WorldWideScience

Sample records for largest agricultural exporters

  1. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...

  3. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  4. Effects Of Trade Liberalisation Policy On Nigerian Agricultural Exports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on Agricultural exports in Nigeria. It was observed that the policy had tremendous effects on the level and value of exports in agricultural sub-sector. A regression analysis relating the total value of agricultural produce and the aggregated domestic prices, and other ...

  5. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most

  6. A Critical evaluation Of The Nigerian Agricultural Export Financing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of export financing in enhancing agricultural export in Nigeria. Secondary time series data covering the period of 1990 to 2000 were used while econometric and statistical analysis were employed to analyze the data. The result showed that high exchange rate, interest rates and ...

  7. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, J.W.; Read, B.J.; Pinson, R.S.; Higgs, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  8. EXPORT AND IMPORT PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIA’S AGRICULTURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ervani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the export and import performance in comparative advantage of Indonesia’s agriculture sector. It focuses on measuring the comparative advantage using the Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay method.The data is based on exports and imports of Indonesian agriculture sector. By applying Lafay Trade Balance Index (TBI methods, it can be concluded that Indonesian agriculture commodity shows the positive value of TBI for export-import volume and export-import value. It means that Indonesia becomes net-exporter and has specialization in exporting agriculture commodity.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja ekspor dan impor dalam keunggulan komparatif sektor pertanian di Indonesia. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pengukuran keunggulan komparatif menggunakan Trade Balance Index (TBI dengan metode Lafay. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan pada ekspor dan impor sektor pertanian Indonesia. Dengan menerapkan metode Lafay Perdagangan Indeks Balance (TBI, bisa disimpulkan bahwa komoditas pertanian Indonesia menunjukkan nilai positif untuk TBI volume ekspor-impor dan nilai ekspor-impor. Ini berarti bahwa Indonesia disebut sebagai net-eksportir dan memiliki spesialisasi dalam ekspor komoditas pertanian.

  9. Intra-regional agricultural exports in the East African community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causes of intra-EAC agricultural exports. Five Augmented gravity models were estimated using the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) Approach. The study used panel data from UNCOMTRADE, International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 ...

  10. Agriculture, exportation and energy: a brazilian situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, S.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article aims at verifying if according to the point of view of Final Energy Consumption in the agricultural sector, the Brazilian exports were beneficial to the country or not. Stimulated by a series of incentives it has been made a great effort with the purpose of mainly exporting primary products, and this effort may have been in conflict with the ever increasing indirect costs. And, it is in this point that there is the doubt as to the validity of energy consumption in the sector. (author)

  11. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between openness, trade and environmental damaging are the most important problems in the early 1990s. Some scientists assume the environmental quality is a normal good and increasing income increases demand for environmentally safe products. Therefore, Firms will be encouraging the using of safer and less polluting procedure. On the other hand other scientists assume international trade grows the environmental degradation through environmentally polluting industries and expand economics scales in developing countries. While environmental standards are low in these countries, the expansion of trade will lead to more pollution. Some experimental studies have confirmed a negative relationship between trade and environment. The effect of import and export of trade is not considered as important components of trade, despite very consideration of the relationship between openness, trade and environmental by researchers while in general part trade may have different effect on environmental. Materials and Methods: The base model is used to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental indexes and trade. Grossman and Krueger (1991 and Shafik and Bandvpady (1992 used the trade intensity variable, obtained from the ratio of exports plus imports divided by GDP as the World Trade openness of an economy measure. Grossman and Krueger (1991, the first person who developed environmental Kuznets curve (EKC used multiple versions of the model. Instrumental variable regression model has been estimated using panel data of period 1998 and 2009 for 73 countries, including 27 development countries and 46 developing countries. Countries with more than 0.9 Human Development Index eligible as developed countries and countries by Human Development Index between 0.7 to 0.9 considered as developing countries., based on the standard international trade classification. For exports of agricultural raw materials, 5

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  13. Methylmercury cycling, bioaccumulation, and export from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Fleck, Jacob; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Stricker, Craig; Stephenson, Mark; Feliz, David; Gill, Gary; Bachand, Philip; Brice, Ann; Kulakow, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This 18-month field study addresses the seasonal and spatial patterns and processes controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production, bioaccumulation, and export from natural and agricultural wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA). The data were collected in conjuntion with a Proposition 40 grant from the State Water Resources Control Board in support of the development of Best Management Practices (BMP's) for reducing MeHg loading from agricultural lands in the wetland-dominated Yolo Bypass to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The four managemenr-based questions addressed in this study were: 1. Is there a different among agricultural and managfed wetland types in terms of Me Hg dynamic (production, degradation, bioaccumulation, or export)?

  14. Assessment the Impact of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA on Exports of Indonesian Agricultural Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Akhmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigation whether Indonesian membership on ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA increased export of agriculture commodity. The panel augmented gravity model data from 33 major partner countries over the period of 2000-2014 has been applied to analyze the factors affected Indonesian agricultural exports. The overall finding showed that Indonesian agricultural exports were positively correlated with the size of economy and partner countries population, while they are negatively correlated with the appreciation of currency exchange rate and the enrollment on free trade agreement. Moreover, the Indonesian membership on AFTA does not gave significant impact and profitable on Indonesian agricultural exports.

  15. Problems and prospects of Ukraine’s export of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Lysak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to review current trends Ukrainian exports of agricultural products and develop recommendations on the prospects of export of agricultural products in Ukraine. The problem of marketing of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises is considered in the article. The distribution channels of agricultural products in Ukraine are analyzed. The factors constraining agricultural exports are established. Advantages and disadvantages of agricultural products within the Association Agreement with the European Union are analyzed. Analyzed the first results of cooperation with the EU in agriculture. The problems of the use of quotas dispose of agricultural products within the Association Agreement with the European Union are identified. An simplified legalization exports from Ukraine to the EU of animal origin products is offered. The export of agricultural products to other countries is analyzes. The modern trend in the export of Ukrainian agricultural products based on the reorientation of Asian and European markets is considered. The strategic directions of development of Ukrainian agricultural exports are identified.

  16. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  17. Virtual water flows and water-footprint of agricultural crop production, import and export: A case study for Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtull-Trauring, E; Bernstein, N

    2018-05-01

    Agriculture is the largest global consumer of freshwater. As the volume of international trade continues to rise, so does the understanding that trade of water-intensive crops from areas with high precipitation, to arid regions can help mitigate water scarcity, highlighting the importance of crop water accounting. Virtual-Water, or Water-Footprint [WF] of agricultural crops, is a powerful indicator for assessing the extent of water use by plants, contamination of water bodies by agricultural practices and trade between countries, which underlies any international trade of crops. Most available studies of virtual-water flows by import/export of agricultural commodities were based on global databases, which are considered to be of limited accuracy. The present study analyzes the WF of crop production, import, and export on a country level, using Israel as a case study, comparing data from two high-resolution local databases and two global datasets. Results for local datasets demonstrate a WF of ~1200Million Cubic Meters [MCM]/year) for total crop production, ~1000MCM/year for import and ~250MCM/year for export. Fruits and vegetables comprise ~80% of Export WF (~200MCM/year), ~50% of crop production and only ~20% of the imports. Economic Water Productivity [EWP] ($/m 3 ) for fruits and vegetables is 1.5 higher compared to other crops. Moreover, the results based on local and global datasets varied significantly, demonstrating the importance of developing high-resolution local datasets based on local crop coefficients. Performing high resolution WF analysis can help in developing agricultural policies that include support for low WF/high EWP and limit high WF/low EWP crop export, where water availability is limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementing international experience in promoting agricultural products to foreign markets: the Russian export strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national

  19. Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff compet...

  20. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... support and government programs related to agricultural markets, foreign direct investment policies, and... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-518] China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive... investigation No. 332-518, China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports. DATES...

  1. U.S. Agricultural Export Credits after the WTO Cotton Ruling: The Law of Unintended Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benitah, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The recent WTO cotton ruling has led to a paradoxical result for the United States, a result that seems a textbook illustration of the "law of unintended consequences". Indeed, during the Uruguay Round negotiations of the present WTO agreements, the United States refused to put agricultural export credits in the category of agricultural export subsidies, where they would then have been subject only to reduction commitments. Paradoxically, the United States finds itself now in a position where...

  2. Economic and Financial Evaluation of The Irradiation Facility Unit For Some Egyptian Agricultural Exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food irradiation technology strongly enhances quarantine, especially that chemical methods to preserve food and agricultural products are completely banned. The technology of food preservation by irradiation helps increasing Egypt’s agricultural exports to foreign markets as these exports become more competitive due to their long shelf life and decrease of loss. Therefore, food irradiation technology helps avoiding economic loss. The present study aims at conducting a financial analysis and economic evaluation for establishing an irradiation unit for some Egypt’s agricultural exports to enhance their competitiveness and help exporters in marketing them. The study also considers the site location of the unit because of the important role it plays in influencing the project size, production capacity, costs and expected profits. The study consists of four sections namely: Section one: This section includes two chapters. Chapter one presents the theoretical framework of the study. Chapter two displays the literature review. Chapter one includes key concepts and terms of irradiation, purpose of food irradiation, types of irradiation units, application in fruits and vegetables irradiation, radiation doses used in irradiating food and requirements for safety of food irradiation. chapter two reveals the literature review of previous research of the topic showing important results and conclusions made of previous studies and research, studies are divided into two parts, part one relate to agricultural exports, as part two links food irradiation technology. Section Two: This section presents a study of irradiating Egypt’s agricultural exports .This section is divided into two chapters; chapter one reveals the economic importance of irradiating agricultural products, and chapter two illustrates different types of irradiation techniques. The results in this section show the advantages of food irradiation technology in terms of marketing, health, environment and cost

  3. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  4. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  5. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  6. The development and projection of exports of selected agricultural and alimentary commodities from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents partial results of a statistical analysis of export indicators of selected agricultural and alimentary categories of products from the Czech Republic according to countries in a reference period 1993−2002. The analysis includes short-run prediction based on applied modes of developmental tendencies of assessed phenomena.

  7. Cointegration and error correction modelling of agricultural commodity trade: The case of ASEAN agricultural exports to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objecti e of this study is to increase our understanding of the specification and estimation of agricultural commodity trade models as well as to provide instruments for trade policy analysis. More specifically,the aim is to build a set of dynamic,theory-based econometric models which are able to capture both short-run and long-run effects of income and price changes,and which can be used for prediction and policy simulation under alternati e assumed conditions.A relati ely unrestricted,data determined,econometric modelling approach based on the error correction mechanism is used,in order to emphasise the importance of dynamics of trade functions.Econometric models are constructed for se en agricultural commodities –cassa a,cocoa,coconut oil,palm oil,pepper, rubber,and tea –exported from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANto the European Union (EU.With the aim of providing broad commodity co erage,the intent is to explore whether the chosen modelling approach is able to catch the essentials of the behavioural relationships underlying the specialised nature of each commodity market. The import demand analysis of the study examines two key features:(1the response of EU ’s agricultural commodity imports to income and price changes,and (2the length of time required for this response to occur.The estimations of the export demand relationships provide tests whether the exporters ’ market shares are influenced by the le el of relati e export price,and whether exports are affected by ariations in the rate of growth of imports.The export supply analysis examines the relati e influence of real price and some non-price factors in stimulating the supply of exports.The lag distribution (the shape and length of the lagis found to be ery critical in export supply relationships,since the effects of price changes usually take a long time to work themselves through and since the transmission of the price effects can be complex.The set of

  8. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agricultural commodity export is a main attribute of developing countries and it is the basic force of development, however, developing countries have faced domestic and international instability in their markets and monetary and fiscal policies and these instabilities create a difficult condition for most of producers and exporters. Volatility in exchange market is one of the most important factor and vital concentrate for international trade especially agricultural commodity export. Because of this concern many studies have been conducted in this filed; (Aristotelous, 2001; Chen, 2009 and Sabuhoi and Piri, 2009 .Many of these studies has stated that exchange rate fluctuation has a negative impact on aggregated agricultural export; however, none of them has been focused on the effects of exchange rate fluctuation on exported value of important commodities in long run and short run. In recent years, exchange rate fluctuation has been raised about 6 percent since 2007 to 2010 and it seemed that this phenomenon has a negative impact on agricultural commodity export in Iran. To test this hypothesis exported value of three important commodity (date, orange and grape and exchange rate volatility since 1970 to 2013 have been used. Material and Methods: In order to examine the relation between real exchange rate volatility and export values of date, orange and grapes, first GARCH method has been used to draw out exchange rate volatility; then, Panel unite root test has been used to check the level of integration. Since real exchange rate is not heterogeneous for different cross sections Levi-Lin and Chow unit root test has been used for this variable and IPS test has been applied to export value. Pederoni co-integration test has been used to check the integration between these variables. Finally, FMOLS (Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square and DOLS (Dynamic Ordinary Least Square methods have been used to estimate long run and short run

  9. Monitoring Agricultural Production in Primary Export Countries within the framework of the GEOGLAM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.

    2012-12-01

    Up to date, reliable, global, information on crop production prospects is indispensible for informing and regulating grain markets and for instituting effective agricultural policies. The recent price surges in the global grain markets were in large part triggered by extreme weather events in primary grain export countries. These events raise important questions about the accuracy of current production forecasts and their role in market fluctuations, and highlight the deficiencies in the state of global agricultural monitoring. Satellite-based earth observations are increasingly utilized as a tool for monitoring agricultural production as they offer cost-effective, daily, global information on crop growth and extent and their utility for crop production forecasting has long been demonstrated. Within this context, the Group on Earth Observations developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative which was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture. The goal of GEOGLAM is to enhance agricultural production estimates through the use of Earth observations. This talk will explore the potential contribution of EO-based methods for improving the accuracy of early production estimates of main export countries within the framework of GEOGLAM.

  10. Bilateral export trade and income similarity: Does the Linder hypothesis hold for agricultural and food trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we invesƟgate the Linder hypothesis for bilateral export trade in agricultural and food products by uƟlizing the sectoral gravity equaƟon derived in Hallak (2010). Based on a sample of 152 countries, we study the relaƟonship for 737 agricultural and food products at the 6-digit HS code level, using trade data for 1995-2012. We esƟmate the gravity equaƟon year by and year and sector by sector, analyzing the esƟmates of Linder's term for two specificaƟons of the similarity index. W...

  11. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Meerhof, Mariana; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural catchments are potentially important but often neglected sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM), of which a large part is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). DOC is an important source of aquatic microbial respiration and DON may be an important source of nitrogen...... to aquatic ecosystems. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive studies on the amount, composition and seasonality of DOM export from agricultural catchments in different climates. The aim of our study was to assess the amount, composition and seasonality of DOM in a total of four streams in the wet......-temperate and subtropical climate of Denmark and Uruguay, respectively. In each climate, we investigated one stream with extensive agriculture (mostly pasture) and one stream with intensive agriculture (mostly intensively used arable land) in the catchment. We sampled each stream taking grab samples fortnightly for two...

  12. Patterns of nitrogen export from a seasonal freezing agricultural watershed during the thawing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Chang, Dan; Wang, Kang; Huang, Jiesheng

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate water, ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) export processes during the thawing period in a watershed with heavy agricultural activities and to evaluate contributions of N (i.e., NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N) from different source areas under different climate conditions. Experiments were conducted within the 75km 2 agricultural Heidingzi watershed in northeast China. The thawing period was divided into four stages: early-melt, late-melt, rain-on-melt, and post-melt. Drainage regions (DRs) were separated into three types. The processes of water and N discharge from soil into rivers were monitored in these DRs during the thawing periods of 2014, 2015, and 2016. Results show that the processes of water and N discharge were not synchronous during the thawing period. Variations in discharge concentrations of NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N during the thawing period were mainly affected by the flushing effect, which was controlled by the physical state of the surface water (snow or ice) and the melt rate of frozen soil. Contributions of N export from the DRs varied under different land uses and climate conditions during the thawing period. NO 3 - -N export was mainly from maize fields. Thawing stages with high NO 3 - -N export were always accompanied by higher discharge rates. NH 4 + -N export mainly occurred during the early-melt and late-melt stages and from riverside rural regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 31 CFR 560.520 - Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States to Iran of any agricultural commodity under an export sales contract are authorized, provided: (1... other financing agreements with respect to exports authorized by this section is authorized pursuant to..., wheat, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, dairy products, and oilseeds (including vegetable oil). (d) Specific...

  14. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  15. Studies on the application of ionizing radiation for the advanced quarantine management of agricultural commodities for export and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Kwang Youll; Choi, Yeong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    {Omicron} Quarantine waste of agricultural goods for export are 50 billion won per year in Korea. The major reason of quarantine waste were inspected of quarantine regulated pest or detected of pesticide residues during importation or exportation clearance. {Omicron} According to the Montreal protocol, reduce the using of chemical fumigant(Methyl Bromide) and required alternative quarantine treatment {Omicron} It is necessary for commercialization project that to practice evaluation and development of quarantine management system using irradiation as a phytosanitary measure for exportation agricultural commodities.

  16. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  17. China's Biotech Policies and Their Impacts on U.S. Agricultural Exports to China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baohui; Marchant, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    China is a key player in global agricultural markets, and the number one importer of U.S. soybeans and cotton, whereby soybeans and cotton are two of the main biotech commodities commercialized in the United States. As of 2005, 87% of soybeans and 79% of cotton planted in the U.S. were biotech. Thus, changes in China's biotech policies may have a significant impact on U.S. biotech commodity exports to China. An understanding of the evolution of China's biotech regulations and factors that may...

  18. Skill Acquisition in "High Tech" Export Agriculture: A Case Study of Lifelong Learning in Peru's Asparagus Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the world's largest exporters of asparagus, Peru has developed a high-tech system of asparagus production, processing and delivery that requires well-trained and responsive workers. In this study we examine the role of both private and public sectors in preparing workers for the asparagus industry and the implications of this skill…

  19. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  20. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    , pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than...... natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation...... of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use—especially urbanization—also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high...

  1. Y2K and International Agricultural Transportation: Analysis of Export Markets, Import Suppliers, and Major Food Aid Recipient Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    USDA Y2K information assessment of international food transportation modes in : selected foreign countries. The assessment targeted 9 of the top 10 markets for : U.S. Agricultural exports and 7 of the top 8 suppliers of imported food products : to th...

  2. Creating a Social Wasteland? Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports and Rural Poverty in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Korovkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America  have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This  growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this  view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World  Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is  argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow  the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining  their ability to influence the processes of decision  making.  Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento  de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales  (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como  un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se  estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza  del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres  rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores,  elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las  familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  3. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  4. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  5. Analysis of the development of export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the description of average level, variability and developmental trends the export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic with differentiation according to particular countries within the defined reference period 1993–2002. Thre is also presented the short-time point and interval extrapolation prediction of studied events. Methods of regression and correlation analysis and developmental trends were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  6. Reducing nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico: agricultural strategies for remediating hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Robertson, Dale M.; Schilling, Keith; Tomer, Mark; Kostel, Jill; Smith, Douglas G.; King, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed models developed for the Upper Midwest were used to help evaluate the nitrogen-load reductions likely to be achieved by a variety of agricultural conservation practices in the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB) and to compare these reductions to the 45% nitrogen-load reduction proposed to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results indicate that nitrogen-management practices (improved fertilizer management and cover crops) fall short of achieving this goal, even if adopted on all cropland in the region. The goal of a 45% decrease in loads to the GoM can only be achieved through the coupling of nitrogen-management practices with innovative nitrogen-removal practices such as tile-drainage treatment wetlands, drainage–ditch enhancements, stream-channel restoration, and floodplain reconnection. Combining nitrogen-management practices with nitrogen-removal practices can dramatically reduce nutrient export from agricultural landscapes while minimizing impacts to agricultural production. With this approach, it may be possible to meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal while converting less than 1% of cropland in the UMORB to nitrogen-removal practices. Conservationists, policy makers, and agricultural producers seeking a workable strategy to reduce nitrogen export from the Corn Belt will need to consider a combination of nitrogen-management practices at the field scale and diverse nitrogen-removal practices at the landscape scale.

  7. The role of hydrology in annual organic carbon loads and terrestrial organic matter export from a midwestern agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; Filley, Timothy R.; Harbor, Jon M.

    2007-03-01

    Defining the control that hydrology exerts on organic carbon (OC) export at the watershed scale is important for understanding how the source and quantity of OC in streams and rivers is influenced by climate change or by landscape drainage. To this end, molecular (lignin phenol), stable carbon isotope, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data were collected over a range of flow conditions to examine the influence of hydrology on annual OC export from an 850 km 2 Midwestern United States agricultural watershed located in west central Indiana. In years 2002 and 2003, modeled annual DOC loads were 19.5 and 14.1 kg ha -1yr -1, while 71% and 85%, respectively, of the total annual OC was exported in flow events occurring during less than 20% of that time. These results highlight the importance of short-duration, high-discharge events (common in smaller watersheds) in controlling annual OC export. Based on reported increases in annual stream discharge coupled with current estimates of DOC export, annual DOC loads in this watershed may have increased by up to 40% over the past 50 years. Molecular (lignin phenol) characterization of quantity and relative degradation state of terrestrial OC shows as much temporal variability of lignin parameters (in high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon) in this one watershed as that demonstrated in previously published studies of dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi and Amazon Rivers. These results suggest that hydrologic variability is at least as important in determining the nature and extent of OC export as geographic variability. Moreover, molecular and bulk stable carbon isotope data from high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon and colloidal organic carbon showed that increased stream flow from the study watershed was responsible for increased export of agriculturally derived OC. When considered in the context of results from other studies that show the importance of flood events and in-stream processing of

  8. Market Structure and Distribution of Benefits from Agricultural Exports: the Case of the Philippine Mango Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.

    2013-01-01

    To illuminate the role of agro-export industry in inclusive growth, this case study on Philippine mango focuses on the role of market structure in the distribution of export benefits. It is based on review of industry trends and related studies, open-ended interviews of key informants, and structured interviews of respondents situated along the value chain. The distribution of trade benefits is hypothesized to depend on both vertical and horizontal market structure. The former implies that a ...

  9. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water) or animals (including animal feeds); (B) Seeds for food crops; (C) Fertilizers or organic fertilizers; or (D) Reproductive materials (such as live animals, fertilized eggs, embryos, and semen) for the... exportation or reexportation of all fertilizers, live horses, western red cedar, and medical devices other...

  10. Heroes of Civilization. The Amazon Region as Agricultural Export Cosmopolis in the Work of General Rafael Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Martínez Pinzón

    2013-07-01

    the isthmus led the Colombian elites to rethink other border spaces. The article analyzes the discourse of appropriation of the Amazon territory set forth by President, General, and entrepreneur Rafael Reyes (1849-1921 in speeches lectures, travel diaries, and autobiographical memoirs. On the basis of those materials, the article argues that instead of nationalizing the Amazonian territory, Reyes suggesting incorporating it into the dynamics of global capitalism through the contradictory proposal of an “agricultural export cosmopolis” aimed at exploiting the region’s wealth. The contradictions of a segregationist cosmopolis, as a narrative of globalization in the early 20th century, also led General Reyes to represent the entrepreneurs of the agricultural frontier as “heroes of civilization”, a phrase that betrays the anachronism and irrationalism inherent in the allegedly indestructible rational discourse of civilization in the tropics.

  11. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  12. The Emergence of an Export Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2018-01-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia account for 90 percent of global exports of palm oil, forming one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. This article uses archival sources to trace how this cluster emerged from the rubber business in the era of British and Dutch colonialism. Specifically...

  13. MARKET SEGMENTATION: IDENTIFYING THE HIGH-GROWTH EXPORT MARKETS FOR U.S. AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Michael R.; Salvacruz, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A cluster analysis based on a five-year growth rate of agricultural imports from the United States was conducted on 86 countries and revealed two significant market segments for U.S. agriculture: the high-growth markets and the low-growth markets. Multiple discriminant analysis was then used to test the significance of the countries' trade-related and macroeconomic variables to their market growth classification. The discriminant function was used to predict the high-growth markets for U.S. a...

  14. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...

  15. Rice agriculture impacts catchment hydrographic patterns and nitrogen export characteristics in subtropical central China: a paired-catchment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xinliang; Wang, Hua; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Liu, Feng; Xiao, Runlin; Shen, Jianlin; Wu, Jinshui

    2017-06-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) concentrations in water bodies have highlighted issues regarding nutrient pollution in agricultural catchments. In this study, the ammonium-N (NH 4 + -N), nitrate-N (NO 3 - -N), and total N (TN) concentrations were observed in the stream water and groundwater of two contrasting catchments (named Tuojia and Jianshan) in subtropical central China from 2010 to 2014, to determine the rice agriculture impacts on the hydrographic patterns, and N export characteristics of the catchments. The results suggested that greater amounts of stream flow (523.0 vs. 434.7 mm year -1 ) and base flow (237.6 vs. 142.8 mm year -1 ) were produced in Tuojia than in Jianshan, and a greater base flow contribution to stream flow and higher frequencies of high-base flow days were observed during the fallow season than during the rice-growing season, indicating that intensive rice agriculture strongly influences the catchment hydrographic pattern. Rice agriculture resulted in moderate N pollution in the stream water and groundwater, particularly in Tuojia. Primarily, rice agriculture increased the NH 4 + -N concentration in the stream water; however, it increased the NO 3 - -N concentrations in the groundwater, suggesting that the different N species in the paddy fields migrated out of the catchments through distinct hydrological pathways. The average TN loading via stream flow and base flow was greater in Tuojia than in Jianshan (1.72 and 0.58 vs. 0.72 and 0.15 kg N ha -1  month -1 , respectively). Greater TN loading via stream flow was observed during the fallow season in Tuojia and during the rice-growing season in Jianshan, and these different results were most likely a result of the higher base flow contribution to TN loading (33.5 vs. 21.3%) and greater base flow enrichment ratio (1.062 vs. 0.876) in Tuojia than in Jianshan. Therefore, the impact of rice agriculture on catchment eco-hydrological processes should be considered when performing water quality

  16. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlolniski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right.

  17. Technological barriers to the growth of the export potential of Russian grain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Eremchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is the world's largest wheat exporter. The sales volume on foreign markets in 2015 amounted to $3.9 billion, or 10.1% of global exports. By the end of 2015, the volume of exports of agricultural products exceeded revenues from sales of arms in foreign markets. However, in dollar terms, wheat exports correspond to only a fifth place in the world. The article analyzes the reasons for a significant gap in the volume of exports and revenue, barriers to the development of export of agricultural deep processed products. The assumption is made that the development of technologies for deep processing of grain crops will increase the share of exports of Russian products with high added value.

  18. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  19. Exploring potential and opportunities for pakistan cotton export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, G. S.; Tariq, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the single largest shareholder to GDP an employment to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel 39 countries. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have comparative advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and non-tariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with malaysia, kenya jordan, thailand, mauritius, netherlands norway, Australia and russian federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with canada, france, india, iran and saudi arabia. The study provide the policy information that countries of Latin america, eastern europe, central asia and northern africa are virgin for export. Therefore, pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. cognizant to new trade theories, pakistan focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high income countries, Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27 for export of agricultural products. (author)

  20. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Philip A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stephenson, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~ 3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m− 2 for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m− 2. These exports are

  1. Long-Term Observations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Paired-Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Que, Z; Seidou, O; Frey, S K; Lapen, D R

    2015-09-01

    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) regulates water and nutrient export from tile drainage systems. Observations of the effects of CTD imposed en masse at watershed scales are needed to determine the effect on downstream receptors. A paired-watershed approach was used to evaluate the effect of field-to-field CTD at the watershed scale on fluxes and flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of N and P during multiple growing seasons. One watershed (467-ha catchment area) was under CTD management (treatment [CTD] watershed); the other (250-ha catchment area) had freely draining or uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) (reference [UCTD] watershed). The paired agricultural watersheds are located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analysis of covariance and paired tests were used to assess daily fluxes and FWMCs during a calibration period when CTD intervention on the treatment watershed was minimal (2005-2006, when only 4-10% of the tile-drained area was under CTD) and a treatment period when the treatment (CTD) watershed had prolific CTD intervention (2007-2011 when 82% of tile drained fields were controlled, occupying >70% of catchment area). Significant linear regression slope changes assessed using ANCOVA ( ≤ 0.1) for daily fluxes from upstream and downstream monitoring sites pooled by calibration and treatment period were -0.06 and -0.20 (stream water) (negative values represent flux declines in CTD watershed), -0.59 and -0.77 (NH-N), -0.14 and -0.15 (NO-N), -1.77 and -2.10 (dissolved reactive P), and -0.28 and 0.45 (total P). Total P results for one site comparison contrasted with other findings likely due to unknown in-stream processes affecting total P loading, not efficacy of CTD. The FWMC results were mixed and inconclusive but suggest physical abatement by CTD is the means by which nutrient fluxes are predominantly reduced at these scales. Overall, our study results indicate that CTD is an effective practice for reducing watershed scale fluxes of stream water, N, and P

  2. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  3. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  4. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  5. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...

  6. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  7. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  8. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  9. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...

  10. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  11. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  12. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...

  13. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...

  14. An export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming model for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Yue, Wencong; Tan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming (EC-IFBLMOP) model was developed through integrating export coefficient model (ECM), interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy parameter programming (FPP) within a bi-level multi-objective programming framework. The proposed EC-IFBLMOP model can effectively deal with the multiple uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and fuzzy membership functions. Also, the complexities in agricultural systems, such as the cooperation and gaming relationship between the decision makers at different levels, can be fully considered in the model. The developed model was then applied to identify the optimal land use patterns and BMP implementing levels for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution management in a subcatchment in the upper stream watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in north China. The results of the model showed that the desired optimal land use patterns and implementing levels of best management of practices (BMPs) would be obtained. It is the gaming result between the upper- and lower-level decision makers, when the allowable discharge amounts of NPS pollutants were limited. Moreover, results corresponding to different decision scenarios could provide a set of decision alternatives for the upper- and lower-level decision makers to identify the most appropriate management strategy. The model has a good applicability and can be effectively utilized for agricultural NPS pollution management.

  15. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  16. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail or...

  17. Impact of rainfall patterns and frequency on the export of pesticides and heavy-metals from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meite, Fatima; Alvarez-Zaldívar, Pablo; Crochet, Alexandre; Wiegert, Charline; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2018-03-01

    The combined influence of soil characteristics, pollutant aging and rainfall patterns on the export of pollutants from topsoils is poorly understood. We used laboratory experiments and parsimonious modeling to evaluate the impact of rainfall characteristics on the ponding and the leaching of a pollutant mixture from topsoils. The mixture included the fungicide metalaxyl, the herbicide S-metolachlor, as well as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Four rainfall patterns, which differed in their durations and intensities, were applied twice successively with a 7days interval on each soil type. To evaluate the influence of soil type and aging, experiments included crop and vineyard soils and two stages of pollutant aging (0 and 10days). The global export of pollutants was significantly controlled by the rainfall duration and frequency (Pexport of metalaxyl (44.5±21.5% of the initial mass spiked in the soils), S-metolachlor (8.1±3.1%) and Cu (3.1±0.3%). Soil compaction caused by the first rainfall reduced in the second rainfall the leaching of remaining metalaxyl, S-metolachlor, Cu and Zn by 2.4-, 2.9-, 30- and 50-fold, respectively. In contrast, soil characteristics and aging had less influence on pollutant mass export. The soil type significantly influenced the leaching of Zn, while short-term aging impacted Cu leaching. Our results suggest that rainfall characteristics predominantly control export patterns of metalaxyl and S-metolachlor, in particular when the aging period is short. We anticipate our study to be a starting point for more systematic evaluation of the dissolved pollutant ponding/leaching partitioning and the export of pollutant mixtures from different soil types in relation to rainfall patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  19. The Impact of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): An Empirical Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Zenebe, Addisalem; Peterson, Wesley; Wamisho, Kassu

    2014-01-01

    The African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) which was signed into law in 2000 as part of U.S. trade legislation has the objectives of increasing trade and investment between the U.S. and eligible Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, by reducing or eliminating tariffs applied to African exports of different products. This Act represents a promising approach to economic growth and development in SSA through international trade. This research paper examines the impact of AGOA on African agri...

  20. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007–2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed — drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay — led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands — slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife — may enhance microbial

  1. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  2. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  3. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  4. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  5. Factors controlling the export of nitrogen from agricultural land in a large central European catchment during 1900−2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Posch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2013), s. 6400-6407 ISSN 0013-936X. [ASLO 2013. New Orleans, 17.02.2013-22.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reactive nitrogen * mass budgets * agricultural land * forest * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.481, year: 2013

  6. Hydrologic controls on the export dynamics of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in a lowland, headwater agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability controls eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, since P is generally the limiting nutrient to algal development. The contribution of diffuse P emission to surface waters is significant in intensively livestock farmed catchments as a result of high application rates of P-rich animal waste and subsequent enrichment of soils. This study investigates the transport dynamics of particulate phosphorus (PP), suspended sediments (SS), and dissolved phosphorus (DP) with the aim of elucidating the relationship between PP and DP transport mechanisms and water dynamics in lowland, headwater catchments. The selected catchment (Kervidy-Naizin catchment, France) is particularly suitable for this purpose as it benefits of a 5 years, high-frequency monitoring of PP and DP concentrations at its outlet, including data recovered both during base flow and storm periods, with the monitoring of more than 50 storm flow events. The data analysis includes interpretation of concentration-discharge relationships at the annual time scale and on an event basis, seasonal analysis of flood characteristics and empirical modeling. Annual DP and PP concentration-discharge relationships of interflood samples display a hysteretic pattern, with higher concentrations during the autumn and spring periods, and progressive decrease during winter. No hysteretic pattern is visible for interflood SS concentration, which follows a classical C=a*Qb relationship. During floods, the dynamic of PP export is similar to that of SS during most of the events: the concentration peak occurs during the rising limb of the hydrogram (clockwise hysteresis), suggesting a source close to or within the stream. The amplitude and the hysteresis' loop size for SS and PP are a function of maximum discharge and rate of change in discharge. On the contrary, there is a strong decoupling between DP and SS (and thus PP) during most of the floods (no significant correlation), with DP concentration peaks

  7. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.F.; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study...... point between the chemical data and landscape characteristics (e.g. topography, land-use and soil type distributions) of the corresponding contributing area. Results show that, in spite of an overall little share, the influence of organic soil types seems to impact N losses to streams stronger than...... local land use by farming....

  8. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  9. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  10. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...

  11. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. User-inspired Research Quantifies How Floodplain Restoration Paired With Cover Crops Reduces Nutrient Export From an Agricultural Catchment Translating to Conservation Success in the Midwestern Cornbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B.; Christopher, S. F.; Mahl, U. H.; Royer, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Midwestern US has undergone extensive land use change as forest, wetlands, and prairies have been converted to agroecosystems. Today, excess fertilizer nutrients from farm fields enter agricultural streams, which degrades both local and downstream water quality. We are quantifying the nutrient reduction benefits of two conservation practices implemented at the catchment scale. In partnership with The Nature Conservancy, in a small Indiana catchment, we have quantified how 600m of floodplain restoration (i.e., a two-stage ditch) increased nitrate-N removal via denitrification and reduced sediment export, but impacts on stream nutrient concentrations were negligible due to very high catchment loading relative to the short implementation reach. Requests from state and federal partners led to development and parameterization of a new two-stage ditch module in the SWAT model to determine the potential catchment-scale benefits when implementation lengths were extended. More recently, in partnership with state SWCD managers, we have added a landscape practice to quantify how winter cover crops reduce nutrient loss from fields, sampling year-round nutrient fluxes from multiple subsurface tile drains and longitudinally along the stream channel. Nitrate-N and dissolved P fluxes were significantly lower in tiles draining fields with cover crops compared to those without. At the urging of farmers and federal NRCS partners, we also linked tile drain nutrient reductions to changes in soil chemistry. Both soil nitrate-N and dissolved P were lower in cover cropped fields, and we found significant correlations between soil and tile drain nutrients, which may encourage future adoption of the conservation practice as soil health benefits appeal to farmers. As biogeochemists, this research has provided valuable insights on how floodplains and land cover change can alter patterns of catchment-scale nutrient export. The translation of successful soil and water quality outcomes

  13. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J F; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One...... northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type...... and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged...

  14. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Brand Marketing Strategies in the Export of Maoming Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives the brief overview of the development of Maoming litchi industry:it has the largest scale base and the output keeps going up;it has varieties of species and lots of famous special products;its standardized mass production ensures the safety of the products;the products go to market early with a broad range of sales;it has industrialized fruit production and deep product processing technology. After an introduction to the general situation of the export of litchis in China,the thesis introduces the current situation of the export of litchis in Maoming in terms of the continuously increasing exportations and the continuous expansion of the market and then,based on these,the thesis analyzes the existing problems in the export of Maoming Litchi:first,lack of brand awareness results in products with no brand;second,the instability of quality acts as a drawback to the exportation;third,fresh litchis are the main exportations,and the packaging and transportation technology of products are weak and thus the overseas markets are by no means well-explored. In order to adapt to the accelerating economic globalization,seize new opportunities for economic development,promote litchi exports from sluggish to healthy development and thus come to the successful transition of Maoming City as an agricultural city to a strong city in agricultural science and technology,corresponding strategies of the brand marketing of Maoming Litchi are put forward in the thesis:first,to enhance brand awareness and make it a famous brand;second,to build bases for litchis’ export and make Chinese litchis known worldwide;third,to pay intensive attention to the preservation of litchis and propel industrial management;fourth,to improve the market distribution system and open up the international market.

  16. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  17. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  18. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.470 Section 1493.470... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.470 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.80 Section 1493.80... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103...

  1. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  3. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean-Based Biodiesel in Argentina for Export

    OpenAIRE

    Panichelli, Luis; Dauriat, Arnaud; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim and scope. Regional specificities are a key factor when analyzing the environmental impact of a biofuel pathway through a life cycle assessment (LCA). Due to different energy mixes, transport distances, agricultural practices and land use changes, results can significantly vary from one country to another. The Republic of Argentina is the first exporter of soybean oil and meal and the third largest soybean producer in the world, and therefore, soybean-based biodiesel producti...

  5. Organizing export strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lojacono; M. Venzin

    2014-01-01

    The article unfolds as follows: after a brief introduction on the relevance of international trade and the characteristics of export strategies, we describe four distinct archetypes: export manager, centralistic export developer, export skimmer, integrated export developer.

  6. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  7. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Hidden Agricultural Export Subsidies in the WTO Framework and Implications for China%WTO体系下的隐蔽性农产品出口补贴及对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冰; 李晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguay Round negotiations failed to establish substantive obligations for hidden agricultural export subsidies. Since the establishment of the WTO, the members have been resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism to interpret and enforce existing soft rules, and on the other hand, negotiating new rules in the Doha Round negotiations. This thesis explores the current situations and especially the development of negotiations of the hidden export subsidies, and analyses China' s interests and stance on this topic.%由于乌拉圭回合谈判未对隐蔽性农产品出口补贴规定实质义务,WTO成立之后,成员一方面借助争端解决机制,解释和实施抽象的现有规则,另一方面通过新一轮农业谈判,制定新规则。文章探讨了WTO体系下隐蔽性农产品出口补贴的现状与谈判进展,阐述了中国在此问题上的立场与利益。

  9. Export regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr

  10. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  11. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  12. Effects of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loading on Riverine Nitrogen Export in the Northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Goodale, C. L.; Howarth, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the nitrogen (N) cycle, accelerating the rate of N fixation in landscapes and delivery of N to water bodies. To examine the effects of anthropogenic N inputs on riverine N export, we quantified N inputs and riverine N loss for 16 catchments along a latitudinal profile from Maine to Virginia, which encompass a range of climatic variability and are major drainages to the coast of the North Atlantic Ocean. We quantified inputs of N to each catchment: atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural and forest biological N fixation, and the net import of N in food and feed. We compared these inputs with N losses from the system in riverine export. The importance of the relative sources varies widely by watershed and is related to land use. Atmospheric deposition was the largest source (>60%) to the forested catchments of northern New England (e.g., Penobscot and Kennebec); import of N in food was the largest source of N to the more populated regions of southern New England (e.g., Charles and Blackstone); and agricultural inputs were the dominant N sources in the Mid-Atlantic region (e.g., Schuylkill and Potomac). Total N inputs to each catchment increased with percent cover in agriculture and urban land, and decreased with percent forest. Over the combined area of the catchments, net atmospheric deposition was the largest single source input (34%), followed by imports of N in food and feed (24%), fixation in agricultural lands (21%), fertilizer use (15%), and fixation in forests (6%). Riverine export of N is well correlated with N inputs, but it accounts for only a fraction (28%) of the total N inputs. This work provides an understanding of the sources of N in landscapes, and highlights how human activities impact N cycling in the northeast region.

  13. Modeling the Factors Affecting the Promotion of the Share of R&T Units in Iran Export Agriculture Product's Added Value: Case Study of Saffron and Barberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of agricultural sector research and technology organizations (RTO in the national economic system. The main objective of the paper is to identify and rank the factors affecting the promotion of these RTOs share in saffron’s added value. Through the literature review we extracted all the relevant factors that have been mentioned by different researchers. Then, we classified these factors into six components: applied research, technology acquisition, commercialization, market development, industry’s internal factors and national macro factors. We used a Likert scale questionnaire to gather the data about the importance of each factor based on research and technology experts’ points of view. To analyze the data we utilized confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM methods using SPSS and smart PLS software packages. The results show that the most important factor affecting the share of agricultural RTOs in a products added value  is the promotion of industrial firms to invest in the field of agricultural research and development. Finally, according to the obtained results, some suggestions for improving research and technology have been provided.

  14. The Politics and Consequences of Virtual Water Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Boelens, R.A.; Jackson, P.; Spiess, W.E.L.; Sultana, F.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual water is the water used or contaminated to produce a good or a service. With the large increase of export of agricultural produce during the last decades the amount of virtual water export has grown as well. Increased water contamination and water extraction for export from relative dry

  15. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  16. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  17. Identifying the Tillage Effects on Phosphorus Export from Phaeozems-Dominated Agricultural Watershed: a Plot-Scale Rainfall-Runoff Study in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyan; Xu, Y. Jun; Xiao, Weihua; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Cailian; Zhou, Pu; Shi, Min

    2017-12-01

    Evaluating tillage effects on soil phosphorus (P) loss at the plot-scale has significant implication for developing best management practices (BMPs) to protect water quality and soil productivity management in agricultural watersheds. This paper aims to quantify P loss from tilled soils under different rainfall patterns in a Phaeozems-dominated agricultural watershed. Eleven rainfall events were monitored at three experimental sites growing corns with conventional till, conservational till, and no-till during a growing season from July to August in 2013. Mean event mean concentration of dissolved phosphorus was 0.130, 0.213 and 0.614 mg L-1 and mean particulate phosphorus transfer rate was 103.502, 33.359 and 27.127 g ha-1 hr-1, respectively for three tillage practices. Results showed that less tillage practices could significantly reduce sediment runoff and PP loss, accompanied with a moderate reduction of runoff yield. While the proportion of PP has been cut down, the proportion of DP could account for the majority. Hydrological factors, including antecedent soil moisture and rainfall variables, could exert various effects on DP, PP and sediment losses under different tillage conditions. Further, the results of this study imply that the soil P loss management and water quality protection in black soil region of Northeast China should take consideration of diverse effects of tillage on phosphorus loss and the dynamics of P between different forms.

  18. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  19. 7 CFR 800.16 - Certification requirements for export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification requirements for export grain. 800.16 Section 800.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL...

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-22 - Ports of entry or export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry or export. 319.8-22 Section 319.8-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-22 Ports of entry or export. When ports of entry or export are not specifically designated...

  1. Fuel-consumption reflects increasing export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Fuel consumption in Slovakia has been substantially rising during the first three months of this year. During January and February about 6 percent more petrol and 15 percent more diesel fuel were sold compared to last year. Retail sales were growing even faster, informed president of Slovak Association of Petroleum Industry and Trade (SAPPO), Karoly Robak. He considers this an evidence of a substantial economic growth. The export is executed in form of freight transport (lorries), as this, together with agriculture, is the largest diesel fuel consumer. K. Robak, who at the same time is the Deputy General Manager For Retail at Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, expects the sales of fuel to grow by about 8 percent this year. Low prices due to a weaker US dollar should only support these tendencies. Last year the sales grew by 8,3 percent and in retail business the increase exceeded 10 percent. At the moment there are about 700 petrol stations in Slovakia (SAPPO) and over 330 out of them are owned by Slovnaft. The sale of fuel is now moving more to the retail business - to petrol stations as the price difference between retail and wholesale is decreasing. Last year for instance the wholesale recorded an increase in sales of diesel by 6,5 percent whereas retail sales grew by 17 percent. With petrol the situation was similar - 6,4 increase in retail sales and 2,5 percent in wholesale. (Author)

  2. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  3. Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME, Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural

  4. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwornu, John K.M.; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Egyir, Irene S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  5. Export Earnings from the Overseas Student Industry: How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Bob; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Education is regularly publicised as Australia's third-largest export behind coal and iron ore. Although it cannot be disputed that education is a major export, the published figures are inflated because of three broad factors. First, estimates of student expenditure on goods and services in Australia are based on students with different…

  6. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  7. The trade distorting effects of export refunds: The case of beef exports to Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.

    2005-01-01

    The usual sale of European agricultural products to Africa using export refunds has been heavily discussed in recent decades. At the centre of the discussion are the consequences on the agricultural producers in Western and Southern Africa. There are two different points of view: On the one hand,

  8. Embodied phosphorus and the global connections of United States agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is intricately linked to food security and water quality. Globalization of agricultural systems and changing diets clearly alter these relationships, yet their specific influence on non-renewable P reserves is less certain. We assessed P fertilizer used for production of food crops, livestock and biofuels in the US agricultural system, explicitly comparing the domestic P use required for US food consumption to the P use embodied in the production of US food imports and exports. By far the largest demand for P fertilizer throughout the US agricultural system was for feed and livestock production (56% of total P fertilizer use, including that for traded commodities). As little as 8% of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P) was consumed in US diets in the same year, while larger fractions may have been retained in agricultural soils (28%), associated with different post-harvest losses (40%) or with biofuel refining (10%). One quarter of all P fertilizer used in the US was linked to export production, primarily crops, driving a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P). However, US meat consumption relied considerably on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports. Changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer required for US food consumption by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). US export-oriented agriculture, domestic post-harvest P losses and global demand for meat may ultimately have an important influence on the lifespan of US phosphate rock reserves.

  9. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  10. 7 CFR 319.8-16 - Importation into United States of cotton and covers exported therefrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... covers exported therefrom. (a) Cotton and covers grown, produced, or handled in the United States and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation into United States of cotton and covers exported therefrom. 319.8-16 Section 319.8-16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  11. A MARKETING ANALYSIS OF U.S. CHICKEN EXPORTS TO CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Gunter, Lewell F.

    2004-01-01

    China is the second largest market for U.S. poultry exports. The growth potential for chicken exports to China is great, given their large population, low per capita consumption, rising incomes, and recent inclusion in the WTO. In this study, we estimated excess supply and demand equations for US exports of frozen chicken parts to China.

  12. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management University of Agriculture, ... This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State,. Nigeria. ... agricultural support to export crops, in ... growth and the alleviation of rural poverty ..... Dissertation, Department of.

  13. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  14. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  15. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  16. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  17. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  18. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  19. 7 CFR 51.883 - U.S. Fancy Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Export. 51.883 Section 51.883 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.883 U.S. Fancy Export. “U.S. Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Fancy Table, except that bunches...

  20. New opportunities for U.S. coal and mineral exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. exports of coal, metals and industrial minerals to the European Community were valued at $2.4 billion in 1989, representing 47 percent of total export revenues generated by these materials. Coal was the single largest contributor to the value of mineral exports to the EC with total sales of approximately $2 billion in 1989. With the extinction of trade barriers that will be triggered by the economic and political unification of Europe, new opportunities for U.S. minerals exporters are likely to develop. This paper examines the overall impact of European integration on U.S. metal and industrial mineral exports and provides a more rigorous analysis of the outlook for thermal and coking coal exports to the EC during the next decade

  1. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  2. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  3. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  4. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  5. The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural export commodities in Nigeria. ... The overall results confirmed that in most cases, the lagged values of exchange rate devaluation had a significant and positive relationship with agricultural export commodities but of a higher magnitude in the Total agricultural ...

  6. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  7. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  8. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from traditi...

  9. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  10. 7 CFR 800.17 - Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sacked export grain. 800.17 Section 800.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE... Requirements § 800.17 Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain. (a) General...

  11. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  12. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  13. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania Export of agricultural products, both ... well as form a basis for specialization and accessing ... fruit and vegetable trade is under many small ... This study also found that knowledge about Global Good agricultural practices, .... growers or traders belong. ... used to calculate the GM across different enterprises in ...

  14. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  15. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  16. 'From Start to Finnish': Handbook For Exporting A Theatre Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen, Milka; Mäkinen, Annemari

    2014-01-01

    Exporting Finnish culture is one of the themes the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture has carried out over the last few years. ‘From Start to Finnish’ project was a mission to strenghten the state of theatre export in Finland. In the project, government subsidised theatres in Finland export their plays to the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the largest arts festival in the world. The thesis is product-based as the authors created a handbook to combine all the steps to be taken when expo...

  17. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  18. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  19. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  20. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  1. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  2. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  3. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  4. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  5. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  6. An exporter's checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englot, P.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists

  7. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  8. New Paths to Capitalist Agricultural Production in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    their own export marketing arrangements. This article examines Ghanaian commercial farmers producing and exporting fresh pineapples to European markets. This group of pineapple producer–exporters represents a path to capitalist agricultural production that can be conceptualized as capitalism from outside...

  9. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  10. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  11. Promotion of Agricultural Innovation Systems Approach: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy Implications for Maize Extension and Advisory Services in Tanzania .... GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the ... for agricultural development (URT, 2012). The study .... in Tanzania.A Dissertation for Award of.

  12. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  13. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  14. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  15. Barriers to Sustainable Food Trade: China’s Exports Food Rejected by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2011–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food export rejection can be a harmful barrier to sustainable international food trade. To understand China’s export food rejected by FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States, we analyzed 4047 cases of rejection from February 2011 to July 2017. Although the number of rejected food exported from China to the United States has been declining, and the quality has been improving, there is still space for improvement. Of the 4047 cases of rejection, the Guangdong, Fujian and Shandong provinces were the top three with the largest number of rejected food (1253 (31%, 520 (12.8%, and 508 (12.6%, respectively (being rejected mainly in New York and Los Angeles. The top four types of rejected food involved fruits and vegetables, fishery and seafood products, bakery products, grain and related processed products. More importantly, the major reasons for rejection can be attributed to problems in maintaining food safety, namely: (1 the food contained filth, decay, decomposition or other substances; (2, the food contained toxic and harmful substances (e.g., suspected melamine, chemical insecticides, or lead; and (3 the food contained agricultural and veterinary drugs. The results are of great implications for the United States to regulate the imported food from China, and for China to improve the quality and safety of export food.

  16. Correlations-Adjusted Export Market Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Joo La

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...

  17. CO2 emissions embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Li Ran; Crittenden, John C.; Chen Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the annual CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008 using environmental input-output analysis. Four driving forces, including emission intensity, economic production structure, export composition, and total export volume, are compared for their contributions to the increase of embodied CO 2 emissions using a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) technique. Although offset by the decrease in emission intensity, the increase of embodied CO 2 emissions was driven by changes of the other three factors. In particular, the change of the export composition was the largest driver, primarily due to the increasing fraction of metal products in China's total export. Relevant policy implications and future research directions are discussed at the end of the paper. - Highlights: → We investigate annual CO 2 emission embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008 using environmental input-output analysis. → We conduct a structural decomposition analysis to measure contributions from different driving forces. → Change of export composition was the largest driver for the increase of CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports. → Increasing fraction of metal products in exports is the key change in export composition.

  18. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  19. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  20. Cotton plants export microRNAs to inhibit virulence gene expression in a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yun-Long; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Yun; Chen, Zhong-Qi; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Hua, Chen-Lei; Ding, Shou-Wei; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2016-09-26

    Plant pathogenic fungi represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants, and are a constant and major threat to agriculture worldwide. Recent studies have shown that engineered production of RNA interference (RNAi)-inducing dsRNA in host plants can trigger specific fungal gene silencing and confer resistance to fungal pathogens 1-7 . Although these findings illustrate efficient uptake of host RNAi triggers by pathogenic fungi, it is unknown whether or not such an uptake mechanism has been evolved for a natural biological function in fungus-host interactions. Here, we show that in response to infection with Verticillium dahliae (a vascular fungal pathogen responsible for devastating wilt diseases in many crops) cotton plants increase production of microRNA 166 (miR166) and miR159 and export both to the fungal hyphae for specific silencing. We found that two V. dahliae genes encoding a Ca 2+ -dependent cysteine protease (Clp-1) and an isotrichodermin C-15 hydroxylase (HiC-15), and targeted by miR166 and miR159, respectively, are both essential for fungal virulence. Notably, V. dahliae strains expressing either Clp-1 or HiC-15 rendered resistant to the respective miRNA exhibited drastically enhanced virulence in cotton plants. Together, our findings identify a novel defence strategy of host plants by exporting specific miRNAs to induce cross-kingdom gene silencing in pathogenic fungi and confer disease resistance.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.

  2. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  3. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, agriculture market, air quality, and agriculture land management models to a DIN export model. Future scenarios considered policies aimed at encouraging bioenergy crop production and reducing atmospheric N-emissions, as well as the effect of population growth and the states’ infrastructure plans on sewage fluxes. Model-derived DIN export decreased by about 9% (from 279 to 254 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022 due to a 28% increase in area planted with corn, 24% improvement in crop N-recovery efficiency (NRE, to 0.52), 22% reduction in atmospheric N deposition, and 23% increase in sewage inputs. Changes in atmospheric and sewage inputs had a relatively small effect on DIN export and the effect of bioenergy crop production depended on nutrient management practices. Without improved NRE, increased production of corn would have increased DIN export by about 14% (to 289 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022. Model results suggest that meeting future crop demand while reducing the areal extent of hypoxia could require aggressive actions, such improving basin-level crop NRE to 0.62 or upgrading N-removal capabilities in waste water treatment plants beyond current plans. Tile-dra

  4. NON-PRICE PROMOTION IMPACTS ON COTTON AND SOYBEANS EXPORTS UNDER EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    Issue of exchange rate-linked subsidies for non-price export promotion has recently emerged as an area of interest among marketing researchers because of fluctuating strength of US dollars and position of US agricultural goods in export markets. One solution to mitigate these impacts was to link the federal export promotion subsidies with the changing value of US dollars. In the study, an equilibrium displacement framework was developed to analyze the effectiveness of exchange rate-linked sub...

  5. The Export Supply Response ofMangoes: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ghafoor; Khalid Mushtaq; Abedullah

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of major factors on the export of mangoes from Pakistan. We use a cointegration approach and error correction mechanism applied to data for the period 1970–2005. Mango exports are regressed against the index of relative prices of mango exports (2000 = 100), the quantity of domestic mango production, real agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), the length of all-weather roads, and international standardization, i.e., the impact of the World Trade Organization ...

  6. Analysis of Fiji’s Export and Its Impact on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneil Kumar Raj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exports are vital for Fiji’s economy as it contributes significantly to its gross domestic product (GDP and economic growth. The export data over the years show very slow growth and is gradually increasing. Fiji’s GDP data show that GDP is gradually increasing. Thus, Fiji’s economic growth is also increasing at a steady rate. This study aims to measure the relationship between exports and economic growth in Fiji. A regression analysis on data collected for Fiji from 2000-2015 shows that there is a strong positive relationship between exports and economic growth. Thus, when exports increase, economic growth also increases. Potential sectors that can be further developed to boost Fiji’s exports are sugar, garment, tourism and agriculture. The government should restrict imports through import quotas, tariffs and embargoes and give subsidies and tax incentives to potential export sectors to boost domestic production and increase exports. The government’s motive is to increase export incentives and promote Fiji made products both locally and overseas. Thus, this leads to an increase in exports, improves the trade balance and economic growth. This research article was undertaken to carry out research to investigate the link between Fiji’s export and economic growth and highlight ways and potential sectors to increase Fiji’s export and reduce imports.

  7. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  8. Nuclear exporters cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1977-01-01

    Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution

  9. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  10. Export diversification and structural changes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen Choga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature and extent of export diversification in South Africa? The primary purpose of this paper is to seek empirical answers to this question. In an attempt to derive empirical measures of the extent of export diversification and the structural changes taking place in South Africa, this paper uses a sample of a group of 28 selected commodities for the period 1980-2012 for which the most recent data is available. The following methods were used to measure the extent of export diversification and the structural changes in export diversification: Commodity-specific cumulative export Experience function, the Commodity-specific traditional index (CSTI, variance of CSTI, concentration ratio and the aggregate specialisation index. The Commodity-Specific Cumulative Experience Function plots show that roughly, commodities such as scientific equipment, transport equipment, motor vehicles, furniture, machinery and electronic products were shifted to the right indicating that the commodities are non-traditional in nature whereas gold coal agricultural products and wood are traditional in nature. The CSTI rankings indicated that motor vehicle exports ranked first showing that motor vehicles are non-traditional exports. Findings of this paper corroborate findings of other scholars; we conclude that our results are complementary.

  11. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  12. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  13. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD). Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of...

  14. Exporting environmental products: A small business's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.

    1992-01-01

    If the last year and a half are any indication it would appear that the early 1990's will be to international trade what the early 1980's were to entrepreneurship. Embraced by the popular and business press and encouraged by the administration, exporting has become one of the most talked about topics in business today. As manufacturers, consultants and service providers we are continually told that to survive in the world marketplace we must think globally and compete aggressively. There can be no doubt that export markets, always an interesting sector of business, have become both more important and exciting in recent years. On January 1, 1993 the unified common market of the European Community will officially open for business. Although most of the significant changes in that market have already taken place or been agreed upon, this historic event - creating the single largest market among industrial nations - will undoubtedly have an effect on how we as exporters do business in Europe. The Free Trade Agreement with Canada has been in effect for over two years now and there have been and will continue to be many benefits for us. In developing and newly capitalist countries we can point to Czechoslovakia and Hungary as the first of several potentially lucrative markets. Mexico, in the spotlight due to the new Free Trade initiative, will be a strong new export market in our own backyard. And finally the so called mini-dragons of Southeast Asia cannot be ignored. Whether or not they choose to create a formal trading bloc, their ever increasing foreign reserves should be looked at with hungry, but cautious eyes. In this paper the author identifies a large and ever increasing world of customers beyond our national borders and identifies how those companies and individuals in the environmental products market can benefit greatly

  15. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  16. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  17. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  19. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  20. Empirical Analyses in Agricultural and Resource Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Andrew William

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture has played a profound and unique role in humanity's development. We are dependent on agriculture for the vast majority of our food supply, and have so far been successful at increasing agricultural production to meet rising demand. At the same time, agriculture is the largest and most direct way that humans have altered our planet's landscape and natural environment. Indeed, over half of all land in the United States is used for some agricultural purpose. In this dissertation, I e...

  1. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  2. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purho, P.

    2001-01-01

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  3. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  4. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  5. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  6. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    , promoting the uptake of new technologies, enabling the development of related industries, supporting the development of critical regions such as the Arctic and the Far East, restoring the strategic importance of the Northern Sea Route, and strengthening Russia's geopolitical influence in the Asia-Pacific region. Under intense pressure from the government, which has called for swift delivery of its LNG strategy, Gazprom began to rework its strategy and pursue new options: the expansion of the Sakhalin-2 project; the Vladivostok LNG project, and the new Baltic LNG project. At the same time, independent gas producers started making their move in the market in anticipation of amendments to the institutional framework. Indeed, the desire to gain strategic position on the global LNG market works wonders: the liberalization of LNG export, which seemed practically unfeasible not so long ago, became a reality with the adoption of the recent bill. However, this liberalization will affect only companies that have special status- e.g. Rosneft with its Sakhalin-1 project and Novatek with the Yamal LNG project. For all the remaining participants, entry to the export market is still blocked. Moreover, the new law stipulates that 'in order to avoid competition between Russian exporters on the external markets, a special mechanism of LNG export coordination is envisaged. In particular, gas exporters are obliged to provide the Energy Ministry with information according to the procedure established by the Russian government'. Nevertheless, even such a limited change in the institutional framework is breeding new competition between market participants. For Gazprom, LNG exports offer a chance not only to compensate for the slowdown in Europe, but also to restore its reputation as an industry leader in the eyes of the country's leadership. For Novatek, Yamal LNG is the company's largest project; it has placed all its bets on it, and is its only chance to obtain an

  7. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  9. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  10. Land use mediates riverine nitrogen export under the dominant influence of human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binhui; Chang, Scott X.; Lam, Shu Kee; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing

    2017-09-01

    Riverine nitrogen (N) export is a crucial process that links upstream and downstream ecosystems and coastal zones. However, the driving forces of riverine N export that is closely related to water N pollution are still not well understood. In this study, we used a mass balance approach to quantify the sources of N discharge and analyzed the effect of land use composition on riverine N export, taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case study. We found that the total reactive N discharge to rivers in Zhejiang increased from 0.22 to 0.26 Tg yr-1 from 2000 to 2015. At the watershed scale, our estimate of N export agrees well with the monitored riverine N concentration in the eight major watersheds in Zhejiang. Direct discharge of domestic wastewater and effluents from wastewater treatment plants are dominant sources of riverine N export, followed by agricultural non-point sources. Although riverine N export increases with the increasing proportion of urban and agricultural land uses, we did not find any relationship between land use change and changes in riverine N export. This suggests that the dominant factor affecting riverine N export should be human activities (e.g. wastewater discharge and fertilization level), while land use only mediates riverine N export.

  11. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil

  12. Quantifying export flows of used electronics: advanced methods to resolve used goods within trade data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Miller, T Reed; Gregory, Jeremy; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-03-18

    There is limited convincing quantitative data on the export of used electronics from the United States (U.S.). Thus, we advance a methodology to quantify the export flows of whole units of used electronics from the U.S. using detailed export trade data, and demonstrate the methodology using laptops. Since used electronics are not explicitly identified in export trade data, we hypothesize that exports with a low unit value below a used-new threshold specific to a destination world region are used. The importance of using the most disaggregated trade data set available when resolving used and new goods is illustrated. Two detailed U.S. export trade data sets were combined to arrive at quantities and unit values for each port, mode of transport, month, trade partner country, and trade code. We add rigor to the determination of the used-new threshold by utilizing both the Neighborhood valley-emphasis method (NVEM) and published sales prices. This analysis found that 748 to 1199 thousand units of used laptops were exported from the U.S. in 2010, of which 78-81% are destined for non-OECD countries. Asia was found to be the largest destination of used laptop exports across all used-new threshold methods. Latin American and the Caribbean was the second largest recipient of these exports. North America and Europe also received used laptops from the U.S. Only a small fraction of used laptops was exported to Africa. However, these quantities are lower bound estimates because not all shipments of used laptops may be shipped using the proper laptop trade code. Still, this approach has the potential to give insight into the quantity and destinations of the exports if applied to all used electronics product types across a series of years.

  13. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  14. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  15. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  16. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  17. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  18. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  19. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  20. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S...

  1. Going global - how to reduce the risks involved in exporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    1999-01-01

    Exporting oilfield expertise and technology overseas to new markets can be risky, a lesson that the company Fracmaster Ltd. learned the hard way when it lost investment in the former Soviet Union. The company's demise illustrates some of the risks inherent in conducting business in a foreign country. To be successful at this Canadian oilfield service and supply companies must not only know how to recognize opportunities but also to recognize the possible pitfalls and learn how to avoid them. Before looking at the export market, oil and gas service and supply companies should first ensure that they have not missed any opportunities at home. Canada is the second largest market in the world after the U.S. But companies should approach the American market with caution. The rule that companies should approach the U.S. first does not necessarily hold in the oil and gas industries. Mexico is another country where Canadian companies should use caution. The current hotspots in exporting are countries in the Middle East and the Latin American countries. Saudi Arabia is interested in technology and expertise. although political factors in Iran will have to improve before commitment to that market is advisable. Industry Canada has a wealth of information and services available to companies interested in exporting. There are a number of government programs to help companies finance efforts to enter the export market. Industry Canada also offers a capital projects bidding program for Canadian companies bidding on projects greater than $1 million

  2. Brand management of Slovenian export companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pisnik Korda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the characteristics of brand management in the context of the companies in Slovenia that are intensively engaged in the internationalization of their business operations. Using a sample of the 200 largest export companies in Slovenia, it explores the impact of internationalized business operations on the marketing mix component strategies to identify the most frequent internal and external hindrances to the internationalization that exert influence on the companies’ most important brands. The paper also analyzes the importance of long-term experience and knowledge of the market in the consolidation of brand effectiveness and the companies’ reputation and ascertains whether the companies with a higher level of internationalization employ a larger number of less tangible brand performance criteria than those with a lower level of internationalization.

  3. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  4. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  5. The Agenda 2000 CAP reform, world prices and URAA GATT-WTO export constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the compatibility of the Agenda 2000 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) with the EU's commitments to reduce export subsidies made under the GATT Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. A multi-region applied general equilibrium model, which

  6. The Agenda 2000 CAP reform, world prices and GATT-WTO export constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the compatibility of the Agenda 2000 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) with the EU's commitments to reduce export subsidies made under the GATT Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. A multi-region applied general equilibrium model, which

  7. IPPSO raises Hydro exports in smog negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO) requested federal and provincial committees negotiating atmospheric emission standards to review Ontario Hydro's export wheeling plans. IPPSO alleges that Ontario Hydro is preparing to apply pressure on the Canadian export approval process, and is building up a major effort that will increase emissions, contrary to the objectives embodied in a number of environment protection projects such as the Ontario Smog Plan, The Federal-Provincial NOx Management Plan, the Strategic Options Plan, or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Draft NOx Protocol Negotiations. IPPSO alleges further that while Ontario Hydro is one of Canada's largest single emitter of greenhouse gases NOx, and SO 2 , and as a public sector corporation it should be the most amenable to serving the public good, the Corporation is doing exactly the opposite: it actively prevents production of electricity from less polluting sources. It is IPPSO's contention that Ontario Hydro's desire to control the Ontario market could come at significant cost to the environment

  8. Export of nutrients from golf courses on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Annual export rates, or fluxes, of total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and potassium from four streams on two golf courses on the Precambrian Shield were compared with those from forested reference locations. Overall, the mean annual fluxes of K, TN, NO 3 and TP from golf courses were greater than from forested areas by 10, 2, 6 and 2 times, respectively. The overall mean export coefficients (kg/ha/yr) were 16 for K, 5.2 for TN, 2.1 for NO 3 and 0.14 for TP. For TN and TP, these are similar to those reported from cropland in Canada by Chambers and Dale (1997. Contribution of industrial, municipal, agricultural and groundwater sources to nutrient export, Athabasca, Wapiti and Smoky Rivers, 1980 to 1993. Northern River Basins Study Project Report No. 110. Northern River Basins Study, Edmonton, Alberta). -- Golf courses increase nutrient loads in receiving streams

  9. China’s wood furniture manufacturing industry: industrial cluster and export competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, hongqiang; Ji, Chunyi; Nie, Ning; Hong, Yinxing

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest furniture exporter in the world. Its wood furniture industry has become an important part of the country’s forestry economic development. Hence, investigating China’s furniture industry cluster and export competitiveness is favorable for the sustainable development of China’s forestry industry. This study indicates that, under the guidance of the export-oriented strategy of China’s reform and opening up for 30 years, the country’s furniture industry has formed three big i...

  10. COMPETITIVENESS OF CANADIAN AGRI-FOOD EXPORTS AGAINST COMPETITORS IN ASIA: 1980-97

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kevin Z.; Duan, Yufeng

    2001-01-01

    Asia is the second largest market for the Canadian agri-food exports after the United States market. The competition in Asia has become more intensive in recent years as the agri-food sector in developed nations such as Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States has increasingly relied on exports for growth because of their own slow-growing domestic food consumption. How did the performance of Canadian agri-food exports to Asia measure up to the performances of its main competitors? Thi...

  11. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  12. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikku, Laura; Soimakallio, Sampo; Pingoud, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from land use changes are highly important. ► Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. ► Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  13. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  14. The Uruguay Round and Welfare in Some Distorted Agricultural Economies

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    There is widespread concern that the Uruguay Round may reduce the welfare of developing countries through its effect on world agricultural prices. Reduced agricultural price distortions among major supplying nations are predicted to increase basic food prices and decrease some important export prices such as those for coffee and cotton. It appears that raising food prices paid by food importers must be bad for them, while reducing world coffee and cotton prices appears bad for exporters of th...

  15. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  16. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  17. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  18. The implications of uranium export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)

  19. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  20. Tourist ships on the Danube as an opportunity for export of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development launches growth of other complementary industries. River tourism, as a special selective tourism form, experiences intensive development, with an importance for all the regions through which the Danube, as an integral part of the Rhine - Main - Danube waterway, flows. During cruising, the largest consumption is achieved on the ship itself, where meat and meat products are an integral element of every meal and represent the most expensive component of the dish. The task of this paper is to analyse the consumption of meat and meat products on six tourist ships run by to 'Grand Circle Corporation' in 2013, in order to point out the possibility of supplying them with meat and meat products from sources in the territory where the ships sail. The paper presents the current suppliers and manufacturers of meat and meat products in Republic of Serbia that could supply the company 'Grand Circle Cruise Line' and other tourist ships that cruise on the Danube. Also, the research indicates that the export of meat products from the Republic Serbia could have a significant effect on improving the agricultural conditions and food production through increased competition, assuming the Serbian manufacturers supply most of tourist ships and not only the six ships analysed in this paper. Research results, specifically, point out the possibility of increasing export of poultry and beef if the potential demand of each of the eight companies with their 54 ships which operate tourist cruises on the Danube is taken into account. The data have been systematized, analysed and presented statistically in tables and graphs.

  1. Self fertile and exportable sweet cherry cultivar improvement by mutation and cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, sweet cherry production reached at 195,000 tons in the last two years. This value is 13% of the world production. Globally USA was the largest exporter of cherries in 2004, accounting for 21,2 % of world trade, just ahead of Turkey, which accounted for 20,07 % [3]. The major high quality and exporting sweet cherry variety is 0900 Ziraat. It is a mid to late season variety with heart fruit shape, pink and very firm flesh and excellent flavor. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar. In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock in greenhouse, located on Ministry of Agriculture, Yalova Atatuerk Horticultural Central Research Institute. At the end of the first year young trees were transferred from greenhouse to orchard. According to 60 days data 'efficient mutation dose' was calculated . After first year which was including physiological effects, trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). Among the 371 living mutant trees, nominee of dwarf, large fruits (>30 mm) and high yield types were observed. According to the data's 58 mutant variety candidate were selected for advance observations. (Includes 63 tables, 29 figures)

  2. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  3. An empirical assessment of the impact of technical standards on the export of meat in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queeneth Odichi Ekeocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is an assessment of the impact of technical standards on meat export in Nigeria. Several literatures were reviewed in relation to meat standards, issues associated with standards compliance, the effects of SPS standards on food exports in developing countries, causes of non-export of meat in Nigeria, amongst others. A survey method was used and a cross tabulation analysis was made to ascertain the relationship among various variables and how significant they were in relation to food product standards. The findings of the study among others include- sanitary conditions for meat processing is a significant factor for meat export; standards compliance is a step in the right direction towards agricultural export diversification, food standard compliance can create market access for meat exports, etc. The study concluded that technical standard is very significant to meat exports in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that the government should invest in the productive capacity of SPS requirements for meat export, standard abattoirs should be built and maintained, policymakers should re-think flexible export diversification policy that could attract foreign investor and meat companies in Nigeria.

  4. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  5. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  6. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  7. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  8. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  9. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  10. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  11. Competitiveness of Indonesian Shrimp Compare with Thailand Shrimp in Export Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Asmara Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the water area accounts for 81 percent of the total area, fishery is a major business in Indonesia. As one of the world's largest shrimp exporting countries, Indonesia also relies on the revenues of shrimp exports in the international markets. This research compared the competitiveness of shrimp export from Indonesia and Thailand to Japan and US. The indicator adopted in this research was the RCA index. In this research collected secondary data from 1989 to 2010 for analysis. Results showed RCA values of Indonesia were higher than 1, which indicates advantaged competitiveness of Indonesia shrimp exports in the liberalized markets. Nevertheless, compared with Thailand, Indonesia remained relatively disadvantaged. To reinforce the Indonesian shrimp export, necessary infrastructure, such as networks shipment or delivery, packaging and transportation, must be improved. Further researches to determine the factors affecting competitiveness of export shrimp in liberalized market, make and analyze for the policy strategy formulation of Indonesia shrimp export in liberalized market are also advised.Keywords: Competitiveness; Indonesian Shrimp Export; RCA.

  12. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE OF EXPORTS - THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the evolution of the competitive advantages of the main products exported by Romania in the 2000-2014 period and the connection between this evolution and the current structure of Romanian exports. In the first part we calculated the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA of Balassa, index for main groups of products exported by Romania the period 1990 to 2014 and we analysed the competitive advantage evolution. In the second part we presented the evolution of the structure of Romanian exports in 2010-2014 and we noticed that the recorded changes in structure of Romanian exports is in close correlation with the changing competitiveness of products exported by Romania. In this sense one of the most significant examples is given by the evolution recorded in exports of machinery and transport equipment that not only was raised every year but the sector succeeded and currently holds a competitive advantage in the market of these products - a market where it is knows is stiff competition. Although garment exports have recorded during the analyzed period the largest decrease, the advantages of the Romanian garment industry - labor force highly qualified endowing companies with machinery efficient, product quality achieved, flexibility and quick response to orders but also geographical position the country - still cause this sector recording still comparative advantages though its values are declining during the whole period analyzed.

  13. Trade Policies, Exchange Rate and Developing Country’s Real Sector Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edeme, Richardson Kojo; Nkalu, Nelson C.; Emecheta, Chisom; Ugwu, Sam

    2017-01-01

    For developing countries like Nigeria, empirical evidence have shown they are faced with policy management challenge because they are mostly involved in the production and export of primary products which is often characterized by unfavourable terms of trade. The essence of this study therefore is to ascertain if trade and exchange rate policies complement each other in stimulating non-oil exports, especially the agricultural and manufacturing sectors, using both aggregated and disaggregated ...

  14. Export boost of Textile Industry of Pakistan by availing EU’s GSP Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Wagan, Shah Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is commonly known as agriculture based economy where vast areas of cultivated lands are producing cotton. This enabled to establish and flourish textile industries in Pakistan, therefore Pakistan is vital part of cheap and quality based textile products exporting country. Recently Pakistan is granted European Union's Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) Plus status as a year from January 2014 by European Union because of that Pakistan's Textile exports surged to $14.22 billion in ...

  15. Phases definition in marketing export process

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Dragan; Kokić Miljko

    2004-01-01

    The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action). The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed ...

  16. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  17. Topics in Productivity, Exporting and Outsourced Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Matthew Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...

  18. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States March/April 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports fell to $16.5 billion (55 million tons) during the ·first 5 months of FY 1991, a decline of $1.4 billion and 14 million tons... Agricultural imports remained at $9.4 ·billion during the first 5 months of FY 1991....USDA allocated $200 million to 47 trade organizations to conduct export market promotions for a variety of agricultural products during FY 1991... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by the Soviet...

  19. Quality control and disinfestation of spices for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices in the world. Other than a few, all spices are grown in this country. The production is estimated at 2.6 million tonnes with an export of about 0.22 million tonnes valued around US $ 333 million. India's share in the world trade is over 40 % in quantity and 20 % in value. Many spices produced in India face quality problems as in other countries. For identifying quality produce, grade specifications have been introduced for all the important spices. With the liberalization of government controls, compulsory pre-shipment inspection has been withdrawn unless insisted by the buyer abroad. To meet the sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, the Spices Board has taken up a massive programme for upgradation of quality of Indian spices. Logo mark and Spice House Certificates are awarded to those spice exporting units having necessary infrastructure for assuring quality. By now, 6 units have been accredited to ISO 9000. Though different chemical and non-chemical treatments are available for improving hygienic quality, irradiation appears to be a reliable method. However, its wide application in the spice industry depends upon the conviction of the consumers of its safety. Because of the comprehensive programmes taken up for quality improvement of spices, India is confident of exporting spices meeting quality specifications prescribed by the importing countries. (author)

  20. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE RISE AND DECLINE OF RENT-SEEKING ACTIVITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COFFEE SECTOR: LESSONS FROM THE IMPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF COFFEE EXPORT QUOTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...

  2. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Email: info@globaljournalseries.com. CLIMATE ... and hunger. These issues are likely to become especially important in making decisions not only about how to reduce .... Agriculture is the largest single consumer of fresh water ..... imply increased refrigeration loads at the same time that.

  4. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  5. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  6. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  7. Estimating the recreational value of Pakistan's largest freshwater lake to support sustainable tourism management using a travel cost model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangan, T.; Brouwer, R.; Lohano, H.; Nagraj, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake, Pakistan's largest freshwater lake and an important Ramsar site, provides habitat for internationally important water birds. Annually, 385,000 people visit the lake. The lake is threatened by a variety of causes, including industrial and agricultural pollution. To support its

  8. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  9. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  10. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  11. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... sales prices and/or minimum target sales prices, and other terms of sales in the Export Markets... canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales for the Export... described below for the following Export Trade and Export Markets: Export Trade Products Shelf stable non...

  12. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  13. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (May/June issue)

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports rose slightly during the first 7 months of FY 1990, increasing 3 percent to $25.2 billion .... Record U.S. agricultural imports of $22 billion are forecast for FY 1990, $500 million above the February forecast of $21.5 billion .... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by South Korea, Canada, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Mexico, Taiwan, and West Germany.

  14. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  15. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  16. Russian food products marke: New CEFTA export opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the unexploited export potential of CEFTA economies to the Russian market, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. More precisely, the Russian food market is examined, because of its size, the lack of domestic supply and actual changes of trading partners due to political and security antagonisms. The competitiveness of CEFTA food production on the Russian food market was analyzed by using two classical instruments of competitiveness - coefficient of conformity (CC and real effective exchange rate (RER.CC is applied first to the CEFTA export and Russian import of food in total, and then to the six main Russian import food products. The results indicate the highest degree of matching between Russian import and all CEFTA country export of fruits, vegetable and its processed commodities. RER is calculated to show competitiveness in terms of prices in bilateral trade, and result shows a very favorable ratio of currency, except in the case of Montenegro and Bosnia because their fixation to euro. Due to the small size of CEFTA production and non-proportional large Russian market, the interconnection, e.g. forming the value chain made of CEFTAs agriculture and food industry companies is suggested as the basis of new CEFTA export strategy.

  17. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  18. Analysis of the agricultural policies in the development of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of the two main policies through the examination of the contribution of major agricultural commodities to total export earnings, comparison of food production and demand, share of food in total import value and the overall contribution of the nation's agricultural sector to foreign exchange earnings as well as its ...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this chapter, for the export (including the cost of freight) of agricultural commodities or... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 614.4010 Section 614.4010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  20. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  1. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  2. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  3. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  4. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  5. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  6. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  7. Recent trends/challenges in irrigated agriculture-Why is irrigation important in a discussion of agricultural migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States agriculture contributes 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of U.S. exports, and 17% of employment while providing food to all citizens, despite the fact that only 2% of the U.S. workforces is on farms. Agricultural productivity has grown by 240% since 1948, while agricul...

  8. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  9. Quantifying the Role of Agriculture and Urbanization in the Nitrogen Cycle across Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helper, L. C.; Yang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Over-enrichment of nutrients throughout coastal areas has been a growing problem as population growth has enhanced agricultural and industrial processes. Enhanced nitrogen (N) fluxes from land to coast continue to be the result of over fertilization and pollution deposition. This over-enrichment of nutrients has led to eutrophication and hypoxic conditions in coastal environments. Global estimates indicate rivers export 48 Tg N yr -1 to coastal zones, and regionally North America exports 7.2 Tg N yr-1. These exports are primarily from anthropogenic N inputs (Boyer et al. 2006). Currently the U.S. is home to the second largest hypoxic zone in the world, the Mississippi River Basin, and previous work from Howarth et al. (2002) suggest much of the over enrichment of N is a result of agricultural practices. Aforementioned work has focused on global and large regional estimates; however an inventory has not been conducted on the full scope of N sources along the Gulf of Mexico. This study was conducted along the Gulf, through the state of Texas, in order to quantify all sources of N in a region which contains a large precipitation gradient, three major metropolitan areas, and one of the top livestock industries in the United States. Nitrogen inputs from fertilizer, livestock, and crop fixation were accounted for and totaled to be 0.91 Tg N for the year of 2007. Using estimates of leaching rates from Howarth et al. (2002), riverine export of N was at a minimum of 0.18 Tg for that year. Atmospheric deposition inputs were also analyzed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) and were found to be significantly smaller than those of agriculture. The developed regional high-resolution gridded N budget is now available to be used as N input to next-generation land surface models for nutrient leaching and riverine transport modeling. Ultimately, this comprehensive dataset will help better understand the full pathways of anthropogenic

  10. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  11. What are the economic and social effects from the electric power beneficiary price of the largest consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogov, Dimitar

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years the two largest consumers of electricity 'Feni' and 'Jugohrom', were sold to the foreign strategic investor. The key issue in the negotiations with the investor was the price of electricity for these companies. The final outcome is known, they got beneficiary price. Now two questions emerge: (1) what is the exact size of the under pricing? (2) what are the economic and social effects of their activity and whether the social gain for the country is higher than the loss for the country from the under pricing of electricity. The paper is trying to give an answer on the second question. Therewith, the analyze is focused on two issues: (1) how much is the contribution of these two companies on production, export and economic growth of the Republic of Macedonia; (2) what is their impact on the living standard and social costs. Macedonian industry has very unfavorable structure with only a few export products. Restructuring of industry and widening of the array of products is a slow process. Until new products and new industries are developed, the only generator of larger export and higher economic growth is the increase of the export of existing products. 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' are some of rare Macedonian companies that have foreign strategic investor who provide stable and unlimited market (having in mind that Macedonian production is relatively small compared to the world demand for nickel and ferro silicium). Thus, the growth of export of metals produced by 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' could be the principal generators of the growth of Macedonian economy in the period of restructuring of the industry and development of new competitive products. (Original)

  12. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  13. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  14. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  15. Exporting nuclear engineering and the government's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de

  16. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  17. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  18. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  19. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  20. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  1. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  2. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by...

  3. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  4. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  5. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  6. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  7. 76 FR 66693 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: November 16, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET) ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  8. 76 FR 9550 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: March 11, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  9. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members SUMMARY: The President's Export... their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with senior export control expertise and...

  10. Development performances of agriculture in the Danube region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Milivoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.

  11. THE COMMON EU AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUMBACEAN CLAUDIU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s negotiations to become a European Union member were officially inaugurated on February 15, 2000. Agriculture is the largest negotiation chapter. The enlargement had and will certainly have positive effects upon the Romanian agriculture: stimulation of trade exchanges as a consequence of the dropping up of the customs duties, the increase of the agricultural products and,consequently, of the farmers’ income, the access to a much bigger market, of 450 million inhabitants.In order for the Romanian agricultural and food sector to become a competitive one, priority measures and steps are necessary both in the vegetal sector and in the animal-breeding and meat and diary products processing sectors. Once the enlargement achieved, Romanian agriculture is taking the advantage of different types of assistance within the framework of the CommonAgricultural Policy, but in order to absorb these funds it is important to know the governing principles. The basic principle of the community policy is to stimulate the farmers to adjust to the market signals, to produce what it is required to be produced on the market. Thus, the farmer will be determined to adjust the target with every quantity required, depending upon cost and qualitycompetitiveness. This concept is called “decoupling”, meaning the decoupling of the production subsidies and their connection to the surface.Romania’s tradition in animal-breeding for milk production may be an advantage for the implementation of chances to become an active participant to the intra-community trade. But tradition is not enough for Romania to be able to take advantage of the export opportunities. For this, we will have to improve the raw material milk quality and also of the products resulting from the processing, in order to allow the adjustment to the EU standards. Achieving the quality and cleaning parameters shall be performed by steps, until the end of the year 2009, mainly by adjusting the race

  12. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD. Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of Raisin export was examined using Johansen's and Juselius's cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM.The results showed that in the long-term and short-term there is a significant relationship between Raisin exports and its main variables (weighted average of Gross income of importers, Wholesale Prices, real exchange rate, Value-added of agricultural sector; as according to the theory it has negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. The error correction coefficient sentence ECM (-1 significantly and its sign was negative as expected. The value of this coefficient is equal to the -0/20 and indicates that about 20 percent of Raisin exports imbalance from its long-term value, after of a period will be Elapse.

  13. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  14. IMPACT OF CFTA/NAFTA ON U.S. AND CANADIAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tweeten, Luther G.; Sharples, Jerry A.; Evers-Smith, Linda

    1997-01-01

    CFTA/NAFTA is estimated annually to add $1,430 million of U.S. agricultural exports to Canada and $1,884 million of Canadian agricultural exports to the United States. Thus CFTA/NAFTA contributed an estimated 25 percent of the $5.8 billion of U.S. agricultural exports to Canada in 1995. Classical welfare analysis was used to estimate the implications of free trade in the dairy, poultry, sugar, and other industries that continue to be protected. In aggregate, consumers benefit from liberalizat...

  15. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  16. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  17. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  18. Characterising India’s Exports to the U.S.: The Post Liberalisation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUMENDRA NATH BANERJEE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India has experienced significant export growth over the past two decades and presently stands as the 10th biggest trading partner of the U.S. Using the U.S. trade data compiled by Robert Feenstra, the U.S. CPI data, and the NBER Manufacturing Productivity database, this empirical paper attempts to understand the anatomy of India’s exports to the U.S. between 1991 and 2006. In particular, we analyse how the allocation of industries in the export sector, skill intensity of products, product diversification, and contributions of new products have changed as India’s exports to the U.S. have grown. Our findings suggest that India has moved from traditional agricultural and raw material products toward exports of sophisticated manufaturing products that require greater skill to produce. Furthermore, our study finds that India has diversified in the range of products it is exporting to the U.S., with new products gaining an increased share in India’s export basket.

  19. The contribution of Chinese exports to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.; Peters, Glen P.; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Within 5 years, China's CO 2 emissions have nearly doubled, and China may already be the world's largest emitter of CO 2 . Evidence suggests that exports could be a main cause for the rise in Chinese CO 2 emissions; however, no systematic study has analyzed this issue, especially over time. We find that in 2005, around one-third of Chinese emissions (1700 Mt CO 2 ) were due to production of exports, and this proportion has risen from 12% (230 Mt) in 1987 and only 21% (760 Mt) as recently as 2002. It is likely that consumption in the developed world is driving this trend. A majority of these emissions have largely escaped the scrutiny of arguments over 'carbon leakage' due to the current, narrow definition of leakage. Climate policies which would make the developed world responsible for China's export emissions have both benefits and costs, and must be carefully designed to achieve political consensus and equity. Whoever is responsible for these emissions, China's rapidly expanding infrastructure and inefficient coal-powered electricity system need urgent attention

  20. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  1. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  2. Feasibility of irradiating Washington fruits and vegetables for Asian export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hazelton, R.F.; Young, J.K.; Prenguber, B.A.; O' Rourke, A.D.; Heim, M.N.

    1987-05-01

    US agricultural export marketing opportunities are limited by the existence of trade barriers in many overseas countries. For example, Japan and South Korea do not permit the importation of apples due to their stated concern over codling moth infestation. One of the purposes of this study was to evaluate the potential of exporting irradiated fruits and vegetables from Washington State to overcome existing trade barriers and prevent the establishment of future barriers. The Asian countries specifically evaluated in this study are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Another purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of locating an irradiation facility in Washington State. Advantages that irradiated agricultural products would bring in terms of price and quality in export markets were also evaluated.

  3. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  4. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  5. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  6. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  7. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  8. Net oil exports embodied in China's international trade: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Zhang, Baosheng; Feng, Lianyong; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As the world's second largest oil importer, China has been one of the important factors which affect the global oil market. In recent years, China has attained great international trade surplus through exporting a large number of “Made in China” products even during the global economic crisis. Due to direct and indirect effects in production chain, each 'Made in China' product contains oil directly or indirectly. China is exporting much oil through “Made in China” products, which is not often considered even within China. An input–output model is established to calculate oil embodied in the international trade of China. The research results suggest the following: China's net oil exports embodied in the international trade were 87.02 million tonnes in 2007; manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment is the largest sector to export embodied oil; United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands are the top three countries and regions which benefit most from the embodied oil in “Made in China” products. China's adjusted degree of dependence on foreign oil is 24.9% in 2007, and 38.4% in 2011 if net oil exports embodied in international trade are considered. -- Highlights: ► Model is established based on IO analysis to calculate the net oil exports embodied in China's international trade. ► China's net oil exports through “Made in China” products are 87 million tones in 2007. ► United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands benefit most from the embodied oil in China's international trade. ► China's degree of dependence on foreign oil can be reduced obviously if oil embodied in international trade are considered.

  9. Export of microplastics from land to sea. A modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Max; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien

    2017-12-15

    Quantifying the transport of plastic debris from river to sea is crucial for assessing the risks of plastic debris to human health and the environment. We present a global modelling approach to analyse the composition and quantity of point-source microplastic fluxes from European rivers to the sea. The model accounts for different types and sources of microplastics entering river systems via point sources. We combine information on these sources with information on sewage management and plastic retention during river transport for the largest European rivers. Sources of microplastics include personal care products, laundry, household dust and tyre and road wear particles (TRWP). Most of the modelled microplastics exported by rivers to seas are synthetic polymers from TRWP (42%) and plastic-based textiles abraded during laundry (29%). Smaller sources are synthetic polymers and plastic fibres in household dust (19%) and microbeads in personal care products (10%). Microplastic export differs largely among European rivers, as a result of differences in socio-economic development and technological status of sewage treatment facilities. About two-thirds of the microplastics modelled in this study flow into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. This can be explained by the relatively low microplastic removal efficiency of sewage treatment plants in the river basins draining into these two seas. Sewage treatment is generally more efficient in river basins draining into the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. We use our model to explore future trends up to the year 2050. Our scenarios indicate that in the future river export of microplastics may increase in some river basins, but decrease in others. Remarkably, for many basins we calculate a reduction in river export of microplastics from point-sources, mainly due to an anticipated improvement in sewage treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  11. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  12. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  13. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  14. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  15. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  16. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  17. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  18. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  19. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  20. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  1. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  2. ASSESSING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXCHANGE RATE-LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    Notwithstanding substantial federal financial support for the export promotion of agricultural products, ways to improve the efficiency of federal funding have not been discussed in empirical research. In this study, an equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate whether the efficiency of export promotion expenditures could be increased by linking them with changes in the exchange rate. In our analysis, the gross gain to domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked...

  3. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on land such as agriculture and urbanization. However, the relative importance of these human activities for river export of nutrients to Chinese seas is not well studied. There are two important issu...

  4. O. Nuclear energy in a food exporting country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report attempts to estimate the affect on agricultural exports from New Zealand which might result from the operation of nuclear power. By far the most serious of these would result from an accidental release of radioactive material, and the likely affects of such releases are considered both in the first year after an accident and in the future. Previous assessments of this type have concentrated attention on property damage and on the health hazards which might result to consumers of contaminated food in the first year or two after a release. In this report the emphasis is on exported foods to which different criteria might apply, and some very approximate estimates are made of long-term implications. To a large extent these can be described only as speculations, but they have some value as a guide. No analgous report has been found in the open literature from other countries, and this particularly includes Denmark which has much in common with New Zealand in this regard. The possible effect of routine operation of nuclear power on food exports is also briefly considered

  5. Will Exports Prevail over Austerity?

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Kazimierz Laski; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Sandor Richter; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2010-01-01

    The Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) economies will experience on average a minor rebound of economic growth to 1% in 2010 which will speed up to 2.5% in 2011 and 3.5% in 2012. GDP growth will be higher in the CIS countries and in Turkey, about average in the Central European NMS and lower in the SEE countries and the Baltics. Growth is currently driven mostly by exports which should outweigh the dampening effects of the austerity measures. Whether the countries will actually bene...

  6. A perspective on energy exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, A.J.

    1983-06-01

    Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business

  7. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  8. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  9. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  10. Export Failure and its Consequences: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to argue that exporting is a risky endeavor and that there are consequences to export failure. Exporters pay high fixed costs to enter foreign markets, yet the majority will not export beyond one year. What happens to these exporters after they fail abroad? For these firms, exporting likely resulted in heavy profit losses. Despite this, trade literature often views exporting as a harmless exercise based on a simple cost-benefit analysis of foreign profits. ...

  11. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ˜ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (˜ 4900 kg N km-2 yr-1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios of the

  12. Export dynamics and sales at home

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt

    2012-01-01

    How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...

  13. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  14. Vertical integration, disintegration and ability to export

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Giampaolo; Vici, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature on trade has emphasized the role of firms' heterogeneities in export performance and trade specialization of countries (Melitz, 2003; Melitz and Ottaviano, 2005). Exporting seems to be a strategy available only to most efficient and productive firms even in a framework with transport costs and no reciprocal dumping. We do not know much about the internal organization of these smarter companies which are exporting part of their production. However, from related theoretical (H...

  15. Nuclear exportation and importation - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes to set up a working group which should be responsible for the compilation of laws, procedures, and national policies for the nuclear importation and exportation in the supplying and receiving countries. Shared international views would simplify the flow of imports and exports between the countries. The author describes the different phases of exportation and importation of nuclear material are processed in her country, Brazil. (CW) [de

  16. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  17. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  18. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  19. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  20. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, A.; Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international

  1. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  2. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCardle, J.J.

    1981-06-01

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  3. The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Boewer; Vasiliki Michou; Christoph Ungerer

    2014-01-01

    Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall. Using a rich dataset of bilateral value-added exports of goods and services of 39 exporters and 56 importers for 18 sectors, we first estimate that Greece exports ? less than what regular international trade patterns would predict on basis of Greek GDP, the size o...

  4. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  5. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  6. Export Controls: Controls Over the Export Licensing Process for Chemical and Biological Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...

  7. Demand relationships in orange exports to Russia: a differential demand system approach focusing on Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Abu Hatab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have witnessed closer diplomatic relations between Egypt and Russia, which have led to significant growth in the countries’ bilateral agricultural trade. As a world-leading producer and exporter of oranges, these developments represent an opportunity for Egypt to promote its orange exports to Russia. Another emerging opportunity for Egypt to increase its share in the Russian market for imported oranges has been provided by import embargos imposed by Russia in recent years on agricultural and food commodities from several countries, creating a supply gap of around 25 % in the Russian orange market. To assess the competitiveness of Egyptian oranges and explore the potential export opportunities presented by the Russian market, this paper uses a Rotterdam import allocation model to analyse demand relationships among major orange suppliers to Russia during the period 1996–2014. The results show that in comparison with other orange suppliers, Egypt enjoys a strong comparative advantage in the export of oranges to Russia. The econometric results suggest that both Morocco and Egypt would benefit the most if Russia were to allocate a larger budget to the import of oranges. The expenditure elasticity estimates indicate that an increase in Russia’s demand for imported oranges would lead to increases in the quantity of Egypt’s orange exports, as well as in its share of the Russian orange market. Furthermore, cross-price elasticity estimates reveal that Egyptian oranges are substitutes for Turkish and South African oranges, implying that Russia has a tendency to switch to these two suppliers when Egyptian oranges become relatively expensive. In light of these results, the adoption of strategies to produce oranges sustainably and cost-effectively, upgrade the orange value chain, acquire processing technologies and enhance the technical and organisational capacity of farmers and exporters could be useful means for promoting

  8. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  9. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  10. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  11. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States, July/August 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports slipped 14 percent to $25.6 billion during the first 9 months of fiscal year (FY) 1985 (October 1984-June 1985). Rising U.S. consumer demand and a strong dollar spurred U.S. agricultural. imports 8 percent over year-earlier levels to $15.1 billion. The U.S. dollar advanced against all five currencies most important to U.S. agricultural trade in May, immediately followed by declines in June. Agricultural exports under U.s. Government-financed programs totaled $1.5 bil...

  12. 75 FR 70905 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: December 9, 2010 at 9 a.m. (EST). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... trade and report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding U.S...

  13. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...] Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and.... SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for Veterinary Services animal quarantine and other..., organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification of plants...

  14. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Ali Amirnazmi, Register 63302-066, FCI... release and forfeit $81,277.37. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...

  15. Scheme to reward microgenerators exporting excess electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier

  16. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  17. China's Exports Overtake Those of Japan%中国的出口超过日本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frances Williams; 殷光文

    2005-01-01

    @@ China has overtaken Japan as the world's third largest exporter, the World Trade Organization said, after a surge1 in demand for its electronic goods led to a 35 per cent jump in the country's overseas sales. However, a slackening2 of the pace of investment by China and the US was likely to moderate3 economic activity and thus trade growth this year, the WTO said.

  18. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States.

  19. Determinants of export demand and their stability in Ghana | Osei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the study examines the factors that determine export demand in Ghana for the period 1970 to 2011. Using Johansen cointegration methodology, export demand is cointegrated with real effective exchange rate, domestic export prices, world export prices and real world income. The export demand function exhibits ...

  20. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  1. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  2. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  3. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  4. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, that the Agreement Officer authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Recipient shall be responsible for obtaining...

  5. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  6. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  7. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Luohu District, Shenzhen, 518001, China. On January 26, 2011, in the U.S. District Court, District of... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Wu was convicted of illegally exporting...

  8. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chitron- US was convicted of illegally exporting... components designated on the U.S. Munitions List to China through Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007. In...

  9. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  10. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... counsel, Gormley has indicated that he does not intend to contest BIS's decision to deny his export..., selling, delivering, storing, disposing of, forwarding, transporting, financing, or otherwise servicing in... Regulations that has been or will be exported from the United States, including financing or other support...

  11. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  12. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  13. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  14. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  15. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in...

  16. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  17. Export versus domestic market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs

  18. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  19. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  1. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  2. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the Secretary...

  3. Macroeconomic Effects of Export Demand in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Adesola Adesoye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of aggregate export demand in Nigeria using annual time series data between 1970 and 2013. The paper made use of the ordinary least square method to analyse the long-run relationship for the period under study. The empirical results confirm that there exists a unique and significant long-run equilibrium relationship among export volume, world income, crude oil price, domestic output, exchange rate and cost of doing business. The estimated results show that domestic income has the highest elasticity, followed by world’s output and cost of doing business, which all report positive relations. Other macroeconomic factors reported negative relationship with aggregate export volume. Thus, an important policy implication of our findings is that stabilizing Nigeria’s export earnings potential by counteracting the external factors that influence adversely the Nigerian exports such as crude oil price and cost of doing business.

  4. Exports and economic growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodly Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.

  5. Exporting nuclear engineering and the industry's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de

  6. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  7. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  8. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impacts of Changed Extratropical Storm Tracks on Arctic Sea Ice Export through Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have indicated a poleward shift of extratropical storm tracks and intensification of Arctic storm activities, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of dynamic effect on changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and activities on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait through ocean-sea ice model simulations. The model employed is the high-resolution Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), which was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.

  10. Impacts of extratropical storm tracks on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianfen; Zhang, Xiangdong; Wang, Zhaomin

    2018-05-01

    Studies have indicated regime shifts in atmospheric circulation, and associated changes in extratropical storm tracks and Arctic storm activity, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and cyclone activity on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait by using a high resolution global ocean-sea ice model, MITgcm-ECCO2. The model was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter (in this study winter is defined as October-March and summer as April-September) storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.

  11. Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE. Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms.

  12. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... to amend an Export [[Page 72325

  13. Water footprint as an indicator of agricultural productivity in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Zhang, Guoping; Mathews, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions with the largest scope for improved agricultural development that would contribute to global food security while respecting environmental boundaries. More importantly, undernourishment is a challenge for many African countries and needs to be addressed to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study was conducted to support the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affair's Inclusive Green Growth aim of increasing water use efficiency by 25% in Dutch financed projects. A water footprint profile was developed for 7 Sub-Saharan countries; Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Rwanda. The profiles provide an overview of water use from the perspective of the goods produced within the country, the consumption of goods, in particular agricultural crops, whether these goods are produced domestically or imported from other countries and the level of blue water scarcity experienced in the country. Across all countries, key food crops such as maize, and sorghum have low water productivity relative to the global water footprint benchmark. Export crops such as tea in Kenya or cocoa in Ghana show a good performance over global production. Furthermore, the water footprint of crops over the period 2006-2013 was compared to data from the period 1996-2005. Changes in yield and the resulting changes in the water footprint were assessed for both food and export crops. Yields in food crops improved in some countries, and in some years, but not consistently across all countries and years. The greatest gains in water productivity were in key export crops. The results provide insights into whether improvements have been made in water productivity in recent years and through comparison with the global water footprint benchmark, remaining opportunities for further gains in water productivity were identified. Going forward, policies that will enhance further improvement in water productivity and support greater food and

  14. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    . By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic...

  15. OPENING GLOBAL MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURE: THE NEXT WTO ROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    More open international markets benefit the economy as a whole, as well as most U.S. agricultural producers. The Uruguay Round Agreement laid out a useful framework. Specifically addressed here is why the key to further liberalizing agricultural trade is reduction of tariffs as comprehensively and rapidly as politics will allow. Other issues such as export subsidies, tariff-rate quota quantities, and developing-country relationships are also important, especially while tariffs are coming down...

  16. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  17. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  18. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  19. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  20. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  1. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  2. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  3. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  4. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  5. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  6. Organic carbon exportation in a tobacco cropped watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, N.; Merten, G.; Pontarolo, E.

    2009-04-01

    The agricultural land use is indispensable for survival of the humankind; but inadequate agricultural use may disturb or modify steady states generating environmental damage. The amount of organic carbon (OC) in the soil is a result of the balance between addition by primary production and carbon losses, mainly by the oxidation and mineralization by microorganisms activity and depletion by erosion process. The losses will ultimately reduce the primary production, affecting the additions and undermining the soil quality, moving it away from the sustainability. Areas under tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cropping are generally potential for environmental contamination, because they are based on intensive agricultural operations, with low OC addition, due the removal of almost the totality of the biomass of the main crop. In tobacco, the leaves are the part of commercial interest. This removal, associated with the conventional management of soils makes difficult to preserve the soil OC budget which ends up being rapidly degraded. However, the soil management system also can raise the soil OC content, if not to the original levels, as in the areas under native vegetation, at least, in adequate levels to ensure the soil quality. The organic carbon of an agricultural area may be exported associated to sediments in the fraction associated with minerals (CAM) as in the particulate fraction (POC), or in dissolved form (DOC), however the processes of losses and translocation occurs in distinct ways, as a function of different factors, as soil type, slope length, soil management and climate. The results may also be changed when different scale of observation is adopted. This work was carried out in a rural watershed, cropped with tobacco mainly under conventional management system. Tobacco is still a crop of economic importance in developing countries, such as Brazil. The study was conducted during four years in small plots, hillslopes and catchment scale. In the small plots

  7. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, and on exports to overseas markets. This trade in turn depends on compliance with strict plant health and safety standards established by the World Trade Organization (WTO). ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  8. Climate change, diversified agriculture and adaptive capacity in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export-oriented sugar cane and pineapple plantation agriculture once dominated Hawaii's economy but over the latter half of the 20th Century, there was a rapid decline in the production of these crops as Hawaii's competitive advantage over foreign producers dwindled. The decline of the plantations c...

  9. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  10. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  11. How Important is Export-Platform FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...

  12. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  13. The export of China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The article first introduces the meaning of nuclear power export, and then analyses the advantages of China nuclear industry based on the status and development of this industry. At the same time. the collection of nuclear development for the next 30 years of several nations in south-east Asia, south Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America is compiled, which could be a valuable reference for foreseeing nuclear power export market. Finally, as the situation throughout the world is considered, some suggestions are made that what else could be done for future development and export. (author)

  14. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  15. The Competitiveness of Romanian Services Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Grigorovici

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania carried on significant progresses in its intercession to fetch up the gaps towards the European Union concerning the services compartment, the balance of those being of almost 10% from the total Romanian export, during the first semester of 2007. In 2006, the export of services increased with 45% comparatively to the year before, consolidating the status of our country as a services exporter. The IT left its mark on the structure and organizing method of the tertiary compartment and ameliorated the form in which the services were performed in the context of enhanced electronic transfers.

  16. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of interstate virtual water flows embedded in agriculture to mitigate water scarcity in India (1996-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyaini, Suparana; Barua, Anamika

    2017-08-01

    India is the largest global freshwater user despite being highly water scarce. Agriculture is largest consumer of water and is most affected by water scarcity. Water scarcity is a persistent challenge in India, due to a gap in science and policy spheres. Virtual Water (VW) flows concept to mitigate water scarcity is at the science-policy interface. The paper aims to address the gap in VW research in India by first analyzing the interstate VW-flows embedded in food grains, and then linking these VW-flows with the water scarcity situation in the states, and elements of state and national water policies for the postreforms, and recovery periods of India's agriculture. There were net water savings (WS) of 207.5 PL during 1996-2014, indicating sustainable flows at the national level. WS increased from 11.2 TL/yr (1996-2005) to 25931.7 TL/yr (2005-2014), with the increase in interstate movement of food grains, and yield. However, unsustainable flows are seen at subnational scale, as VW-flows are from highly water-scarce states in North to highly water-scarce states in West and South. These flows are causing a concentration of water scarcity in water-scarce zones/states. Net VW imports were found to be driven by larger population and net VW exports by arable land. Further, the absence of state water policy cripples water management. Therefore, the paper argues that there is a need to rethink policy decisions on agriculture at the national and state level by internalizing water as a factor of production, through VW research.

  19. Simulation of dissolved nutrient export from the Dongjiang river basin with a grid-based NEWS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qiangqiang; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Yue, Wencong; Dang, Zhi

    2018-06-01

    In this research, a grid-based NEWS model was proposed through coupling the geographic information system (GIS) with the Global NEWS model framework. The model was then applied to the Dongjiang River basin to simulate the dissolved nutrient export from this area. The model results showed that the total amounts of the dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus exported from the Dongjiang River basin were approximately 27154.87 and 1389.33 t, respectively. 90 % of the two loads were inorganic forms (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, DIN and DIP). Also, the nutrient export loads did not evenly distributed in the basin. The main stream watershed of the Dongjiang River basin has the largest DIN and DIP export loads, while the largest dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus (DON and DOP) loads were observed in the middle and upper stream watersheds of the basin, respectively. As for the nutrient exported from each subbasin, different sources had different influences on the output of each nutrient form. For the DIN load in each subbasin, fertilization application, atmospheric deposition and biological fixation were the three main contributors, while eluviation was the most important source for DON. In terms of DIP load, fertilizer application and breeding wastewater were the main contributors, while eluviation and fertilizer application were the two main sources for DOP.

  20. China Report, Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... Some of the articles are Fertilizer Shortage, Tea Sales, Vegetable Output, Inspection Group Returns From Spain, Silk Output Exports, Grain Procurement, Fertilizer Sales, Soybean Harvest, Growing...

  1. The Relationship between Export and Growth: Panel Data Evidence from Turkish Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of sectoral exports on economic growth in Turkey over the period 2000–2015. To this end, empirical models are estimated using panel data techniques in which quarterly data are gathered for eight sectors. Findings in the case of the pooled panel indicate the validity of the export-led growth hypothesis. Disaggregated evidences, on the other hand, reveal the validity of export-led growth hypothesis in the case of (i agriculture and forestry; (ii fishing; (iii mining and quarrying; (iv manufacturing; (v electricity, gas and water supply; and (vi wholesale and retail trade while it is found to be invalid in the case of (i real estate, renting and business activities; and (ii other community, social and personal service activities. The sectors that have the highest growth contributions are listed as follows: (i agriculture and forestry; (ii mining and quarrying; and (iii manufacturing. Causality results also provide a strong support in favor of an export-led growth hypothesis for four sectors in addition to the feedback hypothesis which is valid for three sectors.

  2. Corn-based ethanol production compromises goal of reducing nitrogen export by the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Kucharik, Christopher J

    2008-03-18

    Corn cultivation in the United States is expected to increase to meet demand for ethanol. Nitrogen leaching from fertilized corn fields to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system is a primary cause of the bottom-water hypoxia that develops on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico each summer. In this study, we combine agricultural land use scenarios with physically based models of terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen to examine the effect of present and future expansion of corn-based ethanol production on nitrogen export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that the increase in corn cultivation required to meet the goal of 15-36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by the year 2022 suggested by a recent U.S. Senate energy policy would increase the annual average flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers by 10-34%. Generating 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by the year 2022 will increase the odds that annual DIN export exceeds the target set for reducing hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico to >95%. Examination of extreme mitigation options shows that expanding corn-based ethanol production would make the already difficult challenges of reducing nitrogen export to the Gulf of Mexico and the extent of hypoxia practically impossible without large shifts in food production and agricultural management.

  3. 75 FR 8652 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE Application for Subzone CNH America, LLC (Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... agricultural equipment; valves; bearings; transmission shafts; electric motors; generators; clutches; brakes... some 30 percent of the plant's shipments will be exported. On its domestic sales, CNH would be able to...

  4. Promoting exports in the energy technology area; Foerderung des Exports im Bereich der Energietechnologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W. [Fraunhofer Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion.

  5. Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export Performance of Firms in ... and for determining influence between interval level variables, respectively. ... Enhancing product adaptation and use of foreign strategic partnerships by ...

  6. Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  7. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open...; understanding best value in government procurement; de minimis reform; intellectual property protections in the...

  8. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  9. Safety and exportation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, M.; Perrais, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Safety problems arising from exportation are especially handled through the French exportation of PWR stations. Regulations differ widely from one country to another. However, very large use of American regulations is made and frequently there is a tendency to harden such or such clause in the quotation. Industry must be ready to give satisfaction to such demands of customers. Sometimes also, it is a mere duplication of French stations which is above all looked for. In that case, it is the problem of using French regulations abroad which arises. Desirable changes in examination proceedings are analyzed together with a French regulation effort aiming to make easier the promotion of their use abroad. Finally, safety may be a factor of success for exportation attempts. It is shown how useless some outbiddings may be, but also how, on the contrary, speeding up of research and development effort towards specific safety problems in case of exportation, is to be promoted [fr

  10. 1986 imports and exports of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft), on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety, of the imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples, and sealed emitters of more than 1850 GBq show an enormous increase by 152.7% of imports (on the basis of activity) and a decline by 19.5% of exports. In the category of imports, some 98% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Co-60, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, the imports of Co-60 have trebled. In the exports category, more than 95% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, exports of Cs-137 experienced a fourfold increase over the level of the previous year. (orig.) [de

  11. An Export Promotion Policy after Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Korean government puts in place various export support policies after the financial crisis, Korean export is still in stagnation because the foreign-oriented economic conditions, such as the continual ripple effect of the Eastern Asia financial crisis and the American economy which is slowing down, are deteriorating. After the financial crisis, Korean trading circle considered the difficulties in financing and the buying of raw material to be the most important factors which blocked the export. This thesis first analyzed the change of the actual export results, then analyzed the policy the government brought forward as the solution of the difficulties in financing and raw material buying. Meanwhile, this thesis brought forward alternative policies like taking auto-rediscount and signing Free Trade Agreement with major trade states.

  12. How the Eximbank helps US nuclear exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The way in which the Export-Import Bank operates in support of the United States nuclear industry noting particularly its flexibility in responding to changing needs and budget constraints is described. (author)

  13. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  14. Review of agriculture and agri-food sector performance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China encouraged the development of export-oriented agriculture and food processing industry to convert raw farm products to value added finished consumer products. This has been a powerful tool for economic development in the country. Keywords: agriculture, agri food industry, China, performance. Moor Journal of ...

  15. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  16. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  17. 78 FR 23624 - Determination and Certification Under the Foreign Assistance Act Relating to the Largest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... certify that the top five exporting and importing countries and economies of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine (Belgium, China, Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, and...

  18. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  19. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  20. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  1. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  2. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  3. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  4. Upgrading in the global apparel value chain : an analysis on Asian developing countries' competition with China in exporting apparels

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Ingvild

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how regional suppliers of apparels have performed in the global apparel industry compared to China during the past two decades, and particularly after the phase out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which up to 2004 applied quotas to exports of clothing in the largest end markets. The speculation prior to the quota phase out was that large increases of Chinese exports would be at the expense of other Asian suppliers. This thesis effort to trace w...

  5. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  6. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  7. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  8. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  9. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  10. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  11. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  12. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  13. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  14. 77 FR 69591 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... meeting to deliberate on recommendations related to export expansion through streamlined consideration of.../peccomments.asp ) without change, including any business or personal information provided such as names...

  15. Renewables and exports: how Export Credit Agencies could help develop markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, G.; Salter, L.

    2002-01-01

    Future export markets for renewable energies have enormous potential, yet business-as-usual investment trends will not achieve that potential, write Giulio Volpi and Liam Salter. They examine the role that Export Credit Agencies - which have provided essential support for exports in the conventional energy business - could play in aiding the renewables sector, characterized as it is by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This new role will require certain reforms - but without those reforms the Export Credit Agencies will simply not be providing relevant services to new technologies and new market players. (author)

  16. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  17. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  18. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  19. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  20. Diesel Consumption of Agriculture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Gui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As agricultural mechanization accelerates the development of agriculture in China, to control the growth of the resulting energy consumption of mechanized agriculture without negatively affecting economic development has become a major challenge. A systematic analysis of the factors (total power, unit diesel consumption, etc. influencing diesel consumption using the SECA model, combined with simulations on agricultural diesel flows in China between 1996 and 2010 is performed in this work. Seven agricultural subsectors, fifteen categories of agricultural machinery and five farm operations are considered. The results show that farming and transportation are the two largest diesel consumers, accounting for 86.23% of the total diesel consumption in agriculture in 2010. Technological progress has led to a decrease in the unit diesel consumption and an increase in the unit productivity of all machinery, and there is still much potential for future progress. Additionally, the annual average working hours have decreased rapidly for most agricultural machinery, thereby influencing the development of mechanized agriculture.

  1. The US Natural Gas Exports: New Rules on the European Gas Landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the consequences of US Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) exports towards Europe, in particular on the strategy of Russia, the EU's main gas supplier. The shale gas revolution has profoundly changed the US gas scene and the competitiveness of gas on the US market. The abundant resources and sharp rise in production have resulted in surplus production and have driven the US gas prices down. The price spread between regional markets (United States, Europe, and Asia) has led US producers to look for new export opportunities. After a lively debate between advocates of exports, mainly gas producers, and their critics, mainly the major industrial users who were worried about a price increase, US LNG exports started in late February 2016 with the first cargo from the Sabine Pass (Cheniere) liquefaction plant exported to Brazil. Four other liquefaction plants are currently under construction. In 2020, the United States could become the third largest exporter in the world after Australia and Qatar. The US LNG exports will revolutionise international trade in LNG. Their contract structure (linked to the US gas spot price, no destination clauses, and tolling agreements) and the projected volumes will enable greater flexibility in the international LNG market and facilitate price convergence between regional markets. However, the US exports are starting in a market very different from that envisioned at the start of the 2010's when the export projects were launched. The drop in oil prices, the entry into production of new liquefaction capacities since 2014, and the slowdown in demand growth in Asia have driven LNG prices down on import markets. After four years of tight supply, the market is now in a surplus situation which should continue until the turn of the decade. These new conditions are profoundly changing the economics of US LNG export projects, which is questioned in the short term: the current prices are insufficient to cover the full cost of the

  2. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover.

  3. 75 FR 29514 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... new Export Markets, such as advertising and trade shows. 6. ALCC may, for itself and on behalf of its...: a. Sales and marketing efforts, and activities and opportunities for sales of Export Product in Export Markets, including but not limited to selling strategies and pricing, projected demand for Export...

  4. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  5. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  6. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... system for collection of export data for the Department of State. In accordance with this subchapter U.S...

  7. 9 CFR 322.3 - Transferring products for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall be...

  8. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported, unless...

  10. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  11. 48 CFR 1825.1103-70 - Export control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799. The...

  12. The Preparedness of the Indonesian Garment Exporters in the Post-MFA Scenario: An Analysis from the Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchsin Shihab

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clothing or garments industry has developed rapidly during the past some decades and has contributed to the economic growth of many nations, both developed and developing countries. This industry has been very much regulated by many bilateral agreements such as Multi Fiber Arrangement (MFA, a quota arrangement made by the importing countries. As MFA (quota regime comes to an end by 2005 and integrates into the WTO regime, it will bring opportunities to highly competitive and proactive garment exporting countries whereas the challenges will be faced more by the less competitive countries. Issues related to environment and social compliance, technology requirements etc. have been brought into surface by the importing countries, which may worsen the condition. Under the above scenario, it is imperative that certain proactive measures be taken. Thus, the broad objective of this study is to analyze the response of the garment exporters from Indonesia towards the emerging issues related to environmental and social compliance, technology requirements etc. The present study is a questionnaire-based study. The samples have been selected from the Directories of largest exporters in the country. With reminders and persuasion, the final number of useable responses has been 115 Indonesian garment exporters. Seven factors of the emerging issues were identified by using factor analysis. In addition, factors of competitiveness, and the strategies adopted by the exporters have also been analyzed. The findings show that the overall perceptions of the Indonesia garment exporters indicate that Indonesia is less competitive as compared to other competing countries.

  13. The impact of export performance resources of companies belonging to clusters: a study in the French winery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Carneiro Zen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the impact of resources on export performance of clustered companies. We argue that the insertion in clusters provides access to resources that influence the internationalization process of firms. We conducted a survey in the French wine industry, the main consumer market in volume and second largest producer of wine in the world. The population of the study includes exporting French wineries, located in clusters. The sample consists of 130 French wine exporters, located in different wine clusters. In short, the results indicated that access to cluster’s resources has a positive impact on the process of internationalization and export performance of companies. One managerial implication of the research is the importance of commercial resources. The firms with higher export performance attributed greater importance to their commercial resources. Further studies may measure the utilization of resources in the internationalization strategy, and compare the importance and the use of resources in accordance with the level of export performance of companies.

  14. An economic evaluation of Peru's liquefied natural gas export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Leonard; Jenkins, Glenn P.

    2014-01-01

    Peru's Camisea gas fields hold nearly 90% of the country's natural gas reserves. In the 1990s, the government had a policy to prioritize Camisea gas for domestic consumption. The revocation of this policy in the 2000s allowed private developers to export 40% of Camisea's proven reserves, equivalent to one third of Peru's total. This USD 3.9 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project boasts the largest single foreign direct investment in Peru's history. A major component of the financing was granted by international financial institutions on economic grounds. While the project was expected to yield a substantial return to private investors, the export of one third of Peru's total proven natural gas reserves is not in line with its long-term interests. We undertake cost–benefit analyses for a series of scenarios, starting with the project's formative stage in the mid-2000s, and then in 2012, two years after it began its commercial operation. In all cases, Peru does not have sufficient reserves to warrant export, and the economic costs far exceed the benefits. This policy of LNG exports should not have been approved by the government, nor should the loans have been granted by international financial institutions to make it possible. - Highlights: • Peru's Liquefied Natural Gas project is creating an economic loss to the country. • Results of our analyses are robust for all scenarios considered. • The present value of the cost of replacing exported energy far exceeds tax revenue. • Projects cannot be approved based only on immediate benefits. • The potential opportunity costs of projects must be considered

  15. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY AT SMALL EXPORT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Di Diego Antunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the main internationalization strategies used by small manufacturers of hammocks. Our findings show that these export companies have up to 20 employees and their main internationalization strategy is exportation. This plan is carried out in 3 ways: indirect exportation, through trading companies; direct exportation, through sales performed in the companies and cooperative exportation, through a network of dealers in greater companies. Its was also verified that some organizations export up to 60% of their products while the vast majority does not even export 5% of it, turning primarily to the domestic market.

  16. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve

  17. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  19. Environmental assessment of energy generation from agricultural and farm waste through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayal, Figen Sisman; Mammadov, Aydin; Ciliz, Nilgun

    2016-12-15

    While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint. This study explores the environmental benefits and burdens of one such option, that is, biogas production from a mixture of agricultural and animal waste through anaerobic digestion (AD), and its subsequent use for electricity and heat generation. A life-cycle assessment methodology was used, to measure the potential environmental impact of this option, in terms of global warming and total weighed impact, and to contrast it with the impact of producing the same amount of energy via an integrated gasification combined cycle process and a hard coal power plant. This study concentrates on an AD and cogeneration pilot plant, built in the Kocaeli province of Turkey and attempts to evaluate its potential environmental impacts. The study uses laboratory-scale studies, as well as literature and LCI databases to derive the operational parameters, yield and emissions of the plant. The potential impacts were calculated with EDIP 2003 methodology, using GaBi 5 LCA software. The results indicate that N 2 O emissions, resulting from the application of liquid and solid portions of digestate (a by-product of AD), as an organic fertilizer, are by far the largest contributors to global warming among all the life cycle stages. They constitute 68% of the total, whereas ammonia losses from the same process are the leading cause of terrestrial eutrophication. The photochemical ozone formation potential is significantly higher for the cogeneration phase, compared to other life

  20. The relationship between agricultural technology and energy demand in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq; Ahmad, Mehboob; Rustam, Rabiah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two fold: (i) to investigate the casual relationship between energy consumption and agricultural technology factors, and (ii) electricity consumption and technological factors in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. The study further evaluates four alternative but equally plausible hypotheses, each with different policy implications. These are: (i) Agricultural technology factors cause energy demand (the conventional view), (ii) energy demand causes technological factors, (iii) There is a bi-directional causality between the two variables and (iv) Both variables are causality independent. By applying techniques of Cointegration and Granger causality tests on energy demand (i.e., total primary energy consumption and electricity consumption) and agricultural technology factors (such as, tractors, fertilizers, cereals production, agriculture irrigated land, high technology exports, livestock; agriculture value added; industry value added and subsides) over a period of 1975–2010. The results infer that tractor and energy demand has bi-directional relationship; while irrigated agricultural land; share of agriculture and industry value added and subsides have supported the conventional view i.e., agricultural technology cause energy consumption in Pakistan. On the other hand, neither fertilizer consumption and high technology exports nor energy demand affect each others. Government should form a policy of incentive-based supports which might be a good policy for increasing the use of energy level in agriculture. - Highlights: ► Find the direction between green technology factors and energy demand in Pakistan. ► The results indicate that there is a strong relationship between them. ► Agriculture machinery and energy demand has bi-directional relationship. ► Green technology causes energy consumption i.e., unidirectional relationship. ► Agriculture expansion is positive related to total primary energy consumption.