WorldWideScience

Sample records for large zoom range

  1. Zoom in, zoom out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2011-03-01

    Zoom buttons on digital devices let us examine images from many viewpoints. They also provide an apt metaphor for modes of strategic thinking. Some people prefer to see things up close, others from afar. Both perspectives have virtues. But they should not be fixed positions, says Harvard Business School's Kanter. To get a complete picture, leaders need to zoom in and zoom out. A close-in perspective is often found in relationship-intensive settings. It brings details into sharp focus and makes opportunities look large and compelling. But it can have significant downsides. Leaders who prefer to zoom in tend to create policies and systems that depend too much on politics and favors. They can focus too closely on personal status and on turf protection. And they often miss the big picture. When leaders zoom out, they can see events in context and as examples of general trends. They are able to make decisions based on principles. Yet a far-out perspective also has traps. Leaders can be so high above the fray that they don't recognize emerging threats. Having zoomed out to examine all possible routes, they may fail to notice when the moment is right for action on one path. They may also seem too remote and aloof to their staffs. The best leaders can zoom in to examine problems and then zoom out to look for patterns and causes. They don't divide the world into extremes-idiosyncratic or structural, situational or strategic, emotional or contextual. The point is not to choose one over the other but to learn to move across a continuum of perspectives.

  2. The shifting zoom: new possibilities for inverse scattering on electrically large domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; De Coster, Alberic; Lambot, Sebastien

    2017-04-01

    Inverse scattering is a subject of great interest in diagnostic problems, which are in their turn of interest for many applicative problems as investigation of cultural heritage, characterization of foundations or subservices, identification of unexploded ordnances and so on [1-4]. In particular, GPR data are usually focused by means of migration algorithms, essentially based on a linear approximation of the scattering phenomenon. Migration algorithms are popular because they are computationally efficient and do not require the inversion of a matrix, neither the calculation of the elements of a matrix. In fact, they are essentially based on the adjoint of the linearised scattering operator, which allows in the end to write the inversion formula as a suitably weighted integral of the data [5]. In particular, this makes a migration algorithm more suitable than a linear microwave tomography inversion algorithm for the reconstruction of an electrically large investigation domain. However, this computational challenge can be overcome by making use of investigation domains joined side by side, as proposed e.g. in ref. [3]. This allows to apply a microwave tomography algorithm even to large investigation domains. However, the joining side by side of sequential investigation domains introduces a problem of limited (and asymmetric) maximum view angle with regard to the targets occurring close to the edges between two adjacent domains, or possibly crossing these edges. The shifting zoom is a method that allows to overcome this difficulty by means of overlapped investigation and observation domains [6-7]. It requires more sequential inversion with respect to adjacent investigation domains, but the really required extra-time is minimal because the matrix to be inverted is calculated ones and for all, as well as its singular value decomposition: what is repeated more time is only a fast matrix-vector multiplication. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C

  3. Continuous zoom antenna for mobile visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebin; Tang, Yi; Cui, Lu; Bai, Tingzhu

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, we design a continuous zoom antenna for mobile visible light communication (VLC). In the design, a right-angle reflecting prism was adopted to fold the space optical path, thus decreasing the antenna thickness. The surface of each lens in the antenna is spherical, and the system cost is relatively low. Simulation results indicated that the designed system achieved the following performance: zoom ratio of 2.44, field of view (FOV) range of 18°-48°, system gain of 16.8, and system size of 18 mm×6  mm. Finally, we established an indoor VLC system model in a room the size of 5  m ×5  m ×3  m and compared the detection results of the zoom antenna and fixed-focus antenna obtained in a multisource communication environment, a mobile VLC environment, and a multiple-input multiple-output communication environment. The simulation results indicated that the continuous zoom antenna could realize large FOV and high gain. Moreover, the system showed improved stability, mobility, and environmental applicability.

  4. Zoom system without moving element by using two liquid crystal lenses with spherical electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-Kai; Lin, Chia-Ping; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    A traditional zoom system is composed of several elements moving relatively toward other components to achieve zooming. Unlike tradition system, an electrically control zoom system with liquid crystal (LC) lenses is demonstrated in this paper. To achieve zooming, we apply two LC lenses whose optical power is controlled by voltage to replace two moving lenses in traditional zoom system. The mechanism of zoom system is to use two LC lenses to form a simple zoom system. We found that with such spherical electrodes, we could operate LC lens at voltage range from 31V to 53 V for 3X tunability in optical power. For each LC lens, we use concave spherical electrode which provide lower operating voltage and great tunability in optical power, respectively. For such operating voltage and compact size, this zoom system with zoom ratio approximate 3:1 could be applied to mobile phone, camera and other applications.

  5. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  6. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic hybridizat......Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic...... deletions or duplications occurring in BRCA1 (n=11), BRCA2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=7), or MLH1 (n=9). Additionally, we demonstrate its applicability for uncovering complex somatic rearrangements, exemplified by zoom-in analysis of the PTEN and CDKN2A loci in breast cancer cells. The sizes of rearrangements ranged...... from several 100 kb, including large flanking regions, to rearrangements, allowing convenient design...

  7. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  8. Design and development of a zoom lens objective for the fast breeder test reactor periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Shukla, R.P.

    2003-10-01

    A three lens optically compensated zoom lens useful for the 5 meter long periscope in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been designed, fabricated and tested. The zoom lens fabricated using radiation resistant glasses has a zoom ratio of 2.5 with a focal length range of l00 mm to 250 mm. The zoom lens objective has been designed for viewing the objects kept at a distance in the range of 1.5 m to 3 m from the objective lens. It is found that the zoom lens objective can be used for resolving objects with a linear resolution of 0.2 mm inside the reactor when viewed with an eye piece of focal length 50 mm. (author)

  9. ZOOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This article posits reflections from the author’s mature body of work that resulted in sizeable national (Denmark) and international (European) funded projects, a patent, commercial product, and a Serious Games company. Main focus is on sharing a two-stage in-action and on-action emergent model...... for evaluating the use of ICT (serious games and creative expression) in healthcare and learning intervention. The model, first published in 2005, being emergent, has evolved to suggest being applicable beyond existing contexts and situations e.g. informal, non-formal and formal. Thus, to advance the model...

  10. Zoom

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This brilliantly inventive fantasy epic by the award-winning author of Watership Down immerses the reader in a medieval world complete with created languages, detailed maps and elaborate traditions and rituals. Centring on the long-awaited reincarnation of a giant bear among the half-barbaric Orelgan people, Shardik''s appearance sets off a violent chain of events as faith in his divinity sweeps the land. Closest to the bear is the hunter Kelderek, a naturally pious, ignorant, well-meaning man who becomes - in his dedication to Shardik - a prophet, victorious soldier, corrupt priest-king and r

  11. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  12. Photographic zoom fisheye lens design for DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Sasian, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Photographic fisheye lenses with fixed focal length for cameras with different sensor formats have been well developed for decades. However, photographic fisheye lenses with variable focal length are rare on the market due in part to the greater design difficulty. This paper presents a large aperture zoom fisheye lens for DSLR cameras that produces both circular and diagonal fisheye imaging for 35-mm sensors and diagonal fisheye imaging for APS-C sensors. The history and optical characteristics of fisheye lenses are briefly reviewed. Then, a 9.2- to 16.1-mm F/2.8 to F/3.5 zoom fisheye lens design is presented, including the design approach and aberration control. Image quality and tolerance performance analysis for this lens are also presented.

  13. Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Tian; Huang, Chengdu; Blum, Brain M; Stankovic, John A; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2003-01-01

    .... Because coarse accuracy is sufficient for most sensor network applications, solutions in range-free localization are being pursued as a cost-effective alternative to more expensive range-based approaches...

  14. Electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design using computer optimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe the detailed design of a five-element electrostatic afocal-zoom lens. • The simplex optimization is used to optimize lens voltages. • The method can be applied to multi-element electrostatic lenses. - Abstract: Electron optics is the key to the successful operation of electron collision experiments where well designed electrostatic lenses are needed to drive electron beam before and after the collision. In this work, the imaging properties and aberration analysis of an electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design were investigated using a computer optimization technique. We have found a whole new range of voltage combinations that has gone unnoticed until now. A full range of voltage ratios and spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients were systematically analyzed with a range of magnifications between 0.3 and 3.2. The grid-shadow evaluation was also employed to show the effect of spherical aberration. The technique is found to be useful for searching the optimal configuration in a multi-element lens system.

  15. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  16. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  17. ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirat, Olivier; Sternberg, Jenna R.; Severi, Kristen E.; Wyart, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorized all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed with four experimenters in 73.2–82.5% of cases. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva–larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reached the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplished tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens. PMID:23781175

  18. Low-Altitude and Slow-Speed Small Target Detection Based on Spectrum Zoom Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spectrum zoom processing based target detection algorithm for detecting the weak echo of low-altitude and slow-speed small (LSS targets in heavy ground clutter environments, which can be used to retrofit the existing radar systems. With the existing range-Doppler frequency images, the proposed method firstly concatenates the data from the same Doppler frequency slot of different images and then applies the spectrum zoom processing. After performing the clutter suppression, the target detection can be finally implemented. Through the theoretical analysis and real data verification, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can obtain a preferable spectrum zoom result and improve the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR with a very low computational load.

  19. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  20. Simplified local density model for adsorption over large pressure ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, B.; Lira, C.T.; Subramanian, R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical adsorption of high-pressure fluids onto solids is of interest in the transportation and storage of fuel and radioactive gases; the separation and purification of lower hydrocarbons; solid-phase extractions; adsorbent regenerations using supercritical fluids; supercritical fluid chromatography; and critical point drying. A mean-field model is developed that superimposes the fluid-solid potential on a fluid equation of state to predict adsorption on a flat wall from vapor, liquid, and supercritical phases. A van der Waals-type equation of state is used to represent the fluid phase, and is simplified with a local density approximation for calculating the configurational energy of the inhomogeneous fluid. The simplified local density approximation makes the model tractable for routine calculations over wide pressure ranges. The model is capable of prediction of Type 2 and 3 subcritical isotherms for adsorption on a flat wall, and shows the characteristic cusplike behavior and crossovers seen experimentally near the fluid critical point

  1. Nonintrusive iris image acquisition system based on a pan-tilt-zoom camera and light stripe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2009-03-01

    Although iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies, it has not yet been widely used in practical applications. This is mainly due to user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase. Specifically, users try to adjust their eye position within small capture volume at a close distance from the system. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel iris image acquisition system that provides users with unconstrained environments: a large operating range, enabling movement from standing posture, and capturing good-quality iris images in an acceptable time. The proposed system has the following three contributions compared with previous works: (1) the capture volume is significantly increased by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera guided by a light stripe projection, (2) the iris location in the large capture volume is found fast due to 1-D vertical face searching from the user's horizontal position obtained by the light stripe projection, and (3) zooming and focusing on the user's irises at a distance are accurate and fast using the estimated 3-D position of a face by the light stripe projection and the PTZ camera. Experimental results show that the proposed system can capture good-quality iris images in 2.479 s on average at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m, while allowing a limited amount of movement by the user.

  2. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  3. Robust feedback zoom tracking for digital video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tengyue; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Zoom tracking is an important function in video surveillance, particularly in traffic management and security monitoring. It involves keeping an object of interest in focus during the zoom operation. Zoom tracking is typically achieved by moving the zoom and focus motors in lenses following the so-called "trace curve", which shows the in-focus motor positions versus the zoom motor positions for a specific object distance. The main task of a zoom tracking approach is to accurately estimate the trace curve for the specified object. Because a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has historically been considered to be the best controller in the absence of knowledge of the underlying process and its high-quality performance in motor control, in this paper, we propose a novel feedback zoom tracking (FZT) approach based on the geometric trace curve estimation and PID feedback controller. The performance of this approach is compared with existing zoom tracking methods in digital video surveillance. The real-time implementation results obtained on an actual digital video platform indicate that the developed FZT approach not only solves the traditional one-to-many mapping problem without pre-training but also improves the robustness for tracking moving or switching objects which is the key challenge in video surveillance.

  4. The Zoom Lens: A Case Study in Geometrical Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Alan; Scepanovic, Misa

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a case study on a motion picture company considering the purchase of a newly developed zoom lens in which students act as the engineers designing the zoom lens based on the criteria of company's specifications. Focuses on geometrical optics. Includes teaching notes and classroom management strategies. (YDS)

  5. Observation of slant column NO2 using the super-zoom mode of AURA-OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrieve slant column NO2 from the super-zoom mode of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to explore its utility for understanding NOx emissions and variability. Slant column NO2 is operationally retrieved from OMI (Boersma et al., 2007; Bucsela et al., 2006 with a nadir footprint of 13 × 24 km2, the result of averaging eight detector elements on board the instrument. For 85 orbits in late 2004, OMI reported observations from individual "super-zoom" detector elements (spaced at 13 × 3 km2 at nadir. We assess the spatial response of these individual detector elements in-flight and determine an upper-bound on spatial resolution of 9 km, in good agreement with on-ground calibration (7 km FWHM. We determine the precision of the super-zoom mode to be 2.1 × 1015 molecules cm−2, approximately a factor of √8 lower than an identical retrieval at operational scale as expected if random noise dominates the uncertainty. We retrieve slant column NO2 over the Satpura power plant in India; Seoul, South Korea; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and a set of large point sources on the Rihand Reservoir in India using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Over these sources, the super-zoom mode of OMI observes variation in slant column NO2 of up to 30 × the instrumental precision within one operational footprint.

  6. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities

  7. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  8. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  9. Benefit of the UltraZoom beamforming technology in noise in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Mathias, Nathalie; Flament, Jonathan; Amar, Dorith; Liagre-Callies, Amelie; Borel, Stephanie; Ambert-Dahan, Emmanuèle; Sterkers, Olivier; Bernardeschi, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to demonstrate the audiological and subjective benefits of the adaptive UltraZoom beamforming technology available in the Naída CI Q70 sound processor, in cochlear-implanted adults upgraded from a previous generation sound processor. Thirty-four adults aged between 21 and 89 years (mean 53 ± 19) were prospectively included. Nine subjects were unilaterally implanted, 11 bilaterally and 14 were bimodal users. The mean duration of cochlear implant use was 7 years (range 5-15 years). Subjects were tested in quiet with monosyllabic words and in noise with the adaptive French Matrix test in the best-aided conditions. The test setup contained a signal source in front of the subject and three noise sources at +/-90° and 180°. The noise was presented at a fixed level of 65 dB SPL and the level of speech signal was varied to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT). During the upgrade visit, subjects were tested with the Harmony and with the Naída CI sound processors in omnidirectional microphone configuration. After a take-home phase of 2 months, tests were repeated with the Naída CI processor with and without UltraZoom. Subjective assessment of the sound quality in daily environments was recorded using the APHAB questionnaire. No difference in performance was observed in quiet between the two processors. The Matrix test in noise was possible in the 21 subjects with the better performance. No difference was observed between the two processors for performance in noise when using the omnidirectional microphone. At the follow-up session, the median SRT with the Naída CI processor with UltraZoom was -4 dB compared to -0.45 dB without UltraZoom. The use of UltraZoom improved the median SRT by 3.6 dB (p noise and for speech understanding in noise (p noise. The use of UltraZoom beamforming technology, available on the new sound processor Naída CI, improves speech performance in difficult and realistic noisy conditions when the

  10. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  11. Characterization of the Failure Site Distribution in MIM Devices Using Zoomed Wavelet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gorriz, J.; Monaghan, S.; Cherkaoui, K.; Suñé, J.; Hurley, P. K.; Miranda, E.

    2018-05-01

    The angular wavelet analysis is applied to the study of the spatial distribution of breakdown (BD) spots in Pt/HfO2/Pt capacitors with square and circular areas. The method is originally developed for rectangular areas, so a zoomed approach needs to be considered when the observation window does not coincide with the device area. The BD spots appear as a consequence of the application of electrical stress to the device. The stress generates defects within the dielectric film, a process that ends with the formation of a percolation path between the electrodes and the melting of the top metal layer because of the high release of energy. The BD spots have lateral sizes ranging from 1 μm to 3 μm and they appear as a point pattern that can be studied using spatial statistics methods. In this paper, we report the application of the angular wavelet method as a complementary tool for the analysis of the distribution of failure sites in large-area metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices. The differences between considering a continuous or a discrete wavelet and the role played by the number of BD spots are also investigated.

  12. Chromatic correction for a VIS-SWIR zoom lens using optical glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Williams, Daniel J. L.; McCarthy, Peter; Visconti, Anthony J.; Bentley, Julie L.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2015-09-01

    With the advancement in sensors, hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared (SWIR 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm) now has wide applications, including night vision, haze-penetrating imaging, etc. Most conventional optical glasses can be material candidates for designing in the SWIR as they transmit up to 2.2 μm. However, since SWIR is in the middle of the glasses' major absorption wavebands in UV and IR, the flint glasses in SWIR are less dispersive than in the visible spectrum. As a result, the glass map in the SWIR is highly compressed, with crowns and flints all clustering together. Thus correcting for chromatic aberration is more challenging in the SWIR, since the Abbé number ratio of the same glass combination is reduced. Conventionally, fluorides, such as CaF2 and BaF2, are widely used in designing SWIR system due to their unique dispersion properties, even though they are notorious for poor manufacturability or even high toxicity. For lens elements in a zoom system, the ray bundle samples different sections of the each lens aperture as the lens zooms. This creates extra uncertainty in correcting chromatic aberrations. This paper focuses on using only commercially available optical glasses to color-correct a 3X dual-band zoom lens system in the VIS-SWIR. The design tools and techniques are detailed in terms of material selections to minimize the chromatic aberrations in such a large spectrum band and all zoom positions. Examples are discussed for designs with different aperture stop locations, which considerably affect the material choices.

  13. Effect of zooming on texture features of ultrasonic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacou Efthyvoulos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unstable carotid plaques on subjective, visual, assessment using B-mode ultrasound scanning appear as echolucent and heterogeneous. Although previous studies on computer assisted plaque characterisation have standardised B-mode images for brightness, improving the objective assessment of echolucency, little progress has been made towards standardisation of texture analysis methods, which assess plaque heterogeneity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of image zooming during ultrasound scanning on textural features and to test whether or not resolution standardisation decreases the variability introduced. Methods Eighteen still B-mode images of carotid plaques were zoomed during carotid scanning (zoom factor 1.3 and both images were transferred to a PC and normalised. Using bilinear and bicubic interpolation, the original images were interpolated in a process of simulating off-line zoom using the same interpolation factor. With the aid of the colour-coded image, carotid plaques of the original, zoomed and two resampled images for each case were outlined and histogram, first order and second order statistics were subsequently calculated. Results Most second order statistics (21/25, 84% were significantly (p Conclusion Texture analysis of ultrasonic plaques should be performed under standardised resolution settings; otherwise a resolution normalisation algorithm should be applied.

  14. Accessible light detection and ranging: estimating large tree density for habitat identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather A. Kramer; Brandon M. Collins; Claire V. Gallagher; John Keane; Scott L. Stephens; Maggi Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Large trees are important to a wide variety of wildlife, including many species of conservation concern, such as the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been successfully utilized to identify the density of large-diameter trees, either by segmenting the LiDAR point cloud into...

  15. Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Craen, P.

    2007-02-01

    Miniaturized camera systems are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently possess auto focus functionality. Commercially available solutions without moving parts have been developed using the electrowetting technology. Here, the contact angle of a drop of a conductive or polar liquid placed on an insulating substrate can be influenced by an electric field. Besides the compensation of the axial image shift due to different object distances, mobile phones with zoom functionality are desired as a next evolutionary step. In classical mechanically compensated zoom lenses two independently driven actuators combined with precision guides are needed leading to a delicate, space consuming and expansive opto-mechanical setup. Liquid lens technology based on the electrowetting effect gives the opportunity to built adaptive lenses without moving parts thus simplifying the mechanical setup. However, with the recent commercially available liquid lens products a completely motionless and continuously adaptive zoom system with market relevant optical performance is not feasible. This is due to the limited change in optical power the liquid lenses can provide and the dispersion of the used materials. As an intermediate step towards a continuously adjustable and motionless zoom lens we propose a bifocal system sufficient for toggling between two effective focal lengths without any moving parts. The system has its mechanical counterpart in a bifocal zoom lens where only one lens group has to be moved. In a liquid lens bifocal zoom two groups of adaptable liquid lenses are required for adjusting the effective focal length and keeping the image location constant. In order to overcome the difficulties in achromatizing the lens we propose a sequential image acquisition algorithm. Here, the full color image is obtained from a sequence of monochrome images (red, green, blue) leading to a simplified optical setup.

  16. Large homogeneity ranges in the rare earth hydrides: a fiction to be revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conder, K.; Longmei Wang; Boroch, E.; Kaldis, E.

    1991-01-01

    A large composition range of the solid solutions LnH 2 -LnH 3 (Ln=La, Ce) has been assumed for a long time. The structure of these solutions was believed to be cubic Fm3m with H atoms occupying tetrahedral and octahedral interstitials. Using x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry we have shown the existence of a large number of phases in both systems at T x ) are presented

  17. Mechanically assisted liquid lens zoom system for mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Berge, B.

    2006-08-01

    Camera systems with small form factor are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently feature auto focus functionality. Ready to market solutions without moving parts have been developed by using the electrowetting technology. Besides virtually no deterioration, easy control electronics and simple and therefore cost-effective fabrication, this type of liquid lenses enables extremely fast settling times compared to mechanical approaches. As a next evolutionary step mobile phone cameras will be equipped with zoom functionality. We present first order considerations for the optical design of a miniaturized zoom system based on liquid-lenses and compare it to its mechanical counterpart. We propose a design of a zoom lens with a zoom factor of 2.5 considering state-of-the-art commercially available liquid lens products. The lens possesses auto focus capability and is based on liquid lenses and one additional mechanical actuator. The combination of liquid lenses and a single mechanical actuator enables extremely short settling times of about 20ms for the auto focus and a simplified mechanical system design leading to lower production cost and longer life time. The camera system has a mechanical outline of 24mm in length and 8mm in diameter. The lens with f/# 3.5 provides market relevant optical performance and is designed for an image circle of 6.25mm (1/2.8" format sensor).

  18. INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL ERRORS IN A ZOOM CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gardel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, varying the focus and zoom of a camera lens system changes the alignment of the lens components resulting in a displacement of the image centre and field of view. Thus, knowledge of how the image centre shifts may be important for some aspects of camera calibration. As shown in other papers, the pinhole model is not adequate for zoom lenses. To ensure a calibration model for these lenses, the calibration parameters must be adjusted. The geometrical modelling of a zoom lens is realized from its lens specifications. The influence on the calibration parameters is calculated by introducing mechanical errors in the mobile lenses. Figures are given describing the errors obtained in the principal point coordinates and also in its standard deviation. A comparison is then made with the errors that come from the incorrect detection of the calibration points. It is concluded that mechanical errors of actual zoom lenses can be neglected in the calibration process because detection errors have more influence on the camera parameters.

  19. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-01

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 (micro)m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 (micro)m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  20. Mechanical design, analysis and testing of a large-range compliant microgripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, and testing procedures of a new large-range microgripper which is based on a flexible hinge structure. The uniqueness of the gripper is that the gripper arms not only provide large gripping range but also deliver approximately rectilinear movement as the displacement in nonworking direction is extremely small. The large gripping range is enabled by a mechanism design based on dual-stage flexure amplifier to magnify the stroke of piezoelectric actuator. The first-stage amplifier is a modified version of the Scott Russell (SR mechanism and the second-stage amplifier contains a parallel mechanism. The displacement amplification ratio of the modified SR mechanism in the gripper has been enlarged to 3.56 times of the conventional design. Analytical static models of the gripper mechanism are developed and validated through finite-element analysis (FEA simulation. Results show that the gripping range is over 720 µm with a resonant frequency of 70.7 Hz and negligible displacement in nonworking direction. The total amplification ratio of the input displacement is 16.13. Moreover, a prototype of the gripper is developed by using aluminium 7075 for experimental testing. Experimental results validate the analytical model and FEA simulation results. The proposed microgripper can be employed in various microassembly applications such as pick-and-place of optical fibre.

  1. Similar range of motion and function after resurfacing large-head or standard total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large-size hip articulations may improve range of motion (ROM) and function compared to a 28-mm THA, and the low risk of dislocation allows the patients more activity postoperatively. On the other hand, the greater extent of surgery for resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA......° (35), 232° (36), and 225° (30) respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. The 3 groups were similar regarding Harris hip score, UCLA activity score, step rate, and sick leave. INTERPRETATION: Head size had no influence on range of motion. The lack of restriction allowed...... for large articulations did not improve the clinical and patient-perceived outcomes. The more extensive surgical procedure of RHA did not impair the rehabilitation. This project is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....

  2. Two-Dimensional Linear Inversion of GPR Data with a Shifting Zoom along the Observation Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Persico

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear inverse scattering problems can be solved by regularized inversion of a matrix, whose calculation and inversion may require significant computing resources, in particular, a significant amount of RAM memory. This effort is dependent on the extent of the investigation domain, which drives a large amount of data to be gathered and a large number of unknowns to be looked for, when this domain becomes electrically large. This leads, in turn, to the problem of inversion of excessively large matrices. Here, we consider the problem of a ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey in two-dimensional (2D geometry, with antennas at an electrically short distance from the soil. In particular, we present a strategy to afford inversion of large investigation domains, based on a shifting zoom procedure. The proposed strategy was successfully validated using experimental radar data.

  3. Effects of magnification and zooming on depth perception in digital stereomammography: an observer performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Heangping; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Bailey, Janet E; Klein, Katherine; Darner, Katie L; Sahiner, Berkman

    2003-01-01

    We are evaluating the application of stereoscopic imaging to digital mammography. In the current study, we investigated the effects of magnification and zooming on depth perception. A modular phantom was designed which contained six layers of 1-mm-thick Lexan plates, each spaced 1 mm apart. Eight to nine small, thin nylon fibrils were pasted on each plate in horizontal or vertical orientations such that they formed 25 crossing fibril pairs in a projected image. The depth separation between each fibril pair ranged from 2 to 10 mm. A change in the order of the Lexan plates changed the depth separation of the two fibrils in a pair. Stereoscopic image pairs of the phantom were acquired with a GE full-field digital mammography system. Three different phantom configurations were imaged. All images were obtained using a Rh target/Rh filter spectrum at 30 kVp tube potential and a ±3 degrees stereo shift angle. Images were acquired in both contact and 1.8X magnification geometry and an exposure range of 4 to 63 mAs was employed. The images were displayed on a Barco monitor driven by a Metheus stereo graphics board and viewed with LCD stereo glasses. Five observers participated in the study. Each observer visually judged whether the vertical fibril was in front of or behind the horizontal fibril in each fibril pair. It was found that the accuracy of depth discrimination increased with increasing fibril depth separation and x-ray exposure. The accuracy was not improved by electronic display zooming of the contact stereo images by 2X. Under conditions of high noise (low mAs) and small depth separation between the fibrils, the observers' depth discrimination ability was significantly better in stereo images acquired with geometric magnification than in images acquired with a contact technique and displayed with or without zooming. Under our experimental conditions, a 2 mm depth discrimination was achieved with over 60% accuracy on contact images with and without zooming, and

  4. Transmitted wavefront testing with large dynamic range based on computer-aided deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daodang; Xu, Ping; Gong, Zhidong; Xie, Zhongmin; Liang, Rongguang; Xu, Xinke; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The transmitted wavefront testing technique is demanded for the performance evaluation of transmission optics and transparent glass, in which the achievable dynamic range is a key issue. A computer-aided deflectometric testing method with fringe projection is proposed for the accurate testing of transmitted wavefronts with a large dynamic range. Ray tracing of the modeled testing system is carried out to achieve the virtual ‘null’ testing of transmitted wavefront aberrations. The ray aberration is obtained from the ray tracing result and measured slope, with which the test wavefront aberration can be reconstructed. To eliminate testing system modeling errors, a system geometry calibration based on computer-aided reverse optimization is applied to realize accurate testing. Both numerical simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and high accuracy of the proposed testing method. The proposed testing method can achieve a large dynamic range compared with the interferometric method, providing a simple, low-cost and accurate way for the testing of transmitted wavefronts from various kinds of optics and a large amount of industrial transmission elements.

  5. Explaining anomalies in intertemporal choice : a mental zooming theory

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein Terje

    2014-01-01

    I present a theory that can explain hyperbolic discounting and magnitude effects in intertemporal choice. This approach builds on theories of narrow framing and reference dependence and expands these theories in a novel way by examining hidden mental zooming in base consumption adjustment in decisions regarding intertemporal prospects of varying magnitudes and time horizons. Data from a field experiment were used to assess the theory with an incentivecompatible multiple price list approach in...

  6. Slow Motion and Zoom in HD Digital Videos Using Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Murroni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Slow motion replay and spatial zooming are special effects used in digital video rendering. At present, most techniques to perform digital spatial zoom and slow motion are based on interpolation for both enlarging the size of the original pictures and generating additional intermediate frames. Mainly, interpolation is done either by linear or cubic spline functions or by motion estimation/compensation which both can be applied pixel by pixel, or by partitioning frames into blocks. Purpose of this paper is to present an alternative technique combining fractals theory and wavelet decomposition to achieve spatial zoom and slow motion replay of HD digital color video sequences. Fast scene change detection, active scene detection, wavelet subband analysis, and color fractal coding based on Earth Mover's Distance (EMD measure are used to reduce computational load and to improve visual quality. Experiments show that the proposed scheme achieves better results in terms of overall visual quality compared to the state-of-the-art techniques.

  7. External versus internal triggers of bar formation in cosmological zoom-in simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, Tommaso; Dotti, Massimo; Capelo, Pedro R.; Bonoli, Silvia; Haardt, Francesco; Mayer, Lucio; Spinoso, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of a large-scale stellar bar is one of the most striking features in disc galaxies. By means of state-of-the-art cosmological zoom-in simulations, we study the formation and evolution of bars in Milky Way-like galaxies in a fully cosmological context, including the physics of gas dissipation, star formation and supernova feedback. Our goal is to characterize the actual trigger of the non-axisymmetric perturbation that leads to the strong bar observable in the simulations at z = 0, discriminating between an internal/secular and an external/tidal origin. To this aim, we run a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations altering the original history of galaxy-satellite interactions at a time when the main galaxy, though already bar-unstable, does not feature any non-axisymmetric structure yet. We find that the main effect of a late minor merger and of a close fly-by is to delay the time of bar formation and those two dynamical events are not directly responsible for the development of the bar and do not alter significantly its global properties (e.g. its final extension). We conclude that, once the disc has grown to a mass large enough to sustain global non-axisymmetric modes, then bar formation is inevitable.

  8. Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyong; Htein, Lin; Lee, Kang-Kuen; Lau, Kin-Tak; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2018-01-08

    This paper presents a sensitive and large dynamic range pressure sensor based on a novel birefringence microstructured optical fiber (MOF) deployed in a Sagnac interferometer configuration. The MOF has two large semicircle holes in the cladding and a rectangular strut with germanium-doped core in the center. The fiber structure permits surrounding pressure to induce large effective index difference between the two polarized modes. The calculated and measured group birefringence of the fiber are 1.49 × 10 -4 , 1.23 × 10 -4 , respectively, at the wavelength of 1550 nm. Experimental results shown that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor varied from 45,000 pm/MPa to 50,000 pm/MPa, and minimum detectable pressure of 80 Pa and dynamic range of better than 116 dB could be achieved with the novel fiber sensor. The proposed sensor could be used in harsh environment and is an ideal candidate for downhole applications where high pressure measurement at elevated temperature up to 250 °C is needed.

  9. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO 3 - ↔ HCOO - +CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO - + CO 3 - is particularly significant. (author)

  10. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation. (paper)

  11. Miniature large range multi-axis force-torque sensor for biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhuis, R A; Sanders, R G P; Ma, K; Lammerink, T S J; De Boer, M J; Krijnen, G J M; Wiegerink, R J

    2015-01-01

    A miniature force sensor for the measurement of forces and moments at a human fingertip is designed and realized. Thin silicon pillars inside the sensor provide in-plane guidance for shear force measurement and provide the spring constant in normal direction. A corrugated silicon ring around the force sensitive area provides the spring constant in shear direction and seals the interior of the sensor. To detect all load components, capacitive read-out is used. A novel electrode pattern results in a large shear force sensitivity. The fingertip force sensor has a wide force range of up to 60 N in normal direction, ± 30 N in shear direction and a torque range of ± 25 N mm. (paper)

  12. A compact, large-range interferometer for precision measurement and inertial sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. J.; Collins, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Hoyland, D.; Speake, C. C.; Freise, A.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a compact, fibre-coupled interferometer with high sensitivity and a large working range. We propose to use this interferometer as a readout mechanism for future inertial sensors, removing a major limiting noise source, and in precision positioning systems. The interferometer’s peak sensitivity is 2 × 10-{14} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 70 Hz and 7 × 10-{11} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 10 mHz. If deployed on a GS-13 geophone, the resulting inertial sensing output will be limited by the suspension thermal noise of the reference mass from 10 mHz to 2 Hz.

  13. A large dynamic range radiation-tolerant analog memory in a quarter- micron CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Rivetti, A

    2001-01-01

    An analog memory prototype containing 8*128 cells has been designed in a commercial quarter-micron CMOS process. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of designing large dynamic range mixed-mode switched capacitor circuits for high-energy physics (HEP) applications in deep submicron CMOS technologies. Special layout techniques have been used to make the circuit radiation tolerant. The memory cells employ gate-oxide capacitors for storage, permitting a very high density. A voltage write-voltage read architecture has been chosen to minimize the sensitivity to absolute capacitor values. The measured input voltage range is 2.3 V (the power supply voltage V/sub DD/ is equal to 2.5 V), with a linearity of almost 8 bits over 2 V. The dynamic range is more than 11 bits. The pedestal variation is +or-0.5 mV peak-to-peak. The noise measured, which is dominated by the noise of the measurement setup, is around 0.8 mV rms. The characteristics of the memory have been measured before irradiation and after 1...

  14. A large dynamic range radiation tolerant analog memory in a quarter micron CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Rivetti, A

    2000-01-01

    A 8*128 cell analog memory prototype has been designed in a commercial 0.25 jam CMOS process. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of designing large dynamic range mixed- mode switched capacitor circuits for High-Energy Physics (HEP) applications in deep submicron CMOS technologies. Special layout techniques have been used to make the circuit radiation tolerant left bracket 1 right bracket . The memory cells employ gate-oxide capacitors for storage, allowing for a very high density. A voltage write - voltage read architecture has been chosen to minimize the sensitivity to absolute capacitor values. The measured input voltage range is 2.3 V (V//D//D = 2.5 V), with a linearity of at least 7.5 bits over 2 V. The dynamic range is more than 11 bits. The pedestal variation is plus or minus 0.5 mV peak-to-peak. The noise measured, which is dominated by the noise of the measurement setup, is around 0.8 mV rms. The characteristics of the memory have been measured before irradiation and after lOMrd (...

  15. An advanced method to assess the diet of free-ranging large carnivores based on scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wachter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diet of free-ranging carnivores is an important part of their ecology. It is often determined from prey remains in scats. In many cases, scat analyses are the most efficient method but they require correction for potential biases. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed mass of each prey species, the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat needs to be determined and corrected for prey body mass because the proportion of digestible to indigestible matter increases with prey body mass. Prey body mass can be corrected for by conducting feeding experiments using prey of various body masses and fitting a regression between consumed prey mass to excrete one scat and prey body mass (correction factor 1. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed individuals of each prey species and includes prey animals not completely consumed, the actual mass of each prey consumed by the carnivore needs to be controlled for (correction factor 2. No previous study controlled for this second bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use an extended series of feeding experiments on a large carnivore, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, to establish both correction factors. In contrast to previous studies which fitted a linear regression for correction factor 1, we fitted a biologically more meaningful exponential regression model where the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat reaches an asymptote at large prey sizes. Using our protocol, we also derive correction factor 1 and 2 for other carnivore species and apply them to published studies. We show that the new method increases the number and proportion of consumed individuals in the diet for large prey animals compared to the conventional method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for the interpretation of scat-based studies in feeding ecology and the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts for the conservation of large carnivores.

  16. Quenched Large Deviations for Simple Random Walks on Percolation Clusters Including Long-Range Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Noam; Mukherjee, Chiranjib; Okamura, Kazuki

    2018-03-01

    We prove a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) for a simple random walk on a supercritical percolation cluster (SRWPC) on {Z^d} ({d ≥ 2}). The models under interest include classical Bernoulli bond and site percolation as well as models that exhibit long range correlations, like the random cluster model, the random interlacement and the vacant set of random interlacements (for {d ≥ 3}) and the level sets of the Gaussian free field ({d≥ 3}). Inspired by the methods developed by Kosygina et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 59:1489-1521, 2006) for proving quenched LDP for elliptic diffusions with a random drift, and by Yilmaz (Commun Pure Appl Math 62(8):1033-1075, 2009) and Rosenbluth (Quenched large deviations for multidimensional random walks in a random environment: a variational formula. Ph.D. thesis, NYU, arXiv:0804.1444v1) for similar results regarding elliptic random walks in random environment, we take the point of view of the moving particle and prove a large deviation principle for the quenched distribution of the pair empirical measures of the environment Markov chain in the non-elliptic case of SRWPC. Via a contraction principle, this reduces easily to a quenched LDP for the distribution of the mean velocity of the random walk and both rate functions admit explicit variational formulas. The main difficulty in our set up lies in the inherent non-ellipticity as well as the lack of translation-invariance stemming from conditioning on the fact that the origin belongs to the infinite cluster. We develop a unifying approach for proving quenched large deviations for SRWPC based on exploiting coercivity properties of the relative entropies in the context of convex variational analysis, combined with input from ergodic theory and invoking geometric properties of the supercritical percolation cluster.

  17. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva

    2008-01-01

    deletions or duplications occurring in BRCA1 (n=11), BRCA2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=7), or MLH1 (n=9). Additionally, we demonstrate its applicability for uncovering complex somatic rearrangements, exemplified by zoom-in analysis of the PTEN and CDKN2A loci in breast cancer cells. The sizes of rearrangements ranged...

  18. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  19. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  20. A Doherty Power Amplifier with Large Back-Off Power Range Using Integrated Enhancing Reactance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Doherty power amplifier (DPA based on integrated enhancing reactance (IER was proposed for large back-off applications. The IER was generated using the peaking amplifier with the help of a desired impedance transformation in the low-power region to enhance the back-off efficiency of the carrier amplifier. To convert the impedances properly, both in the low-power region and at saturation, a two-impedance matching method was employed to design the output matching networks. For verification, a symmetric DPA with large back-off power range over 2.2–2.5 GHz was designed and fabricated. Measurement results show that the designed DPA has the 9 dB back-off efficiency of higher than 45%, while the saturated output power is higher than 44 dBm over the whole operation bandwidth. When driven by a 20 MHz LTE signal, the DPA can achieve good average efficiency of around 50% with adjacent channel leakage ratio of about –50 dBc after linearization over the frequency band of interest. The linearity improvement of the DPA for multistandard wireless communication system was also verified with a dual-band modulated signal.

  1. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Draganic, I.G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.; Sehested, K.

    1986-12-01

    0 2 -free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.001-170 Mrd) or krd pulses of 10 MeV electrons. Formate, oxalate, formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer (M w 14000-16000 daltons) were found to be the main radiolytic products. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ↔ HC00 - + CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction CO 2 - + CO 3 - is particurlarly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained in the γ-radiolysis and by pulsed electron beam experiments gives k(CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ) = (2 ± 0.4)x10 3 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(CO 2 - + CO 3 - ) = (5 ± 1)x10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(NH 2 + = HCO 3 - ) 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and k(NH 2 + CO 3 - ) = (1.5 ± 0.5)x10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . (author)

  2. Eye-gaze control of the computer interface: Discrimination of zoom intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis methodology and associated experiment were developed to assess whether definable and repeatable signatures of eye-gaze characteristics are evident, preceding a decision to zoom-in, zoom-out, or not to zoom at a computer interface. This user intent discrimination procedure can have broad application in disability aids and telerobotic control. Eye-gaze was collected from 10 subjects in a controlled experiment, requiring zoom decisions. The eye-gaze data were clustered, then fed into a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) for optimal definition of heuristics separating the zoom-in, zoom-out, and no-zoom conditions. Confusion matrix analyses showed that a number of variable combinations classified at a statistically significant level, but practical significance was more difficult to establish. Composite contour plots demonstrated the regions in parameter space consistently assigned by the MDA to unique zoom conditions. Peak classification occurred at about 1200--1600 msec. Improvements in the methodology to achieve practical real-time zoom control are considered

  3. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  4. Macro-SICM: A Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope for Large-Range Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierbaum, Nicolas; Hack, Martin; Betz, Oliver; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2018-04-17

    The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) is a versatile, high-resolution imaging technique that uses an electrolyte-filled nanopipet as a probe. Its noncontact imaging principle makes the SICM uniquely suited for the investigation of soft and delicate surface structures in a liquid environment. The SICM has found an ever-increasing number of applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. However, a drawback of conventional SICMs is their relatively small scan range (typically 100 μm × 100 μm in the lateral and 10 μm in the vertical direction). We have developed a Macro-SICM with an exceedingly large scan range of 25 mm × 25 mm in the lateral and 0.25 mm in the vertical direction. We demonstrate the high versatility of the Macro-SICM by imaging at different length scales: from centimeters (fingerprint, coin) to millimeters (bovine tongue tissue, insect wing) to micrometers (cellular extensions). We applied the Macro-SICM to the study of collective cell migration in epithelial wound healing.

  5. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  6. High-resolution and large dynamic range nanomechanical mapping in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ozgur; Erina, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    High spatial resolution imaging of material properties is an important task for the continued development of nanomaterials and studies of biological systems. Time-varying interaction forces between the vibrating tip and the sample in a tapping-mode atomic force microscope contain detailed information about the elastic, adhesive, and dissipative response of the sample. We report real-time measurement and analysis of the time-varying tip-sample interaction forces with recently introduced torsional harmonic cantilevers. With these measurements, high-resolution maps of elastic modulus, adhesion force, energy dissipation, and topography are generated simultaneously in a single scan. With peak tapping forces as low as 0.6 nN, we demonstrate measurements on blended polymers and self-assembled molecular architectures with feature sizes at 1, 10, and 500 nm. We also observed an elastic modulus measurement range of four orders of magnitude (1 MPa to 10 GPa) for a single cantilever under identical feedback conditions, which can be particularly useful for analyzing heterogeneous samples with largely different material components.

  7. Validation of SplitVectors Encoding for Quantitative Visualization of Large-Magnitude-Range Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen

    2017-06-01

    We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.

  8. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-06-11

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature.

  9. Fast charged-coupled device spectrometry using zoom-wavelength optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolan, P.G.; Conway, N.J.; Bunting, C.A.; Leahy, P.; OConnell, R.; Huxford, R.; Negus, C.R.; Wilcock, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arrays placed at the output of visible spectrometers are used for multichord Doppler shift analyses on the COMPASS-D and START tokamaks. Unequal magnification in the horizontal and vertical axes allows for optimal matching of throughput and spectral resolution at the CCD detector. This involves cylindrical lenses in an anamorphic mounting. Optical acuity is preserved over a very wide range of wavelengths (220 nm→700 nm) by separate repositioning of all the optical elements which is accomplished by the use of zoom mechanisms. This facilitates rapid changes of wavelength allowing edge and core observations depending on the location of the emitting impurity ions. Changes to the ion temperature and velocity are recorded using 20 chords simultaneously with typical accuracies of Δv i -1 and ΔT i /T i <10% with a time resolution of <1 ms. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Teaching Shakespeare in the Digital Age: The eZoomBook Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evain, Christine; De Marco, Chris

    2016-01-01

    What collaborative process can teachers offer in order to stimulate their students' reading of and writing on Shakespeare's plays? How can new technologies contribute to facilitating the classroom experience? The eZoomBook (eZB) template was designed for teachers to create and share multi-level digital books called "eZoomBooks" that…

  11. Fast and accurate: high-speed metrological large-range AFM for surface and nanometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Koenders, Ludger; Fluegge, Jens; Hemmleb, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Low measurement speed remains a major shortcoming of the scanning probe microscopic technique. It not only leads to a low measurement throughput, but a significant measurement drift over the long measurement time needed (up to hours or even days). To overcome this challenge, PTB, the national metrology institute of Germany, has developed a high-speed metrological large-range atomic force microscope (HS Met. LR-AFM) capable of measuring speeds up to 1 mm s‑1. This paper has introduced the design concept in detail. After modelling scanning probe microscopic measurements, our results suggest that the signal spectrum of the surface to be measured is the spatial spectrum of the surface scaled by the scanning speed. The higher the scanning speed , the broader the spectrum to be measured. To realise an accurate HS Met. LR-AFM, our solution is to combine different stages/sensors synchronously in measurements, which provide a much larger spectrum area for high-speed measurement capability. Two application examples have been demonstrated. The first is a new concept called reference areal surface metrology. Using the developed HS Met. LR-AFM, surfaces are measured accurately and traceably at a speed of 500 µm s‑1 and the results are applied as a reference 3D data map of the surfaces. By correlating the reference 3D data sets and 3D data sets of tools under calibration, which are measured at the same surface, it has the potential to comprehensively characterise the tools, for instance, the spectrum properties of the tools. The investigation results of two commercial confocal microscopes are demonstrated, indicating very promising results. The second example is the calibration of a kind of 3D nano standard, which has spatially distributed landmarks, i.e. special unique features defined by 3D-coordinates. Experimental investigations confirmed that the calibration accuracy is maintained at a measurement speed of 100 µm s‑1, which improves the calibration efficiency by a

  12. Optimization design of periscope type 3X zoom lens design for a five megapixel cellphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Chao, Yu-Hao; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a periscope type 3X zoom lenses design for a five megapixel cellphone camera. The configuration of optical system uses the right angle prism in front of the zoom lenses to change the optical path rotated by a 90° angle resulting in the zoom lenses length of 6 mm. The zoom lenses can be embedded in mobile phone with a thickness of 6 mm. The zoom lenses have three groups with six elements. The half field of view is varied from 30° to 10.89°, the effective focal length is adjusted from 3.142 mm to 9.426 mm, and the F-number is changed from 2.8 to 5.13.

  13. Parameters Design for Logarithmic Quantizer Based on Zoom Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of designing suitable parameters for logarithmic quantizer such that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. Based on zoom strategy, we propose two methods for quantizer parameters design, under which it ensures that the state of the closed-loop system can load in the invariant sets after some certain moments. Then we obtain that the quantizer is unsaturated, and thus the quantization errors are bounded under the time-varying logarithm quantization strategy. On that basis, we obtain that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. A benchmark example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods, and the comparison results are illustrated.

  14. Adaptive zooming in X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabravolski, Andrei; Batenburg, Kees Joost; Sijbers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In computed tomography (CT), the source-detector system commonly rotates around the object in a circular trajectory. Such a trajectory does not allow to exploit a detector fully when scanning elongated objects. Increase the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image by optimal zooming during scanning. A new approach is proposed, in which the full width of the detector is exploited for every projection angle. This approach is based on the use of prior information about the object's convex hull to move the source as close as possible to the object, while avoiding truncation of the projections. Experiments show that the proposed approach can significantly improve reconstruction quality, producing reconstructions with smaller errors and revealing more details in the object. The proposed approach can lead to more accurate reconstructions and increased spatial resolution in the object compared to the conventional circular trajectory.

  15. Substitution Structures of Large Molecules and Medium Range Correlations in Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    A study of the minimally exciting topic of agreement between experimental and measured rotational constants of molecules was performed on a set of large molecules with 16-18 heavy atoms (carbon and oxygen). The molecules are: nootkatone (C_{15}H_{22}O), cedrol (C_{15}H_{26}O), ambroxide (C_{16}H_{28}O), sclareolide (C_{16}H_{22}O_{2}), and dihydroartemisinic acid (C_{15}H_{24}O_{2}). For this set of molecules we obtained 13C-subsitution structures for six molecules (this includes two conformers of nootkatone). A comparison of theoretical structures and experimental substitution structures was performed in the spirit of the recent work of Grimme and Steinmetz.[1] Our analysis focused the center-of-mass distance of the carbon atoms in the molecules. Four different computational methods were studied: standard DFT (B3LYP), dispersion corrected DFT (B3LYP-D3BJ), hybrid DFT with dispersion correction (B2PLYP-D3), and MP2. A significant difference in these theories is how they handle medium range correlation of electrons that produce dispersion forces. For larger molecules, these dispersion forces produce an overall contraction of the molecule around the center-of-mass. DFT poorly treats this effect and produces structures that are too expanded. MP2 calculations overestimate the correction and produce structures that are too compact. Both dispersion corrected DFT methods produce structures in excellent agreement with experiment. The analysis shows that the difference in computational methods can be described by a linear error in the center-of-mass distance. This makes it possible to correct poorer performing calculations with a single scale factor. We also reexamine the issue of the "Costain error" in substitution structures and show that it is significantly larger in these systems than in the smaller molecules used by Costain to establish the error limits. [1] Stefan Grimme and Marc Steinmetz, "Effects of London dispersion correction in density functional theory on

  16. Characterization of microcalcification: can digital monitor zooming replace magnification mammography in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Oh, Ki Keun; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of microcalcifications in zoomed digital contact mammography with digital magnification mammography. Three radiologists with different levels of experience in mammography reviewed 120 microcalcification clusters in 111 patients with a full-field digital mammography system relying on digital magnification mammogram (MAG) images and zoomed images from contact mammography (ZOOM) using commercially available zooming systems on monitors. Each radiologist estimated the probability of malignancy and rated the image quality and confidence rate. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All three radiologists rated MAG images higher than ZOOM images for sensitivity with statistical significance (average value, 92% vs. 87%, P<0.05) and performance by ROC analysis improved with MAG imaging. The confidence rate for diagnosis decision and the assessment of lesion characteristics were also better in MAG images than in ZOOM images with statistical significance (P<0.0001). Digital magnification mammography can enhance diagnostic performance when characterizing microcalcifications. Images zoomed from digital contact mammography cannot serve as an alternative to direct magnification digital mammography. (orig.)

  17. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)2 for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1

  18. Processing and Application of ICESat Large Footprint Full Waveform Laser Range Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duong, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, laser scanning systems made the transition from scientific research to the commercial market. Laser scanning has a large variety of applications such as digital elevation models, forest inventory and man-made object reconstruction, and became the most required input data for

  19. Endozoochory by free-ranging, large herbivores : Ecological correlates and perspectives for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, Albert; Vos, P; Verhagen, HMC; Bakker, JP

    2005-01-01

    Seed dispersal via ingestion and defecation by large herbivores provides a possible aid for ecological restoration of plant communities, by connecting source communities of target species with habitat restoration sites. It is also a possible threat due to invasion of weeds, grasses or exotic

  20. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  1. Optimal design of link systems using successive zooming genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Doo; Sohn, Chang-hyun; Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lim, Jae-gyoo

    2009-07-01

    Link-systems have been around for a long time and are still used to control motion in diverse applications such as automobiles, robots and industrial machinery. This study presents a procedure involving the use of a genetic algorithm for the optimal design of single four-bar link systems and a double four-bar link system used in diesel engine. We adopted the Successive Zooming Genetic Algorithm (SZGA), which has one of the most rapid convergence rates among global search algorithms. The results are verified by experiment and the Recurdyn dynamic motion analysis package. During the optimal design of single four-bar link systems, we found in the case of identical input/output (IO) angles that the initial and final configurations show certain symmetry. For the double link system, we introduced weighting factors for the multi-objective functions, which minimize the difference between output angles, providing balanced engine performance, as well as the difference between final output angle and the desired magnitudes of final output angle. We adopted a graphical method to select a proper ratio between the weighting factors.

  2. Zooming in on cirrus with the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanof, C.; Stefanof, A.; Beaulne, A.; Munoz Alpizar, R.; Szyrmer, W.; Blanchet, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model plus a microphysical scheme: two-moments microphysics with three hydrometeor categories (cloud liquid water, pristine ice crystals and larger precipitation crystals) is used to test the simulation in forecast mode using ECMWF data at 0.4 X 0.4 degree. We are zooming in on cirrus at higher resolutions (9, 1.8, 0.36 km). We are currently using the data set measured in APEX-E3, measurements of radar, lidar, passive instruments and interpreted microphysics for some flights (G-II, C404, B200). The radar and lidar data are available for high level cirrus. The south west of Japon is the flight region. The dates are March 20, March 27 and April 2, 2003. We first focus on the March 27 frontal system. We did a rigorous synoptical analysis for the cases. The cirrus at 360 m resolution are simulated. The cloud structure and some similarities between model simulation and observations will be presented.

  3. Zooming in - zooming out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Vibeke Røn

    This paper presents the use of video diaries in ethnographic educational research among nursing students in Denmark. It is based on the researcher’s experiences from an ongoing ethnographic study focusing on the student perspective of being enrolled in a class following an experimental educational...... model. The paper presents video diaries as a way of generating qualitative data, reflects on the ethical strategies and dilemmas of using video diaries and illuminates the possibilities of allowing students to state their voices when and where they choose....

  4. Six-axis force–torque sensor with a large range for biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Brookhuis, R A; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Droogendijk, H; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >De Boer, M J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Sanders, R G P; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Lammerink, T S J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Wiegerink, R J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Krijnen, G J M

    2014-01-01

    A silicon six-axis force–torque sensor is designed and realized to be used for measurement of the power transfer between the human body and the environment. Capacitive read-out is used to detect all axial force components and all torque components simultaneously. Small electrode gaps in combination with mechanical amplification by the sensor structure result in a high sensitivity. The miniature sensor has a wide force range of up to 50 N in normal direction, 10 N in shear direction and 25 N mm of maximum torque around each axis. (paper)

  5. High resolution axicon-based endoscopic FD OCT imaging with a large depth range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Sung; Hurley, William; Deegan, John; Dean, Scott; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic imaging in tubular structures, such as the tracheobronchial tree, could benefit from imaging optics with an extended depth of focus (DOF). This optics could accommodate for varying sizes of tubular structures across patients and along the tree within a single patient. In the paper, we demonstrate an extended DOF without sacrificing resolution showing rotational images in biological tubular samples with 2.5 μm axial resolution, 10 ìm lateral resolution, and > 4 mm depth range using a custom designed probe.

  6. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  7. Determination of boron over a large dynamic range by prompt-gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.K.; Landsberger, S.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the PGAA method for the determination of boron across a wide dynamic range of concentrations was performed for trace levels up to 5 wt.% boron. This range encompasses a transition from neutron transparency to significant self- shielding conditions. To account for self-shielding, several PGAA techniques were employed. First, a calibration curve was developed in which a set of boron standards was tested and the count rate to boron mass curve was determined. This set of boron measurements was compared with an internal standard self-shielding correction method and with a method for determining composition using PGAA peak ratios. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are analyzed. The boron concentrations of several laboratory-grade chemicals and standard reference materials were measured with each method and compared. The evaluation of the boron content of nanocrystalline transition metals prepared with a boron-containing reducing agent was also performed with each of the methods tested. Finally, the k 0 method was used for non-destructive measurement of boron in catalyst materials for the characterization of new non-platinum fuel cell catalysts.

  8. A terahertz EO detector with large dynamical range, high modulation depth and signal-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinjian; Cai, Yi; Zeng, Xuanke; Zheng, Shuiqin; Li, Jingzhen; Xu, Shixiang

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a novel design for terahertz (THz) free-space time domain electro-optic (EO) detection where the static birefringent phases of the two balanced arms are set close to zero but opposite to each other. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show this design has much stronger ability to cancel the optical background noise than both THz ellipsometer and traditional crossed polarizer geometry (CPG). Its optical modulation depth is about twice as high as that of traditional CPG, but about ten times as high as that of THz ellipsometer. As for the dynamical range, our improved design is comparable to the THz ellipsometer but obviously larger than the traditional CPG. Some experiments for comparing our improved CPG with traditional CPG agree well with the corresponding theoretical predictions. Our experiments also show that the splitting ratio of the used non-polarization beam splitter is critical for the performance of our design.

  9. A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A S Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-07-22

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

  10. A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

  11. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  12. Intuitive tactile zooming for graphics accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, T V Dianne; Ketchum, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    One possibility of providing access to visual graphics for those who are visually impaired is to present them tactually: unfortunately, details easily available to vision need to be magnified to be accessible through touch. For this, we propose an "intuitive" zooming algorithm to solve potential problems with directly applying visual zooming techniques to haptic displays that sense the current location of a user on a virtual diagram with a position sensor and, then, provide the appropriate local information either through force or tactile feedback. Our technique works by determining and then traversing the levels of an object tree hierarchy of a diagram. In this manner, the zoom steps adjust to the content to be viewed, avoid clipping and do not zoom when no object is present. The algorithm was tested using a small, "mouse-like" display with tactile feedback on pictures representing houses in a community and boats on a lake. We asked the users to answer questions related to details in the pictures. Comparing our technique to linear and logarithmic step zooming, we found a significant increase in the correctness of the responses (odds ratios of 2.64:1 and 2.31:1, respectively) and usability (differences of 36% and 19%, respectively) using our "intuitive" zooming technique.

  13. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  14. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Diego [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Nobili, Valerio [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco [Dept. Pathology, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Santorelli, Filippo Maria [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  15. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. ► Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. ► Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. ► Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  16. Interference fringes in synchrotron section topography of implanted silicon with a very large ion range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Dluzewska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon crystals implanted with 9 MeV protons to the dose of 5x10 17 cm -2 were studied with X-ray topographic methods using both conventional and synchrotron radiation sources. After the implantation the crystals were thermally and electron annealed. The implantation produced large 600 μm thick shot-through layer while the total thickness of the samples was 1.6 mm. It was confirmed by means of double crystal topography that the whole crystal was elastically bent. The transmission section patterns revealed both parts of the implanted crystal separated by strong contrasts coming from the most damaged layer and distinct interference fringes which appeared on one side of the topograph only. The locations of the fringes changed when the beam entered the other side of the sample. The mechanism of fringe formation was studied with numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations, especially studying the intensity distribution in the diffraction plane. The simulations reproduced the location of the fringes in different geometries and indicate that they can be caused both by variable crystal curvature and variable ion dose. (author)

  17. Prototype drift chamber for high energy heavy ions with a large dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Bieser, F.; Crawford, H.; Lindstrom, P.; Baumgartner, M.; Greiner, D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a small prototype drift chamber designed for high energy heavy ions. When a drift chamber is used as a tracking detector for heavy projectile fragments from high energy nucleus-nucleus reactions, the major problem comes from the many spurious hits due to delta-rays. Three methods have been developed to solve this problem. The first one is to use a constant fraction discriminator to pick up the timing signal from the core ionization under the large background of delta-rays. The second one is to use pulse height information from the drift chamber to find the cell hit by the heavy ion. The last one is the idea of distributed planes. Modular planes (12 in this case) are distributed 10 cm apart on a rigid base plate to provide accurate relative positioning of the wires. The performance of the prototype chamber has been measured as a function of the high voltage bias and of the charge of the heavy ion from protons up to uranium at around 1 GeV/nucleon

  18. Combinatorial Strategies for Synthesis and Characterization of Alloy Microstructures over Large Compositional Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Jensen, Katharine E; Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Gong, Pan; Scanley, B Ellen; Broadbridge, Christine C; Schroers, Jan

    2016-10-10

    The exploration of new alloys with desirable properties has been a long-standing challenge in materials science because of the complex relationship between composition and microstructure. In this Research Article, we demonstrate a combinatorial strategy for the exploration of composition dependence of microstructure. This strategy is comprised of alloy library synthesis followed by high-throughput microstructure characterization. As an example, we synthesized a ternary Au-Cu-Si composition library containing over 1000 individual alloys using combinatorial sputtering. We subsequently melted and resolidified the entire library at controlled cooling rates. We used scanning optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction mapping to explore trends in phase formation and microstructural length scale with composition across the library. The integration of combinatorial synthesis with parallelizable analysis methods provides a efficient method for examining vast compositional ranges. The availability of microstructures from this vast composition space not only facilitates design of new alloys by controlling effects of composition on phase selection, phase sequence, length scale, and overall morphology, but also will be instrumental in understanding the complex process of microstructure formation in alloys.

  19. Cryo-optical testing of large aspheric reflectors operating in the sub mm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, S.; Houbrechts, Y.; Mazzoli, A.; Ninane, N.; Stockman, Y.; Daddato, R.; Kirschner, V.; Venacio, L.; de Chambure, D.

    2006-02-01

    The cryo-optical testing of the PLANCK primary reflector (elliptical off-axis CFRP reflector of 1550 mm x 1890 mm) is one of the major issue in the payload development program. It is requested to measure the changes of the Surface Figure Error (SFE) with respect to the best ellipsoid, between 293 K and 50 K, with a 1 μm RMS accuracy. To achieve this, Infra Red interferometry has been used and a dedicated thermo mechanical set-up has been constructed. This paper summarises the test activities, the test methods and results on the PLANCK Primary Reflector - Flight Model (PRFM) achieved in FOCAL 6.5 at Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL). Here, the Wave Front Error (WFE) will be considered, the SFE can be derived from the WFE measurement. After a brief introduction, the first part deals with the general test description. The thermo-elastic deformations will be addressed: the surface deformation in the medium frequency range (spatial wavelength down to 60 mm) and core-cell dimpling.

  20. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  1. Corals through the light : phylogenetics, functional diversity and adaptive strategies of coral-symbiont associations over a large depth range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Frade, P.

    2009-01-01

    Light constitutes the main energy source in the coral reef ecosystem, with its intensity dramatically reduced with increasing depth over the reef slope. How do corals thrive across these acute light gradients that exist over large depth ranges? This and many more questions are addressed throughout

  2. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I., E-mail: isoltani@mit.edu; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-11-15

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube.

  3. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube

  4. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yong-Lan, E-mail: ylhe_526@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Hausmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.hausmann@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com [St. John' s Medical Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); Attenberger, Ulrike I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Riffel, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.riffel@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim – Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra{sup ®}, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or

  5. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yong-Lan; Hausmann, Daniel; Morelli, John N.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Riffel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renal zoomed diffusion-weighted imaging with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses is feasible. • z-EPI offers considerable potential for mitigating the limitations of conventional EPI techniques. • z-EPI of kidney may lead to substantial image quality improvements with reduced artifacts. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years ± 13.4, range 23–83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra ® , Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. Results: With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p < 0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p = 0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or of

  6. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Careaga Houck, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); AlGhamdi, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Dammam, Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Youcef-Toumi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X–Y–Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6 μm out-of-plane and 120 μm lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5 μm suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20 MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. - Highlights: • High-speed AFM imaging is extended to large lateral and vertical scan ranges. • A general multi-actuation approach to atomic force microscopy is presented. • A high-speed AFM is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. • Multi-actuator control is designed auxiliary to a PID unit to maintain flexibility. • Influence of calcite crystal structure on dissolution is visualized in video form.

  7. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  8. Application of Automatic Zooming and Autofocusing in Microassembly using Visual Servoing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung-Nam; Kim, Jong-Seog

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many industrial products and their components are evolving toward miniaturization. To have more functionalities within less dimensional volume, they are usually made of various materials with different characteristics, and they are manufactured using incompatible manufacturing processes with complex geometrical shapes. For these reasons, the assembly technique for mating micro-parts so called microassembly has become important for advanced manufacturing and drawn extensive research interest. Currently, due to various difficulties arising from handling of extremely small size parts, manual assembly method has been widely used. Since this manual method is somehow timeconsuming and not productive enough, automation of micro-assembly has become an essential part for micro parts manufacturing. As an alternative, the vision sensor is widely used in microassembly. The vision sensor has a wide field of view, and it can obtain the wide range data with high speed without contact. In the previous research works, the orientation of the mating parts has not been considered for corrective motion, and, furthermore, the developed vision systems are not adaptive to accommodate various sizes of the mated parts to avoid such criticism, we propose a visual feedback system that accommodates micro parts of various sizes and parts arbitrarily oriented. In this paper, the system that employs adaptive zooming and auto focusing techniques during visual servoing is described

  9. Adaptation Computing Parameters of Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras for Traffic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Lin WU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Closed- CIRCUIT television (CCTV cameras have been widely used in recent years for traffic monitoring and surveillance applications. We can use CCTV cameras to extract automatically real-time traffic parameters according to the image processing and tracking technologies. Especially, the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ cameras can provide flexible view selection as well as a wider observation range, and this makes the traffic parameters can be accurately calculated. Therefore, that the parameters of PTZ cameras are calibrated plays an important role in vision-based traffic applications. However, in the specific traffic environment, which is that the license plate number of the illegal parking is located, the parameters of PTZ cameras have to be updated according to the position and distance of illegal parking. In proposed traffic monitoring systems, we use the ordinary webcam and PTZ camera. We get vanishing-point of traffic lane lines in the pixel-based coordinate system by fixed webcam. The parameters of PTZ camera can be initialized by distance of the traffic monitoring and specific objectives and vanishing-point. And then we can use the coordinate position of the illegally parked car to update the parameters of PTZ camera and then get the real word coordinate position of the illegally parked car and use it to compute the distance. The result shows the error of the tested distance and real distance is only 0.2064 meter.

  10. Calibration of a large multi-element neutron counter in the energy range 85-430 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, J A; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jane, M R; Jobes, M; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Thomas, D H

    1978-01-01

    Describes the calibration of a large 60 element neutron counter with a threshold of 2.7 MeV equivalent electron energy. The performance of the counter has been measured in the neutron kinetic energy range 8.5-430 MeV using a neutron beam at the CERN Synchrocyclotron. The results obtained for the efficiency as a function of energy are in reasonable agreement with a Monte Carlo calculation. (7 refs).

  11. ZOOM or Non-ZOOM? Assessing Spinal Cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging Protocols for Multi-Centre Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Samson

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate two spinal cord (SC diffusion tensor imaging (DTI protocols, implemented at multiple sites (using scanners from two different manufacturers, one available on any clinical scanner, and one using more advanced options currently available in the research setting, and to use an automated processing method for unbiased quantification. DTI parameters are sensitive to changes in the diseased SC. However, imaging the cord can be technically challenging due to various factors including its small size, patient-related and physiological motion, and field inhomogeneities. Rapid acquisition sequences such as Echo Planar Imaging (EPI are desirable but may suffer from image distortions. We present a multi-centre comparison of two acquisition protocols implemented on scanners from two different vendors (Siemens and Philips, one using a reduced field-of-view (rFOV EPI sequence, and one only using options available on standard clinical scanners such as outer volume suppression (OVS. Automatic analysis was performed with the Spinal Cord Toolbox for unbiased and reproducible quantification of DTI metrics in the white matter. Images acquired using the rFOV sequence appear less distorted than those acquired using OVS alone. SC DTI parameter values obtained using both sequences at all sites were consistent with previous measurements made at 3T. For the same scanner manufacturer, DTI parameter inter-site SDs were smaller for the rFOV sequence compared to the OVS sequence. The higher inter-site reproducibility (for the same manufacturer and acquisition details, i.e. ZOOM data acquired at the two Philips sites of rFOV compared to the OVS sequence supports the idea that making research options such as rFOV more widely available would improve accuracy of measurements obtained in multi-centre clinical trials. Future multi-centre studies should also aim to match the rFOV technique and signal-to-noise ratios in all

  12. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  13. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S Clements

    Full Text Available Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point. When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah, 82±3% (leopard, 81±2% (lion, 97±2% (spotted hyaena and 96±2% (wild dog of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  14. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  15. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  16. Real-Time Adaptive Control of a Magnetic Levitation System with a Large Range of Load Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-11

    In an idle light-load or a full-load condition, the change of the load mass of a suspension system is very significant. If the control parameters of conventional control methods remain unchanged, the suspension performance of the control system deteriorates rapidly or even loses stability when the load mass changes in a large range. In this paper, a real-time adaptive control method for a magnetic levitation system with large range of mass changes is proposed. First, the suspension control system model of the maglev train is built up, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed. Then, a fast inner current-loop is used to simplify the design of the suspension control system, and an adaptive control method is put forward to ensure that the system is still in a stable state when the load mass varies in a wide range. Simulations and experiments show that when the load mass of the maglev system varies greatly, the adaptive control method is effective to suspend the system stably with a given displacement.

  17. A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity RF front-end for U-band mobile DTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongjiang; Liu Shengyou; Guo Guiliang; Cheng Xu; Yan Yuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity U-band RF front-end for mobile DTV is introduced, and includes a noise-cancelling low-noise amplifier (LNA), an RF programmable gain amplifier (RFPGA) and a current communicating passive mixer. The noise/distortion cancelling structure and RC post-distortion compensation are employed to improve the linearity of the LNA. An RFPGA with five stages provides large dynamic range and fine gain resolution. A simple resistor voltage network in the passive mixer decreases the gate bias voltage of the mixing transistor, and optimum linearity and symmetrical mixing is obtained at the same time. The RF front-end is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. Tests show that it achieves an IIP3 (third-order intercept point) of −17 dBm, a conversion gain of 39 dB, and a noise figure of 5.8 dB. The RFPGA achieves a dynamic range of −36.2 to 23.5 dB with a resolution of 0.32 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Zhongpan; Zhao, Tieshi

    2016-08-11

    Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR) joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  19. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  20. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  1. Development of a dry actuation conducting polymer actuator for micro-optical zoom lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Kim, Hyunseok; Nguyen, H. C.; Cho, M. S.; Lee, Y.; Nam, Jae-Do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, J. C.; Jeong, H.-S.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) based conducting polymer actuator that is fabricated into a micro zoon lens driver. Unlike the traditional conducting polymer that normally operates in a liquid, the proposed actuator successfully provides fairly effective driving performance for the zoom lens system in a dry environment. And this paper is including the experiment results for an efficiency improvement. The result suggested by an experiment was efficient in micro optical zoom lens system. In addition, the developed design method of actuator was given consideration to design the system.

  2. Structural zooming research and development of an interactive computer graphical interface for stress analysis of cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Engineering problems sometimes involve the numerical solution of boundary value problems over domains containing geometric feature with widely varying scales. Often, a detailed solution is required at one or more of these features. Small details in large structures may have profound effects upon global performance. Conversely, large-scale conditions may effect local performance. Many man-hours and CPU-hours are currently spent in modeling such problems. With the structural zooming technique, it is now possible to design an integrated program which allows the analyst to interactively focus upon a small region of interest, to modify the local geometry, and then to obtain highly accurate responses in that region which reflect both the properties of the overall structure and the local detail. A boundary integral equation analysis program, called BOAST, was recently developed for the stress analysis of cracks. This program can accurately analyze two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems with far less computational effort than existing finite element codes. An interactive computer graphical interface to BOAST was written. The graphical interface would have several requirements: it would be menu-driven, with mouse input; all aspects of input would be entered graphically; the results of a BOAST analysis would be displayed pictorially but also the user would be able to probe interactively to get numerical values of displacement and stress at desired locations within the analysis domain; the entire procedure would be integrated into a single, easy to use package; and it would be written using calls to the graphic package called HOOPS. The program is nearing completion. All of the preprocessing features are working satisfactorily and were debugged. The postprocessing features are under development, and rudimentary postprocessing should be available by the end of the summer. The program was developed and run on a VAX workstation, and must be ported to the SUN

  3. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  4. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  5. Evidence for large compositional ranges in coeval melts erupted from Kīlauea's summit reservoir: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind T.; Clague, David A.; Mastin, Larry G.; Rose, Timothy R.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic observations on Kīlauea's lavas include abundant microprobe analyses of glasses, which show the range of melts available in Kīlauea's summit reservoir over time. During the past two centuries, compositions of melts erupted within the caldera have been limited to MgO = 6.3–7.5 wt%. Extracaldera lavas of the 1959, 1971, and 1974 eruptions contain melts with up to 10.2, 8.9, and 9.2 wt% MgO, respectively, and the 1924 tephra contains juvenile Pele's tears with up to 9.1 wt% MgO. Melt compositions from explosive deposits at Kīlauea, including the Keanakāko‘i (A.D. 1500–1800), Kulanaokuaiki (A.D. 400–1000), and Pāhala (10–25 ka) tephra units, show large ranges of MgO contents. The range of melt MgO is 6.5–11.0 wt% for the Keanakāko‘i; the Kulanaokuaiki extends to 12.5% MgO and the Pāhala Ash includes rare shards with 13–14.5% MgO. The frequency distributions for MgO in the Keanakāko‘i and Kulanaokuaiki glasses are bimodal, suggesting preferential magma storage at two different depths. Kīlauea's summit reservoir contains melts ranging from 6.5 to at least 11.0 wt% MgO, and such melts were available for sampling near instantaneously and repeatedly over centuries. More magnesian melts are inferred to have risen directly from greater depth.

  6. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  7. Optical zoom lens module using MEMS deformable mirrors for portable device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Shiun; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2012-10-01

    The thickness of the smart phones in today's market is usually below than 10 mm, and with the shrinking of the phone volume, the difficulty of its production of the camera lens has been increasing. Therefore, how to give the imaging device more functionality in the smaller space is one of the interesting research topics for today's mobile phone companies. In this paper, we proposed a thin optical zoom system which is combined of micro-electromechanical components and reflective optical architecture. By the adopting of the MEMS deformable mirrors, we can change their radius of curvature to reach the optical zoom in and zoom out. And because we used the all-reflective architecture, so this system has eliminated the considerable chromatic aberrations in the absence of lenses. In our system, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal length) is 4.61 mm at a diagonal field angle of 52° and f/# of 5.24. The longest EFL of the module is 9.22 mm at a diagonal field angle of 27.4 with f/# of 5.03.°

  8. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  9. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  10. Quasistatic zooming of FDTD E-field computations: the impact of down-scaling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Kamer, J.B.; Kroeze, H.; De Leeuw, A.A.C.; Lagendijk, J.J.W. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-05-01

    Due to current computer limitations, regional hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is practically limited to a resolution of 1 cm, whereas a millimetre resolution is desired. Using the centimetre resolution E-vector-field distribution, computed with, for example, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the millimetre resolution patient anatomy it is possible to obtain a millimetre resolution SAR distribution in a volume of interest (VOI) by means of quasistatic zooming. To compute the required low-resolution E-vector-field distribution, a low-resolution dielectric geometry is needed which is constructed by down-scaling the millimetre resolution dielectric geometry. In this study we have investigated which down-scaling technique results in a dielectric geometry that yields the best low-resolution E-vector-field distribution as input for quasistatic zooming. A segmented 2 mm resolution CT data set of a patient has been down-scaled to 1 cm resolution using three different techniques: 'winner-takes-all', 'volumetric averaging' and 'anisotropic volumetric averaging'. The E-vector-field distributions computed for those low-resolution dielectric geometries have been used as input for quasistatic zooming. The resulting zoomed-resolution SAR distributions were compared with a reference: the 2 mm resolution SAR distribution computed with the FDTD method. The E-vector-field distribution for both a simple phantom and the complex partial patient geometry down-scaled using 'anisotropic volumetric averaging' resulted in zoomed-resolution SAR distributions that best approximate the corresponding high-resolution SAR distribution (correlation 97, 96% and absolute averaged difference 6, 14% respectively). (author)

  11. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  12. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  13. Higher order moments of the matter distribution in scale-free cosmological simulations with large dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1994-01-01

    We calculate reduced moments (xi bar)(sub q) of the matter density fluctuations, up to order q = 5, from counts in cells produced by particle-mesh numerical simulations with scale-free Gaussian initial conditions. We use power-law spectra P(k) proportional to k(exp n) with indices n = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1. Due to the supposed absence of characteristic times or scales in our models, all quantities are expected to depend on a single scaling variable. For each model, the moments at all times can be expressed in terms of the variance (xi bar)(sub 2), alone. We look for agreement with the hierarchical scaling ansatz, according to which ((xi bar)(sub q)) proportional to ((xi bar)(sub 2))(exp (q - 1)). For n less than or equal to -2 models, we find strong deviations from the hierarchy, which are mostly due to the presence of boundary problems in the simulations. A small, residual signal of deviation from the hierarchical scaling is however also found in n greater than or equal to -1 models. The wide range of spectra considered and the large dynamic range, with careful checks of scaling and shot-noise effects, allows us to reliably detect evolution away from the perturbation theory result.

  14. Dominant forest tree species are potentially vulnerable to climate change over large portions of their range even at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Périé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Projecting suitable conditions for a species as a function of future climate provides a reasonable, although admittedly imperfect, spatially explicit estimate of species vulnerability associated with climate change. Projections emphasizing range shifts at continental scale, however, can mask contrasting patterns at local or regional scale where management and policy decisions are made. Moreover, models usually show potential for areas to become climatically unsuitable, remain suitable, or become suitable for a particular species with climate change, but each of these outcomes raises markedly different ecological and management issues. Managing forest decline at sites where climatic stress is projected to increase is likely to be the most immediate challenge resulting from climate change. Here we assess habitat suitability with climate change for five dominant tree species of eastern North American forests, focusing on areas of greatest vulnerability (loss of suitability in the baseline range in Quebec (Canada rather than opportunities (increase in suitability. Results show that these species are at risk of maladaptation over a remarkably large proportion of their baseline range. Depending on species, 5–21% of currently climatically suitable habitats are projected to be at risk of becoming unsuitable. This suggests that species that have traditionally defined whole regional vegetation assemblages could become less adapted to these regions, with significant impact on ecosystems and forest economy. In spite of their well-recognised limitations and the uncertainty that remains, regionally-explicit risk assessment approaches remain one of the best options to convey that message and the need for climate policies and forest management adaptation strategies.

  15. Dominant forest tree species are potentially vulnerable to climate change over large portions of their range even at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, Catherine; de Blois, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Projecting suitable conditions for a species as a function of future climate provides a reasonable, although admittedly imperfect, spatially explicit estimate of species vulnerability associated with climate change. Projections emphasizing range shifts at continental scale, however, can mask contrasting patterns at local or regional scale where management and policy decisions are made. Moreover, models usually show potential for areas to become climatically unsuitable, remain suitable, or become suitable for a particular species with climate change, but each of these outcomes raises markedly different ecological and management issues. Managing forest decline at sites where climatic stress is projected to increase is likely to be the most immediate challenge resulting from climate change. Here we assess habitat suitability with climate change for five dominant tree species of eastern North American forests, focusing on areas of greatest vulnerability (loss of suitability in the baseline range) in Quebec (Canada) rather than opportunities (increase in suitability). Results show that these species are at risk of maladaptation over a remarkably large proportion of their baseline range. Depending on species, 5-21% of currently climatically suitable habitats are projected to be at risk of becoming unsuitable. This suggests that species that have traditionally defined whole regional vegetation assemblages could become less adapted to these regions, with significant impact on ecosystems and forest economy. In spite of their well-recognised limitations and the uncertainty that remains, regionally-explicit risk assessment approaches remain one of the best options to convey that message and the need for climate policies and forest management adaptation strategies.

  16. A Multi-Level Middle-Out Cross-Zooming Approach for Large Graph Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Cook, Kristin A.; Rohrer, Randall M.; Foote, Harlan P.; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-10-11

    This paper presents a working graph analytics model that embraces the strengths of the traditional top-down and bottom-up approaches with a resilient crossover concept to exploit the vast middle-ground information overlooked by the two extreme analytical approaches. Our graph analytics model is developed in collaboration with researchers and users, who carefully studied the functional requirements that reflect the critical thinking and interaction pattern of a real-life intelligence analyst. To evaluate the model, we implement a system prototype, known as GreenHornet, which allows our analysts to test the theory in practice, identify the technological and usage-related gaps in the model, and then adapt the new technology in their work space. The paper describes the implementation of GreenHornet and compares its strengths and weaknesses against the other prevailing models and tools.

  17. Zooming in on the formation of protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlund, Åke; Haugbølle, Troels; Küffmeier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , with kinetic and / or magnetic energy in approximate balance with gravitational energy. Efficient accretion is made possible by the braking action of the magnetic field, which nevertheless allows a near-Keplerian disk to grow to a 100 AU size. The magnetic field strength ranges from more than 10 G at 0.1 AU...

  18. Fast digital zooming system using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Jeon, Jaehwan; Yu, Soohwan; Paik, Joonki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast digital zooming system for mobile consumer cameras using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration methods. The proposed interpolation algorithm performs edge refinement along the initially estimated edge orientation using directionally steerable filters. Either the directionally weighted linear or adaptive cubic-spline interpolation filter is then selectively used according to the refined edge orientation for removing jagged artifacts in the slanted edge region. A novel image restoration algorithm is also presented for removing blurring artifacts caused by the linear or cubic-spline interpolation using the directionally adaptive truncated constrained least squares (TCLS) filter. Both proposed steerable filter-based interpolation and the TCLS-based restoration filters have a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for real time processing in an image signal processing (ISP) chain. Experimental results show that the proposed digital zooming system provides high-quality magnified images with FIR filter-based fast computational structure.

  19. An all-silicone zoom lens in an optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Cun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    An all-silicone zoom lens is fabricated. A tunable metal ringer is fettered around the side edge of the lens. A nylon rope linking a motor is tied, encircling the notch in the metal ringer. While the motor is operating, the rope can shrink or release to change the focal length of the lens. A calculation method is developed to obtain the focal length and the zoom ratio. The testing is carried out in succession. The testing values are compared with the calculated ones, and they tally with each other well. Finally, the imaging performance of the all-silicone lens is demonstrated. The all-silicone lens has potential uses in cellphone cameras, notebook cameras, micro monitor lenses, etc. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. An all-silicone zoom lens in an optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cun-Hua

    2013-09-01

    An all-silicone zoom lens is fabricated. A tunable metal ringer is fettered around the side edge of the lens. A nylon rope linking a motor is tied, encircling the notch in the metal ringer. While the motor is operating, the rope can shrink or release to change the focal length of the lens. A calculation method is developed to obtain the focal length and the zoom ratio. The testing is carried out in succession. The testing values are compared with the calculated ones, and they tally with each other well. Finally, the imaging performance of the all-silicone lens is demonstrated. The all-silicone lens has potential uses in cellphone cameras, notebook cameras, micro monitor lenses, etc.

  1. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Aglitsky, Y. [Science Applications International, McLean, Virginia 22150 (United States); Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H. [Research Support Instruments, Inc., Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Terrell, S. [Commonwealth Technologies, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22315 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser ({lambda}= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 {mu}m thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  2. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Terrell, S.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  3. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  4. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Terrell, S.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  5. Zooming into the Paraná-Etendeka silicic volcanics, southern Brasil: a physical volcanological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.; Harmon, L. J.; Tramontano, S.; Luchetti, A. C. F.; Nardy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Paraná-Etendeka volcanism led to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the early Cretaceous. Most Paraná research has focused on the regional scale geochemistry and geochronology. Complementarily, we have taken a physical volcanological approach to elucidate the styles and locations of silicic eruptions with a focus on extrusive vs. explosive varieties, and an ultimate goal to characterise the crustal magmatic conditions. Through satellite to microscopic observations we can zoom from volcanic edifice and deposit morphologies, remarkably preserved in the Mesozoic landscape, to primary microscopic textures. Lava domes appear in clusters with high relief and are surrounded by lower flat-topped terraces comprised of multiple tabular-shaped packages with conspicuous horizontal jointing. Joint thickness coincides with layering from mm-scale laminations to larger lens-shaped blobs up to 20 cm thick and more than a metre long. These layered deposits appear to be compressed and/or stretched into the finer laminations and grade up into the fatter lens-shaped blobs. In other regions, extensive plateaus dominate the landscape with flat-lying flow packages continuous over 10's of kilometres and possibly further. Rheomorphism is evident in places with sub-parallel joints that grade up into a zone of deformation where curvilinear to overturned joint patterns reflect lateral forcing in a more ductile flow regime. Microscopically the blobs and surrounding matrix are almost indistinguishable except for subtle differences in spherulite textures, zonal alteration and distribution of crystal sizes. Although our research is relatively nascent, our observations suggest eruptions may have ranged from edifice building effusive ones to more explosive ones, albeit possibly relatively low fire fountains feeding hybridised lava/pyroclastic flows. Some of these flows are extensive, tens to possibly hundreds of kilometres long, consistent with high eruption rates of hot magma. These

  6. Zooming Albanian factor in the nineteenth century through Western lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developments of the nineteenth century were determining for the history of Balkan region as it shaped the future of many generations to come, resulting in (mainly growing discontents that led to several wars during the last century. It was beginning of the decay of the Ottoman Empire that many longed for, and many nations used every opportunity to take a full advantage of it. The aim of this work is to explore exclusively (only Western sources in an attempt to provide, as much as possible, an objective and neutral picture. Therefore, the idea behind the decision to examine non-Balkan sources is impartiality, in order to bring the reader as close as possible to the reality of the nineteenth century. A number of nineteenth century books, magazines and newspapers of the time, by respective Western authors, are explored and analysed. Reading and examining a large volume of data and information of this period, offers a unique sense of feeling, similar to that of living the nineteenth century world. Albanians, who have historically populated the heart of Balkans, are focal point of this region (in many of the regional and international sources for this particular period, vis-à-vis the Ottoman governance as well as relations with other regional neighbours. Their contribution to the history of nations in the region was unquestionably critical, but their conduct in relations to their own cause has produced an unproductive image, portrayed often with confused and incomprehensible deeds. By using authentic sources of the time, the study intends to develop arguments on many points raised, like population and religion. This work also touches briefly the sensitive issue of education in the region and initial Albanian inputs in the history of Balkan education map. Finally the study concludes that Albanians’ altruism and largely visionless focus, produced a relatively expected detrimental outcome.

  7. Toward an improved haptic zooming algorithm for graphical information accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very difficult to perceive using touch. With manually created tactile diagrams, these details are often presented in separate diagrams which must be selected from among others. Being able to actively zoom in on an area of a single diagram so that the details can be presented at a reasonable size for exploration purposes seems a simpler approach for the user. However, directly using visual zooming methods have some limitations when used haptically. Therefore, a new zooming method is proposed to avoid these pitfalls. A preliminary experiment was performed to examine the usefulness of the algorithm compared to not using zooming. The results showed that the number of correct responses improved with the developed zooming algorithm and participants found it to be more usable than not using zooming for exploration of a floor map.

  8. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  9. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  10. Slags in a Large Variation Range of Oxygen Potential Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Min; Li, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Chai, Guo-Min; Zhang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic model for predicting sulfide capacity of CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-P2O5 slags in a large variation range of oxygen potential corresponding to mass percentage of FetO from 1.88 to 55.50 pct, i.e., IMCT- model, has been developed by coupling with the deduced desulfurization mechanism of the slags based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT). The developed IMCT- model has been verified through comparing the determined sulfide capacity after Ban-ya et al.[20] with the calculated by the developed IMCT- model and the calculated by the reported sulfide capacity models such as the KTH model. Mass percentage of FetO as 6.75 pct corresponding to the mass action concentration of FetO as 0.0637 or oxygen partial as 2.27 × 10-6 Pa is the criterion for distinguishing reducing and oxidizing zones for the slags. Sulfide capacity of the slags in reducing zone is controlled by reaction ability of CaO regardless of slag oxidization ability. However, sulfide capacity of the slags in oxidizing zone shows an obvious increase tendency with the increasing of slag oxidization ability. Sulfide capacity of the slags in reducing zone keeps almost constant with variation of the simplified complex basicity (pct CaO)/((pct Al2O3) + (pct P2O5)), or optical basicity, or the mass action concentration ratios of N FeO/ N CaO, , , and . Sulfide capacity of the slags in oxidizing zone shows an obvious increase with the increasing of the simplified complex basicity (pct CaO)/((pct Al2O3) + (pct P2O5)) or optical basicity, or the aforementioned mass action concentration ratios. Thus, the aforementioned mass action concentration ratios and the corresponding mass percentage ratios of various iron oxides to basic oxide CaO are recommended to represent the comprehensive effect of various iron oxides and basic oxide CaO on sulfide capacity of the slags.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for temporal dynamics associated with attentional processing in the zoom lens paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Visuospatial processing requires wide distribution or narrow focusing of attention to certain regions in space. This mechanism is described by the zoom lens model and predicts an inverse correlation between the efficiency of processing and the size of the attentional scope. Little is known, however, about the exact timing of the effects of attentional scaling on visual searching and whether or not additional processing phases are involved in this process. Method Electroencephalographic recordings were made while participants performed a visual search task under different attentional scaling conditions. Two concentric circles of different sizes, presented to the participants at the center of a screen modulated the attentional scopes, and search arrays were distributed in the space areas indicated by these concentric circles. To ensure consistent eccentricity of the search arrays across different conditions, we limited our studies to the neural responses evoked by the search arrays distributed in the overlapping region of different attentional scopes. Results Consistent with the prediction of the zoom lens model, our behavioral data showed that reaction times for target discrimination of search arrays decreased and the associated error rates also significantly decreased, with narrowing the attentional scope. Results of the event-related potential analysis showed that the target-elicited amplitude of lateral occipital N1, rather than posterior P1, which reflects the earliest visuospatial attentional processing, was sensitive to changes in the scaling of visuospatial attention, indicating that the modulation of the effect of changes in the spatial scale of attention on visual processing occurred after the delay period of P1. The N1 generator exhibited higher activity as the attentional scope narrowed, reflecting more intensive processing resources within the attentional focus. In contrast to N1, the amplitude of N2pc increased with the

  12. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of kno...

  13. Spatio-temporal hotspots of satellite-tracked arctic foxes reveal a large detection range in a mammalian predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Bêty, Joël; Berteaux, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The scale at which animals perceive their environment is a strong fitness determinant, yet few empirical estimates of animal detection ranges exist, especially in mammalian predators. Using daily Argos satellite tracking of 26 adult arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) during a single winter in the High Canadian Arctic, we investigated the detection range of arctic foxes by detecting hotspots of fox activity on the sea ice. While maintaining territories in the tundra, these solitary foragers occasionally used the sea ice where they sometimes formed spatio-temporal hotspots, likely scavenging on marine mammal carcasses. We detected 35 movements by 13 individuals forming five hotspots. Foxes often traveled more than 10 km, and up to 40 km, to reach hotspots, which lasted one-two weeks and could gather up to 12 individuals. The likelihood of a fox joining a hotspot was neither influenced by its distance from the hotspot nor by the distance of its home range to the coast. Observed traveling distances may indicate a high detection range in arctic foxes, and our results suggest their ability to detect food sources on the sea ice from their terrestrial home range. While revealing a wide knowledge gap regarding resource detection abilities in mammalian predators, our study provides estimates of detection range useful for interpreting and modeling animal movements. It also allows a better understanding of foraging behavior and navigation capacity in terrestrial predators.

  14. 15 years of zooming in and zooming out: Developing a new single scale national active fault database of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, William; Langridge, Robert; Villamor, Pilar; Litchfield, Nicola; Van Dissen, Russ; Townsend, Dougal; Lee, Julie; Heron, David; Lukovic, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    In New Zealand, we are currently reconciling multiple digital coverages of mapped active faults into a national coverage at a single scale (1:250,000). This seems at first glance to be a relatively simple task. However, methods used to capture data, the scale of capture, and the initial purpose of the fault mapping, has produced datasets that have very different characteristics. The New Zealand digital active fault database (AFDB) was initially developed as a way of managing active fault locations and fault-related features within a computer-based spatial framework. The data contained within the AFDB comes from a wide range of studies, from plate tectonic (1:500,000) to cadastral (1:2,000) scale. The database was designed to allow capture of field observations and remotely sourced data without a loss in data resolution. This approach has worked well as a method for compiling a centralised database for fault information but not for providing a complete national coverage at a single scale. During the last 15 years other complementary projects have used and also contributed data to the AFDB, most notably the QMAP project (a national series of geological maps completed over 19 years that include coverage of active and inactive faults at 1:250,000). AFDB linework and attributes was incorporated into this series but simplification of linework and attributes has occurred to maintain map clarity at 1:250,000 scale. Also, during this period on-going mapping of active faults has improved upon these data. Other projects of note that have used data from the AFDB include the National Seismic Hazard Model of New Zealand and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The main goal of the current project has been to provide the best digital spatial representation of a fault trace at 1:250,000 scale and combine this with the most up to date attributes. In some areas this has required a simplification of very fine detailed data and in some cases new mapping to provide a complete coverage

  15. A tip / tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and

  16. Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bergamaschi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1° × 1° resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of 6° × 4°. This approach ensures consistent boundary conditions for the zoom domain and thus European top-down estimates consistent with global CH4 observations. The TM5 model, driven by ECMWF analyses, simulates synoptic scale events at most European and global sites fairly well, and the use of high-frequency observations allows exploiting the information content of individual synoptic events. A detailed source attribution is presented for a comprehensive set of 56 monitoring sites, assigning the atmospheric signal to the emissions of individual European countries and larger global regions. The available observational data put significant constraints on emissions from different regions. Within Europe, in particular several Western European countries are well constrained. The inversion results suggest up to 50-90% higher anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2001 for Germany, France and UK compared to reported UNFCCC values (EEA, 2003. A recent revision of the German inventory, however, resulted in an increase of reported CH4 emissions by 68.5% (EEA, 2004, being now in very good agreement with our top-down estimate. The top-down estimate for Finland is distinctly smaller than the a priori estimate, suggesting much smaller CH4 emissions from Finnish wetlands than derived from the bottom-up inventory. The EU-15 totals are relatively close to UNFCCC values (within 4-30% and appear very robust for different inversion scenarios.

  17. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Concurrent image-based visual servoing with adaptive zooming for non-cooperative rendezvous maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Jorge; Felicetti, Leonard; Pérez, Javier; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-02-01

    An image-based servo controller for the guidance of a spacecraft during non-cooperative rendezvous is presented in this paper. The controller directly utilizes the visual features from image frames of a target spacecraft for computing both attitude and orbital maneuvers concurrently. The utilization of adaptive optics, such as zooming cameras, is also addressed through developing an invariant-image servo controller. The controller allows for performing rendezvous maneuvers independently from the adjustments of the camera focal length, improving the performance and versatility of maneuvers. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven analytically in the invariant space, and its viability is explored through numerical simulations.

  19. Engineering web maps with gradual content zoom based on streaming vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Meijers, Martijn; Šuba, Radan; van Oosterom, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Vario-scale data structures have been designed to support gradual content zoom and the progressive transfer of vector data, for use with arbitrary map scales. The focus to date has been on the server side, especially on how to convert geographic data into the proposed vario-scale structures by means of automated generalisation. This paper contributes to the ongoing vario-scale research by focusing on the client side and communication, particularly on how this works in a web-services setting. It is claimed that these functionalities are urgently needed, as many web-based applications, both desktop and mobile, require gradual content zoom, progressive transfer and a high performance level. The web-client prototypes developed in this paper make it possible to assess the behaviour of vario-scale data and to determine how users will actually see the interactions. Several different options of web-services communication architectures are possible in a vario-scale setting. These options are analysed and tested with various web-client prototypes, with respect to functionality, ease of implementation and performance (amount of transmitted data and response times). We show that the vario-scale data structure can fit in with current web-based architectures and efforts to standardise map distribution on the internet. However, to maximise the benefits of vario-scale data, a client needs to be aware of this structure. When a client needs a map to be refined (by means of a gradual content zoom operation), only the 'missing' data will be requested. This data will be sent incrementally to the client from a server. In this way, the amount of data transferred at one time is reduced, shortening the transmission time. In addition to these conceptual architecture aspects, there are many implementation and tooling design decisions at play. These will also be elaborated on in this paper. Based on the experiments conducted, we conclude that the vario-scale approach indeed supports gradual

  20. Improving the Accuracy of NMR Structures of Large Proteins Using Pseudocontact Shifts as Long-Range Restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponenko, Vadim [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Sarma, Siddhartha P. [Indian Institute of Science, Molecular Biophysics Unit (India); Altieri, Amanda S. [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Horita, David A. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Li, Jess; Byrd, R. Andrew [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: rabyrd@ncifcrf.gov

    2004-03-15

    We demonstrate improved accuracy in protein structure determination for large ({>=}30 kDa), deuterated proteins (e.g. STAT4{sub NT}) via the combination of pseudocontact shifts for amide and methyl protons with the available NOEs in methyl-protonated proteins. The improved accuracy is cross validated by Q-factors determined from residual dipolar couplings measured as a result of magnetic susceptibility alignment. The paramagnet is introduced via binding to thiol-reactive EDTA, and multiple sites can be serially engineered to obtain data from alternative orientations of the paramagnetic anisotropic susceptibility tensor. The technique is advantageous for systems where the target protein has strong interactions with known alignment media.

  1. A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 μrad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

  2. Large area double p-i-n heterostructure for signal multiplexing and demultiplexing in the visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.; Louro, P.; Fernandes, M.; Vieira, M.A.; Fantoni, A.; Barata, M.

    2009-01-01

    Results on the use of a double a-SiC:H p-i-n heterostructure for signal multiplexing and demultiplexing applications in the visible range, are presented. Modulated monochromatic beams together (multiplexing mode), or a single polychromatic beam (demultiplexing mode) impinge in the device and are absorbed, accordingly to their wavelength, giving rise to a time and wavelength dependent electrical field modulation. Red, green and blue pulsed input channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific transmission rate. The combined optical signal is analyzed by reading out, under different applied voltages, the generated photocurrent. Results show that in the multiplexing mode the output signal is balanced by the wavelength and transmission rate of each input channel, keeping the memory of the incoming optical carriers. In the demultiplexing mode the photocurrent is controlled by the applied voltage allowing regaining the transmitted information. An electrical model gives insight into the device operation.

  3. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  4. Decreased coherent motion discrimination in autism spectrum disorder: the role of attentional zoom-out deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been associated with decreased coherent dot motion (CDM performance, a task that measures magnocellular sensitivity as well as fronto-parietal attentional integration processing. In order to clarify the role of spatial attention in CDM tasks, we measured the perception of coherently moving dots displayed in the central or peripheral visual field in ASD and typically developing children. A dorsal-stream deficit in children with ASD should predict a generally poorer performance in both conditions. In our study, however, we show that in children with ASD, CDM perception was selectively impaired in the central condition. In addition, in the ASD group, CDM efficiency was correlated to the ability to zoom out the attentional focus. Importantly, autism symptoms severity was related to both the CDM and attentional zooming-out impairment. These findings suggest that a dysfunction in the attentional network might help to explain decreased CDM discrimination as well as the "core" social cognition deficits of ASD.

  5. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  6. New insights into the evolution of Wolbachia infections in filarial nematodes inferred from a large range of screened species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ferri

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals.We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected.The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further genomic analyses on some of the newly sampled species

  7. A fully automated calibration method for an optical see-through head-mounted operating microscope with variable zoom and focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Hummel, Johann; Wanschitz, Felix; Ewers, Rolf; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    Ever since the development of the first applications in image-guided therapy (IGT), the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) was considered an important extension of existing IGT technologies. Several approaches to utilizing HMDs and modified medical devices for augmented reality (AR) visualization were implemented. These approaches include video-see through systems, semitransparent mirrors, modified endoscopes, and modified operating microscopes. Common to all these devices is the fact that a precise calibration between the display and three-dimensional coordinates in the patient's frame of reference is compulsory. In optical see-through devices based on complex optical systems such as operating microscopes or operating binoculars-as in the case of the system presented in this paper-this procedure can become increasingly difficult since precise camera calibration for every focus and zoom position is required. We present a method for fully automatic calibration of the operating binocular Varioscope M5 AR for the full range of zoom and focus settings available. Our method uses a special calibration pattern, a linear guide driven by a stepping motor, and special calibration software. The overlay error in the calibration plane was found to be 0.14-0.91 mm, which is less than 1% of the field of view. Using the motorized calibration rig as presented in the paper, we were also able to assess the dynamic latency when viewing augmentation graphics on a mobile target; spatial displacement due to latency was found to be in the range of 1.1-2.8 mm maximum, the disparity between the true object and its computed overlay represented latency of 0.1 s. We conclude that the automatic calibration method presented in this paper is sufficient in terms of accuracy and time requirements for standard uses of optical see-through systems in a clinical environment.

  8. Influence of vegetation physiognomy, elevation and fire frequency on medium and large mammals in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira de Pinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of medium and large mammal species in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to investigate the factors affecting the occurrence of those species. To accomplish that we placed 49 camera traps activated by heat and motion at Rio Preto State Park (RPSP and 48 at Sempre Vivas National Park (SVNP. We also collected data on three environmental variables: vegetation physiognomy, elevation and wildfire frequency, to evaluate the influence of these factors on species richness and use intensity (inferred from camera trap detection rate by large mammals. We recorded 23 large mammal species in the two parks combined. The lowest species richness was found at the rupestrian habitat of RPSP, and in the open grasslands of SVNP. The forest and savannah physiognomies were used more intensively by large mammals. Species richness was higher and use was greater at lower elevations of RPSP. In SVNP, fire frequency did not affect species richness or use intensity. The savannah habitat had very similar richness compared to the forests of the two protected areas. The high species richness and use intensity observed in these forest habitats highlights the importance of riparian environments in the Cerrado biome. The highest species richness and use intensity observed at low elevation follows patterns found in the literature, probably due to variation in the vegetation, which results in greater resource availability. Although rupestrian habitats at high elevations of the Espinhaço Range are known to have a high degree of endemism for some taxa, large mammal richness and use were not high in this habitat. These results indicate that the protection of native vegetation at lower elevations is crucial for the long-term conservation of large mammals in the Espinhaço Range.

  9. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  10. Determination of Electron Optical Properties for Aperture Zoom Lenses Using an Artificial Neural Network Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Nimet

    2016-04-01

    Multi-element electrostatic aperture lens systems are widely used to control electron or charged particle beams in many scientific instruments. By means of applied voltages, these lens systems can be operated for different purposes. In this context, numerous methods have been performed to calculate focal properties of these lenses. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) classification method is utilized to determine the focused/unfocused charged particle beam in the image point as a function of lens voltages for multi-element electrostatic aperture lenses. A data set for training and testing of ANN is taken from the SIMION 8.1 simulation program, which is a well known and proven accuracy program in charged particle optics. Mean squared error results of this study indicate that the ANN classification method provides notable performance characteristics for electrostatic aperture zoom lenses.

  11. Signal-to-noise analysis of a birefringent spectral zooming imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wu, Haiying; Qi, Chun

    2018-05-01

    Study of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a novel spectral zooming imaging spectrometer (SZIS) based on two identical Wollaston prisms is conducted. According to the theory of radiometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy, we deduce the theoretical equations of SNR of SZIS in spectral domain with consideration of the incident wavelength and the adjustable spectral resolution. An example calculation of SNR of SZIS is performed over 400-1000 nm. The calculation results indicate that SNR with different spectral resolutions of SZIS can be optionally selected by changing the spacing between the two identical Wollaston prisms. This will provide theoretical basis for the design, development and engineering of the developed imaging spectrometer for broad spectrum and SNR requirements.

  12. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Ozone data product OMDOAO3Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3z_v003.shtml )...

  13. X-ray micro-tomography system for small-animal imaging with zoom-in imaging capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, In Kon; Cho, Myung Hye; Lee, Sang Chul; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2004-01-01

    Since a micro-tomography system capable of μm-resolution imaging cannot be used for whole-body imaging of a small laboratory animal without sacrificing its spatial resolution, it is desirable for a micro-tomography system to have local imaging capability. In this paper, we introduce an x-ray micro-tomography system capable of high-resolution imaging of a local region inside a small animal. By combining two kinds of projection data, one from a full field-of-view (FOV) scan of the whole body and the other from a limited FOV scan of the region of interest (ROI), we have obtained zoomed-in images of the ROI without any contrast anomalies commonly appearing in conventional local tomography. For experimental verification of the zoom-in imaging capability, we have integrated a micro-tomography system using a micro-focus x-ray source, a 1248 x 1248 flat-panel x-ray detector, and a precision scan mechanism. The mismatches between the two projection data caused by misalignments of the scan mechanism have been estimated with a calibration phantom, and the mismatch effects have been compensated in the image reconstruction procedure. Zoom-in imaging results of bony tissues with a spatial resolution of 10 lp mm -1 suggest that zoom-in micro-tomography can be greatly used for high-resolution imaging of a local region in small-animal studies

  14. Quantitative analysis of the improvement in high zoom maritime tracking due to real-time image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the improvement in the performance of tracking small maritime targets due to real-time enhancement of the video streams from high zoom cameras on pan-tilt pedestal. Due to atmospheric conditions these images can frequently...

  15. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application

  16. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application.

  17. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need for 21st Century Conservation Options [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B Fortini

    Full Text Available Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows. Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  18. Nanoimprint-defined, large-area meta-surfaces for unidirectional optical transmission with superior extinction in the visible-to-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Wang, Richard P; Povinelli, Michelle L; Wu, Wei

    2016-07-11

    Optical devices with asymmetric transmission have important applications in optical systems, but optical isolators with the modal asymmetry can only be built using magneto-optical or nonlinear materials, as dictated by the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. However, optical devices with the power asymmetry can be achieved by linear materials such as metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we report a large-area, nanoimprint-defined meta-surface (stacked subwavelength gratings) with high-contrast asymmetric transmittance in the visible-to-infrared wavelength range for TM-polarized light. The physical origin of asymmetric transmission through the meta-surface is studied by analyzing the scattering matrix.

  19. Mono and multi-objective optimization techniques applied to a large range of industrial test cases using Metamodel assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard; Marie, Stéphane; Ejday, Mohsen; Monnereau, Dominique; Massé, Thomas; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The use of material processing numerical simulation allows a strategy of trial and error to improve virtual processes without incurring material costs or interrupting production and therefore save a lot of money, but it requires user time to analyze the results, adjust the operating conditions and restart the simulation. Automatic optimization is the perfect complement to simulation. Evolutionary Algorithm coupled with metamodelling makes it possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. Ten industrial partners have been selected to cover the different area of the mechanical forging industry and provide different examples of the forming simulation tools. It aims to demonstrate that it is possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. The large computational time is handled by a metamodel approach. It allows interpolating the objective function on the entire parameter space by only knowing the exact function values at a reduced number of "master points". Two algorithms are used: an evolution strategy combined with a Kriging metamodel and a genetic algorithm combined with a Meshless Finite Difference Method. The later approach is extended to multi-objective optimization. The set of solutions, which corresponds to the best possible compromises between the different objectives, is then computed in the same way. The population based approach allows using the parallel capabilities of the utilized computer with a high efficiency. An optimization module, fully embedded within the Forge2009 IHM, makes possible to cover all the defined examples, and the use of new multi-core hardware to compute several simulations at the same time reduces the needed time dramatically. The presented examples

  20. Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the Central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, A.; Burr, J.; Montero, W.; Morales, L.D.; Alvarado, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Long sublinear ridges and related scarps located at the base of large volcanic structures are frequently interpreted as normal faults associated with extensional regional stress. In contrast, the ridges bordering the Central Costa Rica volcanic range (CCRVR) are the topographic expression of hanging wall asymmetric angular anticlines overlying low-angle thrust faults at the base of the range. These faults formed by gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of the range due to the weight of the volcanic edifices and were perhaps triggered by the intrusion of magma over the past 20,000 years. These anticlines are hypothesized to occur along the base of the volcano, where the thrust faults ramp up toward the sea bottom. Ridges and scarps between 2,000 and 5,000 m below sea level are interpreted as the topographic expression of these folds. The authors further suggest that the scarps of the CCRVR and valid scaled terrestrial analogs of the perimeter scarp of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. They suggest that the crust below Olympus Mons has failed under the load of the volcano, triggering the radial slumping of the flanks of the volcano on basal thrusts. The thrusting would have, in turn, formed the anticlinal ridges and scarps that surround the edifice. The thrust faults may extend all the way to the base of the Martian crust (about 40 km), and they may have been active until almost the end of the volcanic activity. They suggest that gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of volcanoes is a process common to most large volcanic edifices. In the CCRVR this slumping of the flanks is a slow intermittent process, but it could evolve to rapid massive avalanching leading to catastrophic eruptions. Thus monitoring of uplift and displacement of the folds related to the slump tectonics could become an additional effective method for mitigating volcanic hazards

  1. Improving the pseudo-randomness properties of chaotic maps using deep-zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2017-05-01

    A generalized method is proposed to compose new orbits from a given chaotic map. The method provides an approach to examine discrete-time chaotic maps in a "deep-zoom" manner by using k-digits to the right from the decimal separator of a given point from the underlying chaotic map. Interesting phenomena have been identified. Rapid randomization was observed, i.e., chaotic patterns tend to become indistinguishable when compared to the original orbits of the underlying chaotic map. Our results were presented using different graphical analyses (i.e., time-evolution, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent, Poincaré diagram, and frequency distribution). Moreover, taking advantage of this randomization improvement, we propose a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) based on the k-logistic map. The pseudo-random qualities of the proposed PRNG passed both tests successfully, i.e., DIEHARD and NIST, and were comparable with other traditional PRNGs such as the Mersenne Twister. The results suggest that simple maps such as the logistic map can be considered as good PRNG methods.

  2. Zooming in on AdS3/CFT2 near a BPS bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartong, Jelle; Lei, Yang; Obers, Niels; Oling, Gerben

    2018-05-01

    Any ( d + 1)-dimensional CFT with a U(1) flavor symmetry, a BPS bound and an exactly marginal coupling admits a decoupling limit in which one zooms in on the spectrum close to the bound. This limit is an Inönü-Wigner contraction of so(2 , d+1)⊕ u(1) that leads to a relativistic algebra with a scaling generator but no conformal generators. In 2D CFTs, Lorentz boosts are abelian and by adding a second u(1) we find a contraction of two copies of sl(2, ℝ) ⊕ u(1) to two copies of P 2 c , the 2-dimensional centrally extended Poincaré algebra. We show that the bulk is described by a novel non-Lorentzian geometry that we refer to as pseudo-Newton-Cartan geometry. Both the Chern-Simons action on sl(2, ℝ) ⊕ u(1) and the entire phase space of asymptotically AdS3 spacetimes are well-behaved in the corresponding limit if we fix the radial component for the u(1) connection. With this choice, the resulting Newton-Cartan foliation structure is now associated not with time, but with the emerging holographic direction. Since the leaves of this foliation do not mix, the emergence of the holographic direction is much simpler than in AdS3 holography. Furthermore, we show that the asymptotic symmetry algebra of the limit theory consists of a left- and a right-moving warped Virasoro algebra.

  3. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution has been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  4. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMAEROZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution have been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  5. OMI/Aura Zoom-in Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMPIXCORZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product in zoom-in mode, OMPIXCORZ, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  6. Zooming in on the cause of the perceptual load effect in the go/no-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Cave, Kyle R

    2016-08-01

    Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) claims that attentional capacity that is not used for the current task is allocated to irrelevant distractors. It predicts that if the attentional demands of the current task are high, distractor interference will be low. One particularly powerful demonstration of perceptual load effects on distractor processing relies on a go/no-go cue that is interpreted by either simple feature detection or feature conjunction (Lavie, 1995). However, a possible alternative interpretation of these effects is that the differential degree of distractor processing is caused by how broadly attention is allocated (attentional zoom) rather than to perceptual load. In 4 experiments, we show that when stimuli are arranged to equalize the extent of spatial attention across conditions, distractor interference varies little whether cues are defined by a simple feature or a conjunction, and that the typical perceptual load effect emerges only when attentional zoom can covary with perceptual load. These results suggest that attentional zoom can account for the differential degree of distractor processing traditionally attributed to perceptual load in the go/no-go paradigm. They also provide new insight into how different factors interact to control distractor interference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  8. CityZoom UP (Urban Pollution): a computational tool for the fast generation and setup of urban scenarios for CFD and dispersion modelling simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grazziotin, Pablo Colossi

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the development of CityZoom UP, the first attempt to extend existing urban planning software in order to assist in modelling urban scenarios and setting up simulation parameters for Gaussian dispersion and CFD models. Based on the previous capabilities and graphic user interfaces of CityZoom to model and validate urban scenarios based on Master Plan regulations, new graphic user interfaces, automatic mesh generation and data conversion algorithms have been created to se...

  9. Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglio, Rossella; Mariani, Stefano; Robbiano, Valentina; Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain-6 mm in displacement-and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm 3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm 3 , for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ 0 /ρ 50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm 3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams

  10. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  11. Sound propagation in water containing large tethered spherical encapsulated gas bubbles with resonance frequencies in the 50 Hz to 100 Hz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M; Hinojosa, Kevin T; Wochner, Mark S; Argo, Theodore F; Wilson, Preston S; Mercier, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    The efficacy of large tethered encapsulated gas bubbles for the mitigation of low frequency underwater noise was investigated with an acoustic resonator technique. Tethered latex balloons were used as the bubbles, which had radii of approximately 5 cm. Phase speeds were inferred from the resonances of a water and balloon-filled waveguide approximately 1.8 m in length. The Commander and Prosperetti effective-medium model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 732-746 (1989)] quantitatively described the observed dispersion from well below to just below the individual bubble resonance frequency, and it qualitatively predicted the frequency range of high attenuation for void fractions between 2% and 5% for collections of stationary balloons within the waveguide. A finite-element model was used to investigate the sensitivity of the waveguide resonance frequencies, and hence the inferred phase speeds, to changes in individual bubble size and position. The results indicate that large tethered encapsulated bubbles could be used mitigate low frequency underwater noise and that the Commander and Prosperetti model would be useful in the design of such a system.

  12. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  13. Zooming in: high resolution 3D reconstruction of differently stained histological whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Johannes; Berger, Judith; Müller, Benedikt; Breuhahn, Kai; Grabe, Niels; Heldmann, Stefan; Homeyer, André; Lahrmann, Bernd; Laue, Hendrik; Olesch, Janine; Schwier, Michael; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Warth, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.

  14. Subcutaneous ICD screening with the Boston Scientific ZOOM programmer versus a 12-lead ECG machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu C; Patton, Kristen K; Robinson, Melissa R; Poole, Jeanne E; Prutkin, Jordan M

    2018-02-24

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) requires preimplant screening to ensure appropriate sensing and reduce risk of inappropriate shocks. Screening can be performed using either an ICD programmer or a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) machine. It is unclear whether differences in signal filtering and digital sampling change the screening success rate. Subjects were recruited if they had a transvenous single-lead ICD without pacing requirements or were candidates for a new ICD. Screening was performed using both a Boston Scientific ZOOM programmer (Marlborough, MA, USA) and General Electric MAC 5000 ECG machine (Fairfield, CT, USA). A pass was defined as having at least one lead that fit within the screening template in both supine and sitting positions. A total of 69 subjects were included and 27 sets of ECG leads had differing screening results between the two machines (7%). Of these sets, 22 (81%) passed using the ECG machine but failed using the programmer and five (19%) passed using the ECG machine but failed using the programmer (P machine but failed using the programmer. No subject passed screening with the programmer but failed with the ECG machine. There can be occasional disagreement in S-ICD patient screening between an ICD programmer and ECG machine, all of whom passed with the ECG machine but failed using the programmer. On a per lead basis, the ECG machine passes more subjects. It is unknown what the inappropriate shock rate would be if an S-ICD was implanted. Clinical judgment should be used in borderline cases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. TDMA X-band FMCW MIMO radar for short range surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Maas, A.P.M.; Hoogeboom, P.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was aimed at the design of a compact radar device to be used for private area surveillance applications. The radar is connected to a pan tilt zoom camera and it provides the camera system with high accuracy position information (bearing and range) of moving targets;

  16. A measurement of the efficiency for the detection of neutrons in the momentum range 200 to 3200 MeV/c, in large volume liquid scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.; Clark, A.G.; Duke, P.J.

    1976-04-01

    A description is given of a system of 194 large volume liquid scintillation counters designed to detect neutrons in an experiment on the reaction π - p → π 0 n in the resonance region. The detection efficiency of the system has been determined, as a function of neutron momentum, in three separate measurements, covering the range 200 to 3200 MeV/c. Below 400 MeV/c the efficiency shows the expected momentum dependence near threshold, rising to a maximum of 50% near 300 MeV/c and then falling to 43% near 400 MeV/c. In the region 400 to 700 MeV/c the efficiency rises to 47% near 600 MeV/c and falls again to 43%, an effect not seen before; the efficiency was expected to be almost momentum independent in this region. Above the threshold for inelastic processes in nucleon-nucleon collision (approximately 800 MeV/c) the efficiency rises significantly reaching a maximum value of 65% above 1700 MeV/c. (author)

  17. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  18. UNA ESTRATEGIA DE EDUCACION AMBIENTAL EN LA ESCUELA DENOMINADA “ZOOM EN MI ENTORNO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando García Cadena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de educación ambiental en la escuela titulada “Zoom en mi entorno”, surge como una alternativa para retomar el ámbito ambiental desde una perspectiva diferente a la tradicional, buscando que los estudiantes construyan producciones audiovisuales y diseñen herramientas visuales que generen en la comunidad educativa conciencia frente al manejo de los recursos de su entorno inmediato. Particularmente se buscó establecer sentido de pertenencia y apropiación del ambiente, desde la idea que todos podemos ser superhéroes ambientales en la sociedad en la que vivimos.   La estrategia se desarrolló en una línea, que se venía abordando en la institución años atrás llamada “el ambiente desde la comunicación” en la que se propuso el diseño de herramientas audiovisuales ligadas a la visión ambiental de la comunidad (Duarte, et al., 2013.  Sin embargo a medida que la propuesta se ha desarrollado se ha centrado en la construcción de recursos audiovisuales y visuales en busca de propiciar una educación ambiental diferente a la tradicional, que permita el cuidado y reconocimiento del entorno.    De esta manera, se ha planteado la construcción de una propuesta de innovación cuya idea se ha centrado en el diseño e implementación de estrategias que propicien la educación ambiental, desde el reconocimiento de sus problemáticas ambientales, la identificación de su entorno y la utilización de los medios de comunicación y las redes sociales para el cuidado del ambiente, cuyo objetivo gira en la  transformación de la manera de llevar el mensaje del cuidado del ambiente, realizándolo por medios audiovisuales y visuales llamativos para los miembros de la comunidad.

  19. Assessing the role of large wood entrained in the 2013 Colorado Front Range flood in ongoing channel response and reservoir management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgina; Rathburn, Sara; Ryan, Sandra; Wohl, Ellen; Blair, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Considerable quantities of large wood (LW) may be entrained during floods with long lasting impacts on channel morphology, sediment and LW export, and downstream reservoir management. Here we present an analysis of LW entrained by an extensive flood in Colorado, USA. Over a 5 day period commencing 9th September 2013, up to 450 mm of rain, or ~1000% of the monthly average, fell in catchments spanning a 100-km-wide swath of the Colorado Front Range resulting in major flooding. Catchment response was dramatic, with reports of 100s - 1000s of years of erosion, destruction of infrastructure and homes, and sediment and LW loading within reservoirs. One heavily impacted catchment is the North St Vrain, draining 250km2 of the South Platte drainage basin. In addition to widespread channel enlargement, remote imagery reveals hundreds of landslides that delivered sediment and LW to the channel and ultimately to Ralph Price Reservoir, which provides municipal water to Longmont. The City of Longmont facilitated the removal of ~1050 m3 of wood deposited at the reservoir inlet by the flood but the potential for continued movement of large wood in the catchment presents an on-going concern for reservoir management. In collaboration with the City of Longmont, our objectives are (1) to quantify the volume of wood entrained by the flood and still stored along the channel, (2) characterize the size and distribution of LW deposits and (3) determine their role in ongoing catchment flood response and recovery. We utilize freely available pre and post flood NAIP 4-band imagery to calculate a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) difference map with which we calculate the area of vegetation entrained by the flood. We combine this with field assessments and a map of vegetation type automatically classified from optical satellite imagery to estimate the total flood-entrained volume of wood. Preliminary testing of 'stream selfies' - structure from motion imaging of LW deposits using

  20. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  1. Un hommage à Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : zoom sur une représentation tridimensionnelle de l'ensemble de Mandelbrot avec 'mapping' des arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Colonna , Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A tribute to Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : tridimensional zoom in on the Mandelbrot set with mapping of the arguments (Un hommage à Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010) : zoom sur une représentation tridimensionnelle de l'ensemble de Mandelbrot avec 'mapping' des arguments)

  2. In situ photobiology of corals over large depth ranges: A multivariate analysis on the roles of environment, host, and algal symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Bongaerts, P.; Winkelhagen, A.J.S.; Tonk, L.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multivariate analysis to investigate the roles of host and symbiont on the in situ physiological response of genus Madracis holobionts towards light. Across a large depth gradient (5-40 m) and for four Madracis species and three symbiont genotypes, we assessed several variables by

  3. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  4. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  5. Variable diameter CO2 laser ring-cutting system adapted to a zoom microscope for applications on polymer tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Erik; Bohnert, Patrick; Kraus, Matthias; Kilper, Roland; Müller, Ute; Buchmann, Martin; Brunner, Robert

    2016-11-20

    This paper presents the conception and implementation of a variable diameter ring-cutting system for a CO2 laser with a working wavelength of 10.6 μm. The laser-cutting system is adapted to an observation zoom microscope for combined use and is applicable for the extraction of small circular areas from polymer films, such as forensic adhesive tapes in a single shot. As an important characteristic for our application, the variable diameter ring-cutting system provides telecentricity in the target area. Ring diameters are continuously tunable between 500 μm and 2 mm. A minimum width of less than 20 μm was found for the ring profile edge. The basic characteristics of the system, including telecentricity, were experimentally evaluated and demonstrated by cutting experiments on different polymer tapes and further exemplary samples.

  6. Real-Time Acquisition of High Quality Face Sequences from an Active Pan-Tilt-Zoom Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad A.; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    -based real-time high-quality face image acquisition system, which utilizes pan-tilt-zoom parameters of a camera to focus on a human face in a scene and employs a face quality assessment method to log the best quality faces from the captured frames. The system consists of four modules: face detection, camera...... control, face tracking, and face quality assessment before logging. Experimental results show that the proposed system can effectively log the high quality faces from the active camera in real-time (an average of 61.74ms was spent per frame) with an accuracy of 85.27% compared to human annotated data.......Traditional still camera-based facial image acquisition systems in surveillance applications produce low quality face images. This is mainly due to the distance between the camera and subjects of interest. Furthermore, people in such videos usually move around, change their head poses, and facial...

  7. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 zoomed cloud data product OMCLDO2Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omcldo2z_v003.shtml...

  8. Technical assessment of Navitar Zoom 6000 optic and Sony HDC-X310 camera for MEMS presentations and training.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2006-02-01

    This report evaluates a newly-available, high-definition, video camera coupled with a zoom optical system for microscopic imaging of micro-electro-mechanical systems. We did this work to support configuration of three document-camera-like stations as part of an installation in a new Microsystems building at Sandia National Laboratories. The video display walls to be installed as part of these three presentation and training stations are of extraordinary resolution and quality. The new availability of a reasonably-priced, cinema-quality, high-definition video camera offers the prospect of filling these displays with full-motion imaging of Sandia's microscopic products at a quality substantially beyond the quality of typical video microscopes. Simple and robust operation of the microscope stations will allow the extraordinary-quality imaging to contribute to Sandia's day-to-day research and training operations. This report illustrates the disappointing image quality from a camera/lens system comprised of a Sony HDC-X310 high-definition video camera coupled to a Navitar Zoom 6000 lens. We determined that this Sony camera is capable of substantially more image quality than the Navitar optic can deliver. We identified an optical doubler lens from Navitar as the component of their optical system that accounts for a substantial part of the image quality problem. While work continues to incrementally improve performance of the Navitar system, we are also evaluating optical systems from other vendors to couple to this Sony camera.

  9. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  10. High-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Esterline, J.H. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Leckey, C.A. [Department of Physics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2011-08-11

    We report on features of high-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of {gamma}-rays as well. Furthermore, {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy {gamma}-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction, neutron and {gamma}-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  11. High-pressure 3He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Esterline, J.H.; Leckey, C.A.; Weisel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on features of high-pressure 3 He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of γ-rays as well. Furthermore, 3 He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy γ-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the 3 He(n,p) 3 H reaction, neutron and γ-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  12. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Won, Yong-Jin; Simons, Andrew M

    2017-07-01

    The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) Rivers since the Late Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (Late Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong Rivers, but also between the Osip and Han Rivers. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  14. High Ductility and Toughness of a Micro-duplex Medium-Mn Steel in a Large Temperature Range from -196 °C to 200 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si-lian; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2015-01-01

    A medium-Mn steel (0.2C5Mn) was processed by intercritical annealing at different temperatures (625 degrees C and 650 degrees C). An ultrafine-grained micro-duplex structure consisting of alternating austenite and ferrite laths was developed by austenite reverse transformation (ART) during...... intercritical annealing after forging and hot rolling. Ultrahigh ductility with a total elongation higher than 30% was achieved in the temperature range from - 196 degrees C to 200 degrees C and high impact toughness no less than 200 J at - 40 degrees C was obtained. Based on the analysis of microstructure...

  15. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data...... from 43 studies were received, representing 51 222 subjects, of which 22 404 adults aged 18-80 years were without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease, hypertension or diabetes. Quantile regression or an appropriate parametric regression method will be used to derive reference values at the 5th...

  16. Highly sensitive digital optical sensor with large measurement range based on the dual-microring resonator with waveguide-coupled feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xing-Ye; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Jin Bo-Yuan; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel high-performance digital optical sensor based on the Mach—Zehnder interferential effect and the dual-microring resonators with the waveguide-coupled feedback. The simulation results show that the sensitivity of the sensor can be orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional sensor, and high quality factor is not critical in it. Moreover, by optimizing the length of the feedback waveguide to be equal to the perimeter of the ring, the measurement range of the proposed sensor is twice as much as that of the conventional sensor in the weak coupling case

  17. Energy Dependence of Elliptic Flow over a Large Pseudorapidity Range in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2005-04-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of the energy dependence of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Data taken at collision energies of √(sNN)=19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are shown over a wide range in pseudorapidity. These results, when plotted as a function of η'=|η|-ybeam, scale with approximate linearity throughout η', implying no sharp changes in the dynamics of particle production as a function of pseudorapidity or increasing beam energy.

  18. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  19. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.; Coughlan, J.; French, M. J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Carini, G. A.; Hart, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 105 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from the testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. The performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.

  20. Revealing the extra-high ductility and toughness of micro+duplex medium+Mn steel in a large temperature range from 200 ℃ to -196 ℃

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Wenquan; Hu, Jun; Dong, Han

    2014-01-01

    A medium-Mn steel (0.2C5Mn) was processed by intercritical annealing at different temperature (625℃ and 650℃) after forging and hot rolling. The microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the mechanical properties were measured by tensile tests and impact tests...... at different temperatures. It was found that an ultrafine grained micro-duplex structure existed with austenite and ferrite laths formed by means of an austenite reverse transformation during intercritical annealing (shortly called ART-annealing). Ultrahigh ductility (total elongation larger than 30%) could...... be obtained in the temperature range from 200℃ to -196℃. And significantly delayed transition from ductile to brittle and no less than 200J impact toughness at -40℃ could be obtained in the ART-annealed medium-Mn steel. Based on the analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties, the enhanced ductility...

  1. No, there is no 150 ms lead of visual speech on auditory speech, but a range of audiovisual asynchronies varying from small audio lead to large audio lag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Schwartz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of neuroscience papers capitalize on the assumption published in this journal that visual speech would be typically 150 ms ahead of auditory speech. It happens that the estimation of audiovisual asynchrony in the reference paper is valid only in very specific cases, for isolated consonant-vowel syllables or at the beginning of a speech utterance, in what we call "preparatory gestures". However, when syllables are chained in sequences, as they are typically in most parts of a natural speech utterance, asynchrony should be defined in a different way. This is what we call "comodulatory gestures" providing auditory and visual events more or less in synchrony. We provide audiovisual data on sequences of plosive-vowel syllables (pa, ta, ka, ba, da, ga, ma, na showing that audiovisual synchrony is actually rather precise, varying between 20 ms audio lead and 70 ms audio lag. We show how more complex speech material should result in a range typically varying between 40 ms audio lead and 200 ms audio lag, and we discuss how this natural coordination is reflected in the so-called temporal integration window for audiovisual speech perception. Finally we present a toy model of auditory and audiovisual predictive coding, showing that visual lead is actually not necessary for visual prediction.

  2. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  3. Functional genomic mRNA profiling of a large cancer data base demonstrates mesothelin overexpression in a broad range of tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Laetitia E; de Groot, Derk Jan A; Bense, Rico D; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N

    2015-09-29

    The membrane bound glycoprotein mesothelin (MSLN) is a highly specific tumor marker, which is currently exploited as target for drugs. There are only limited data available on MSLN expression by human tumors. Therefore we determined overexpression of MSLN across different tumor types with Functional Genomic mRNA (FGM) profiling of a large cancer database. Results were compared with data in articles reporting immunohistochemical (IHC) MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling is a technique that allows prediction of biologically relevant overexpression of proteins from a robust data set of mRNA microarrays. This technique was used in a database comprising 19,746 tumors to identify for 41 tumor types the percentage of samples with an overexpression of MSLN compared to a normal background. A literature search was performed to compare the FGM profiling data with studies reporting IHC MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling showed MSLN overexpression in gastrointestinal (12-36%) and gynecological tumors (20-66%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and synovial sarcomas (30%). The overexpression found in thyroid cancers (5%) and renal cell cancers (10%) was not yet reported with IHC analyses. We observed that MSLN amplification rate within esophageal cancer depends on the histotype (31% for adenocarcinomas versus 3% for squamous-cell carcinomas). Subset analysis in breast cancer showed MSLN amplification rates of 28% in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 33% in basal-like breast cancer. Further subtype analysis of TNBCs showed the highest amplification rate (42%) in the basal-like 1 subtype and the lowest amplification rate (9%) in the luminal androgen receptor subtype.

  4. Long-range correlations, geometrical structure, and transport properties of macromolecular solutions. The equivalence of configurational statistics and geometrodynamics of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-12-04

    A special theory of Brownian relativity was previously proposed to describe the universal picture arising in ideal polymer solutions. In brief, it redefines a Gaussian macromolecule in a 4-dimensional diffusive spacetime, establishing a (weak) Lorentz-Poincaré invariance between liquid and polymer Einstein's laws for Brownian movement. Here, aimed at inquiring into the effect of correlations, we deepen the extension of the special theory to a general formulation. The previous statistical equivalence, for dynamic trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of macromolecules, and rather obvious in uncorrelated systems, is enlarged by a more general principle of equivalence, for configurational statistics and geometrodynamics. Accordingly, the three geodesic motion, continuity, and field equations could be rewritten, and a number of scaling behaviors were recovered in a spacetime endowed with general static isotropic metric (i.e., for equilibrium polymer solutions). We also dealt with universality in the volume fraction and, unexpectedly, found that a hyperscaling relation of the form, (average size) x (diffusivity) x (viscosity)1/2 ~f(N0, phi0) is fulfilled in several regimes, both in the chain monomer number (N) and polymer volume fraction (phi). Entangled macromolecular dynamics was treated as a geodesic light deflection, entaglements acting in close analogy to the field generated by a spherically symmetric mass source, where length fluctuations of the chain primitive path behave as azimuth fluctuations of its shape. Finally, the general transformation rule for translational and diffusive frames gives a coordinate gauge invariance, suggesting a widened Lorentz-Poincaré symmetry for Brownian statistics. We expect this approach to find effective applications to solutions of arbitrarily large molecules displaying a variety of structures, where the effect of geometry is more explicit and significant in itself (e.g., surfactants, lipids, proteins).

  5. Simulations and experiments on vibration damping for zoom-holography and nano-scanning at the GINIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Markus; Luley, Peter; Sprung, Michael; Salditt, Tim

    2017-09-01

    The Göttingen Instrument for Nano-Imaging with X-ray (GINIX) is a holography endstation located at the P10 coherence beamline at PETRA III, designed and operated by the University of Göttingen in close collaboration with DESY Photon science Hamburg [1-2]. GINIX is designed as a waveguide based holography experiment with a Kirkpatrick-Baez nanofocus. Its versatility has stimulated a great manifold of imaging modalities. Today, users choose the GINIX setup not only for its few nm coherent waveguide beams (e.g. for ptychography or holography), but also to carry out scanning SAXS measurements to probe local anisotropies with sub-micron real-space and even higher reciprocal space resolution. In addition, it is possible to combine different detectors for e.g. simultaneous SAXS/WAXS and fluorescence measurements [3]. We summarise our ongoing efforts to reduce vibrations in the setup, and present latest experimental results obtained with GINIX, focusing on the unique capabilities offered by its versatile and flexible design. The overview includes results from different imaging schemes such as waveguide based zoom-tomography and user examples in WAXS geometry. We show how to correlate complementary techniques like holography and scanning SAXS and present first results obtained using a new fast sample scanner for Multilayer Zone Plate imaging..

  6. Galactic Angular Momentum in Cosmological Zoom-in Simulations. I. Disk and Bulge Components and the Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way-sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *-M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ˜ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ˜ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (I.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.

  7. Design of two-DMD based zoom MW and LW dual-band IRSP using pixel fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Xu, Xiping; Qiao, Yang

    2018-06-01

    In order to test the anti-jamming ability of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) dual-band imaging system, a zoom mid-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) dual-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) based on two-digital micro-mirror device (DMD) was designed by using a projection method of pixel fusion. Two illumination systems, which illuminate the two DMDs directly with Kohler telecentric beam respectively, were combined with projection system by a spatial layout way. The distances of projection entrance pupil and illumination exit pupil were also analyzed separately. MWIR and LWIR virtual scenes were generated respectively by two DMDs and fused by a dichroic beam combiner (DBC), resulting in two radiation distributions in projected image. The optical performance of each component was evaluated by ray tracing simulations. Apparent temperature and image contrast were demonstrated by imaging experiments. On the basis of test and simulation results, the aberrations of optical system were well corrected, and the quality of projected image meets test requirements.

  8. Zoomed EPI-DWI of the head and neck with two-dimensional, spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffel, Philipp; Michaely, Henrik J.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pfeuffer, Josef [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Application Development, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of zoomed diffusion-weighted EPI (z-EPI) in the head and neck in a healthy volunteer population and to compare to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI). Nine volunteers were included in this prospective, IRB-approved study. Examinations were performed on a 3 T-MR system equipped with a two-channel, fully-dynamic parallel transmit array. The acquired sequences consisted of a T2w-TSE, a c-EPI, and two z-EPI acquisitions. For quantitative assessment of distortion artefacts, DW images were fused with T2-TSE images. Misregistration of DW images with T2-TSE images was assessed in the cervical spine. For qualitative assessment, two readers ranked c-EPI and z-EPI sequences in terms of susceptibility artefacts, image blur, and overall imaging preference. ADC values of several anatomical regions were calculated and compared between sequences. Mean maximum distortion with the c-EPI was 5.9 mm ± 1.6 mm versus 2.4 mm ± 1 mm (p < 0.05) with z-EPI. Both readers found more blur and susceptibility artefacts in every case with c-EPI. No statistically significant differences in calculated ADC values were observed. z-EPI of the head and neck leads to substantial image quality improvements relative to c-EPI due to a reduction in susceptibility artefacts and image blur. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of high-resolution and standard zoom imaging modes in cone beam computed tomography for detection of longitudinal root fracture: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taramsari, Mehran; Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Bashizadeh, Parinaz; Salamat, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two imaging modes in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in detecting root fracture in endodontically-treated teeth with fiber posts or screw posts by selecting two fields of view. In this study, 78 endodontically-treated single canal premolars were included. A post space was created in all of them. Then the teeth were randomly set in one of 6 artificial dental arches. In 39 of the 78 teeth set in the 6 dental arches, a root fracture was intentionally created. Next, a fiber post and a screw post were cemented into 26 teeth having equal the root fractures. High resolution (HiRes) and standard zoom images were provided by a CBCT device. Upon considering the reconstructed images, two observers in agreement with each other confirmed the presence or absence of root fracture. A McNemar test was used for comparing the results of the two modes. The frequency of making a correct diagnosis using the HiRes zoom imaging mode was 71.8% and in standard zoom was 59%. The overall sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing root fracture in the HiRes mode were 71.79% and 46.15% and in the standard zoom modes were 58.97% and 33.33%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the diagnostic values of the two imaging modes used in the diagnosis of root fracture or in the presence of root canal restorations. In both modes, the most true-positive results were reported in the post space group.

  10. Testing the generality of the zoom-lens model: Evidence for visual-pathway specific effects of attended-region size on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Lawrence, Rebecca K; Edwards, Mark

    2017-05-01

    There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region. Yet visual processing is subserved by two major visual pathways (magnocellular and parvocellular) that operate with a degree of independence in early visual processing and encode contrasting visual information. Historically, testing of the zoom-lens has used measures of spatial acuity ideally suited to parvocellular processing. This, therefore, raises questions about the generality of the zoom-lens model to different aspects of visual perception. We found that while a narrow attended-region facilitated spatial acuity and the perception of high spatial frequency targets, it had no impact on either temporal acuity or the perception of low spatial frequency targets. This pattern also held up when targets were not presented centrally. This supports the notion that visual attended-region size has dissociable effects on magnocellular versus parvocellular mediated visual processing.

  11. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  12. Zoom-in Simulations of Protoplanetary Disks Starting from GMC Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuffmeier, Michael; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke, E-mail: kueffmeier@nbi.ku.dk [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the formation of protoplanetary disks around nine solar-mass stars formed in the context of a (40 pc){sup 3} Giant Molecular Cloud model, using ramses adaptive mesh refinement simulations extending over a scale range of about 4 million, from an outer scale of 40 pc down to cell sizes of 2 au. Our most important result is that the accretion process is heterogeneous in multiple ways: in time, in space, and among protostars of otherwise similar mass. Accretion is heterogeneous in time, in the sense that accretion rates vary during the evolution, with generally decreasing profiles, whose slopes vary over a wide range, and where accretion can increase again if a protostar enters a region with increased density and low speed. Accretion is heterogeneous in space, because of the mass distribution, with mass approaching the accreting star–disk system in filaments and sheets. Finally, accretion is heterogeneous among stars, since the detailed conditions and dynamics in the neighborhood of each star can vary widely. We also investigate the sensitivity of disk formation to physical conditions and test their robustness by varying numerical parameters. We find that disk formation is robust even when choosing the least favorable sink particle parameters, and that turbulence cascading from larger scales is a decisive factor in disk formation. We also investigate the transport of angular momentum, finding that the net inward mechanical transport is compensated for mainly by an outward-directed magnetic transport, with a contribution from gravitational torques usually subordinate to the magnetic transport.

  13. Zooming into creativity: individual differences in attentional global-local biases are linked to creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Zmigrod, Leor; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    While recent studies have investigated how processes underlying human creativity are affected by particular visual-attentional states, we tested the impact of more stable attention-related preferences. These were assessed by means of Navon's global-local task, in which participants respond to the global or local features of large letters constructed from smaller letters. Three standard measures were derived from this task: the sizes of the global precedence effect, the global interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the global level on local processing), and the local interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the local level on global processing). These measures were correlated with performance in a convergent-thinking creativity task (the Remote Associates Task), a divergent-thinking creativity task (the Alternate Uses Task), and a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's matrices). Flexibility in divergent thinking was predicted by the local interference effect while convergent thinking was predicted by intelligence only. We conclude that a stronger attentional bias to visual information about the "bigger picture" promotes cognitive flexibility in searching for multiple solutions.

  14. Zooming in on vibronic structure by lowest-value projection reconstructed 4D coherent spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental goal of chemical physics is an understanding of microscopic interactions in liquids at and away from equilibrium. In principle, this microscopic information is accessible by high-order and high-dimensionality nonlinear optical measurements. Unfortunately, the time required to execute such experiments increases exponentially with the dimensionality, while the signal decreases exponentially with the order of the nonlinearity. Recently, we demonstrated a non-uniform acquisition method based on radial sampling of the time-domain signal [W. O. Hutson et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9, 1034 (2018)]. The four-dimensional spectrum was then reconstructed by filtered back-projection using an inverse Radon transform. Here, we demonstrate an alternative reconstruction method based on the statistical analysis of different back-projected spectra which results in a dramatic increase in sensitivity and at least a 100-fold increase in dynamic range compared to conventional uniform sampling and Fourier reconstruction. These results demonstrate that alternative sampling and reconstruction methods enable applications of increasingly high-order and high-dimensionality methods toward deeper insights into the vibronic structure of liquids.

  15. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  16. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  17. Measurement of long-range multiparticle azimuthal correlations with the subevent cumulant method in p p and p +Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Afik, Y.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akilli, E.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Alderweireldt, S. C.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M. I.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahmani, M.; Bahrasemani, H.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Bakker, P. J.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barkeloo, J. T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, H. C.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Betti, A.; Bevan, A. J.; Beyer, J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolz, A. E.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozson, A. J.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Braren, F.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Briglin, D. L.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Bruno, S.; Brunt, B. H.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burch, T. J.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cai, H.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrá, S.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castelijn, R.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Celebi, E.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, W. S.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, K.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chiu, Y. H.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, Y. S.; Christodoulou, V.; Chu, M. C.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Creager, R. A.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cukierman, A. R.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czekierda, S.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Eramo, L.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Daneri, M. F.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Daubney, T.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davis, D. R.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Maria, A.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vasconcelos Corga, K.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delporte, C.; Delsart, P. A.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Devesa, M. R.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Bello, F. A.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Clemente, W. K.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Petrillo, K. F.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Dodsworth, D.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Dubinin, F.; Dubreuil, A.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducourthial, A.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dulsen, C.; Dumancic, M.; Dumitriu, A. E.; Duncan, A. K.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Duvnjak, D.; Dyndal, M.; Dziedzic, B. S.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; El Kosseifi, R.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Ennis, J. S.; Epland, M. 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W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morgenstern, S.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Morvaj, L.; Moschovakos, P.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, H. J.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Muškinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, M. E.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Newman, P. R.; Ng, T. Y.; Nguyen Manh, T.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nishu, N.; Nisius, R.; Nitsche, I.; Nitta, T.; Nobe, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nomura, M. A.; Nooney, T.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Connor, K.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Rourke, A. A.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oppen, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Pacheco Rodriguez, L.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganini, M.; Paige, F.; Palacino, G.; Palazzo, S.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasner, J. M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearson, B.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Peri, F.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, F. H.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Pluth, D.; Podberezko, P.; Poettgen, R.; Poggi, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pogrebnyak, I.; Pohl, D.; Pokharel, I.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pontecorvo, L.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Portillo Quintero, D. M.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potti, H.; Poulsen, T.; Poveda, J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proklova, N.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puri, A.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rashid, T.; Raspopov, S.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauch, D. M.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravinovich, I.; Rawling, J. H.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resseguie, E. D.; Rettie, S.; Reynolds, E.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ripellino, G.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Roberts, R. T.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Rocco, E.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Bosca, S.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Roloff, J.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Ruettinger, E. M.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sampsonidou, D.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, C. O.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sano, Y.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schildgen, L. K.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Sciandra, A.; Sciolla, G.; Scornajenghi, M.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Senkin, S.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Shen, Y.; Sherafati, N.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shlomi, J.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sideras Haddad, E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, L.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Siral, I.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, J. W.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Søgaard, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Sopczak, A.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Sottocornola, S.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spieker, T. M.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapf, B. S.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Stark, S. H.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Stegler, M.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, T. J.; Stewart, G. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultan, D. M. S.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Suruliz, K.; Suster, C. J. E.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Swift, S. P.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Tahirovic, E.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takasugi, E. H.; Takeda, K.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, A. J.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thais, S. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thiele, F.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tian, Y.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Todt, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Treado, C. J.; Trefzger, T.; Tresoldi, F.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsang, K. W.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tulbure, T. T.; Tuna, A. N.; Turchikhin, S.; Turgeman, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Uno, K.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vadla, K. O. H.; Vaidya, A.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valente, M.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valéry, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallier, A.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Graaf, H.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varni, C.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Furelos, D.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viaux Maira, N.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vishwakarma, A.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, R.-J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, A. F.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. M.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weirich, M.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Weston, T. D.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A. S.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Whitmore, B. W.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkels, E.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wobisch, M.; Wolf, A.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolff, R.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, V. W. S.; Woods, N. L.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xi, Z.; Xia, L.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Xu, T.; Xu, W.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamane, F.; Yamatani, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yigitbasi, E.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zacharis, G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zemaityte, G.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zou, R.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A detailed study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations is presented using p p data at √{s }=5.02 and 13 TeV, and p +Pb data at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The azimuthal correlations are probed using four-particle cumulants cn{4 } and flow coefficients vn{4 } =(-cn{4 } ) 1 /4 for n =2 and 3, with the goal of extracting long-range multiparticle azimuthal correlation signals and suppressing the short-range correlations. The values of cn{4 } are obtained as a function of the average number of charged particles per event, Nch>">Nch, using the recently proposed two-subevent and three-subevent cumulant methods, and compared with results obtained with the standard cumulant method. The standard method is found to be strongly biased by short-range correlations, which originate mostly from jets with a positive contribution to cn{4 } . The three-subevent method, on the other hand, is found to be least sensitive to short-range correlations. The three-subevent method gives a negative c2{4 } , and therefore a well-defined v2{4 } , nearly independent of range multiparticle azimuthal correlations persist to events with low multiplicity. Furthermore, v2{4 } is found to be smaller than the v2{2 } measured using the two-particle correlation method, as expected for long-range collective behavior. Finally, the measured values of v2{4 } and v2{2 } are used to estimate the number of sources relevant for the initial eccentricity in the collision geometry. The results based on the subevent cumulant technique provide direct evidence, in small collision systems, for a long-range collectivity involving many particles distributed across a broad rapidity interval.

  18. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  19. Effect of a combination of flip and zooming stimuli on the performance of a visual brain-computer interface for spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiao; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bei; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2018-02-13

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems can allow their users to communicate with the external world by recognizing intention directly from their brain activity without the assistance of the peripheral motor nervous system. The P300-speller is one of the most widely used visual BCI applications. In previous studies, a flip stimulus (rotating the background area of the character) that was based on apparent motion, suffered from less refractory effects. However, its performance was not improved significantly. In addition, a presentation paradigm that used a "zooming" action (changing the size of the symbol) has been shown to evoke relatively higher P300 amplitudes and obtain a better BCI performance. To extend this method of stimuli presentation within a BCI and, consequently, to improve BCI performance, we present a new paradigm combining both the flip stimulus with a zooming action. This new presentation modality allowed BCI users to focus their attention more easily. We investigated whether such an action could combine the advantages of both types of stimuli presentation to bring a significant improvement in performance compared to the conventional flip stimulus. The experimental results showed that the proposed paradigm could obtain significantly higher classification accuracies and bit rates than the conventional flip paradigm (p<0.01).

  20. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  1. Latest developments on fibered MOPA in mJ range with hollow-core fiber beam delivery and fiber beam shaping used as seeder for large scale laser facilities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Scol, Florent; Perrin, Arnaud; Gouriou, Pierre; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is a French large scale laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion and plasma physics research. LMJ front-ends are based on fiber laser technology at nanojoule range [1]. Scaling the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way to upgrade LMJ's front ends architecture and could also be used as seeder for lasers for ELI project for example. However, required performances are so restrictive (optical-signal-to-noise ratio higher than 50 dB, temporally-shaped nanosecond pulses and spatial single-mode top-hat beam output) that such fiber systems are very tricky to build. High-energy fiber amplifiers In 2015, we have demonstrated, an all-fiber MOPA prototype able to produce a millijoule seeder, but unfortunately not 100% conform for all LMJ's performances. A major difficulty was to manage the frequency modulation used to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering, to amplitude modulation (FM-AM) conversion, this limits the energy at 170µJ. For upgrading the energy to the millijoule range, it's necessary to use an amplifier with a larger core fiber. However, this fiber must still be flexible; polarization maintaining and exhibit a strictly single-mode behaviour. We are thus developing a new amplifier architecture based on an Yb-doped tapered fiber: its core diameter is from a narrow input to a wide output (MFD 8 to 26 µm). A S² measurement on a 2,5m long tapered fiber rolled-up on 22 cm diameter confirmed that this original geometry allows obtaining strictly single-mode behaviour. In a 1 kHz repetition rate regime, we already obtain 750 µJ pulses, and we are on the way to mJ, respecting LMJ performances. Beam delivery In LMJ architecture the distance between the nanojoule fiber seeder and the amplifier stages is about 16 m. Beam delivery is achieved with a standard PM fiber, such a solution is no longer achievable with hundreds of kilowatt peak powers. An efficient way to minimize nonlinear effects is to use hollow-core (HC

  2. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  3. Fast T1 and T2 mapping methods: the zoomed U-FLARE sequence compared with EPI and snapshot-FLASH for abdominal imaging at 11.7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Reese, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    A newly adapted zoomed ultrafast low-angle RARE (U-FLARE) sequence is described for abdominal imaging applications at 11.7 Tesla and compared with the standard echo-plannar imaging (EPI) and snapshot fast low angle shot (FLASH) methods. Ultrafast EPI and snapshot-FLASH protocols were evaluated to determine relaxation times in phantoms and in the mouse kidney in vivo. Owing to their apparent shortcomings, imaging artefacts, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and variability in the determination of relaxation times, these methods are compared with the newly implemented zoomed U-FLARE sequence. Snapshot-FLASH has a lower SNR when compared with the zoomed U-FLARE sequence and EPI. The variability in the measurement of relaxation times is higher in the Look-Locker sequences than in inversion recovery experiments. Respectively, the average T1 and T2 values at 11.7 Tesla are as follows: kidney cortex, 1810 and 29 ms; kidney medulla, 2100 and 25 ms; subcutaneous tumour, 2365 and 28 ms. This study demonstrates that the zoomed U-FLARE sequence yields single-shot single-slice images with good anatomical resolution and high SNR at 11.7 Tesla. Thus, it offers a viable alternative to standard protocols for mapping very fast parameters, such as T1 and T2, or dynamic processes in vivo at high field.

  4. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the Prostate: Advantages of Zoomed EPI with Parallel-transmit-accelerated 2D-selective Excitation Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Scherr, Michael K.; Weiss, Jakob; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Theisen, Daniel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Dietrich, Olaf [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Pfeuffer, Josef [Siemens Healthcare, Application Development, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of 2D-selective, parallel-transmit excitation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (pTX-EPI) of the prostate, and to compare it to conventional, single-shot EPI (c-EPI). The MRI examinations of 35 patients were evaluated in this prospective study. PTX-EPI was performed with a TX-acceleration factor of 1.7 and a field of view (FOV) of 150 x 90 mm{sup 2}, whereas c-EPI used a full FOV of 380 x 297 mm{sup 2}. Two readers evaluated three different aspects of image quality on 5-point Likert scales. To quantify distortion artefacts, maximum diameters and prostate volume were determined for both techniques and compared to T2-weighted imaging. The zoomed pTX-EPI was superior to c-EPI with respect to overall image quality (3.39 ± 0.62 vs 2.45 ± 0.67) and anatomic differentiability (3.29 ± 0.65 vs 2.41 ± 0.65), each with p < 0.0001. Artefacts were significantly less severe in pTX-EPI (0.93 ± 0.73 vs 1.49 ± 1.08), p < 0.001. The quantitative analysis yielded a higher agreement of pTX-EPI with T2-weighted imaging than c-EPI with respect to coronal (ICCs: 0.95 vs 0.93) and sagittal (0.86 vs 0.73) diameters as well as prostate volume (0.94 vs 0.92). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p > 0.05). Zoomed pTX-EPI leads to substantial improvements in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate with respect to different aspects of image quality and severity of artefacts. (orig.)

  5. Should 3K zoom function be used for detection of pneumothorax in cesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiographs presented on 1K-matrix soft copies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Karin A.; Zech, C.J.; Reiser, M.F.; Bonel, H.M.; Staebler, A.; Voelk, M.; Strotzer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate observer performance in the detection of pneumothorax with cesium iodide and amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiography (CsI/a-Si FDR) presented as 1K and 3K soft-copy images. Forty patients with and 40 patients without pneumothorax diagnosed on previous and subsequent digital storage phosphor radiography (SPR, gold standard) had follow-up chest radiographs with CsI/a-Si FDR. Four observers confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of pneumothorax according to a five-point scale first on the 1K soft-copy image and then with help of 3K zoom function (1K monitor). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for each modality (1K and 3K). The area under the curve (AUC) values for each observer were 0.7815, 0.7779, 0.7946 and 0.7066 with 1K-matrix soft copies and 0.8123, 0.7997, 0.8078 and 0.7522 with 3K zoom. Overall detection of pneumothorax was better with 3K zoom. Differences between the two display methods were not statistically significant in 3 of 4 observers (p-values between 0.13 and 0.44; observer 4: p=0.02). The detection of pneumothorax with 3K zoom is better than with 1K soft copy but not at a statistically significant level. Differences between both display methods may be subtle. Still, our results indicate that 3K zoom should be employed in clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  7. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  8. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Trevathan, Edwin; Emo, Brett; Paul, Gunther; Ren, Wan-Hui; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality of BMI relative to

  9. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  10. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailler, R., E-mail: romain.mailler@siaap.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Gasperi, J., E-mail: gasperi@u-pec.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Coquet, Y. [SAUR, Direction de la Recherche et du Développement, 1 rue Antoine Lavoisier, 78064 Guyancourt (France); Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 CNRS, Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Deshayes, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); LCPP (Laboratoire Central de la Préfecture de Police), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Zedek, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m{sup 3}/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO{sub 2}{sup −}. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22

  11. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailler, R.; Gasperi, J.; Coquet, Y.; Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E.; Deshayes, S.; Zedek, S.

    2016-01-01

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m"3/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO_2"−. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22/32), i

  12. Inspection of aeronautical mechanical parts with a pan-tilt-zoom camera: an approach guided by the computer-aided design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ilisio; Orteu, Jean-José; Cornille, Nicolas; Bugarin, Florian

    2015-11-01

    We focus on quality control of mechanical parts in aeronautical context using a single pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera and a computer-aided design (CAD) model of the mechanical part. We use the CAD model to create a theoretical image of the element to be checked, which is further matched with the sensed image of the element to be inspected, using a graph theory-based approach. The matching is carried out in two stages. First, the two images are used to create two attributed graphs representing the primitives (ellipses and line segments) in the images. In the second stage, the graphs are matched using a similarity function built from the primitive parameters. The similarity scores of the matching are injected in the edges of a bipartite graph. A best-match-search procedure in the bipartite graph guarantees the uniqueness of the match solution. The method achieves promising performance in tests with synthetic data including missing elements, displaced elements, size changes, and combinations of these cases. The results open good prospects for using the method with realistic data.

  13. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-01-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for ver...

  14. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-09-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for very bright guide star AO with substantial increase of enclosed energy. Over the last two years PALAO was upgraded to PALM-3000: an extreme, high-order adaptive optics system with two deformable mirrors with more than 3000 actuators, promising diffraction limited performance in SWIFT's wavelength range. In order to take advantage of this increased spatial resolution we upgraded SWIFT with new pre-optics allowing us to spatially Nyquist sample the diffraction limited PALM-3000 point spread function with 16 mas resolution, reducing the spaxel scale by another factor of 5×. We designed, manufactured, integrated and tested the new pre-optics in the first half of 2011 and commissioned it in December 2011. Here we present the opto-mechanical design and assembly of the new scale changing optics, as well as laboratory and on-sky commissioning results. In optimal observing conditions we achieve substantial Strehl ratios, delivering the near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the I and z bands.

  15. Exchanges in boundary layer and low troposphere and consequences on pollution of Fos-Berre-Marseille area (ESCOMPTE experiment); Les aerosols: emissions, formation d'aerosols organiques secondaires, transport longue distance. Zoom sur les aerosols carbones en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, B

    2006-01-15

    There are two types of 'carbonaceous aerosols': 'black carbon' (BC) and 'organic carbon'(OC). BC is directly emitted in the atmosphere while OC is either directly emitted (primary OC, OCp) or secondarily formed through oxidation processes in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosols, SOA). Complexity of carbonaceous aerosols is still poorly represented in existing aerosol models and uncertainties appear mainly both in their emission inventories and in their complex atmospheric evolution (transport, gas-particle interactions, dry/wet deposition), making difficult the estimation of their radiative impact. In this framework, I developed during my PhD at Laboratoire d'Aerologie, a new approach to deal with this complexity, with implementation of both a new carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory and a new aerosol modelling tool at global scale. My work is divided in 5 different tasks: - better characterisation of BC and OCp emissions, achieved through the development of a new emission inventory from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion sources (industrial, domestic and mobile sources). This inventory provides BC and OCp emissions for Europe at 25 km * 25 km resolution for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, with two additional regional zooms: on France, at 10 km * 10 km resolution for the years 2000 and 2010 with improved road traffic, and in Marseille region (Escompte campaign, 1999,-2001) at 1 km * 1 km resolution for the year 1999; - better modelling of carbonaceous aerosol complex atmospheric evolution, through coupling of a global scale gas transport/chemistry model (TM4) with an aerosol module (ORISAM) featuring size-distributed aerosols (on 8 diameter sections from 40 nm to 10 {mu}m) organic/inorganic chemical composition and explicit treatment of SOA formation; - simulations with this new aerosol model ORISAM-TM4 and model/measurements comparisons to study BC and OC long-range transport; - sensitivity tests on SOA

  16. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  17. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  18. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  19. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). III. Zooming Into the Methanol Peak of the Prestellar Core L1544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanova, Anna; Caselli, Paola; Feng, Siyi; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neri, Roberto; Fontani, Francesco; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Vastel, Charlotte; Bizzocchi, Luca; Pon, Andy; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Spezzano, Silvia; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Testi, Leonardo; Viti, Serena; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Alves, Felipe; Bachiller, Rafael; Balucani, Nadia; Bianchi, Eleonora; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Caux, Emmanuel; Choudhury, Rumpa; Codella, Claudio; Dulieu, François; Favre, Cécile; Holdship, Jonathan; Jaber Al-Edhari, Ali; Kahane, Claudine; Laas, Jake; LeFloch, Bertrand; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Ospina-Zamudio, Juan; Oya, Yoko; Pineda, Jaime E.; Podio, Linda; Quenard, Davide; Rimola, Albert; Sakai, Nami; Sims, Ian R.; Taquet, Vianney; Theulé, Patrice; Ugliengo, Piero

    2018-03-01

    Toward the prestellar core L1544, the methanol (CH3OH) emission forms an asymmetric ring around the core center, where CH3OH is mostly in solid form, with a clear peak at 4000 au to the northeast of the dust continuum peak. As part of the NOEMA Large Project SOLIS (Seeds of Life in Space), the CH3OH peak has been spatially resolved to study its kinematics and physical structure and to investigate the cause behind the local enhancement. We find that methanol emission is distributed in a ridge parallel to the main axis of the dense core. The centroid velocity increases by about 0.2 km s‑1 and the velocity dispersion increases from subsonic to transonic toward the central zone of the core, where the velocity field also shows complex structure. This could be an indication of gentle accretion of material onto the core or the interaction of two filaments, producing a slow shock. We measure the rotational temperature and show that methanol is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) only close to the dust peak, where it is significantly depleted. The CH3OH column density, N tot(CH3OH), profile has been derived with non-LTE radiative transfer modeling and compared with chemical models of a static core. The measured N tot(CH3OH) profile is consistent with model predictions, but the total column densities are one order of magnitude lower than those predicted by models, suggesting that the efficiency of reactive desorption or atomic hydrogen tunneling adopted in the model may be overestimated; or that an evolutionary model is needed to better reproduce methanol abundance. This work is based on observations carried out under project number L15AA with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer and on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  20. Development and evaluation of a novel fast broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing assay for diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis: multi-year experience in a large Canadian healthcare zone and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J H; Chow, Barbara; Pillai, Dylan; Church, Deirdre

    2016-04-12

    The study aimed to explore the sensitivity and specificity of a novel fast 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing assay for the improved diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with suspected native or prosthetic heart valve (HV) infection over a multi-year period at our cardiovascular center. Sixty-eight patients were prospectively enrolled who underwent HV replacement for suspected or confirmed IE between February 1, 2009 and September 1, 2014. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, Duke's criteria, culture results, and antibiotic therapy were collected by detailed chart reviews. Dual-priming oligonucleotide primers targeted to 500 bps of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene were used to perform fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR and Sanger sequencing on ribosomal DNA extracted from HV tissues. The performance/diagnostic efficiency of the molecular test was evaluated against blood cultures and Gram stain and culture of HV tissue in patients' with definite IE according to Duke's criteria. Fifty patients (73.5%) had definite IE and another 8 (11.8%) had possible IE according to Duke's criteria. Cardiac surgery was delayed an average of 15.4 days from the time of the patient's last positive blood culture, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in the pre-operative period. While 44/50 (88%) patients had a positive blood culture, HV tissue culture was only positive in 23 (46%) of them. Molecular testing of all HV tissues had sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of 92, 77.8, 77.8 and 92% compared to 44, 100, 39.1 and 100% respectively for culture for diagnosis of definite IE. For prosthetic HV tissue, 16S rDNA PCR had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 83% compared to 35 and 100% respectively for culture. A literature review showed that the diagnostic accuracy of our novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR assay was similar or better than that of previously published studies. This novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR/sequencing test had superior sensitivity

  1. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  2. Discovery Mondays: Zoom on materials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the success of the first Discovery Monday, which had over 100 visitors, the series of evening events in Microcosm continues. On Monday 2nd June, discover the world of materials. Find out how CERN scientists examine, manufacture and study different materials, at different scales. Did you know for example that using electrons you can observe a hair at a scale equivalent to looking at a boat with the naked eye? Also, that using ultrasound, you can measure the thickness of an object that is completely inaccessible? Find out more about these techniques, and also the high-tech machining and soldering that is carried out in CERN's central workshop. Plus, see how engineers can detect tiny leaks through solder points - essential for maintaining the vacuum in the LHC. The evening is open to all, without reservation, suggested age 12 and above. Rendez-vous in Microcosm on Monday 2nd June From 19.30 - 21.00 Free entry For more information : http://www.cern.ch/microcosm Using a scanning microscope, the head o...

  3. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  4. Short-range effects in large white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M.C.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work of Membrado and Pacheco (1988) on the implication of Yukawa-like effects in small white dwarfs is extended to analyze the very massive case. Although the role of these impurities grows substantially as the radius of the star decreases, when reasonable supergravity parameters are used the predicted change in the white dwarf mass-radius relation is unobservably small. 8 references

  5. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Large Arms Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. All product names and trademarks...Yarbough in the Carto- graphic and Architectural Record Room at the National Archives in Col- lege Park, Maryland; Pat Lacey, ERDC-CERL Librarian ...combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made during the

  6. [Parallel virtual reality visualization of extreme large medical datasets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis.

  7. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  8. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  9. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  10. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  11. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  12. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  13. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  14. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  15. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  16. Ultrawideband Radio Ranging Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scholtz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... In addition, UWB propagation measurements were made in a shipboard environment to determine the difficulties in positioning using RF signals in a large metallic enclosure, and issues in sharing...

  17. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  18. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  19. Zoomed MRI Guided by Combined EEG/MEG Source Analysis: A Multimodal Approach for Optimizing Presurgical Epilepsy Work-up and its Application in a Multi-focal Epilepsy Patient Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ü; Rampp, S; Wollbrink, A; Kugel, H; Cho, J -H; Knösche, T R; Grova, C; Wellmer, J; Wolters, C H

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of source analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) has gained considerable attention in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. However, in many cases the source analysis alone is not used to tailor surgery unless the findings are confirmed by lesions, such as, e.g., cortical malformations in MRI. For many patients, the histology of tissue resected from MRI negative epilepsy shows small lesions, which indicates the need for more sensitive MR sequences. In this paper, we describe a technique to maximize the synergy between combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis and high resolution MRI. The procedure has three main steps: (1) construction of a detailed and calibrated finite element head model that considers the variation of individual skull conductivities and white matter anisotropy, (2) EMEG source analysis performed on averaged interictal epileptic discharges (IED), (3) high resolution (0.5 mm) zoomed MR imaging, limited to small areas centered at the EMEG source locations. The proposed new diagnosis procedure was then applied in a particularly challenging case of an epilepsy patient: EMEG analysis at the peak of the IED coincided with a right frontal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), which had been detected at standard 1 mm resolution MRI. Of higher interest, zoomed MR imaging (applying parallel transmission, 'ZOOMit') guided by EMEG at the spike onset revealed a second, fairly subtle, FCD in the left fronto-central region. The evaluation revealed that this second FCD, which had not been detectable with standard 1 mm resolution, was the trigger of the seizures.

  20. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Wickenhauser, Patrick; Rautek, Peter; Reina, Guido; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  1. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  2. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  3. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  4. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  5. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  6. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  7. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  8. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  9. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  10. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  11. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  12. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  13. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  14. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  15. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  16. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  17. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  18. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  19. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  20. D-GENIES: dot plot large genomes in an interactive, efficient and simple way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanettes, Floréal; Klopp, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Dot plots are widely used to quickly compare sequence sets. They provide a synthetic similarity overview, highlighting repetitions, breaks and inversions. Different tools have been developed to easily generated genomic alignment dot plots, but they are often limited in the input sequence size. D-GENIES is a standalone and web application performing large genome alignments using minimap2 software package and generating interactive dot plots. It enables users to sort query sequences along the reference, zoom in the plot and download several image, alignment or sequence files. D-GENIES is an easy-to-install, open-source software package (GPL) developed in Python and JavaScript. The source code is available at https://github.com/genotoul-bioinfo/dgenies and it can be tested at http://dgenies.toulouse.inra.fr/.

  1. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  2. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  3. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  4. Examining fluvial fish range loss with SDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Papeş, Monica; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Fluvial fishes face increased imperilment from anthropogenic activities, but the specific factors contributing most to range declines are often poorly understood. For example, the range of the fluvial‐specialist shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) continues to decrease, yet how perceived threats have contributed to range loss is largely unknown. We used species distribution models to determine which factors contributed most to shoal bass range loss. We estimated a potential distribution based on natural abiotic factors and a series of currently occupied distributions that incorporated variables characterizing land cover, non‐native species, and river fragmentation intensity (no fragmentation, dams only, and dams and large impoundments). We allowed interspecific relationships between non‐native congeners and shoal bass to vary across fragmentation intensities. Results from the potential distribution model estimated shoal bass presence throughout much of their native basin, whereas models of currently occupied distribution showed that range loss increased as fragmentation intensified. Response curves from models of currently occupied distribution indicated a potential interaction between fragmentation intensity and the relationship between shoal bass and non‐native congeners, wherein non‐natives may be favored at the highest fragmentation intensity. Response curves also suggested that >100 km of interconnected, free‐flowing stream fragments were necessary to support shoal bass presence. Model evaluation, including an independent validation, suggested that models had favorable predictive and discriminative abilities. Similar approaches that use readily available, diverse, geospatial data sets may deliver insights into the biology and conservation needs of other fluvial species facing similar threats.

  5. Zooming in on neutrino oscillations with DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rahul; Ternes, Christoph A.; Tórtola, Mariam; Valle, José W. F.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the capabilities of the DUNE experiment as a probe of the neutrino mixing paradigm. Taking the current status of neutrino oscillations and the design specifications of DUNE, we determine the experiment's potential to probe the structure of neutrino mixing and C P violation. We focus on the poorly determined parameters θ23 and δC P and consider both two and seven years of run. We take various benchmarks as our true values, such as the current preferred values of θ23 and δC P, as well as several theory-motivated choices. We determine quantitatively DUNE's potential to perform a precision measurement of θ23, as well as to test the C P violation hypothesis in a model-independent way. We find that, after running for seven years, DUNE will make a substantial step in the precise determination of these parameters, bringing to quantitative test the predictions of various theories of neutrino mixing.

  6. Zooming in on youth in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    JOICFP, under the "Training and Development, Production and Utilization of IEC Materials with Special Focus on Adolescents and Young Adults" project (RAS/96/P10) supported by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), is producing a still-image video concerning sexuality issues and reproductive health needs of Asian youth. The video will depict 1) an unmarried Vietnamese girl who has had a relationship with a young man and now faces the possibility of an unwanted pregnancy; 2) a Nepalese girl forced into an early marriage; and 3) a Philippine girl delivering her first child. Photos for the Vietnamese segment have been taken; the theme and storyline were developed in response to feedback from youth belonging to the Youth Union of Ho Chi Minh City. The video is being produced to inform decision makers and administrators of the realities faced by young people so that appropriate reproductive health policies and programs for youth can be created. Young people, ages 10-19, now account for one-fifth of the world's population.

  7. Measurements of the charge exchange and dissociation cross-sections of the H{sub 2}+ ion in a wide energy range; Mesures des sections efficaces d'echange de charge et de dissociation des ions H{sub 2}{sup +} dans une large gamme d'energie (25 - 250 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidini, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The dissociation, ionisation, and charge exchange cross-sections of molecular hydrogen ions H{sub 2}{sup +} passing through various gases, have been measured as a function of the energy of the ions. The energy range studied was from 25 to 250 keV. The reaction products, analysed by a magnetic field according to their e/m ratio, are collected on scintillation detectors. Two methods have made it possible to separate the various reactions leading to the formation of particles having the same e/m ratio. The first separates the particles according to their energy, the other selects those arriving simultaneously on two different detectors. The results show a large variation in the charge exchange cross-section with the energy of the H{sub 2}{sup +} ions. The variations in the dissociation and ionisation cross-sections are less pronounced. For a given energy, the values of the cross-sections increase with the atomic weight of the target particles. These measurements have been extended to the case of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions passing through a target of charged particles. Preliminary results show an increase in the cross-sections as compared to the preceding case. Finally the scattering of the reaction products has been studied; this scattering is due to the fact that the molecules formed during a reaction are in an unstable state and the nuclei or atoms diverge from each other. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces de dissociation, d'ionisation et d'echange de charge d'ions hydrogene moleculaires H{sub 2}{sup +} traversant differents gaz, ont ete mesurees en fonction de l'energie des ions. La gamme d'energie exploree est comprise entre 25 et 250 keV. Les produits de reactions, analyses suivant leur rapport e/m par un champ magnetique, sont recus sur des detecteurs a scintillations. Deux methodes ont permis de separer les diverses reactions conduisant a la formation de particules ayant meme rapport e/m. L'une classe les particules secondaires en energie, l'autre selectionne

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  9. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  10. NaviCell: a web-based environment for navigation, curation and maintenance of large molecular interaction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperstein, Inna; Cohen, David P A; Pook, Stuart; Viara, Eric; Calzone, Laurence; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2013-10-07

    Molecular biology knowledge can be formalized and systematically represented in a computer-readable form as a comprehensive map of molecular interactions. There exist an increasing number of maps of molecular interactions containing detailed and step-wise description of various cell mechanisms. It is difficult to explore these large maps, to organize discussion of their content and to maintain them. Several efforts were recently made to combine these capabilities together in one environment, and NaviCell is one of them. NaviCell is a web-based environment for exploiting large maps of molecular interactions, created in CellDesigner, allowing their easy exploration, curation and maintenance. It is characterized by a combination of three essential features: (1) efficient map browsing based on Google Maps; (2) semantic zooming for viewing different levels of details or of abstraction of the map and (3) integrated web-based blog for collecting community feedback. NaviCell can be easily used by experts in the field of molecular biology for studying molecular entities of interest in the context of signaling pathways and crosstalk between pathways within a global signaling network. NaviCell allows both exploration of detailed molecular mechanisms represented on the map and a more abstract view of the map up to a top-level modular representation. NaviCell greatly facilitates curation, maintenance and updating the comprehensive maps of molecular interactions in an interactive and user-friendly fashion due to an imbedded blogging system. NaviCell provides user-friendly exploration of large-scale maps of molecular interactions, thanks to Google Maps and WordPress interfaces, with which many users are already familiar. Semantic zooming which is used for navigating geographical maps is adopted for molecular maps in NaviCell, making any level of visualization readable. In addition, NaviCell provides a framework for community-based curation of maps.

  11. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  12. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  13. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  14. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  15. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  16. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  17. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2017-11-01

    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  19. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  20. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  1. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  2. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  3. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  4. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    MON TUE MAP MAP VEG automated vegetation clearance, automated Aug 10 Aug 11 WED THU Med VEG ia and Visitor D MAP ay Aug 12 FRI SURF...competitors will not be penalized if they enter this area. For the competition we will add an additional Pan , Tilt, Zoom (PTZ) Camera that will be...Johnston’s Corner –Gas Station Restaurant: Pizza, Fired Chicken , Subs 550 W Whalen St., Guernsey, WY 82214 (307) 836-3155 R2C2 Competitor Information

  5. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  6. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  7. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  8. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  9. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  10. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  11. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  12. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  13. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  14. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  15. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  16. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Range Image Patches by NEB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze sampled high dimensional data with the NEB method from a range image database. Select a large random sample of log-valued, high contrast, normalized, 8×8 range image patches from the Brown database. We make a density estimator and we establish 1-dimensional cell complexes from the range image patch data. We find topological properties of 8×8 range image patches, prove that there exist two types of subsets of 8×8 range image patches modelled as a circle.

  18. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  19. Plant mutualisms with rhizosphere microbiota in introduced versus native ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shelby, Natasha; Duncan, Richard P.; van der Putten, Wim H.; McGinn, Kevin J.; Weser, Carolin; Hulme, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    * The performance of introduced plants can be limited by the availability of soil mutualists outside their native range, but how interactions with mutualists differ between ranges is largely unknown. If mutualists are absent, incompatible or parasitic, plants may compensate by investing more in root

  20. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  1. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  2. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  4. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  5. Large ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development. Ceramic-to-ceramic sealing has applications for several technologies that require large and/or complex vacuum-tight ceramic shapes. Information is provided concerning the assembly of complex monolithic ceramic shapes by bonding of subassemblies at temperatures ranging from 450 to 1500 0 C. Future applications and fabrication techniques for various materials are presented

  6. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  7. Instantons and Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Instantons: 1. Instantons in quantum mechanics; 2. Unstable vacua in quantum field theory; 3. Large order behavior and Borel summability; 4. Non-perturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theories; 5. Instantons and fermions; Part II. Large N: 6. Sigma models at large N; 7. The 1=N expansion in QCD; 8. Matrix models and matrix quantum mechanics at large N; 9. Large N QCD in two dimensions; 10. Instantons at large N; Appendix A. Harmonic analysis on S3; Appendix B. Heat kernel and zeta functions; Appendix C. Effective action for large N sigma models; References; Author index; Subject index.

  8. Backreacted axion field ranges in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baume, Florent; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2016-08-05

    String theory axions are interesting candidates for fields whose potential might be controllable over super-Planckian field ranges and therefore as possible candidates for inflatons in large field inflation. Axion monodromy scenarios are setups where the axion shift symmetry is broken by some effect such that the axion can traverse a large number of periods potentially leading to super-Planckian excursions. We study such scenarios in type IIA string theory where the axion shift symmetry is broken by background fluxes. In particular we calculate the backreaction of the energy density induced by the axion vacuum expectation value on its own field space metric. We find universal behaviour for all the compactifications studied where up to a certain critical axion value there is only a small backreaction effect. Beyond the critical value the backreaction is strong and implies that the proper field distance as measured by the backreacted metric increases at best logarithmically with the axion vev, thereby placing strong limitations on extending the field distance any further. The critical axion value can be made arbitrarily large by the choice of fluxes. However the backreaction of these fluxes on the axion field space metric ensures a precise cancellation such that the proper field distance up to the critical axion value is flux independent and remains sub-Planckian. We also study an axion alignment scenario for type IIA compactifications on a twisted torus with four fundamental axions mixing to leave an axion with an effective decay constant which is flux dependent. There is a choice of fluxes for which the alignment parameter controlling the effective decay constant is unconstrained by tadpoles and can in principle lead to an arbitrarily large effective decay constant. However we show that these fluxes backreact on the fundamental decay constants so as to precisely cancel any enhancement leaving a sub-Planckian effective decay constant.

  9. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  10. Transmission dynamic range in chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmers, H.E.A.S.J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; van Elburg, H.J.; Boelens, F.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the large difference in transmission between the lung area and the mediastinum, the human chest is a challenging object for radiographic imaging. This study is performed in order to define the dynamic range needed for a chest imaging chain. Eight hundred seventy-five consecutive outpatients were imaged with a prototype AMBER (advanced multiple beam equalization radiography) unit at 141 kVp. The equalization facility was disabled, allowing for the simultaneous capture of a film image and a digital dataset representing the local patient transmission in fields of approximately 2x2 cm. The datasets were analyzed to obtain the relation between the average transmission distribution in a subset of the population and physical parameters characterizing this subset, such as body weight or length

  11. Long range inductive power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver

  12. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  13. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  14. Shakedown and ratchetting below the creep range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponter, A.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report reviews current understanding of the behaviour of structure subject to variable mechanical and thermal loading below the creep range through a comparison of theoretical solutions and experimental studies. The particular characteristics of the austenitic stainless steels are emphasized in components subject to moderate primary loads and large thermal loads. The review shows that a clear classification of types of thermal loading is required in design. Two main classes, termed category A and B, exist which arise not from the magnitude of the thermal stresses but their extent through the material volume of the structure. In category A situations, the Bree plate problem being the prime example, the maximum thermal stresses occur over a volume of the structure which does not contain a mechanism of failure. As a result very large thermal stresses may be withstood without ratchetting occurring for sufficiently small mechanical loads. For category B situations, the maximum thermal stress occur within a volume of material which contains a mechanism of deformation. In such cases, the capacity of the structure to withstand thermal loading is limited by a variation of the maximum thermal stress at a material point of 2σsub(γ) where σsub(γ) is a suitably defined yield stress. This situation seems to be the most typical problem of the Liquid Metal Fast Reactor and the ''3Sm'' limit in the ASME III code restriction on secondary stress cannot be exceeded if ratchetting is to be prevented

  15. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  16. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  17. Finite Range Decomposition of Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brydges, C D; Mitter, P K

    2003-01-01

    Let $D$ be the finite difference Laplacian associated to the lattice $bZ^{d}$. For dimension $dge 3$, $age 0$ and $L$ a sufficiently large positive dyadic integer, we prove that the integral kernel of the resolvent $G^{a}:=(a-D)^{-1}$ can be decomposed as an infinite sum of positive semi-definite functions $ V_{n} $ of finite range, $ V_{n} (x-y) = 0$ for $|x-y|ge O(L)^{n}$. Equivalently, the Gaussian process on the lattice with covariance $G^{a}$ admits a decomposition into independent Gaussian processes with finite range covariances. For $a=0$, $ V_{n} $ has a limiting scaling form $L^{-n(d-2)}Gamma_{ c,ast }{bigl (frac{x-y}{ L^{n}}bigr )}$ as $nrightarrow infty$. As a corollary, such decompositions also exist for fractional powers $(-D)^{-alpha/2}$, $0

  18. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  19. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. I. A low cost large range microforce transducer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA transducer has been developed for measuring the minute forces generated during isometric contractions (1.0-10.0 microN) of single smooth muscle cells from the pig urinary bladder and the human uterus. In addition to its high sensitivity, resolution and stability (100 mV microN-1, and

  20. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    Field studies of respiration in stream insects are few in comparison with laboratory studies. To evaluate the influence of temperature and oxygen along altitudinal gradients we measured the respiration rate of fully acclimatized larval Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera under similar field...... at 100 and 50% oxygen saturation indicated that highland animals reduced their oxygen uptake more than their counterparts in the lowland when oxygen availability decreased. The temperature response of respiration calculated between the insect assemblages at different altitudes showed a mean assemblage Q...

  1. Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimitsu, Taro; Suyama, Teruaki; Watanabe, Yuki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation

  2. Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimitsu, Taro; Suyama, Teruaki; Watanabe, Yuki; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: kunimitsu@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: suyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: watanabe@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

  3. A fast large dynamic range shaping amplifier for particle detector front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, Angelo; Delaurenti, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a fast shaping amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing. The circuit is based on a CMOS operational amplifier with a class AB output stage. A baseline holder, incorporating a closed-loop unity gain buffer with slew rate limitation, performs the AC coupling with the preamplifier and guarantees a baseline shift smaller than 3 mV for unipolar output pulses of 3 V and 10 MHz rate

  4. Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Simons, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    cavities. We investigated cylindrical deep reactive ion etched cavities in silicon wafers and determined the radius of curvature (ROC) of the sidewalls as a function of depth. Statistical analysis verified the reliability and reproducibility of the replication procedure. The mean ROC was determined as (6.......32 ± 0.06) lm, i.e., with 1% accuracy, while the ROC linearly increases by (0.52 ± 0.03) lm from the top to the bottom of the sidewalls. Nanometer sized surface defects are also well replicated. In addition, the method allows combining multiple features from differently processed wafers into a single...... sample, accelerating characterization in process optimization tasks. To access the sidewall shape samples needed to be cleaved. The method was applied to study X-ray refractive optics, whose performance is crucially affected by their three dimensional shapes....

  5. Ordered and Unordered Top-K Range Reporting in Large Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Zeh, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We study the following problem: Given an array A storing N real numbers, preprocess it to allow fast reporting of the K smallest elements in the subarray A[i, j] in sorted order, for any triple (i, j,K) with 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ N and 1 ≤ K ≤ j − i + 1. We are interested in scenarios where the array A is ...

  6. DARWIN. An evolution code system for a large range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, B.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the main capabilities of an evolution code system, DARWIN, developed at CEA (France). It is devoted to radioactivity studies in various application fields such as nuclear fuel cycle, dismantling, thermonuclear fusion, accelerator driven system, medecine etc. All types of nuclides are dealt with: actinides, fission products, activation products, spallation products. Physical quantities calculated by the code are isotope concentration, isotope mass, activity, radiotoxicity, gamma spectra, beta spectra, alpha spectra, neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reaction, residual heating, for any cooling times until geological times. Both analytical and numerical schemes are developed in the PEPIN2 depletion module of DARWIN to solve the generalized coupled differential depletion equations. The depletion module PEPIN2 is automatically linked to international evaluations (JEF2, ENDF/B6, EAF97...) both for decay data and cross-sections, and to some transport codes such as TRIPOLI, APOLLO2 and ERANOS. These transport codes provide neutronic data as self-shielded cross-sections and neutron fluxes. DARWIN includes a generator of radioisotope chain built automatically from decay modes and nuclear reaction types specified in the evaluation libraries. A 'search engine' allows to determine all formation ways of a considered isotope. Several examples are given for illustrating capabilities of DARWIN in different field applications. Some comparisons with other codes such as ORIGEN, FISPIN and FISPACT are also presented. (author)

  7. Constraints on the design of flow measuring structures over a large dynamic flow range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Holmes, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Topographical restraints for design storm flow are described as sharp-crested weirs for low flows in series with broad-crested weirs for the high flows. These design selections are considered to be most economical while providing the specified flow measuring capabilities for movement of radionuclides from the solid waste disposal areas into the surface streams around ORNL

  8. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.; Liu, Y. J.; Leng, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs.

  9. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  10. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts...... to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-)

  11. Image interpolation used in three-dimensional range data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoze; Zhang, Jianqi; Huang, Xi; Liu, Delian

    2016-05-20

    Advances in the field of three-dimensional (3D) scanning have made the acquisition of 3D range data easier and easier. However, with the large size of 3D range data comes the challenge of storing and transmitting it. To address this challenge, this paper presents a framework to further compress 3D range data using image interpolation. We first use a virtual fringe-projection system to store 3D range data as images, and then apply the interpolation algorithm to the images to reduce their resolution to further reduce the data size. When the 3D range data are needed, the low-resolution image is scaled up to its original resolution by applying the interpolation algorithm, and then the scaled-up image is decoded and the 3D range data are recovered according to the decoded result. Experimental results show that the proposed method could further reduce the data size while maintaining a low rate of error.

  12. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  13. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P range visits were associated with lower weight (P range was associated with lower weight (P range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.

  14. Lunar Mapping and Modeling On-the-Go: A mobile framework for viewing and interacting with large geospatial datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.; Kim, R.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Law, E.; Malhotra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP, https://www.lmmp.nasa.gov/) is a collaboration between four NASA centers, JPL, Marshall, Goddard, and Ames, along with the USGS and US Army to provide a centralized geospatial repository for storing processed lunar data collected from the Apollo missions to the latest data acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). We offer various scientific and visualization tools to analyze rock and crater densities, lighting maps, thermal measurements, mineral concentrations, slope hazards, and digital elevation maps with the intention of serving not only scientists and lunar mission planners, but also the general public. The project has pioneered in leveraging new technologies and embracing new computing paradigms to create a system that is sophisticated, secure, robust, and scalable all the while being easy to use, streamlined, and modular. We have led innovations through the use of a hybrid cloud infrastructure, authentication through various sources, and utilizing an in-house GIS framework, TWMS (TiledWMS) as well as the commercial ArcGIS product from ESRI. On the client end, we also provide a Flash GUI framework as well as REST web services to interact with the portal. We have also developed a visualization framework on mobile devices, specifically Apple's iOS, which allows anyone from anywhere to interact with LMMP. At the most basic level, the framework allows users to browse LMMP's entire catalog of over 600 data imagery products ranging from global basemaps to LRO's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images that provide details of up to .5 meters/pixel. Users are able to view map metadata and can zoom in and out as well as pan around the entire lunar surface with the appropriate basemap. They can arbitrarily stack the maps and images on top of each other to show a layered view of the surface with layer transparency adjusted to suit the user's desired look. Once the user has selected a combination of layers, he can also

  15. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  16. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  17. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  19. Physics with large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2004-01-01

    The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.

  20. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  1. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...

  2. Large bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  3. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  4. A mass-wasting dominated Quaternary mountain range, the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Hogg, Alan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial bedrock incision, which creates topographic relief and controls hillslope development, has been considered the key medium linking denudation and tectonic uplift of unglaciated mountains. This article, however, shows a different scenario from the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. This range, with the steepness inherited from pre-orogenic volcanoes, has been subject to mass wasting even before its emergence above sea level no earlier than Middle Pleistocene. Numerous terraced alluvial fans/fan deltas record the ancient mass movements of the range, including rock avalanches. Multiple radiocarbon dates sequences not clearly related to the known climate-change events, and are believed to have been triggered mainly by severe rainfall events, large earthquakes, or their combinations. The resulting fluctuation of sediment yield has episodically changed river behavior, forming river terraces in catchments >1 km2. Alluvial terraces are typically exhibited close to the source ridges of mass movements, and strath terraces along the downstream parts of rivers. Both were created when enormous sediment supply had exceeded or matched the prevailing river transport capacity. This process, along with the protection by giant boulders from mass movement, disturbed the long-term incision trend of rivers in response to tectonic uplift. As a result, the observed Holocene bedrock incision at most sites has not kept pace with the tectonic uplift. The spatial contrast in mass-wasting histories further accounts for the great diversity of the terrace sequences, even in areas with similar tectonic and base-level conditions.

  5. Extending the temperature range of the HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Wagner, P.

    1975-01-01

    The operating temperature of the high temperature helium-cooled reactor can be increased in a number of ways in order to provide higher temperature nuclear heat for various industrial processes. Modifications are of two types: 1) decrease in the temperature difference between the maximum coated particle fuel temperature and the mean exit gas temperature, and 2) increased maximum coated particle temperature. Gains in the latter category are limited by fission product diffusion into the gas steam and increases greater than 100 0 K are not forseen. Increases in the former category, however, are readily made and a variety of modifications are proposed as follows: incorporation of coated particles in the fuel matrix; use of a more finely-divided fuel coolant hole geometry to increase heat transfer coefficients and reduce conduction temperature differences; large increases in the fuel matrix graphite thermal conductivity (to about 50 W/m 0 K) to reduce conduction temperature differences; and modifications to the core distribution, both radially and axially. By such means the exit gas temperature can be increased to the range of 1200 0 K to 1600 0 K. (author)

  6. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  7. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  8. The large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10 -16 cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10 2 GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range - a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10 3 GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the construction of the large hadron collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider of a new design to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, with an energy of 7 TeV per beam and extremely large luminosity, of ∝10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Construction was started in 1996, with the additional support of the US, Japan, Russia, Canada and other European countries, making the LHC a really global project, the first one in particle physics. After a short review of the physics scenario, I report on the present status of the LHC construction. Special attention is given to technological problems such as the realization of the super-conducting dipoles, following an extensive R and D program with European industries. The construction of the large LHC detectors has required a vast R and D program by a large international community, to overcome the problems posed by the complexity of the collisions and by the large luminosity of the machine. (orig.)

  9. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  10. Fitness declines towards range limits and local adaptation to climate affect dispersal evolution during climate‐induced range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Anna; Bailey, Susan; Laird, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution....... We simulate a species distributed continuously along a temperature gradient using a spatially explicit, individual-based model. We compare range-wide dispersal evolution during climate stability vs. directional climate change, with uniform fitness vs. fitness that declines towards range limits (RLs...... at contracting range limits is facilitated by two processes that potentially enable edge populations to experience and adjust to the effects of climate deterioration before they cause extinction: (i) climate-induced fitness declines towards range limits and (ii) local adaptation to a shifting climate gradient...

  11. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    and voxel footprints in input images and volumes. We show that the continuous pdfs encoded in the sparse pdf map representation enable accurate multi-resolution non-linear image operations on gigapixel images. Similarly, we show that sparse pdf volumes enable more consistent multi-resolution volume rendering compared to standard approaches, on both artificial and real world large-scale volumes. The supplementary videos demonstrate our results. In the standard approach, users heavily rely on panning and zooming interactions to navigate the data within the limits of their display devices. However, panning across the whole spatial domain and zooming across all resolution levels of large-scale images to search for interesting regions is not practical. Assisted exploration techniques allow users to quickly narrow down millions to billions of possible regions to a more manageable number for further inspection. However, existing approaches are not fully user-driven because they typically already prescribe what being of interest means. To address this, we introduce the patch sets representation for large-scale images. Patches inside a patch set are grouped and encoded according to similarity via a permutohedral lattice (p-lattice) in a user-defined feature space. Fast set operations on p-lattices facilitate patch set queries that enable users to describe what is interesting. In addition, we introduce an exploration framework—GigaPatchExplorer—for patch set-based image exploration. We show that patch sets in our framework are useful for a variety of user-driven exploration tasks in gigapixel images and whole collections thereof.

  12. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  13. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  14. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  15. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  16. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  17. Large Retailers’ Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Risso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, large retailers offering financial services have considerably grown in the financial services sector. Retailers are increasing the wideness and complexity of their offer of financial services. Large retail companies provide financial services to their customers following different strategic ways. The provision of financial services in the retailers offer is implemented in several different ways related to the strategies, the structures and the degree of financial know...

  18. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  19. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  20. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  1. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  2. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  3. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  4. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  5. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  6. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  7. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  8. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  9. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  10. Choice of large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R

    1978-08-01

    Conventional cost/benefit or project analysis has generally not taken into account circumstances in which the project under consideration is large enough that its introduction to the economy would have significant general equilibrium effects. In this paper, rules are examined that would indicate whether such large projects should be accepted or rejected. The rules utilize information yielded by before-project and after-project equilibrium prices and production data. Rules are developed for the undistorted ''first-best'' case, the case in which the fixed costs of the project are covered by distortionary taxation, and for the case of projects producing public goods. 34 references.

  11. Magnetic intermittency of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua

    2016-04-01

    The feature, nature, and fate of intermittency in the dissipation range are an interesting topic in the solar wind turbulence. We calculate the distribution of flatness for the magnetic field fluctuations as a functionof angle and scale. The flatness distribution shows a "butterfly" pattern, with two wings located at angles parallel/anti-parallel to local mean magnetic field direction and main body located at angles perpendicular to local B0. This "butterfly" pattern illustrates that the flatness profile in (anti-) parallel direction approaches to the maximum value at larger scale and drops faster than that in perpendicular direction. The contours for probability distribution functions at different scales illustrate a "vase" pattern, more clear in parallel direction, which confirms the scale-variation of flatness and indicates the intermittency generation and dissipation. The angular distribution of structure function in the dissipation range shows an anisotropic pattern. The quasi-mono-fractal scaling of structure function in the dissipation range is also illustrated and investigated with the mathematical model for inhomogeneous cascading (extended p-model). Different from the inertial range, the extended p-model for the dissipation range results in approximate uniform fragmentation measure. However, more complete mathematicaland physical model involving both non-uniform cascading and dissipation is needed. The nature of intermittency may be strong structures or large amplitude fluctuations, which may be tested with magnetic helicity. In one case study, we find the heating effect in terms of entropy for large amplitude fluctuations seems to be more obvious than strong structures.

  12. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  13. Large hydropower generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the Brazilian experience with the design, fabrication, construction, commissioning and operation of large scale and generation capacity unities. The experience had been acquired with the implementation of Itumbiara, Paulo Afonso IV, Tucurui, Itaipu and Xingo power plants, which are among the largest world unities.

  14. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  15. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how

  16. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  17. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  18. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  19. Development of the full range vange vacuum gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    The pirani, enning end full range gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new effort will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year

  20. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  1. HEVC for high dynamic range services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hwan; Zhao, Jie; Misra, Kiran; Segall, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Displays capable of showing a greater range of luminance values can render content containing high dynamic range information in a way such that the viewers have a more immersive experience. This paper introduces the design aspects of a high dynamic range (HDR) system, and examines the performance of the HDR processing chain in terms of compression efficiency. Specifically it examines the relation between recently introduced Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) ST 2084 transfer function and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. SMPTE ST 2084 is designed to cover the full range of an HDR signal from 0 to 10,000 nits, however in many situations the valid signal range of actual video might be smaller than SMPTE ST 2084 supported range. The above restricted signal range results in restricted range of code values for input video data and adversely impacts compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose a code value remapping method that extends the restricted range code values into the full range code values so that the existing standards such as HEVC may better compress the video content. The paper also identifies related non-normative encoder-only changes that are required for remapping method for a fair comparison with anchor. Results are presented comparing the efficiency of the current approach versus the proposed remapping method for HM-16.2.

  2. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  3. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  4. EEGVIS: A MATLAB toolbox for browsing, exploring, and viewing large datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay A Robbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in data monitoring and sensor technology have accelerated the acquisition of very large data sets. Streaming data sets from instrumentation such as multi-channel EEG recording usually must undergo substantial pre-processing and artifact removal. Even when using automated procedures, most scientists engage in laborious manual examination and processing to assure high quality data and to indentify interesting or problematic data segments. Researchers also do not have a convenient method of method of visually assessing the effects of applying any stage in a processing pipeline. EEGVIS is a MATLAB toolbox that allows users to quickly explore multi-channel EEG and other large array-based data sets using multi-scale drill-down techniques. Customizable summary views reveal potentially interesting sections of data, which users can explore further by clicking to examine using detailed viewing components. The viewer and a companion browser are built on our MoBBED framework, which has a library of modular viewing components that can be mixed and matched to best reveal structure. Users can easily create new viewers for their specific data without any programming during the exploration process. These viewers automatically support pan, zoom, resizing of individual components, and cursor exploration. The toolbox can be used directly in MATLAB at any stage in a processing pipeline, as a plug in for EEGLAB, or as a standalone precompiled application without MATLAB running. EEGVIS and its supporting packages are freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/ eegvis.

  5. EEGVIS: A MATLAB Toolbox for Browsing, Exploring, and Viewing Large Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kay A

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in data monitoring and sensor technology have accelerated the acquisition of very large data sets. Streaming data sets from instrumentation such as multi-channel EEG recording usually must undergo substantial pre-processing and artifact removal. Even when using automated procedures, most scientists engage in laborious manual examination and processing to assure high quality data and to indentify interesting or problematic data segments. Researchers also do not have a convenient method of method of visually assessing the effects of applying any stage in a processing pipeline. EEGVIS is a MATLAB toolbox that allows users to quickly explore multi-channel EEG and other large array-based data sets using multi-scale drill-down techniques. Customizable summary views reveal potentially interesting sections of data, which users can explore further by clicking to examine using detailed viewing components. The viewer and a companion browser are built on our MoBBED framework, which has a library of modular viewing components that can be mixed and matched to best reveal structure. Users can easily create new viewers for their specific data without any programming during the exploration process. These viewers automatically support pan, zoom, resizing of individual components, and cursor exploration. The toolbox can be used directly in MATLAB at any stage in a processing pipeline, as a plug-in for EEGLAB, or as a standalone precompiled application without MATLAB running. EEGVIS and its supporting packages are freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/eegvis.

  6. A Short-Range Distance Sensor with Exceptional Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven; Youngquist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A sensor has been demonstrated that can measure distance over a total range of about 300 microns to an accuracy of about 0.1 nm (resolution of about 0.01 nm). This represents an exceptionally large dynamic range of operation - over 1,000,000. The sensor is optical in nature, and requires the attachment of a mirror to the object whose distance is being measured. This work resulted from actively developing a white light interferometric system to be used to measure the depths of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows. The concept was then applied to measuring distance. The concept later expanded to include spectrometer calibration. In summary, broadband (i.e., white) light is launched into a Michelson interferometer, one mirror of which is fixed and one of which is attached to the object whose distance is to be measured. The light emerging from the interferometer has traveled one of two distances: either the distance to the fixed mirror and back, or the distance to the moving mirror and back. These two light beams mix and produce an interference pattern where some wavelengths interfere constructively and some destructively. Sending this light into a spectrometer allows this interference pattern to be analyzed, yielding the net distance difference between the two paths. The unique feature of this distance sensor is its ability to measure accurately distance over a dynamic range of more than one million, the ratio of its range (about 300 microns) to its accuracy (about 0.1 nanometer). Such a large linear operating range is rare and arises here because both amplitude and phase-matching algorithms contribute to the performance. The sensor is limited by the need to attach a mirror of some kind to the object being tracked, and by the fairly small total range, but the exceptional dynamic range should make it of interest.

  7. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Prange with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  8. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  9. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  10. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  11. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  12. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  13. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  15. On the long-range gravity in warped backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the Randall-Sundrum model with brane-localized curvature terms is considered. Within some range of parameters a compact extra dimension in this model can be astronomically large. In this case the model predicts small deviation from Newton's law at astronomical scales, caused by the massive modes. The existence of this deviation can result in a slight affection on the planetary motion trajectories

  16. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  17. Image Alignment for Multiple Camera High Dynamic Range Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Brian S.; Childs, Elisabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of image alignment for multiple camera high dynamic range (HDR) imaging. HDR imaging combines information from images taken with different exposure settings. Combining information from multiple cameras requires an alignment process that is robust to the intensity differences in the images. HDR applications that use a limited number of component images require an alignment technique that is robust to large exposure differences. We evaluate the suitability fo...

  18. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  2. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  5. Common Loon Range - CWHR [ds603

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  9. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  13. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael; Huber, Wolfgang; Pagès, Hervé; Aboyoun, Patrick; Carlson, Marc; Gentleman, Robert; Morgan, Martin T; Carey, Vincent J

    2013-01-01

    We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  14. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Least Bittern Range - CWHR [ds608

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Arroyo Toad Range - CWHR [ds612

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  18. The Large Hadron Collider project

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10/sup -16/ cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10/sup 2/ GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range-a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10/sup 3/ GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the con...

  19. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2011 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. As is typical with odd year editions, this is an abbreviated Range Safety Annual Report providing updates and links to full articles from the previous year's report. It also provides more complete articles covering new subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed and updated in the 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2011 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again the web-based format was used to present the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition and hope you enjoy this year's product as well. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. In conclusion, it has been a busy and productive year. I'd like to extend a personal Thank You to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the upcoming year.

  1. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Zuo, Guangzheng; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-12-01

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the material's initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

  2. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Study of pseudo noise CW diode laser for ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo S.; Ramaswami, Ravi

    1992-01-01

    A new Pseudo Random Noise (PN) modulated CW diode laser radar system is being developed for real time ranging of targets at both close and large distances (greater than 10 KM) to satisy a wide range of applications: from robotics to future space applications. Results from computer modeling and statistical analysis, along with some preliminary data obtained from a prototype system, are presented. The received signal is averaged for a short time to recover the target response function. It is found that even with uncooperative targets, based on the design parameters used (200-mW laser and 20-cm receiver), accurate ranging is possible up to about 15 KM, beyond which signal to noise ratio (SNR) becomes too small for real time analog detection.

  4. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  5. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  6. Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Cowsik, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

  7. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  8. Large Right Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 83-year-old male with a distant history of tuberculosis status post treatment and resection approximately fifty years prior presented with two days of worsening shortness of breath. He denied any chest pain, and reported his shortness of breath was worse with exertion and lying flat. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and bedside ultrasound revealed a large right pleural effusion, estimated to be greater than two and a half liters in size. Discussion: The incidence of pleural effusion is estimated to be at least 1.5 million cases annually in the United States.1 Erect posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography remains the mainstay for diagnosis of a pleural effusion; on upright chest radiography small effusions (>400cc will blunt the costophrenic angles, and as the size of an effusion grows it will begin to obscure the hemidiphragm.1 Large effusions will cause mediastinal shift away from the affected side (seen in effusions >1000cc.1 Lateral decubitus chest radiography can detect effusions greater than 50cc.1 Ultrasonography can help differentiate large pulmonary masses from effusions and can be instrumental in guiding thoracentesis.1 The patient above was comfortable at rest and was admitted for a non-emergent thoracentesis. The pulmonology team removed 2500cc of fluid, and unfortunately the patient subsequently developed re-expansion pulmonary edema and pneumothorax ex-vacuo. It is generally recommended that no more than 1500cc be removed to minimize the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema.2

  9. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  10. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  11. Large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Final design of the facility is nearing completion, and 20% of the construction has been accomplished. A large vacuum chamber, houses the test assembly which is coupled to appropriate cryogenic, electrical, instrumentation, diagnostc systems. Adequate assembly/disassembly areas, shop space, test control center, offices, and test support laboratories are located in the same building. Assembly and installation operations are accomplished with an overhead crane. The major subsystems are the vacuum system, the test stand assembly, the cryogenic system, the experimental electric power system, the instrumentation and control system, and the data aquisition system

  12. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter ( p ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  14. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  15. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  16. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We present cache-oblivious solutions to two important variants of range searching: range reporting and approximate range counting. Our main contribution is a general approach for constructing cache-oblivious data structures that provide relative (1+ε)-approximations for a general class of range c...

  17. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged

  18. Compressed Data Structures for Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    matrices and web graphs. Our contribution is twofold. First, we show how to compress geometric repetitions that may appear in standard range searching data structures (such as K-D trees, Quad trees, Range trees, R-trees, Priority R-trees, and K-D-B trees), and how to implement subsequent range queries...... on the compressed representation with only a constant factor overhead. Secondly, we present a compression scheme that efficiently identifies geometric repetitions in point sets, and produces a hierarchical clustering of the point sets, which combined with the first result leads to a compressed representation...

  19. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  20. Interplay of long-range and short-range Coulomb interactions in an Anderson-Mott insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćani, Mirko; Novak, Mario; Orbanić, Filip; Prša, Krunoslav; Kokanović, Ivan; Babić, Dinko

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we tackle the complexity of coexisting disorder and Coulomb electron-electron interactions (CEEIs) in solids by addressing a strongly disordered system with intricate CEEIs and a screening that changes both with charge carrier doping level Q and temperature T . We report on an experimental comparative study of the T dependencies of the electrical conductivity σ and magnetic susceptibility χ of polyaniline pellets doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid over a wide range. This material is special within the class of doped polyaniline by exhibiting in the electronic transport a crossover between a low-T variable range hopping (VRH) and a high-T nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) well below room temperature. Moreover, there is evidence of a soft Coulomb gap ΔC in the disorder band, which implies the existence of a long-range CEEI. Simultaneously, there is an onsite CEEI manifested as a Hubbard gap U and originating in the electronic structure of doped polyaniline, which consists of localized electron states with dynamically varying occupancy. Therefore, our samples represent an Anderson-Mott insulator in which long-range and short-range CEEIs coexist. The main result of the study is the presence of a crossover between low- and high-T regimes not only in σ (T ) but also in χ (T ) , the crossover temperature T* being essentially the same for both observables over the entire doping range. The relatively large electron localization length along the polymer chains results in U being small, between 12 and 20 meV for the high and low Q , respectively. Therefore, the thermal energy at T* is sufficiently large to lead to an effective closing of the Hubbard gap and the consequent appearance of NNH in the electronic transport within the disorder band. ΔC is considerably larger than U , decreasing from 190 to 30 meV as Q increases, and plays the role of an activation energy in the NNH.

  1. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  3. Problems in implementing improved range management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Africa; Australia; Livestock development; Pastoral communities; Rangeland development; Rangeland systems; Sustainability; development; ecology; holism; pastoralism; range management; strategies; environment; water; health; crop production; rangelands; resource management; north africa; holistic approach ...

  4. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.S.; Scherrer, P.; Ross, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH 0.2 is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.)

  5. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa. The Journal is dedicated to publishing quality original material that advances rangeland ecology and pasture management in Africa. Read more abou the journal here.

  6. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  7. Poisson filtering of laser ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Shelus, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The filtering of data in a high noise, low signal strength environment is a situation encountered routinely in lunar laser ranging (LLR) and, to a lesser extent, in artificial satellite laser ranging (SLR). The use of Poisson statistics as one of the tools for filtering LLR data is described first in a historical context. The more recent application of this statistical technique to noisy SLR data is also described.

  8. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  9. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  10. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Victor B.; Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2010-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and ...

  11. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  12. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  13. Crystals of Janus colloids at various interaction ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Z. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Vissers, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); SUPA and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Smallenburg, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Weiche Materie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr. 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Sciortino, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-08-14

    We investigate the effect of interaction range on the phase behaviour of Janus particles with a Kern-Frenkel potential. Specifically, we study interaction ranges Δ = 0.1σ, 0.3σ, 0.4σ, 0.5σ with σ the particle diameter, and use variable box shape simulations to predict crystal structures. We found that changing the interaction range beyond 0.2σ drastically increases the variety of possible crystal structures. In addition to close-packed structures, we find body-centered tetragonal and AA-stacked hexagonal crystals, as well as several lamellar crystals. For long interaction ranges and low temperatures, we also observe an extremely large number of metastable structures which compete with the thermodynamically stable ones. These competing structures hinder the detection of the lowest-energy crystal structures, and are also likely to interfere with the spontaneous formation of the ground-state structure. Finally, we determine the gas-liquid coexistence curves for several interaction ranges, and observe that these are metastable with respect to crystallization.

  14. Crystals of Janus colloids at various interaction ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, Z.; Vissers, T.; Smallenburg, F.; Sciortino, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of interaction range on the phase behaviour of Janus particles with a Kern-Frenkel potential. Specifically, we study interaction ranges Δ = 0.1σ, 0.3σ, 0.4σ, 0.5σ with σ the particle diameter, and use variable box shape simulations to predict crystal structures. We found that changing the interaction range beyond 0.2σ drastically increases the variety of possible crystal structures. In addition to close-packed structures, we find body-centered tetragonal and AA-stacked hexagonal crystals, as well as several lamellar crystals. For long interaction ranges and low temperatures, we also observe an extremely large number of metastable structures which compete with the thermodynamically stable ones. These competing structures hinder the detection of the lowest-energy crystal structures, and are also likely to interfere with the spontaneous formation of the ground-state structure. Finally, we determine the gas-liquid coexistence curves for several interaction ranges, and observe that these are metastable with respect to crystallization.

  15. Entanglement Growth in Quench Dynamics with Variable Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachenmayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying entanglement growth in quantum dynamics provides both insight into the underlying microscopic processes and information about the complexity of the quantum states, which is related to the efficiency of simulations on classical computers. Recently, experiments with trapped ions, polar molecules, and Rydberg excitations have provided new opportunities to observe dynamics with long-range interactions. We explore nonequilibrium coherent dynamics after a quantum quench in such systems, identifying qualitatively different behavior as the exponent of algebraically decaying spin-spin interactions in a transverse Ising chain is varied. Computing the buildup of bipartite entanglement as well as mutual information between distant spins, we identify linear growth of entanglement entropy corresponding to propagation of quasiparticles for shorter-range interactions, with the maximum rate of growth occurring when the Hamiltonian parameters match those for the quantum phase transition. Counterintuitively, the growth of bipartite entanglement for long-range interactions is only logarithmic for most regimes, i.e., substantially slower than for shorter-range interactions. Experiments with trapped ions allow for the realization of this system with a tunable interaction range, and we show that the different phenomena are robust for finite system sizes and in the presence of noise. These results can act as a direct guide for the generation of large-scale entanglement in such experiments, towards a regime where the entanglement growth can render existing classical simulations inefficient.

  16. Short-range airborne transmission of expiratory droplets between two people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    , ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold...... distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus...... reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes...

  17. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  18. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  19. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  20. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.