been extremely time consuming. To address this issue, southern forest inventory and analysis (FIA) reporting is in transition. This article discusses the evolution of authorship,...

  11. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  12. Economics of southern growth. [7 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liner, E.B.; Lynch, L.K. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    The book presents both the documentation of Southern economic growth and an examination of the major economic problems. Chapter 1, by Lawrence K. Lynch and E. Evan Brunson, documents Southern growth from 1970 to 1975, compares that growth to growth in the nation, and evaluates the comparative impact of the 1974 to 1975 recession. Chapter 2, by William H. Miernyk, analyzes the structure of the Southern economy in terms of the Clark-Fisher hypothesis. The economic structure of the South has become similar to the nation's; the relative importance of agricultural and energy production in the South will tend to maintain the South's growth advantage. Chapter 3, by Charles F. Haywood, explores the capital needs of the South, and finds that demands for capital will accelerate. Significant inflows of capital from other regions, other nations, and strengthened local sources of capital will be needed. Chapter 4, by Madelyn Lockhart, compares the income distributions and labor markets of the South and the nation, but argues that measures of economic well-being do not properly reflect all factors. Chapter 5, by Russell L. Howard, examines the limitations on area and regional growth imposed by energy prices and availability; he points out that Southern industries are energy-intensive. Chapter 6, by Mancur Olson, proposes a view on why the South is outgrowing the North: that the development of organized interest groups that obtain political and economic power tends to slow the rate of economic growth. Chapter 7, by C. L. Jusenius and L. C. Ledebur, presents comparative data on economic growth and status for the Southern and the Northern tiers of states. Although economic growth in the South has been more rapid in recent years, the economic status of the South still lags the North.

  13. Mod II engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  14. About APPLE II Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  15. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SALICYLALDAZINE AND ITS METAL (II) COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM METAL (II) CHLORIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Jamila wazir

    2016-01-01

    The salicylaldazine (ligand) and its metal (II) complexes like copper (II), nickel (II), zinc (II), cobalt (II) and manganese (II) complexes has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques using FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy. The ligand (salicylaldazine) is synthesized by the condensation reaction of salicylaldehyde and hydrazine sulfate. The salicylaldazine metal (II) complexes like Cu (II) , Ni(II), Zn (II), Co(II), Mn(II) were prepared by using metal (II) chloride in dioxane. Th...

  16. Molecular basis of human transcobalamin II deficiency in an affected family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.; Seetharam, S.; Seetharam, B. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease leading to cobalamin (Cbl, Vitamin B{sub 12}) deficiency. Patients with this disorder fail to absorb and transport Cbl across cellular membranes and develop Cbl deficiency, symptoms of which include failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, impaired immunodefence and neurological disorders. The molecular basis for this disease is not known. By means of Southern blotting and sequence analysis of TC II, cDNA amplified from fibroblasts of an affected child and his parents, we have identified two mutant TC II alleles. The maternally derived allele had a gross deletion, while the paternally derived allele had a 4-nucleotide ({sup 1023}TCTG) deletion which caused a reading frame shift and generation of a premature termination codon, 146 nucleotides downstream from the deletion. Both these deletions caused markedly reduced levels of TC II mRNA and protein. In addition, these two deletions were unique to this family and were not detected in four other unrelated TC II deficient patients who also exhibited the same (TC II protein/mRNA deficiency) phenotypes. Based on this study we suggest, (1) that the molecular defect in the most common form of human TC II deficiency (lack of immunoprecipitable plasma TC II) is heterogeneous and (2) these mutations cause TC II mRNA and protein deficiency leading to defective plasma transport of Cbl and the development of Cbl deficiency.

  17. Nymphon stipulum, a new pycnogonid species from Southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan Child, C.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of pycnogonid, Nymphon stipulum, from off the Channel Islands, southern California, in 395 meters, is described and figured. Previous literature on southern California pycnogonids is outlined and the relationships of the new species with other southern California Nymphon species is dis

  18. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  19. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.

  20. Calculus II For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  1. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  2. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  3. The role of internal variability for decadal carbon uptake anomalies in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Aaron; Hi, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is a major sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and hence it plays an essential role in modulating global carbon cycle and climate change. Previous studies based on observations (e.g., Landschützer et al. 2015) show pronounced decadal variations of carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean in recent decades and this variability is largely driven by internal climate variability. However, due to limited ensemble size of simulations, the variability of this important ocean sink is still poorly assessed by the state-of-the-art earth system models (ESMs). To assess the internal variability of carbon sink in the Southern Ocean, we use a large ensemble of 100 member simulations based on the Max Planck Institute-ESM (MPI-ESM). The large ensemble of simulations is generated via perturbed initial conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. Each ensemble member includes a historical simulation from 1850 to 2005 with an extension until 2100 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 future projections. Here we use model simulations from 1980-2015 to compare with available observation-based dataset. We found several ensemble members showing decadal decreasing trends in the carbon sink, which are similar to the trend shown in observations. This result suggests that MPI-ESM large ensemble simulations are able to reproduce decadal variation of carbon sink in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, the decreasing trends of Southern Ocean carbon sink in MPI-ESM are mainly contributed by region between 50-60°S. To understand the internal variability of the air-sea carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean, we further investigate the variability of underlying processes, such as physical climate variability and ocean biological processes. Our results indicate two main drivers for the decadal decreasing trend of carbon sink: i) Intensified winds enhance upwelling of old carbon-rich waters, this leads to increase of the ocean surface pCO2; ii) Primary production is reduced in area

  4. Chemical Evolution of Red MSX Sources in the Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H ii regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N2H+, C2H, HC3N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N2H+ and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N2H+, C2H, and HC3N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N L ), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H ii regions have formed inside. We also find that the C2H abundance decreases faster than HC3N with respect to N L . The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N2H+, indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  5. Evaluation of external biosecurity practices on southern Ontario sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Deardon, Rob; Holtkamp, Derald; Friendship, Robert

    2013-04-01

    External biosecurity protocols, aimed at preventing the introduction of new pathogens to the farm environment, are becoming increasingly important in the swine industry. Although assessments at the individual farm level occur regularly, efforts to cluster swine herds into meaningful biosecurity groups and to summarize this information at the regional level are relatively infrequent. The objectives of this study were: (i) to summarize external biosecurity practices on sow farms in southern Ontario; (ii) to cluster these farms into discrete biosecurity groups and to describe their characteristics, the variables of importance in differentiating between these groups, and their geographic distribution; and (iii) to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. Data were collected using the Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program's Survey for the Breeding Herd. A subset of variables pertaining to external biosecurity practices was selected for two-step cluster analysis, which resulted in 3 discrete biosecurity groups. These groups were named by the authors as: (i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals, (ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals, and (iii) low biosecurity herds. Variables pertaining to trucking practices and the source of replacement animals were the most important in differentiating between these groups. Multinomial logistic regression provided insight into which demographic and neighborhood variables serve as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership (pbiosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, increased 1.001 times for each additional sow (p=0.001). The odds of belonging to the high biosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, were 6.5 times greater for farms that produced genetic animals than for farms that

  6. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  7. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  8. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI child health but also cognitive function.

  9. PGE mineralization and melt composition of chromitites in Proterozoic ophiolite complexes of Eastern Sayan, Southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kiseleva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ospino-Kitoi and Kharanur ultrabasic massifs represent the northern and southern ophiolite branches respectively of the Upper Onot ophiolitic nappe and they are located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Sayan (SEPES ophiolites. Podiform chromitites with PGE mineralization occur as lensoid pods within dunites and rarely in harzburgites or serpentinized peridotites. The chromitites are classified into type I and type II based on their Cr#. Type I (Cr# = 59–85 occurs in both northern and southern branches, whereas type II (Cr# = 76–90 occurs only in the northern branch. PGE contents range from ∑PGE 88–1189 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.04–0.42 to ∑PGE 250–1700 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.03–0.25 for type I chromitites of the northern and southern branches respectively. The type II chromitites of the northern branch have ∑PGE contents higher than that of type I (468–8617 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.1–0.33. Parental melt compositions, in equilibrium with podiform chromitites, are in the range of boninitic melts and vary in Al2O3, TiO2 and FeO/MgO contents from those of type I and type II chromitites. Calculated melt compositions for type I chromitites are (Al2O3melt = 10.6–13.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.44 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.42–1.81; those for type II chromitites are: (Al2O3melt = 7.8–10.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.25 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.5–2.4. Chromitites are further divided into Os-Ir-Ru (I and Pt-Pd (II based on their PGE patterns. The type I chromitites show only the Os-Ir-Ru pattern whereas type II shows both Os-Ir-Ru and Pt-Pd patterns. PGE mineralization in type I chromitites is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru system, whereas in type II it is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru-Rh-Pt system. These results indicate that chromitites and PGE mineralization in the northern branch formed in a suprasubduction setting from a fluid-rich boninitic melt during active subduction. However, the chromitites and PGE mineralization of the southern

  10. Dark Blue II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  11. Class II Microcins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  12. AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recovered by suction filtration, washed with distilled water and recrystallized .... dried in vacuum to afford the Ni(II)-L complex (0.23 g, 68%) as a deep brown solid. ..... were observed indicating that the polymer film is electrochemically active.

  13. MARC II and COBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette D. Avram

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the machine processing of MARC II records using COBOL for an application on the Library of Congress System 360/30. Emphasis is on the manipulation by COBOL of highly complex variable length MARC records containing variable length fields.

  14. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno

    2006-01-01

    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  15. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  16. Dianilinedichloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [ZnCl2(C6H7N2], the ZnII ion (site symmetry 2 adopts a near-regular tetrahedral ZnN2Cl2 coordination geometry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating (100 sheets containing R22(8 loops.

  17. Molecular genetic identification of southern hemisphere beaked whales (Cetacea: Ziphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebout, M L; Helden, A V; van Waerebeek, K; Baker, C S

    1998-06-01

    To assist in the species-level identification of stranded and hunted beaked whales, we compiled a database of 'reference' sequences from the mitochondrial DNA control region for 15 of the 20 described ziphiid species. Reference samples for eight species were obtained from stranded animals in New Zealand and South Australia. Sequences for a further seven species were obtained from a previously published report. This database was used to identify 20 'test' samples obtained from incompletely documented strandings around New Zealand. Analyses showed that four of these 'test' specimens (20%) had initially been misidentified. These included two animals of particular interest: (i) a Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), the first record of this species in New Zealand waters; and, (ii) a juvenile Andrews' beaked whale (Mesoplodon bowdoini), a species known from just over 20 strandings worldwide. A published sequence from a beaked whale product purchased in the Republic of Korea was identified as a Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). Levels of intra- and interspecific variation were compared to determine the potential for misidentification when the database or taxonomy is incomplete. Intraspecific variation was generally 4.7%. Exceptions were within-species variation in Hyperoodon planifrons, southern bottlenosed whale (4.12%), which exceeded the variation between the two species of Berardius (3.78%), and variation between the two specimens assigned to M. hectori, Hector's beaked whale (7.14%). The latter case appears to be an error in species identification, and could represent the discovery of a new species of beaked whale.

  18. Taurid swarm exists only in southern branch (STA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    I present some features of the Taurid meteor shower in data obtained by the Japanese automatic TV meteor observation `SonotaCo Network' from 2007 to 2015. (i) The Taurid shower is enhanced when the Earth encounters the Taurid swarm center at less than 30 in mean anomaly as described by Asher and Izumi (1998). A little enhancement was detected in 2011 when it was 71 from the center in mean anomaly. (ii) The Taurid meteor swarm exists only in the southern branch (STA) but not in the northern branch (NTA). (iii) The Taurid meteor swarm includes bright meteors more than the annual year components as also described in Asher & Izumi (1998). (iv) The STA swarm orbital period is equal to the 2:7 resonance with Jupiter. This orbital period agrees with the suggestion in Asher & Izumi (1998). However, the NTA orbital period also matches the 2:7 resonance with Jupiter, though no swarm exists. (v) The Taurid swarm longitude of perihelion is constant at 158 over its whole period. (vi) NTA orbit features vary smoothly over the season. No complex structure could be recognized in NTA in this study of observations by small video camera. (vii) The Taurid swarm orbit differs from the annual STA orbit at its peak, but is close to the annual component at the end of swarm activity. (viii) The annual STA component consists of some similar orbital streams.

  19. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

  20. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2005-08-29

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  1. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Morrell, N. I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile); Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Walborn, N. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gamen, R. C., E-mail: jmaiz@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CCT La Plata-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata), Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-03-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M {sub ☉} are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars.

  2. Southern GEMS groups II: HI distribution, mass functions and HI deficient galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kilborn, Virginia A; Barnes, David G; Koribalski, Baerbel S; Brough, Sarah; Kern, Katie

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of sixteen groups for which we have multi-wavelength data including X-ray observations. Wide-field imaging of the groups was obtained with the 20-cm multibeam system on the 64-m Parkes telescope. We have detected ten previously uncatalogued HI sources, one of which has no visible optical counterpart. We examine the HI properties of the groups, compared to their X-ray characteristics, finding that those groups with a higher X-ray temperature and luminosity contain less HI per galaxy. The HI content of a group depends on its morphological make-up, with those groups dominated by early-type galaxies containing the least total HI. We determined the expected HI for the spiral galaxies in the groups, and found that a number of the galaxies were HI deficient. The HI deficient spirals were found both in groups with and without a hot intra-group medium. The HI deficient galaxies were not necessarily found at the centre of the groups, however, we did find that two thirds ...

  3. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). II. Bright Southern Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sota, A; Morrell, N I; Barbá, R H; Walborn, N R; Gamen, R C; Arias, J I; Alfaro, E J

    2013-01-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ~ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of delta = -20 degrees, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic surve...

  4. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  5. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Habib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Phenylketonuria is a hereditary, autosomal recessivedisorder caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylaseor its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The purpose ofthe present study was to evaluate the incidence of this disorderin southern Iran.Methods: All the neonates born between 22/Dec/2004 and7/Sep/2007 were screened and their blood samples were testedby colorimetric and high performance liquid chromatographymethods to obtain a diagnosis of phenylketonuria.Results: Of the screened newborns (87091 females and 88143males 15 female and 13 male neonates were diagnosed definitelyas having phenylketonuria.Conclusion: The incidence of phenylketonuria in girls andboys was 1.7 in 10000 and 1.5 in 10000, respectively (mean:1.6 in 10000 in southern Iran (Fars province.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 137-139.

  6. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  7. pyridine Zn(II) and Cu(II) Complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... The kinetics, mechanism and polymer microstructure studies of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides (LA) by Zn(II) and Cu(II) ... transparency, ease of processing and ease of microbial decompo- sition or degradation.

  8. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  9. Broadband Seismic Studies In Southern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    the granulite terrain, the crust is both thicker (44 1 km deep) and more complicated, with a mid-crustal discontinuity at approximately 25-km depth...the granulite terrain (KOD, Fig. 1) the crust is 43 km thick. Thus, there are significant differences in Moho depth over southern India, but the...Moho there is about 5 km deeper, a result also noted in the Deep Seismic Soundings from the region. To the south of the shield in the granulite terrain

  10. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  11. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  12. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  13. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  14. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  15. The pollination niche and its role in the diversification and maintenance of the southern African flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D

    2010-02-12

    The flora of southern Africa has exceptional species richness and endemism, making it an ideal system for studying the patterns and processes of evolutionary diversification. Using a wealth of recent case studies, I examine the evidence for pollinator-driven diversification in this flora. Pollination systems, which represent available niches for ecological diversification, are characterized in southern Africa by a high level of ecological and evolutionary specialization on the part of plants, and, in some cases, by pollinators as well. These systems are asymmetric, with entire plant guilds commonly specialized for a particular pollinator species or functional type, resulting in obvious convergent floral evolution among guild members. Identified modes of plant lineage diversification involving adaptation to pollinators in these guilds include (i) shifts between pollination systems, (ii) divergent use of the same pollinator, (iii) coevolution, (iv) trait tracking, and (v) floral mimicry of different model species. Microevolutionary studies confirm that pollinator shifts can be precipitated when a plant species encounters a novel pollinator fauna on its range margin, and macroevolutionary studies confirm frequent pollinator shifts associated with lineage diversification. As Darwin first noted, evolutionary specialization for particular pollinators, when resulting in ecological dependency, may increase the risk of plant extinction. I thus also consider the evidence that disturbance provokes pollination failure in some southern African plants with specialized pollination systems.

  16. The pollination niche and its role in the diversification and maintenance of the southern African flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    The flora of southern Africa has exceptional species richness and endemism, making it an ideal system for studying the patterns and processes of evolutionary diversification. Using a wealth of recent case studies, I examine the evidence for pollinator-driven diversification in this flora. Pollination systems, which represent available niches for ecological diversification, are characterized in southern Africa by a high level of ecological and evolutionary specialization on the part of plants, and, in some cases, by pollinators as well. These systems are asymmetric, with entire plant guilds commonly specialized for a particular pollinator species or functional type, resulting in obvious convergent floral evolution among guild members. Identified modes of plant lineage diversification involving adaptation to pollinators in these guilds include (i) shifts between pollination systems, (ii) divergent use of the same pollinator, (iii) coevolution, (iv) trait tracking, and (v) floral mimicry of different model species. Microevolutionary studies confirm that pollinator shifts can be precipitated when a plant species encounters a novel pollinator fauna on its range margin, and macroevolutionary studies confirm frequent pollinator shifts associated with lineage diversification. As Darwin first noted, evolutionary specialization for particular pollinators, when resulting in ecological dependency, may increase the risk of plant extinction. I thus also consider the evidence that disturbance provokes pollination failure in some southern African plants with specialized pollination systems. PMID:20047876

  17. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...... centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for the discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between September 1 and November 30 of 2005-7. During...... the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327...

  18. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  19. ASDIR-II. Volume II. Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    34- - , *f,7J ,, .I .I).’ t•I r ojo o o I D - ý flo 1 1nt o - IV0C Kൈ.,4M %n -tI.,n aV 16ncc~’’ 4 1’ 1 ,m In %nOIN~CIN, t~tt & In, .)mrif4 ftj’.3N4).iiM...In 4.4 teat W 4.V . mI N )41 CD W4.4 ’( mal . I". CV ’. - C- .4 kq *W k, W i . C~ C L &j C11 t.4 t-JC IV . th- LZ %Pe W il IN . I’M VI. i l ~l I ) S P...4 -9 3 1a -4 - w-eq 4 - 4 - a. in 1`, mal 4.) 7, ;-riMrim- tfn ~n(l4 Sc~mn r I Al A’ X -’ t ;V N X XDl ;0I -M ’.C xci)At.x;7 ; u ,A )XU ,X;uxvA i a

  20. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  1. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  2. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  3. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-09-19

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  5. RADTRAN II user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  6. Enrichments in authigenic uranium in glacial sediments of the Southern Ocean; Enrichissement en uranium authigene dans les sediments glaciaires de l'ocean Austral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezileau, L. [Universidad de Conception, Programa Regional de Oceanografia Fisica y Climat PROFC, Y Centro de Investigacion Oceanografica (Chile); Bareille, G. [Pau Univ., Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, EP-CNRS 132, 64 (France); Reyss, J.L. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de L' environnement, Lab. Mixte CEA-CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2002-11-01

    Four sediment cores from the Polar frontal zone and the Antarctic zone in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean present an increase of authigenic uranium during glacial periods. We show that this increase in uranium is due to a combination of (i) an increase in the lateral transport of organic matter, (ii) a decrease in the oxygen in deep waters, and (iii) a process of diagenesis. It appears that uranium concentration cannot be used as a proxy of paleo-productivity in the Southern Ocean, as previously suggested by Kumar et al. in 1995. (authors)

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . Involvement of the thyroid gland is most often ...

  8. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  9. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  11. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  12. What is LAMPF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.

  13. Cervantes y Felipe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovik Osterc

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Como es sabido, el 13 de septiembre de 1598, a las cinco de la mañana, falleció en el Escorial el Rey Felipe II. Sevilla que según sus historiadores siempre se distinguió entre todas las ciudades de España por el fausto y suntuosidad de los sucesos solemnes, ya sea cuando los monarcas se dignaban visitarla, ya sea cuando se trataba de honrar su memoria con ocasión de su muerte, se habia excedido a si misma en el reinado de Felipe II. La pública y señorial entrada de su padre, el emperador Carlos V cuando en 1526 vino a esta ciudad para realizar sus bodas con la Infanta Isabel de Portugal, que por su magnificencia consignan sus anales, como superior a cuantas hubo antes en análogas circunstancias, no puede compararse con el recibimiento dispensado a Felipe II, el año de 1570, que por encargo de su Cabildo describió la docta pluma de Mal Lara.

  14. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  15. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-SouthernNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El NiñoNiño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El NiñoNiño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El NiñoNiño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El NiñoNiño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  16. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  17. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in southern China from 1978 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinhua

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses (DENV in southern China, a total of 14 dengue isolates were collected in southern China during each epidemic year between 1978 and 2006 and their full-length genome sequences were obtained by using RT-PCR method. The E gene sequences from additional 6 dengue fever patients in Guangzhou in 2006 were also obtained by using RT-PCR method. Combined with DENVs sequences published in GenBank, phylogenetic analysis and recombination analysis were performed. One hundred and twenty-five E gene sequences and 60 complete genome sequences published in the GenBank were also involved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a wide genetic diversity of DENVs isolated in southern China. DENV-1 strains exist in almost all of the clades of genotype I and IV except the Asia 1 clade of genotype I; DENV-2 stains are grouped into four of the five genotypes except American genotype. DENV-4 strains are grouped into 2 genotypes (I and II. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that all DENV-4 isolates and two DENV-2 isolates were closely related to the prior isolates from neighboring Southeast Asia countries. The DENV-1 strain isolated during the 2006 epidemic is highly homologous to the strains isolated during the 2001 epidemic. Recombination analysis showed no inter-serotype recombination, but 22 intra-serotype recombination events were found across the 32 complete genomes of all Chinese isolates. The study suggested that dengue fever epidemic in Southern China over the past 30 years presented two important modes, 1 imported-cases-induced endemic prevalence; 2 endogenous epidemic outbreak with natural epidemic focus. Recombination may play an important role in dengue virus evolution and adaptation.

  18. Dengue dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam: periodicity, synchronicity and climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoa T D Thai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major global public health problem with increasing incidence and geographic spread. The epidemiology is complex with long inter-epidemic intervals and endemic with seasonal fluctuations. This study was initiated to investigate dengue transmission dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: Wavelet analyses were performed on time series of monthly notified dengue cases from January 1994 to June 2009 (i to detect and quantify dengue periodicity, (ii to describe synchrony patterns in both time and space, (iii to investigate the spatio-temporal waves and (iv to associate the relationship between dengue incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO indices in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate a continuous annual mode of oscillation and a multi-annual cycle of around 2-3-years was solely observed from 1996-2001. Synchrony in time and between districts was detected for both the annual and 2-3-year cycle. Phase differences used to describe the spatio-temporal patterns suggested that the seasonal wave of infection was either synchronous among all districts or moving away from Phan Thiet district. The 2-3-year periodic wave was moving towards, rather than away from Phan Thiet district. A strong non-stationary association between ENSO indices and climate variables with dengue incidence in the 2-3-year periodic band was found. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-annual mode of oscillation was observed and these 2-3-year waves of infection probably started outside Binh Thuan province. Associations with climatic variables were observed with dengue incidence. Here, we have provided insight in dengue population transmission dynamics over the past 14.5 years. Further studies on an extensive time series dataset are needed to test the hypothesis that epidemics emanate from larger cities in southern Vietnam.

  19. Rainfall variability over southern Africa: an overview of current research using satellite and climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, satellite-derived rainfall data are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art climate model, run at both high and low spatial resolution. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, a brief overview is given of the authors' research to date, pertaining to southern African rainfall. This covers (i) a description of present-day rainfall variability over southern Africa; (ii) a comparison of model simulated daily rainfall with the satellite-derived dataset; (iii) results from sensitivity testing of the model's domain size; and (iv) results from the idealised SST experiments.

  20. A Roadmap for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Science for the Next Two Decades and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M. C., II

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to 'scan the horizon' to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.

  1. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  2. A comparative study on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Co(II) while it decreased in the presence of Cu(II) in the studied range of concentration variation. Maximum Pb(II) .... size variation in the range of 2 to 10 nm. ...... Zinc-bromine Battery, Lead-acid and Lithium Batteries, Arsenic Remediation from.

  3. STABILITY OF BINARY COMPLEXES OF Pb(II), Cd(II) AND Hg(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Binary complexes of maleic acid with toxic metal ions such as Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been ... By binding the metal ions electrostatically to the negatively charged ..... results in highly stable seven membered rings (Figure 3).

  4. Blame it on Southern, but it's a western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klionsky, Daniel J

    2017-01-02

    Edwin M. Southern is a professor emeritus at the University of Oxford. He is perhaps best known for development of the "Southern blot" (Dr. Southern was at the University of Edinburgh when he wrote his landmark paper). The Southern blot provided a scientific breakthrough by allowing scientists to detect a particular DNA sequence without first purifying it from the rest of the genome; the basic method involves the transfer of the DNA to a membrane, followed by detection with a specific probe. Although few people perform Southern blots as originally carried out by Southern, due in part to the more recent technique of the polymerase chain reaction, the basic concept continues to play an important role in molecular biology.

  5. Late-glacial of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  6. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  7. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  8. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Casuarius_casuarius_L.png Casuarius_cas...uarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+cas...uarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casu...arius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  10. The genus Waltheria in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Verdoorn

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Waltheria indica L., the only species of Waltheria represented in southern Africa, is revised. This species, which occurs throughout the tropics and substropics of the world, is found abundantly in the northern Cape, Swaziland, northern Natal, Transvaal and northwards through South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana. Thoughout its wide distribution the species is uniform. A scrutiny o f herbarium specimens revealed that what appeared as a distinct species or subspecies was without doubt an abnormality, probably caused by insect injury.

  11. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  12. Anaemia during pregnancy in southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, T; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Edgar, T; Ronsmans, C; Nathan, R; Abdulla, S; Mukasa, O; Urassa, H; Lengeler, C

    2002-07-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for low birth-weight. Of 507 pregnant women recruited in a community, cross-sectional study in southern Tanzania, 11% were severely anaemic (food taboos in the study area principally restrict the consumption of fish and meat. Effective anti-malaria and iron-supplementation interventions are available but are not currently in place; improvements in the mechanisms for the delivery of such interventions are urgently required. Additionally, opportunities for contacting the target groups beyond the clinic environment need to be developed.

  13. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17...... prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  14. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17...... prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  15. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  16. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  17. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  18. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  19. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  20. Physics II for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A plain-English guide to advanced physics. Does just thinking about the laws of motion make your head spin? Does studying electricity short your circuits? Physics II For Dummies walks you through the essentials and gives you easy-to-understand and digestible guidance on this often intimidating course. Thanks to this book, you don?t have to be Einstein to understand physics. As you learn about mechanical waves and sound, forces and fields, electric potential and electric energy, and much more, you?ll appreciate the For Dummies law: The easier we make it, the faster you'll understand it!

  1. Engineering mathematics-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, A

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

  2. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  3. Dibromidotris(dimethylaminemagnesium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bolte

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mg centre in the title compound, [MgBr2(C2H7N3], is pentacoordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal mode with the two Br atoms in axial positions and the N atoms of the dimethylamine ligands in equatorial positions. The MgII centre is located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The N atom and H atoms of one dimethylamine ligand are disordered over two equally occupied positions.

  4. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  5. PIVKA-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    建石良介

    2005-01-01

    @@ PIVKA-II是通过维生素K缺乏或拮抗剂II诱导的蛋白质 (protein induced by vitamine K absence or antagonist-II),又称为右旋-γ-羧基-凝血酶原(des-γ-carboxy prothrombin),它是肝脏合成的无凝血活性的异常凝血酶原.自从Liebman等(1984年)报道以来,PIVKA-II作为肝细胞癌的特异性肿瘤标志物,是临床上不可缺少的检查.

  6. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  7. Skin and bones. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlow, S J; Watsky, K L; Bolognia, J L

    1991-09-01

    Skin disorders in which a radiograph may detect associated bony changes or abnormalities of calcification are discussed. They are grouped into eight categories: (1) inherited diseases (e.g., alkaptonuria, neurofibromatosis); (2) congenital disorders (e.g., Sturge-Weber and Proteus syndromes); (3) inflammatory conditions (e.g., dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis); (4) infections (e.g., dental sinus, syphilis); (5) neoplasias (e.g., histiocytosis, mastocytosis); (6) drug- and environment-induced (e.g., acroosteolysis, retinoid toxicity); (7) calcinosis cutis; and (8) osteoma cutis. The first part of this review, published in the August 1991 issue of this JOURNAL, dealt with the first two categories; part II discusses categories 3 through 8.

  8. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    exothermic than that of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This suggests that enthalpy of crystallization in carbonate systems is ionic-size controlled, which may have significant implications in a wide variety of conditions, including geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.......Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  9. Diaquabis(benzyloxyacetatocopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Min Hao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title mononuclear complex, [Cu(C9H9O32(H2O2], the CuII ion, located on an inversion center, is hexacoordinated by four O atoms from two benzyloxyacetate ligands [Cu—O = 1.9420 (14 and 2.2922 (14 Å] and two water molecules [Cu—O = 2.0157 (15 Å] in a distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  10. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  11. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  12. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  13. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  14. Corridors of time II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, A.

    2000-07-01

    An eclectic series of essays which, taken together, provide an historical account of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is presented. The story begins with the first realization of the commercial potential of the deposit in the 1880s, and carried forward to the present. The essays describe various aspects of the oil sands saga: the political developments leading to Alberta gaining jurisdiction over the deposit, other events, such as the Canadian Pacific Railway' land grants, and anecdotes about individuals who played a part in the historical evolution of the oil sands industry. Many of the stories come from the author's own experiences which go back some 35 years, when as a neophyte oilman he was involved with what turned out to be the Taber Oil Sands play in southern Alberta. Some of the essays recount experiences of Canadian oilmen abroad; they also describe how these experiences led to accelerated progress in the development of the industry in Canada. The concluding section consists of a series of vignettes about some twenty pioneers of the industry, many of them personally known to the author, whose contributions, small or large, have formed an indispensable part of the fascinating story of the Canadian oil industry in general, and the development of the Alberta oil sands into a world-class source of energy, in particular. tabs., figs. photos.

  15. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  16. Tracing pastoralist migrations to southern Africa with lactase persistence alleles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macholdt, Enrico; Lede, Vera; Barbieri, Chiara; Mpoloka, Sununguko W; Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Although southern African Khoisan populations are often assumed to have remained largely isolated during prehistory, there is growing evidence for a migration of pastoralists from eastern Africa some...

  17. The Belle II Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  18. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  19. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  20. SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Findlay E.

    1960-01-01

    The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

  1. Detector Considerations for a HAWC Southern Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    DuVernois, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...

  2. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  3. Odonata (Insecta diversity of southern Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana M. Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies was studied in seven districts of southern area of Gujarat State in India during 2014 to 2015.  A total of 55 species belonging to two suborders and 37 genera under eight families were recorded.  A total of 18 species of Zygoptera (damselflies and 37 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies were recorded.  Dang and Navsari districts were surveyed intensively and a maximum of 47 and 35 species were recorded respectively, whereas the districts that were surveyed less intensively, i.e., Bharuch (26, Valsad (21, Surat (29, Narmada (25 and Tapi (27 had comparatively low species richness.  Thirty-two species are being reported for the first time from southern Gujarat, raising the total list of odonates to 60.  Fifteen species namely, Lestes elatus Hagen in Selys, 1862; Elattoneura nigerrima (Laidlaw, 1917; Dysphaea ethela Fraser, 1924; Paracercion malayanum (Selys, 1876; Pseudagrion spencei Fraser, 1922; Burmagomphus laidlawi- Fraser, 1924; Cyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, 1854; Microgomphus torquatus (Selys, 1854; Onychogomphus acinaces (Laidlaw, 1922; Hylaeothemis indica Fraser, 1946; Lathrecista asiatica (Fabricius, 1798; Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842; Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1832; Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 and Zyxomma petiolatum Rambur, 1842 are recorded for the first time from Gujarat State raising the number of odonates of Gujarat State to 80 species.  

  4. Southern Criminology: Guest Editors’' Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hogg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a commodity and knowledge production does not occur in a geo-political vacuum. With respect to this, it has to be argued that neo-imperialism involves economic and knowledge flows across continuous space, which is transnational and distinct from the old forms of colonialism which were based on country-to-country occupation. In the context of contemporary geo-politics, these conditions render territorial terrain as less important than discursive terrain (Lo 2011. So, how is global knowledge in the social sciences (and more specifically in criminology produced and shared? Where does this production take place? Who are the producers? Whose experiences and whose voices are reflected in dominant academic discourses? How is knowledge disseminated and who gets access to it? These are some of the questions that the project of southern criminology seeks to tackle. To access the full text of the introductory article to this special issue on southern criminology, download the accompanying PDF file.

  5. Social perception of droughts in the mass media (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T. Leon; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, drought is one of the extreme phenomena that has most direct consequences and complexity. It also has a direct social impact through the mass media, whose analysis, typology and characterization should be a priority in strategies to plan and mitigate effects. The appearance of droughts is slow, their occurrence is often not recognized until human activity and the environment have already been significantly affected, and drought effects persist for a long time after the drought has ended. The spatial distribution of droughts is highly complex, and significant variation in drought conditions is common between different locations. This makes it difficult to identify similar regions, especially in areas of climate transition, where the atmospheric influences are complex. This is the situation in the Iberian Peninsula (particularly the south of the peninsula), which straddles both temperate and sub-tropical climates and in which precipitation is highly variable and spatial variability is substantial. In this study we analyzed rainfall anomalies (Standardized Precipitation Index) over the last 50 years at 4 representative meteorological stations in southern Spain, two on the coast (Málaga and Algarrobo) and two at the headwaters of river basins regulated by dams (Antequera and Periana). The aims of the study were to: i) analyze the types of drought, and their frequency and intensity; and ii) establish the dynamics and evolution of the social perception of droughts in the context of global change, brought about by the communications media. The results showed the SPI was a useful tool for identifying dry anomalies that may feature in our field of study of meteorological and hydrological drought, depending on its duration. Meteorological drought impact on the eco-geomorphological system is common and has had a particular development since the 80's. Hydrological droughts are those that have had the greatest effect on water reserves

  6. Personality characteristics and irritable bowel syndrome in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavinasab Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, and its definite etiology is still unclear. It has been shown that personality characteristics can affect the disease presentation and attitude of patient toward symptoms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the personality characteristics in patients with IBS in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the personality characteristics of 60 patients with IBS and 55 healthy persons were compared using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. The cases were selected from patients who were referred to the Mottahari clinic affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: The patients recorded the highest scores on the hypochondriasis and psychoasthenia scales. The scores of the patient on the scales of lie, infrequency, hypochondriasis, depression and hysteria showed significant elevation in comparison to those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores on clinical scales in male subjects were higher for psychopathic-deviate, paranoia and social introversion scales in comparison to the males in the control group. Female subjects recorded lower scores on the social introversion scale in comparison to the females in the control group. Male subjects also recorded a higher score on the psychopathic-deviate, paranoia, psychoasthenia and social introversion scales in comparison to females. Female subjects had a relatively higher score on the masculinity/feminity scale. Based on the clinical interview using DMS-IV criteria, the most prevalent symptoms were anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with IBS, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of these patients is recommended.

  7. Ultrasonographic determination of goiter prevalence in southern Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa H.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of goiter in schoolchildren in a formerly iodine-deficient region in southern Brazil by assessing the relationship between body surface area (m² and thyroid volume (ml measured by ultrasonography. A population-based sample of 1,094 randomly selected schoolchildren (6 to 14 years; 556 boys and 538 girls underwent clinical evaluation. A total of 119 (10.9% children were diagnosed with goiter upon clinical examination according to WHO criteria (grade Ia: 65, grade Ib: 24, grade II: 29, grade III: 1. Of these, 85 underwent ultrasonography. In order to ascertain the absence of goiter in the 975 schoolchildren with a negative result upon clinical examination, one of ten children was randomly selected for ultrasonography. Sixty-two children agreed to be submitted to the exam. Thus, 147 schoolchildren were evaluated by ultrasonography (7.5-MHz transducer. Goiter was considered to be present when the thyroid volume:body surface area index was >6.2 ml/m². The estimated prevalence of goiter if all schoolchildren had been submitted to thyroid volume measurement by ultrasound was 7.2%; it was higher in the lower socioeconomic class (8.2% than in the upper (7.8% and middle classes (6.5%. In conclusion, the prevalence of goiter in schoolchildren of this region was higher than in other iodine-sufficient areas, especially in lower socioeconomic classes. Goiter in this region may be associated with naturally occurring goitrogens that operate more intensively among less privileged individuals.

  8. Surfactant damages on coastal vegetation in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal vegetation decline caused by seaspray has been reported to affect a variety of species in several countries: Australia, South of France, along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast, Spain and Tunisia. The most serious injury is due to the interaction between sea salt and surfactants, even if surfactants may cause direct damage on cell membranes. The salt uptake is enhanced by the durfactant-induced erosion of the epicuticular wax, which reduces the water surface tension. The symptoms are non-specific and consist in leaf discoloration and necrosis. In needles, necrosis begins from the apex; in leaves, from the edges. Directionality of crown damage is the main symptom for diagnosing the involvement of polluted seaspray. If an obstacle is placed between trees and sea wind, the trees do not show appreciable damage. In Italy, the tree decline caused by seaspray and surfactants has been investigated with special reference to the pinewoods of the San Rossore (Tuscany, Central Italy, or on the Tyrrhenian coastlands of Central Italy, such as the area around Castelporziano in Lazio. This research is aimed at a preliminary assessment of the extent of surfactant damage to the coastal vegetation in four regions in Southern Italy by: i field surveys and mapping of damage caused by surfactants; ii detecting the presence of surfactants on the tree crowns. The damages have been observed in a lot of zones in Apulia, Basilicata, Campania and Calabria, within 500 m inland from the sea, for a maximum length of 5500 m coastline, near the mouth of a river or stream, near the outlet of sewage canals and in any other coastal areas where the surface currents carry a surfactant load.

  9. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converse, S.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  10. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P

    2005-05-26

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  11. New Constraints on Maar Geometry and Sedimentary Fill of Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, C. A.; Niessen, F.; Anselmetti, F.; Ariztegui, D.; de Batist, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2007-12-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike is located in Southern Patagonia, Argentina, at 52°S and 70°W. The maar lake has a diameter of 3.5 km and is almost circular and bowl-shaped with a deep, flat plain (100 m water depth) in its central part. Steep flanks separate the lake shoulders at 15 to 35 m water depth from the central plain. The lake is situated in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field at the present boundary between the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and the Antarctic Polar Front. Its lake level is highly susceptible to changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that controls the regional precipitation patterns. Its sedimentary infill possibly contains a long and continuous record of several glacial and interglacial cycles, which is unique in the southern South American realm. Two major stratigraphic units (I and II) were distinguished in the seismic sections. Unit I consists of the lacustrine infill and was further subdivided into Sub-units I-a and I-b on the lake shoulders and I-ab, I-c, and I-d in the central basin. Sub-units I-a and I-b on the lake shoulders are separated by a major unconformity and contain several paleoshoreline structures formed during a step-wise transgression after a lake level lowstand of approx. 35 m below the present lake level. In the central basin, Sub-units I-a and I-b are merged into Sub-unit I-ab, not being separated by any unconformity. Pelagic sedimentation dominates in the northern and central parts, whereas mass movement deposits were found in the southern, western and eastern parts close to the steep diatreme flanks. The boundary between I-ab and I-c is non-erosive with I-ab forming downlaps onto I-c from the eastern and western parts of the lake, pointing at a significantly lower lake level during its accumulation. Sub-unit I-d shows similar characteristics as I-ab. The bedrock (Unit II) that forms the steep diatreme flanks consists of the well-layered sandstones found in the lake surroundings.

  12. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  13. Inside ISIS II

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  14. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  15. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  16. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  17. Dynamics of the southern California current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    The dynamics of seasonal to long-term variability of the Southern California Current System (SCCS) is studied using a four dimensional space-time analysis of the 52 year (1949--2000) California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) hydrography combined with a sensitivity analysis of an eddy permitting primitive equation ocean model under various forcing scenarios. The dynamics of the seasonal cycle in the SCCS can be summarized as follows. In spring upwelling favorable winds force an upward tilt of the isopycnals along the coast (equatorward flow). Quasi-linear Rossby waves are excited by the ocean adjustment to the isopycnal displacement. In summer as these waves propagate offshore poleward flow develops at the coast and the Southern California Eddy (SCE) reaches its seasonal maxima. Positive wind stress curl in the Southern California Bight is important in maintaining poleward flow and locally reinforcing the SCE with an additional upward displacement of isopycnals through Ekman pumping. At the end of summer and throughout the fall instability processes within the SCE are a generating mechanism for mesoscale eddies, which fully develop in the offshore waters during winter. On decadal timescales a warming trend in temperature (1 C) and a deepening trend in the depth of the mean thermocline (20 m) between 1950 and 1998 are found to be primarily forced by large-scale decadal fluctuations in surface heat fluxes combined with horizontal advection by the mean currents. After 1998 the surface heat fluxes suggest the beginning of a period of cooling, which is consistent with colder observed ocean temperatures. The temporal and spatial distribution of the warming is coherent over the entire northeast Pacific Ocean. Salinity changes are decoupled from temperature and uncorrelated with indices of large-scale oceanic variability. Temporal modulation of southward horizontal advection by the California Current is the primary mechanism controlling local

  18. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  19. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  20. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  1. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies, action plans and other policy processes in southern Africa.This was done .... The evolution of environmental education in southern Africa can be linked to developments both within and ..... As outlined above, the audit revealed that more attention has been paid historically to the ..... PROTECTION_ACT.pdf. Stiles ...

  2. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  3. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  4. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern Chi

  5. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  6. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  7. Proceedings of the 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Weir; Alice V. Hatcher; [Compilers

    1995-01-01

    The 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference was held at the Holiday Inn SunSpree Resort in Asheville, North Carolina. The Conference was sponsored by the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee and hosted by the N. C. State University-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. A total of 37 presentations, three invited and 34 voluntary, were given....

  8. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern

  9. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  10. Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia on the imunohematological indices among school children and adolescents in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Prista, António; Jani, Ilesh V

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors...

  11. Rapid suppression of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in two communities of the Southern Chiapas focus, Mexico, achieved by quarterly treatments with Mectizan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Lutzow-Steiner, Miguel A; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Lizarazo-Ortega, Cristian; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Richards, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Hernández-Hernández, Raymundo

    2008-08-01

    The impact of quarterly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatments on transmission, microfiladermia, and ocular lesions was evaluated in two formerly hyperendemic communities (Las Golondrinas and Las Nubes II) located in the main endemic focus for onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. The data suggest that Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been suppressed after elimination of microfiladermia in these two communities. Increasing the frequency of Mectizan treatment to four times per year appears to have resulted in the rapid suppression of transmission in communities with residual transmission.

  12. Statistical opportunities for comparing stand structural heterogeneity in managed and primeval forests: an example from boreal spruce forest in southern Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuuluvainen, Timo; Penttinen, Antti; Leinonen, Kari; Nygren, Markku

    1996-01-01

    Part II Biodiversity The horizontal and vertical stand structure of living trees was examined in a managed and in a primeval spruce-dominated forest in southern Finland. Tree size distributions (DBHs, tree heights) were compared using frequency histograms. The vertical distribution of tree heights was illustrated as tree height plots and quantified as the tree height diversity (THD) using the Shannon-Weaver formula. The horizontal spatial pattern of trees was described with stem maps and q...

  13. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  14. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  15. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  16. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Dias, J C

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to avoid transfusional transmission. In line with this strategy, governments of the six Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) launched in 1991 an ambitious initiative to control Chagas disease through elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, and large-scale screening of blood donors. Now at its mid-point, the programme has achieved remarkable success, with transmission halted over vast areas of the previously endemic regions. Well over 2 million rural houses have been sprayed to eliminate T. infestans, and the programme has already shown significant economic rates of return in addition to the medical and social benefits.

  17. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  18. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  19. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  20. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  1. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El Niño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El Niño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El Niño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El Niño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  2. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  3. Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

    2007-12-01

    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

  4. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, M E; Resa, A J; Barclay, C M; Calanni, L; Samengo, L; Martinez, L; Padula, P J; Pini, N; Lasala, M B; Elsner, B; Enria, D A

    2000-01-01

    Andes virus was identified in 1995 as the etiologic agent of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Southern Argentina. We describe herein the main clinical characteristics of 25 HPS confirmed cases acquired in this area between 1993 and September 1999. The mean age was 34 years (range 11-70), with 72% males. Clinical characteristics were similar to those previously reported for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) cases. However, in this group of patients we also observed conjuntival injection in 10/25 (42%), facial flushing in 8/25 (33%), pharyngeal congestion in 7/25 (29%) and petechiae in 3/25 (12%). On the other hand, BUN was increased in 83% of cases (mean 0.77 g/l range 0.31-2.01). Mean serum creatinine concentration was 26.8 mg/l (range: 8.1-110 mg/l) with serum creatinine being higher than 20 mg/l in 8/15 patients (53%). Urinalysis was abnormal in 12/12 cases and was characterized by presence of proteins, red blood cells and granular casts. Aminotransferases were increased in 90% of cases with levels 5-10 times over normal values in 50% of cases. Serum creatine kinase concentration was elevated in 11/14 cases. Two patients required hemodialysis. Case fatality rate was 44% (11/25) and 10 of these cases died among the first 10 days of illness. Mononuclear myocarditis was observed in two cases, a finding that has not been reported for SNV cases. During the 1996 HPS outbreak in Southern Argentina due to Andes virus, there were epidemiological and molecular evidences of person-to-person transmission, a feature not previously shown for other members of the hantavirus genus. These data would also be indicative of some distinctive clinical characteristics of HPS caused by Andes virus, with more frequent renal involvement than in SNV cases.

  5. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  6. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  7. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  8. Reconstruction of Early Pleistocene climate in southern Australia, and implications for Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniderman, K.; Porch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Southern Australia today experiences a winter-dominated rainfall regime, governed by the seasonal migration of the Southern Hemisphere subtropical anticyclone. The history of this rainfall seasonality regime is poorly understood, because well dated, late Neogene climate records are scarce, both in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere more generally. However, it has been assumed that the initiation of this rainfall regime was linked to the onset of extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation, around 2.6 Ma. Here, we use fossil beetle remains from an upland southeastern Australian palaeolake record to quantitatively reconstruct regional climate during ~280 kyr of the Early Pleistocene, between 1.84-1.56 Ma. Our results, based on coexistence of extant fossil beetle taxa, indicate that temperatures were consistently 1-3°C warmer than present, and annual rainfall as high as or higher than today, but summer rainfall was 2-2.4 times higher than today, throughout the period of our record. This is consistent with the presence in the associated pollen record of diverse rainforest plant taxa, many of which are now extinct regionally or Australia-wide. Our results indicate that the modern, winter-dominated rainfall regime was not yet in place by 1.5 Ma, at least one million years later than previously thought. In as much as the modern climate regime is a function of the intensity of atmospheric circulation driven by hemispheric temperature gradients, this implies that Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation may have been much less intense than today during the Early Pleistocene, and that a major regional climate reorganisation (Ravelo et al., 2004) occurred sometime after 1.5 Ma, perhaps associated with further growth of the Antarctic cryosphere (Raymo et al., 2006).

  9. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  10. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  11. A Type II Supernova Hubble Diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Folatelli, G.; Pritchet, C.; Basa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Applying the Photometric Color Method (PCM) to 73 SNe II with a redshift range of 0.01–0.5 and with no spectral information, we derive an intrinsic dispersion of 0.35 mag. A comparison with the Standard Candle Method (SCM) using 61 SNe II is also performed and an intrinsic dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.27 mag, i.e., 13% in distance uncertainties, is derived. Due to the lack of good statistics at higher redshifts for both methods, only weak constraints on the cosmological parameters are obtained. However, assuming a flat universe and using the PCM, we derive the universe’s matter density: {{{Ω }}}m={0.32}-0.21+0.30 providing a new independent evidence for dark energy at the level of two sigma. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program N-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GS-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, and GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  12. Recent results from AMANDA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    2003-04-01

    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments.

  13. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  14. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group.

  15. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  16. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  17. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  18. The Cu II Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kramida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New wavelength measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, ultraviolet and visible spectral regions have been combined with available literature data to refine and extend the description of the spectrum of singly ionized copper (Cu II. In the VUV region, we measured 401 lines using a concave grating spectrograph and photographic plates. In the UV and visible regions, we measured 276 lines using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These new measurements were combined with previously unpublished data from the thesis of Ross, with accurate VUV grating measurements of Kaufman and Ward, and with less accurate older measurements of Shenstone to construct a comprehensive list of ≈2440 observed lines, from which we derived a revised set of 379 optimized energy levels, complemented with 89 additional levels obtained using series formulas. Among the 379 experimental levels, 29 are new. Intensities of all lines observed in different experiments have been reduced to the same uniform scale by using newly calculated transition probabilities (A-values. We combined our calculations with published measured and calculated A-values to provide a set of 555 critically evaluated transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties, 162 of which are less than 20%.

  19. A simple regional coupled model experiment for summer-time climate simulation over southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnam, J.V.; Behera, S.K. [Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); Masumoto, Y. [Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); Earth Simulator Center, Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, T. [Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); The University of Tokyo, School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional model in simulating the precipitation over southern Africa during austral summer. The model's ability to reproduce the southern African mean climate and its variability around this mean state was evaluated by using the two-tier approach of specifying sea surface temperature (SST) to WRF and by using the one-tier approach of coupling the WRF with a simple mixed-layer ocean model. The boundary conditions provided by the reanalysis-II data were used for the simulations. Model experiments were conducted for twelve austral summers from DJF1998-99 to DJF2009-10. The experiments using both the two-tier and one-tier approaches simulated the spatial and temporal distributions of the precipitation realistically. However, both experiments simulated negative biases over Mozambique. Furthermore, analysis of the wet and dry spells revealed that the one-tier approach is superior to the two-tier approach. Based on the analysis of the surface temperature and the zonal wind shear it is noted that the simple mixed-layer ocean model coupled to WRF can be effectively used in place of two-tier WRF to simulate the climate of southern Africa. This is an important result because specification of SST at higher temporal resolutions in the subtropics is the most difficult task in the two-tier approach for most regional prediction models. The one-tier approach with the simple mixed-layer model can effectively reduce the complicacy of finding good SST predictions. (orig.)

  20. Implementing the millennium development food security goals Challenges of the southern African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Twomlow, Steve; Mupangwa, Walter; van der Zaag, Pieter; Gumbo, Bekithemba

    The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions targeted at women. Analysis of over 10 years of agro-hydrological and agro-economic studies from southern African show that a different approach is required to interventions proposed. There are sustainability problems with free chemical fertiliser due to transport costs and ancillary costs. Furthermore, recent studies in Zimbabwe and Mozambique show that significant increases in yield can only be obtained when soil fertility management is combined with good crop husbandry, e.g. timely planting and weeding. Ongoing replenishment of fertility would be dependent on a continued free or subsidised fertiliser supply, and transport system. Increasing access to irrigation will help, but is not the only solution and cannot reach even a majority of farmers. It has been determined that short dryspells are often the major cause of low yields in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil-water conservation approaches, e.g. winter weeding and conservation tillage, can reduce risk and increase yield. The following specific recommendations are made for urgent interventions to contribute sustainably to food security in southern Africa: (i) To increases access to fertiliser, consider development of strong input markets at end-user level. (ii) Intensification of technology transfer, focusing on capacity building for transfer of existing technologies and much closer collaboration between state and NGO sectors, agronomists and water engineers. (iii) Increasing the uptake of soil-water conservation methods, including conservation tillage and weeding, and

  1. The 1985 Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant events in the evolution of the ozone layer over southern mid-latitudes since the late 1970s was the large decrease observed in 1985. This event remains unexplained and a detailed investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the event has not previously been undertaken. In this study, the 1985 Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomaly is analyzed in detail based on observed daily total column ozone fields, stratospheric dynamical fields, and calculated diagnostics of stratospheric mixing. The 1985 anomaly appears to result from a combination of (i an anomaly in the meridional circulation resulting from the westerly phase of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, (ii weaker transport of ozone from its tropical mid-stratosphere source across the sub-tropical barrier to mid-latitudes related to the particular phasing of the QBO with respect to the annual cycle, and (iii a solar cycle induced reduction in ozone. Similar QBO and solar cycle influences prevailed in 1997 and 2006 when again total column ozone was found to be suppressed over southern mid-latitudes. The results based on observations are compared and contrasted with analyses of ozone and dynamical fields from the ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM coupled chemistry-climate model (hereafter referred to as E39C. Equatorial winds in the E39C model are nudged towards observed winds between 10° S and 10° N and the ability of this model to produce an ozone anomaly in 1985, similar to that observed, confirms the role of the QBO in effecting the anomaly.

  2. Point source dispersion of surface drifters in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Sanson, Luis; Perez-Brunius, Paula; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The dispersion of surface drifters released from five specific locations in the southern Gulf of Mexico is described. The results provide a statistical estimation over a 7-year period of the spread of a cloud of floats from point sources in the region. It is shown that the drifter dispersion is strongly affected by the main mesoscale circulations features frequently observed in this area. Some of them are the anticyclonic eddies shed by the Loop Current at the eastern side of the Gulf of Mexico, and the semi-permanent cyclonic gyre at the Bay of Campeche. The results are examined further in terms of two dominant and contrasting dispersion scenarios: (i) an intense northward advection of drifters, preferentially along the western margin, and (ii) the retention of drifters in the southernmost part of the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Meiotic behavior and pollen viability in Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) cultivated in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N; Mendes-Bonato, A B; Sales, J G C; Pagliarini, M S

    2011-01-01

    Although originally from India, Moringa oleifera is now cultivated throughout most of the tropics, including Brazil. Despite its multipurpose value for food and traditional medicine, little is known about the meiotic behavior and pollen viability of M. oleifera. We evaluated microsporogenesis and pollen viability in eleven plants grown in southern Brazil (Maringá, Paraná). Bud flowers were collected in different stages of development. All plants that we analyzed presented 2n = 28 chromosomes, as previously reported for this species. Chromosomes paired as bivalents. Meiotic abnormalities were rare and metaphase I was the most affected phase. Pollen viability was superior to 88%. Tripolar spindles in metaphase II, leading to the formation of unreduced gametes, were recorded in some plants at a low frequency.

  4. Point source dispersion of surface drifters in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Sansón, L.; Pérez-Brunius, P.; Sheinbaum, J.

    2017-02-01

    The dispersion of surface drifters released over a 7-year period from five locations in the southern Gulf of Mexico is described. It is shown that the drifter dispersion is strongly affected by the main mesoscale circulations features frequently observed in this area. Some of them are the anticyclonic eddies shed by the Loop Current at the eastern side of the Gulf of Mexico, and a semi-permanent cyclonic gyre at the Bay of Campeche. The results are examined further in terms of two dominant and contrasting dispersion scenarios: (i) an intense northward advection of drifters, preferentially along the western margin, and (ii) the retention of drifters in the southernmost part of the Gulf of Mexico. The results are discussed from an environmental point of view, by considering particle dispersion from point sources as an approach to study marine pollution problems.

  5. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  6. Tectonic and climatic controls on the Chuquibamba landslide (western Andes, southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, A.; Audin, L.; Carcaillet, J.; Schwartz, S.; Benavente, C.

    2015-06-01

    The contribution of landslides to the Quaternary evolution of relief is poorly documented in arid contexts. In southern Peru and northern Chile, several massive landslides disrupt the arid western Andean front. The Chuquibamba landslide, located in southern Peru, belongs to this set of large landslides. In this area, the Incapuquio fault system captures the intermittent drainage network and localizes rotational landslides. Seismic activity is significant in this region with recurrent Mw 9 subduction earthquakes; however, none of the latest seismic events have triggered a major landslide. New terrestrial cosmogenic dating of the Chuquibamba landslide provides evidence that the last major gravitational mobilization of these rotational landslide deposits occurred at ~ 102 ka, during the Ouki wet climatic event identified on the Altiplano between 120 and 98 ka. Our results suggest that wet events in the arid and fractured context of the Andean forearc induced these giant debris flows. Finally, our study highlights the role of tectonics and climate on (i) the localization of large Andean landslides in the Western Cordillera and on (ii) the long-term mass transfer to the trench along the arid Andean front.

  7. Species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction.

  8. The 1985 southern hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant events in the evolution of the ozone layer over southern mid-latitudes since the late 1970s was the large decrease observed in 1985. This event remains unexplained and most state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry-transport models are unable to reproduce it. In this study, the 1985 southern hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomaly is analyzed in detail based on observed daily total column ozone fields, stratospheric dynamical fields, and calculated diagnostics of stratospheric mixing. The 1985 anomaly appears to result from a combination of (i an anomaly in the meridional circulation resulting from the westerly phase of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, (ii weaker transport of ozone from its tropical mid-stratosphere source across the sub-tropical barrier to mid-latitudes related to the particular phasing of the QBO with respect to the annual cycle, and (iii a solar cycle induced local reduction in ozone. The results based on observations are compared and contrasted with analyses of ozone and dynamical fields from the ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM coupled chemistry-climate model (hereafter referred to as E39C. Equatorial winds in the E39C model are nudged towards observed winds between 10° S and 10° N and the ability of this model to produce an ozone anomaly in 1985, similar to that observed, confirms the role of the QBO in the anomaly.

  9. Potential Dust Emissions from Sources in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere currently exhibits low levels of atmospheric dust concentrations relative to the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research suggests that dust concentrations could, however, increase as a result of loss of vegetation cover in the Southern Kalahari and the Mallee. Disturbances resulting from grazing and agriculture are identified as such drivers of land use change in these regions. While studies on the importance of atmospheric dust in global-scale processes are abundant, little has been done to locate the potential dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere because potential new sources are by definition inactive and are undetected in satellite images. To this end, using a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, we assess that the sediments collected from the dunefields in the Southern Kalahari and Mallee can emit substantial amount of dust, are rich in soluble iron and dust from these sources would reach the Southern Ocean. It is suggested that the supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. Thus intensification of land use can potentially make these regions an important source of iron given their proximity to the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts.

  10. Association between Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Belinda; Simmonds, Ian; Smith, Ian N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we explore the relationships between seasonal Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). We produce two seasonal indices of the SAM: the Antarctic Oscillation Index (AOI), and an Australian regional version (AOIR) using ERA-40 mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) reanalysis data. The seasonal rainfall data are based on gridded monthly rainfall provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.For the period 1958-2002 a significant inverse relationship is found between the SAM and rainfall in southern Australia, while a significant in-phase relationship is found between the SAM and rainfall in northern Australia. Furthermore, widespread significant inverse relationships in southern Australia are only observed in winter, and only with the AOIR. The AOIR accounts for more of the winter rainfall variability in southwest Western Australia, southern South Australia, western and southern Victoria, and western Tasmania than the Southern Oscillation Index. Overall, our results suggest that changes in the SAM may be partly responsible for the current decline in winter rainfall in southern South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but not the long-term decline in southwest Western Australian winter rainfall.

  11. Processes controlling Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J. E.; Medeiros, B.; Hwang, Y.; Gettelman, A.

    2013-12-01

    We use a fully coupled climate model (CESM) to identify processes controlling intriguingly diverse Southern Ocean cloud feedbacks in response to increased greenhouse gas forcing. Modeled Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks range from the most positive (enhancing greenhouse warming at ~40 degrees South) to the most negative (damping greenhouse warming at ~60 degrees South) on the planet. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, Antarctic sea ice loss, warming, and a poleward stormtrack shift/sub-tropical expansion all modify Southern Ocean clouds. Our analysis shows that Southern Ocean clouds are controlled both by thermodynamics (cloud changes for a given subsidence rate) and by dynamics (changes in subsidence rates). Hinting at the importance of thermodynamics, absorbed shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean is substantially more affected by increased greenhouse gas forcing than by a poleward stormtrack shift in the absence of greenhouse forcing. While we find CESM a useful tool, CESM has substantial Southern Ocean biases (e.g., excessive Antarctic sea ice, excessive absorbed shortwave radiation). Thus, we also assess the impact that these biases have on the realism of CESM Southern Ocean cloud-climate greenhouse feedbacks.

  12. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-II GnRH (cGnRH-II) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a conservative neurodecapeptide family, which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate. Two differing cGnRH-II cDNAs of common carp, namely cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2, were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The length of cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs (bp), respectively. The cGnRH-II precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids, including a signal peptide, cGnRH-II decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site. The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-II genes in common carp genome were further identified, and that two genes might exist as a single copy. The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-II gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-II genes were detected in five dissected brain regions, pituitary and gonad of common carp. With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary, two cGnRH-II genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues. However, expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions, pituitary and gonad. According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-II genes in brain areas, it was presumed that cGnRH-II might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing. Then, the expression of cGnRH-II genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-II might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  13. Selective separation of Cu (II), Zn (II), and Cd (II) by solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Keng; WEN Jiankang; HUA Yixin; RUAN Renman

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was presented on the separation of Cu (II), Zn (II), and Cd (II) from a rich sulfate leachate of zinc slag by solvent extraction. The results of orthogonal experiments indicate that LIX 984N is highly selective and very efficient in the extraction of Cu (II), and the analysis of variance indicates that the sequence of parameters according to their influence on the separation efficiency is phase ratio>LIX 984N concentration>pH value>extraction time. The optimal condition for copper extraction is obtained as 25% of LIX 984N concentration, 7 min of extraction time, 3:2 of phase ratio O/A, and pH=1.7. The separation of Zn (II) and Cd (II) was performed after the copper extraction from the raffinate. Comparative analysis of the separation with di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), D2EHPA-tributyl-phosophate (TBP) synergistic extracting system, and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHEHP) was made at pH=2.0. It is demonstrated that the extraction efficiency with D2EHPA is improved after being saponified by sodium hydroxide, and D2EHPA-TBP synergistic extracting, as well as HEHEHP, has a superior selectivity to Zn (II) over Cd (II).

  14. Stars and Nebulae in the Southern Crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The R Coronae Australis complex of young stars and interstellar gas clouds is one of the nearest star-forming regions, at a distance of approx. 500 light-years from the Sun. It is seen in the southern constellation of that name (The "Southern Crown"). Images of this sky area were recently obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. Some of these exposures have been combined into a magnificent colour image, here reproduced as PR Photo 25a/00 . The field shown measures about 4.7 x 4.7 light-years 2. It displays the central part of the complex, its brightest stars, and the nebulosity that they illuminate. The interstellar clouds that are associated with the complex are visible all across this field and also beyond its borders (on other exposures), due to the obscuring effect of the dust particles that "dim" the light of stars behind these clouds. This effect is particularly noticeable in the lower left corner where very few stars are seen. R Coronae Australis , the bright star from which the entire complex is named, is located at the center of the field and illuminates the reddish nebula around it. The bright star in the lower part, illuminating a somewhat bluer nebula, is known as TY Coronae Australis . The brightness of these two stars and several others in the same field is variable. They belong to the so-called "T Tauri" class , a type that is quite common in star-forming regions. T Tauri stars are in the early stages of stellar evolution and display various observable characteristics of this phase, e.g. emission at visible and infrared wavelengths due to the accretion of matter left over from their formation, as well as X-ray emission. The nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to reflection of the stellar light by small dust particles. The stars in the R Coronae Australis complex do not emit sufficient ultraviolet light to ionize a substantial

  15. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    several studies using historical data have established negative relationships between fires and antecedent rainfall, and/or positive relationships between fires and deforestation in regions affected by El Nino, comparatively little work has attempted to predict fires and emissions in such regions. Ensemble seasonal climate forecasts issued with several months lead-time have been applied to support risk assessment systems in many fields, notably agricultural production and natural disaster management of flooding, heat waves, drought and fire. The USA, for example, has a long-standing seasonal fire danger prediction system. Fire danger monitoring systems have been operating in Indonesia for over a decade, but, as of yet, no fire danger prediction systems exist. Given the effort required to mobilise suppression and prevention measures in Indonesia, one could argue that high fire danger periods must be anticipated months in advance for mitigation and response measures to be effective. To address this need, the goal of our work was to examine the utility of seasonal rainfall forecasts in predicting severe fires in Indonesia more than one month in advance, using southern Borneo (comprising the bulk of Kalimantan) as a case study. Here we present the results of comparing seasonal forecasts of monthly rainfall from ECMWF's System 4 against i) observed rainfall (GPCP), and ii) burnt area and deforestation (MODIS, AVHRR and Landsat) across southern Borneo for the period 1997-2010. Our results demonstrate the utility of using ECMWF's seasonal climate forecasts for predicting fire activity in the region. Potential applications include improved fire mitigation and responsiveness, and improved risk assessments of biodiversity and carbon losses through fire. These are important considerations for forest protection programmes (e.g. REDD+), forest carbon markets and forest (re)insurance enterprises.

  16. Can Co(II) or Cd(II) substitute for Zn(II) in zinc fingers?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Rabindra Reddy; M Radhika

    2001-02-01

    Zinc finger domains consist of sequences of amino acids containing cysteine and histidine residues tetrahedrally coordinated to a zinc ion. The role of zinc in a DNA binding finger was considered purely structural due to the absence of redox chemistry in zinc. However, whether other metals e.g. Co(II) or Cd(II) can substitute Zn(II) is not settled. For an answer the detailed interaction of Co(II) and Cd(II) with cysteine methylester and histidine methylester has been investigated as a model for the zinc core in zinc fingers. The study was extended to different temperatures to evaluate the thermodynamic parameters associated with these interactions. The results suggest that zinc has a unique role.

  17. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  18. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  19. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  20. The Holocene Great Belt connection to the southern Kattegat, Scandinavia: Ancylus Lake drainage and Early Littorina Sea transgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Jensen, Jørn B.; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    Late- and postglacial geological evolution of the southern Kattegat connection to the Great Belt was investigated from high-resolution seismic data and radiocarbon-dated sediment cores in order to elucidate the Ancylus Lake drainage/Littorina Sea transgression. It was found that glacial deposits...... (PG II; subdivided into three parasequences) and finally a highstand systems tract (PG III). PG I sand deposits (11.7–10.8 cal. ka BP) are found in a major western channel and in a secondary eastern channel. PG II (10.8–9.8 cal. ka BP) consists of estuarine and coastal deposits linked to an estuary...... shows no evidence of major erosion or delta deposition linked to the emptying of the Ancylus Lake, which suggests that continuous water flow from the south characterized the area, without any major drainage event of the Ancylus Lake impacting the southwestern Kattegat....

  1. Properties of aftershock sequences in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Jones, Lucile M.

    1991-07-01

    The temporal behavior of 39 aftershock sequences in southern California, 1933-1988, was modeled by the modified Omori relation. Minimum magnitudes for completeness of each sequence catalog were determined, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters K, p, and c, with the standard errors on each, were determined by the Ogata algorithm. The b value of each sequence was also calculated. Many of the active faults in the region, both strike slip and thrust, were sampled. The p values were graded in terms of the size of the standard error relative to the p value itself. Most of the sequences were modeled well by the Omori relation. Many of the sequences had p values close to the mean of the whole data set, 1.11±0.25, but values significantly different from the mean, as low as 0.7 and as high as 1.8, exist. No correlation of p with either the b value of the sequence or the mainshock magnitude was found. The results suggest a direct correlation of p values is with surface heat flow, with high values in the Salton Trough (high heat flow) and one low value in the San Bernardino Mountains and on the edge of the Ventura Basin (both low heat flow). The large fraction of the sequences with p values near the mean are at locations where the heat flow is near the regional mean, 74 mW/m2. If the hypothesis that aftershock decay rate is controlled by temperature at depth is valid, the effects of other factors such as heterogeneity of the fault zone properties are superimposed on the background rate determined by temperature. Surface heat flow is taken as an indicator of crustal temperature at hypocentral depths, but the effects on heat flow of convective heat transport and variations in near-surface thermal conductivity invalidate any simple association of local variations in heat flow with details of the subsurface temperature distribution. The interpretation is that higher temperatures in the aftershock source volume caused shortened stress relaxation times in the fault

  2. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  3. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and

  4. Risks of adverse impacts from climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available temperature indices for the whole southern Africa 19 region from 1901 to 2009 Figure 1.11. Annual rainfall anomalies for the whole southern Africa region (1901-2009) 20 3Table of Contents Figure 2.1. Multi-model probabilistic forecast... for the likelihood of February-March-April 26 2011 rainfall totals exceeding the 85th (extremely wet) and 15th (extremely dry) percentiles of the climatological record Figure 2.2. Multi-model probabilistic El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast, 27...

  5. Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tadross, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available temperature indices for the whole southern Africa 19 region from 1901 to 2009 Figure 1.11. Annual rainfall anomalies for the whole southern Africa region (1901-2009) 20 3Table of Contents Figure 2.1. Multi-model probabilistic forecast... for the likelihood of February-March-April 26 2011 rainfall totals exceeding the 85th (extremely wet) and 15th (extremely dry) percentiles of the climatological record Figure 2.2. Multi-model probabilistic El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast, 27...

  6. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  7. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  8. Delta II commercial space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. F.

    1988-07-01

    Delta II is an upgraded variant of the Delta family of launch vehicles that has been in use by NASA since 1960. Among the design improvements incorporated by Delta II is a cryogenic-propellant second stage, a 2.89-m diameter satellite-protecting nose fairing, graphite/epoxy solid rocket motor cases, and 12:1 main engine expansion nozzle. The manufacturer/operator offers Delta II customers a dedicated, single satellite launch capability fully tailored to the given spacecraft's unique mission requirements.

  9. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  10. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  11. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  12. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  13. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  14. Southern African NGOs seize the initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morna, C L

    1990-11-01

    The Southern African Network of AIDS Service Organizations (SANASO) was begun at a conference in Harare, Zimbabwe in May 1990, marking the 1st local unification of Non-Governmental agencies in AIDS prevention and care. This region has about 20% of Africa's reported AIDS cases, but has seen an 8-fold increase in 2 years. The goals of the organization are to facilitate sharing of information, ideas and experiences, to promote cooperation among the NGOs, to move toward common positions on AIDS and to articulate to the rest of the world the needs of the region as regards AIDS. While the incidence ranges from 6/million in Lesotho, to 906/million in Malawi, the countries represented have varied but pressing political and economic situations making HIV infection a serious threat. Examples are economic contraction with reduced funding of health and education; rapid urbanization; wars in Angola and Mozambique, with associated sexual abuse, refugees and displaced people; and in South Africa Apartheid, unemployment, forced relocation, violence and even suspicion of the government's AIDS program. Discussions on how the NGOs in particular can help change peoples' behavior resulted in the suggestion that they involve People With AIDS (PWA), to give the disease "a face" and lessen fear and alienation. The best example of such a successful approach is the home-based care instituted by Zambia's Chikankata Salvation Army Mission Hospital.

  15. PLEISTOCENE BATHYAL MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITALO DI GERONIMO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  16. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern.

  17. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  18. Active kinematics of the southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Ogubazghi, G.; Amlesom, A.; Haileab, B.; Sholan, J.; Vernant, P.; Arrajehi, A.

    2009-04-01

    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and around the Afar Triple Junction (Red Sea Rift-Gulf of Aden Rift-East African Rift), indicate that the Red Sea rift bifurcates south of 16° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea rift (~150° Azimuth) and the other oriented roughly N-S traversing the Danakil Depression/Afar volcanic province. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. Within the resolution of our observations, the partitioning of extension between rift branches varies linearly along strike; north of ~16°N extension (~15 mm/yr at 16°N) is confined to the main Red Sea rift while at the latitude of the Afar Triple Junction (~12°N) extension (~20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil-Afar Depression. The Danakil block separates the two rifts and rotates counterclockwise, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the triangular geometry of the Danakil/Afar Depression. Extrapolating the geodetic rates to the time of initial rifting of Arabia from Nubia (~25 ± 3 Ma) and estimating total extension across the rift branches from the present-day widths of the rifts suggests that Arabia-Nubia relative motion has been roughly constant since the initiation of Red Sea spreading, and that extension was initially confined to the main Red Sea rift with the presently observed bifurcation initiating at about 17 Ma.

  19. A Southern Ocean mode of multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, D.; Viebahn, J. P.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    A 250 year simulation of a strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model reveals a new mode of intrinsic multidecadal variability, the Southern Ocean Mode (SOM), with a period of 40-50 year. The peak-to-peak difference in the global ocean heat content within a multidecadal cycle is up to 60 ZJ. This change results from surface heat flux variations in the South Atlantic and propagation of temperature anomalies along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and into the Weddell gyre around 30°E. The temperature anomalies propagate as deep as 5000 m along the isopycnals between 50°S and 30°S and induce multidecadal changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. A positive feedback loop between the generation of eddies through baroclinic instability and the dynamics of the mean circulation is essential for the existence of the SOM. The dominant physics appears similar to that responsible for variability found in a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving model. This combined with the fact that the SOM is not found in a noneddying version of the same global POP model further suggests that eddy processes are crucial for its existence and/or excitation.

  20. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  1. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  2. Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinda Sutiwanich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.

  3. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  5. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  6. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  7. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  9. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  10. THE GERMANS IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA: PERCEPTION AND TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article attempt, to show how the process of formation of relations between the Cossacks, who moved by the Decree of Catherine II in the southern regions of Russia and arrived in the same region representatives of other peoples in the specific case of the Germans, bound also previously adopted by the Decree of the Queen (1762, as an invited foreigners to Russia. Part of Germans has settled in the black sea (Kuban Cossack troops, arriving from Central Russia and the Volga area. Undoubtedly, in process of settlement were established and relations between the Cossacks and the Germans, allowed for the sharing of experience of farming, cultivation techniques, culture. Contacts developed in terms of relationships that is demonstrated in the confidence and of the perception of the Cossacks and became the Russian Germans. Cossacks married girls from the German colonies. Of course, not without contradictions, frustration, but overall remained prevalent in a relationship consensus. Cossacks with respect and understanding belonged to the Germans expressed an interest in the field of culture the Germans, especially the training of children, youth education, consumer culture. Noteworthy is the fact that the Cossacks and the Germans showed together attention to the construction of roads, improvement of transport communications. All this was caused by a complex landscape of the region of inhabitance and of the Cossacks, and Germans, often the spills happen in Kuban river. Of course, the Germans welcomed the peaceful nature of the relations. The relationship has been continuously improved and filled with new content. The leaders of the German community of Michaelsberg adopt this policy. The head of the community, the Ruhr has always been a supporter of the principle of peaceful coexistence with neighbors and respect for the initiatives of the Cossacks on the arrangement of habitat, speaking at the same time for the trust between the community and

  11. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most......In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...... significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...

  12. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  13. Typhoid Fever in Southern Taiwan: A Medical Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Pediatric patients with typhoid fever in southern Taiwan had less history of travel and developed fewer chills than adult patients. Careful examination and familiarity with the clinical manifestations are important factors in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  14. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  15. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  16. Final critical habitat for Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  17. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IN THE BLACK STATES OF SOUTHERN AFRICA AND FUTURE STRATEGY ... A systems approach ... rural development planning. ..... specifically aimed at satisfying basic' human rrutti- ... wards a market economy and conservation of.

  18. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth and access their potential in Southern Sudan, post-conflict recovery will have limited success. ... Whatever the method used, children ended up armed with .... Long-term effects of war on children have been documented. Levy and.

  19. Killer Whale Genetic Data - Southern resident killer whale pedigree analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this project, we are using genetic variation to infer mating patterns in the southern killer whale community. In Canada, this population was listed as threatened...

  20. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  1. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  2. Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project, Final Report [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project is an interagency effort to demonstrate effective control of the invasive wetland plant, common reed, while...

  3. Final critical habitat for Southern Clubshell (Pleurobema decisum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Clubshell (Pleurobema decisum) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... the contribution of risk factors such as age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), ... Methods: Fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) levels were obtained from a total of ...

  5. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  6. Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the implications of climate change for forests and rangelands in southern Africa. The extent of the resources and their economic and social functions and drivers of change is outlined. The vulnerability...

  7. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  8. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  11. [Experience with amalgams manufactured by Southern Dental Industries (Australia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, I; Gábris, K; Balaton, P; Dénes, J

    1990-09-01

    The gamma 2 phaseless amalgam of the firm Southern Dental Industries (SDI) was tested. None of the 205 fillings showed level deviations, unevenness, secondary caries and breakage. A minimum size gap was found in 2 cases.

  12. Preservation management in university libraries in Southern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preservation management in university libraries in Southern Nigeria. ... activities of biological agents, theft and mutilation, mishandling and disasters. ... facilities and equipment, inadequate funding and lack of preservation policy and strategies ...

  13. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  15. Final critical habitat for Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  16. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  17. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  18. Land and agronomic potential for biofuel production in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African region, from a purely biophysical perspective, has huge potential for biofuel production, especially in Mozambique and Zambia. Although many of the soils are sandy and acidic, with careful management and correct fertilization...

  19. THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMAL FAUNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa can be geographically subdivided into different biotic zones, differing from ..... probably continuous, providing a route by means of which forest species were .... "African ecology and human evolution", July 1961, 61 pp., roneo.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geospatial data set depicting the boundaries of marine areas designated as critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for Southern Resident killer...

  1. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  2. Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk factors. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were employed in order to identify risk factors of child malnutrition. The results ...

  3. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  4. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geospatial data set depicting the boundaries of marine areas designated as critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for Southern Resident killer...

  5. Waterfowl production survey: Southern and central Alberta: July 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Climate Prediction Center Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (standardized sea level pressure differences between...

  7. The Pali Aike Windstreak Field, Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Kargel, J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-03-01

    Windstreaks are amongst the most common aeolian landforms on Mars, yet they are extremely rare on Earth. We have identified and carried out field based observations of an outstanding zone of windstreaks in southern Patagonia Argentina.

  8. Discovery of Two New Class II Methanol Maser Transitions in G345.01+1.79

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Cragg, D M; Godfrey, P D

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) to search for new class II methanol maser transitions towards the southern source G345.01+1.79. Over a period of 5 days we observed 11 known or predicted class II methanol maser transitions. Emission with the narrow line width and characteristic velocity of class II methanol masers (in this source) was detected in 8 of these transitions, two of which have not previously been reported as masers. The new class II methanol maser transitions are the 13(-3)-12(-4)E transition at 104.1 GHz and the 5(1)-4(2)E transition at 216.9 GHz. Both of these are from transition series for which there are no previous known class II methanol maser transitions. This takes the total number of known class II methanol maser series to 10, and the total number of transitions (or transition groups) to 18. The observed 104.1 GHz maser suggests the presence of two or more regions of masing gas with similar line of sight velocities, but quite different physical conditions. Althou...

  9. Familial episodic ataxia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S

    2011-10-01

    The familial episodic ataxia type II is a rare, dominantly inherited disease characterized by episodes of ataxia of early onset, often with completely normal cerebellar function between attacks. We report a family with affected members who had features of episodic ataxia type II and cerebellar atrophy on MRI imaging. All the affected members were successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. They are asymptomatic at 2 year follow-up.

  10. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    23 Table 3. Factor Analysis Results for Cotabato. The dark shaded region of the tables indicates common factors with common loadings, the lighter... tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines

  11. The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

  12. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to explain why states might choose cooperation over conflict where a critical shared resource could limit future development potential. KEYWORDS hydropolitical complex; water wars; southern African development community; river basin management... the management of the various transboundary river basins that form the hydrological foundation of the SADC economy. This observation is remarkable given the known history of intense conflict that was as- sociated with the ColdWar-era in southern Africa...

  13. Southern annular mode: tropical-extratropical interactions and impacts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fauchereau, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ?Dept.,?University?of?Cape?Town,?South?Africa 1.?Introduction The?Southern?Annular?Mode?(SAM,?also?called?Antarctic? Oscillation)?is?the?dominant?mode?of?extratropical?(south? of ? 20S) ? low?frequency ? atmospheric ? variability ? ? in ? the? Southern?Hemisphere.?It ?basically...?with?a?seasonally?adjusted?principal?component? index,?17th?Climate?diagnostics?workshop,?Norman,?OK,? 52?57. ...

  14. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  15. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Manit Nuinoon; Kwanta Kruachan; Warachaya Sengking; Dararat Horpet; Ubol Sungyuan

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  16. Operational Practice and Prospects of China Southern Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiuling; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Applied Research on Higher Voltage Class for China Southern Power Grid completed at the end of 2004 pointed to a conclusion that transmission schemes using ±800-kV DC and 1000-kV AC are feasible to the southern grid. According to the grid's 11th Five-Year Plan, the ultra-high voltage transmission will take its place in the power grid soon.

  17. A synopsis of Peristrophe (Acanthaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balkwill

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of Peristrophe Nees (Acanthaceae in southern Africa is provided. Peristrophe comprises nine species, one with two subspecies in southern Africa. A key for identification and descriptions of species not included in recent literature are provided. Morphology of tertiary bracts,indumentum on stems and distribution is illustrated and diagnostic characters, distribution, habitat, flowering  time and conservation status are discussed for each species.

  18. Wetland vegetation of southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perkins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data from southern KwaZulu-Natal were analysed. TWINSPAN classification separated the entire data set (547 releves into five subsets. One subset, representing the vegetation of the wetlands of southern Kw aZulu-Natal, was further classified by Braun-Blanquet procedures. Eight plant communities and fourteen subcommunities were identified and described. The results can be integrated with existing phytosociological classifications of the Grassland Biome.

  19. The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). I. Definition

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, A M

    2005-01-01

    We have defined a complete sample of 228 southern radio sources at 408 MHz with integrated flux densities S_408 > 4.0 Jy, Galactic latitude |b| > 10 deg and declination -85 deg 10.9 Jy (SMS4), provides a southern sample closely equivalent to the well-studied northern 3CRR sample. Comparison of SMS4 with 3CRR shows a reassuring similarity in source density and median flux density between the two samples.

  20. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...