WorldWideScience

Sample records for large volume coplanar

  1. Synchrotron radiation studies of spectral response features caused by Te inclusions in a large volume coplanar grid CdZnTe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Conny C T; Quarati, Francesco; Kozorezov, Alexander; Gostilo, Vladimir; Lumb, David

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results from a synchrotron radiation study of Te inclusions in a large volume single crystal CdZnTe (CZT) coplanar-grid detector. The experiment was carried out by probing individual inclusions with highly collimated monochromatic X-and gamma-ray beams. It was found that for shallow X-ray interaction depths, the effect of an inclusion on measured energy loss spectra is to introduce a ~10% shift in the peak centroid energy towards lower channel numbers. The total efficiency is however not affected, showing that the net result of inclusions is a reduction in the Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). For deeper interaction depths, the energy-loss spectra shows the emergence of two distinct peaks, both downshifted in channel number. We note that the observed spectral behavior shows strong similarities with that reported in semiconductors which exhibit polarization effects, suggesting that the underlying mechanism is common.

  2. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; Schelfhout, J.; De Neve, W.

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  3. Characterization of a large CdZnTe coplanar quad-grid semiconductor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Joachim; Gehre, Daniel; Hagner, Caren; Heidrich, Nadine; Klingenberg, Rainer; Kröninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian; Oldorf, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Rajek, Silke; Rebber, Henning; Rohatsch, Katja; Tebrügge, Jan; Temminghoff, Robert; Theinert, Robert; Timm, Jan; Wonsak, Björn; Zatschler, Stefan; Zuber, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The COBRA collaboration aims to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay of $^{116}$Cd. A demonstrator setup with 64 CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, each with a volume of 1cm$^3$, is currently being operated at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. This paper reports on the characterization of a large (2 $\\times$ 2 $\\times$ 1.5)cm$^3$ CdZnTe detector with a new coplanar-grid design for applications in $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy and low-background operation. Several studies of electric properties as well as of the spectrometric performance, like energy response and resolution, are conducted. Furthermore, measurements including investigating the operational stability and a possibility to identify multiple-scattered photons are presented.

  4. Formation of striations in large-gap coplanar dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaofei [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); He, Feng, E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ouyang, Jiting [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-06-04

    Striations in a large-gap coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been investigated by experiment and numerical simulation. The discharge current was measured and the images of infra-red (IR) radiation striation were obtained by an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera with nanosecond exposure time. The discharge processes are simulated by particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) code. The calculated current and the distribution of Xe{sup ⁎} during a single pulse were compared with the experiment. The results show that there are two series of striations corresponding to two stages of discharge. The striations of the second stage are generated as the potential changed remarkably, while the distribution of surface charge almost keeps unchanged. The electric field induced by the space charges plays a key role in the formation of the striations. The stratified wall charge is only a consequence of the stratified spatial field and the striations. -- Highlights: ► IR radiation images of striations were compared with PIC/MCC simulation results. ► Space charge plays a key role in striation formation. ► Stratified wall charge is considered as a consequence of the striations.

  5. Integral dose investigation of non-coplanar treatment beam geometries in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan; Dong, Peng; Long, Troy; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A; Romeijn, Edwin; Sheng, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Automated planning and delivery of non-coplanar plans such as 4π radiotherapy involving a large number of fields have been developed to take advantage of the newly available automated couch and gantry on C-arm gantry linacs. However, there is an increasing concern regarding the potential changes in the integral dose that needs to be investigated. A digital torso phantom and 22 lung and liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients were included in the study. The digital phantom was constructed as a water equivalent elliptical cylinder with a major axis length of 35.4 cm and minor axis of 23.6 cm. A 4.5 cm diameter target was positioned at varying depths along the major axis. Integral doses from intensity modulated, non-coplanar beams forming a conical pattern were compared against the equally spaced coplanar beam plans. Integral dose dependence on the phantom geometry and the beam number was also quantified. For the patient plans, the non-coplanar and coplanar beams and fluences were optimized using a column generation and pricing approach and compared against clinical VMAT plans using two full (lung) or partial coplanar arcs (liver) entering at the side proximal to the tumor. Both the average dose to the normal tissue volume and the total volumes receiving greater than 2 Gy (V2) and 5 Gy (V5) were evaluated and compared. The ratio of integral dose from the non-coplanar and coplanar plans depended on the tumor depth for the phantom; for tumors shallower than 10 cm, the non-coplanar integral doses were lower than coplanar integral doses for non-coplanar angles less than 60°. Similar patterns were observed in the patient plans. The smallest non-coplanar integral doses were observed for tumor 6-8 cm deep. For the phantom, the integral dose was independent of the number of beams, consistent with the liver SBRT patients but the lung SBRT patients showed slight increase in the integral dose when more beams were used. Larger tumor size and larger patient

  6. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  7. Enhanced performance large volume dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the performance of the dissolution process in dissolution-DNP is presented. A relatively simple set of modifications is made to the standard Hypersense dissolution system to enable polarization of large volume samples. These consist of a large volume sample cup along...... with supporting modifications to the dissolution head and related components. Additional modifications were made to support the mapping of the temperature/pressure space of the dissolution process as well as enabling the use of large volumes of solvent and improving the robustness of the system. No loss...

  8. Dosimetric comparison between coplanar and non coplanar field radiotherapy for ethmoid sinus cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serre Antoine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare non coplanar field (NCF with coplanar field (CF -intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for ethmoid cancer. Methods Seven patients treated with NCF IMRT for ethmoid cancer were studied. A CF IMRT optimization was prepared with the same constraints as for the NCF treatment. The maximum point doses (D max obtained for the different optic pathway structures (OPS should differ no more than 3% from those achieved with the NCF IMRT plan. The distribution of the dose in the target volume and in the critical structures was compared between the two techniques, as well as the Conformity (CI and the Homogeneity Indexes (HI in the target volume. Results We noted no difference between the two techniques in the OPS for the D1, D2, and D5%, in the inner ear and controlateral lens for the average Dmax, in the temporo-mandibular joints for the average mean dose, in the cord and brainstem for the average D1%. The dose-volume histograms were slightly better with the NCF treatment plan for the planning target volume (PTV with a marginally better HI but no impact on CI. We found a great improvement in the PTV coverage with the CF treatment plan for two patients with T4 tumors. Conclusion IMRT is one of the treatment options for ethmoid cancer. The PTV coverage is optimal without compromising the protection of the OPS. The impact of non coplanar versus coplanar set up is very slight.

  9. Eight light flavors on large lattice volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Schaich, David

    2013-01-01

    I present first results from large-scale lattice investigations of SU(3) gauge theory with eight light flavors in the fundamental representation. Using leadership computing resources at Argonne, we are generating gauge configurations with lattice volumes up to $64^3\\times128$ at relatively strong coupling, in an attempt to access the chiral regime. We use nHYP-improved staggered fermions, carefully monitoring finite-volume effects and other systematics. Here I focus on analyses of the light hadron spectrum and chiral condensate, measured on lattice volumes up to $48^3\\times96$ with fermion masses as light as m=0.004 in lattice units. We find no clear indication of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in these observables. I discuss the implications of these initial results, and prospects for further physics projects employing these ensembles of gauge configurations.

  10. Simulating cosmic reionization: How large a volume is large enough?

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, Ilian T; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Pen, Ue-Li

    2013-01-01

    We present the largest-volume (425 Mpc/h=607 Mpc on a side) full radiative transfer simulation of cosmic reionization to date. We show that there is significant additional power in density fluctuations at very large scales. We systematically investigate the effects this additional power has on the progress, duration and features of reionization, as well as on selected reionization observables. We find that comoving simulation volume of ~100 Mpc/h per side is sufficient for deriving a convergent mean reionization history, but that the reionization patchiness is significantly underestimated. We use jackknife splitting to quantify the convergence of reionization properties with simulation volume for both mean-density and variable-density sub-regions. We find that sub-volumes of ~100 Mpc/h per side or larger yield convergent reionization histories, except for the earliest times, but smaller volumes of ~50 Mpc/h or less are not well converged at any redshift. Reionization history milestones show significant scatte...

  11. Comments on large-N volume independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-02

    We study aspects of the large-N volume independence on R{sup 3} X L{sup {Gamma}}, where L{sup {Gamma}} is a {Gamma}site lattice for Yang-Mills theory with adjoint Wilson-fermions. We find the critical number of lattice sites above which the center-symmetry analysis on L{sup {Gamma}} agrees with the one on the continuum S{sup 1}. For Wilson parameter set to one and {Gamma}{>=}2, the two analyses agree. One-loop radiative corrections to Wilson-line masses are finite, reminiscent of the UV-insensitivity of the Higgs mass in deconstruction/Little-Higgs theories. Even for theories with {Gamma}=1, volume independence in QCD(adj) may be guaranteed to work by tuning one low-energy effective field theory parameter. Within the parameter space of the theory, at most three operators of the 3d effective field theory exhibit one-loop UV-sensitivity. This opens the analytical prospect to study 4d non-perturbative physics by using lower dimensional field theories (d=3, in our example).

  12. Why Matter Occupies so Large a Volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. B., Manoukian

    2013-12-01

    The paper represents a rigorous treatment of the underlying quantum theory, not just in words but providing the underlying technical details, as to why matter occupies so large a volume and its intimate connection with the Pauli exclusion principle, as more and more matter is put together, as well as of the contraction or shrinkage of “bosonic matter”, upon collapse, for which the Pauli exclusion is abolished. From the derived explicit bounds of integrals of powers of the particle number densities, explicit bounds on probabilities of the occurrences of the events just described are extracted. These probabilities lead one to infer the change of the “size” or extension of such matter, upon expansion or contraction, respectively, as their content is increased.

  13. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  14. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  15. Non-coplanar automatic beam orientation selection in cranial IMRT: a practical methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants LLC, 130 Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Li Sicong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Kapellenstrasse 12, 85622 Feldkirchen (Germany)], E-mail: escalivat@jllacer.com, E-mail: sl1@unmc.edu, E-mail: NAgazaryan@mednet.ucla.edu, E-mail: claus.promberger@brainlab.com, E-mail: Timothy.Solberg@utsouthwestern.edu

    2009-03-07

    This paper proposes a method for automatic selection of beam orientations in non-coplanar cranial IMRT. Methods of computer vision, beam's eye view techniques and neural networks are used to define a new geometry-based methodology that leads to treatment plans for cranial lesions that are comparable in quality to those generated by experienced radiation physicists. The automatic beam selection (ABS) process can be carried out in clinically useful computation times, in 1 min or less for most cases. In the process of describing the ABS process, it is shown that the cranial beam orientation optimization problem is mathematically ill posed, with the expectation that a large number of solutions will lead to similar results. Nevertheless, there are better and worse solutions and we show that the proposed ABS process, by its design, has to lead to one of the better ones. We have carried out extensive tests with 14 patients with beam selection tasks ranging from the rather simple to quite complex. The ABS process has always yielded optimizations with results that are considered good for clinic use. Seven-beam coplanar optimizations for some of the patients have also been investigated. Comparisons with non-coplanar optimizations indicate in which cases the simpler coplanar plans can be used to advantage. Parameters used in the comparisons are dose-volume histograms, minimum and maximum PTV doses, equivalent uniform doses for the PTV and OARs, and treatment volume, conformity and normal tissue indices. It is felt that the current ABS methodology is ready for extensive clinical tests.

  16. Large volumes and spectroscopy of walking theories

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Patella, A; Pica, C; Rago, A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of finite size effects is performed for SU(2) gauge theory with two fermions in the adjoint representation, which previous lattice studies have shown to be inside the conformal window. The system is investigated with different spatial and temporal boundary conditions on lattices of various spatial and temporal extensions, for two values of the bare fermion mass representing a {\\em heavy} and {\\em light} fermion regime. Our study shows that the infinite volume limit of masses and decay constants in the mesonic sector is reached only when the mass of the pseudoscalar particle $M_\\mathrm{PS}$ and the spatial lattice size $L$ satisfy the relation $L M_\\mathrm{PS} \\ge 15$. This bound, which is at least a factor of three higher than what observed in QCD, is a likely consequence of the different spectral signatures of the two theories, with the scalar isosinglet ($0^{++}$ glueball) being the lightest particle in our model. In addition to stressing the importance of simulating large lattice s...

  17. The Persistence of the Large Volumes in Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-01-01

    Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.

  18. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches.

  19. MXene-on-Paper Coplanar Microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2016-09-05

    A simple and scalable direct laser machining process to fabricate MXene-on-paper coplanar microsupercapacitors is reported. Commercially available printing paper is employed as a platform in order to coat either hydrofluoric acid-etched or clay-like 2D Ti3C2 MXene sheets, followed by laser machining to fabricate thick-film MXene coplanar electrodes over a large area. The size, morphology, and conductivity of the 2D MXene sheets are found to strongly affect the electrochemical performance due to the efficiency of the ion-electron kinetics within the layered MXene sheets. The areal performance metrics of Ti3C2 MXene-on-paper microsupercapacitors show very competitive power-energy densities, comparable to the reported state-of-the-art paper-based microsupercapacitors. Various device architectures are fabricated using the MXene-on-paper electrodes and successfully demonstrated as a micropower source for light emitting diodes. The MXene-on-paper electrodes show promise for flexible on-paper energy storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio; Roman, Sabin

    2014-01-01

    Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, and extrapolate to thermodynamic limit when possible.

  1. Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio;

    2013-01-01

    Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, an...

  2. On the Effective Description of Large Volume Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Gallego, Diego

    2011-01-01

    We study the reliability of the Two-Step moduli stabilization in the type-IIB Large Volume Scenarios with matter and gauge interactions. The general analysis is based on a family of N=1 Supergravity models with a factorizable invariant Kaehler function, where the decoupling between two sets of fields without a mass hierarchy is easily understood. For the Large Volume Scenario particular analyses are performed for explicit models, one of such developed for the first time here, finding that the simplified version, where the Dilaton and Complex structure moduli are regarded as frozen by a previous stabilization, is a reliable supersymmetric description whenever the neglected fields stand at their leading F-flatness conditions and be neutral. The terms missed by the simplified approach are either suppressed by powers of the Calabi-Yau volume, or are higher order operators in the matter fields, and then irrelevant for the moduli stabilization rocedure. Although the power of the volume suppressing such corrections ...

  3. Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-15

    We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.

  4. Soft Supersymmetry Breaking in Anisotropic LARGE Volume Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We study soft supersymmetry breaking terms for anisotropic LARGE volume compactifications, where the bulk volume is set by a fibration with one small four-cycle and one large two-cycle. We consider scenarios where D7s wrap either a blow-up cycle or the small fibre cycle. Chiral matter can arise either from modes parallel or perpendicular to the brane. We compute soft terms for this matter and find that for the case where the D7 brane wraps the fibre cycle the scalar masses can be parametrically different, allowing a possible splitting of third-generation soft terms.

  5. Alleviating the window problem in large volume renormalization schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Korcyl, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    We propose a strategy for large volume non-perturbative renormalization which alleviates the window problem by reducing cut-off effects. We perform a proof-of-concept study using position space renormalization scheme and the CLS $N_f=2+1$ ensembles generated at 5 different lattice spacings. We show that in the advocated strategy results for the renormalization constants are to a large extend independent of the specific lattice direction used to define the renormalization condition. Hence, ver...

  6. Limited streamer chambers for the Large Volume Detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.; Cindolo, F.; Daniello, L.; Felici, M. De; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, D.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giardoni, M.; Laakso, I.; Lindozzi, M.; Pallante, E.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zallo, A.; Bari, G.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Contin, A.; Papa, C. Del; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Mencarini, D.; Kania, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Qazi, N.I.; Sarwar, S.; Mao, C.S.; Wu, Y.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tracking system of the Large Volume Detector, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use ~15000 limited streamer chambers. We describe a comparison between the standard binary mixture (30% argon + 70% isobutane) and a low-hydrocarbon ternary mixture (2% argon + 10%

  7. Limited streamer chambers for the Large Volume Detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.; Cindolo, F.; Daniello, L.; Felici, M. De; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, D.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giardoni, M.; Laakso, I.; Lindozzi, M.; Pallante, E.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zallo, A.; Bari, G.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Contin, A.; Papa, C. Del; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Mencarini, D.; Kania, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Qazi, N.I.; Sarwar, S.; Mao, C.S.; Wu, Y.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tracking system of the Large Volume Detector, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use ~15000 limited streamer chambers. We describe a comparison between the standard binary mixture (30% argon + 70% isobutane) and a low-hydrocarbon ternary mixture (2% argon + 10%

  8. A bulk inflaton from large volume extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Thurston, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    The universe may have extra spatial dimensions with large volume that we cannot perceive because the energy required to excite modes in the extra directions is too high. Many examples are known of such manifolds with a large volume and a large mass gap. These compactifications can help explain the weakness of four-dimensional gravity and, as we show here, they also have the capacity to produce reasonable potentials for an inflaton field. Modeling the inflaton as a bulk scalar field, it becomes very weakly coupled in four dimensions, and this enables us to build phenomenologically acceptable inflationary models with tunings at the few per mil level. We speculate on dark matter candidates and the possibility of braneless models in this setting.

  9. A bulk inflaton from large-volume extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Brian, E-mail: greene@physics.columbia.ed [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kabat, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kabat@lehman.cuny.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, CUNY, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Levin, Janna, E-mail: janna@astro.columbia.ed [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Thurston, Dylan, E-mail: dpt@cpw.math.columbia.ed [Department of Mathematics, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-01-03

    The universe may have extra spatial dimensions with large volume that we cannot perceive because the energy required to excite modes in the extra directions is too high. Many examples are known of manifolds with a large volume and a large mass gap. These compactifications can help explain the weakness of four-dimensional gravity and, as we show here, they also have the capacity to produce reasonable potentials for an inflaton field. Modeling the inflaton as a bulk scalar field, it becomes very weakly coupled in four dimensions and this enables us to build phenomenologically acceptable inflationary models with tunings at the few per mil level. We speculate on dark matter candidates and the possibility of braneless models in this setting.

  10. Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.

  11. Accessibility and Analysis to NASA's New Large Volume Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Gangl, M.; McAuley, J.; Toaz, R., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Each new satellite mission continues to measure larger volumes of data than the last. This is especially true with the new NASA satellite missions NISAR and SWOT, launching in 2020 and 2021, which will produce petabytes of data a year. A major concern is how will users be able to analyze such volumes? This presentation will show how cloud storage and analysis can help overcome and accommodate multiple users' needs. While users may only need gigabytes of data for their research, the data center will need to leverage the processing power of the cloud to perform search and subsetting capabilities over the large volume of data. There is also a vast array of user types that require different tools and services to access and analyze the data. Some users need global data to run climate models, while others require small, dynamic regions with lots of analysis and transformations. There will also be a need to generate data that have different inputs or correction algorithms that the project may not be able to provide as those will be very specialized for specific regions or evolve quicker than what the project can reprocess. By having the data and tools side by side, users will be able to access the data they require and analyze it all in one place. By placing data in the cloud, users can analyze the data there, shifting the current "download and analyze" paradigm to "log-in and analyze". The cloud will provide adequate processing power needed to analyze large volumes of data, subset small regions over large volumes of data, and regenerate/reformat data to the specificity each user requires.

  12. Large Nc volume reduction and chiral random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Wan; Yamada, Norikazu

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the understanding of the Eguchi-Kawai (EK) volume equivalence and growing interest in conformal window, we simultaneously use the large-Nc volume reduction and Chiral Random Matrix Theory (chRMT) to study the chiral symmetry breaking of four dimensional SU(Nc) gauge theory with adjoint fermions in the large Nc limit. Although some cares are required because the chRMT limit and 't Hooft limit are not compatible in general, we show that the breakdown of the chiral symmetry can be detected in large-Nc gauge theories. As a first step, we mainly focus on the quenched approximation to establish the methodology. We first confirm that heavy adjoint fermions, introduced as the center symmetry preserver, work as expected and thanks to them the volume reduction holds. Using massless overlap fermion as a probe, we then calculate the low-lying Dirac spectrum for fermion in the adjoint representation to compare to that of chRMT, and find that chiral symmetry is indeed broken in the quenched ...

  13. Monodomain dynamics for rigid rod and platelet suspensions in strongly coupled coplanar linear flow and magnetic fields. II. Kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, M. Gregory; Sircar, Sarthok; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ruhai

    2006-10-01

    We establish reciprocity relations of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory for rigid rod macromolecular suspensions governed by the strong coupling among an excluded volume potential, linear flow, and a magnetic field. The relation provides a reduction of the flow and field driven Smoluchowski equation: from five parameters for coplanar linear flows and magnetic field, to two field parameters. The reduced model distinguishes flows with a rotational component, which map to simple shear (with rate parameter) subject to a transverse magnetic field (with strength parameter), and irrotational flows, for which the reduced model consists of a triaxial extensional flow (with two extensional rate parameters). We solve the Smoluchowski equation of the reduced model to explore: (i) the effect of introducing a coplanar magnetic field on each sheared monodomain attractor of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory and (ii) the coupling of coplanar extensional flow and magnetic fields. For (i), we show each sheared attractor (steady and unsteady, with peak axis in and out of the shearing plane, periodic and chaotic orbits) undergoes its own transition sequence versus magnetic field strength. Nonetheless, robust predictions emerge: out-of-plane degrees of freedom are arrested with increasing field strength, and a unique flow-aligning or tumbling/wagging limit cycle emerges above a threshold magnetic field strength or modified geometry parameter value. For (ii), irrotational flows coupled with a coplanar magnetic field yield only steady states. We characterize all (generically biaxial) equilibria in terms of an explicit Boltzmann distribution, providing a natural generalization of analytical results on pure nematic equilibria [P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 174, 365 (2004); P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems 11, 101 (2004); P. Constantin and J. Vukadinovic, Nonlinearity 18, 441 (2005); H. Liu, H. Zhang, and P

  14. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm{sup 3}. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe{sub 2}.

  15. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D.; Kamenev, K. V.

    2011-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm3. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe2.

  16. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  17. Compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baust, Alexander; Haeberlein, Max; Goetz, Jan; Hoffmann, Elisabeth; Menzel, Edwin P.; Schwarz, Manuel J.; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany); Kalb, Norbert; Losinger, Thomas [Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The recent evolution of circuit quantum electrodynamics systems making use of standing-wave microwave modes towards setups for propagating quantum microwaves has triggered the need for low-loss superconducting microwave beam splitters. Such a device should have ports compatible with the coplanar geometry relevant for circuit QED and, at the same time, be compact allowing for scalability. This combination presents fundamental and technological challenges. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of various compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters. In addition, we discuss efforts towards a tunable beam splitter.

  18. Light propagation in a large volume liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Alimonti, G; Balata, M; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F P; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; Darnton, N; De Bari, A; Deutsch, M; Elisei, F; Feilitzsch, F V; Galbiati, C; Gatti, F; Giammarchi, M G; Giugni, D; Goldbrunner, T; Golubchikov, A; Goretti, A; Hagner, T; Hartmann, F X; Hentig, R V; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Johnson, M; Laubenstein, M; Lombardi, P; Magni, S; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Mazzucato, U; Meroni, E; Neff, M; Oberauer, L; Perotti, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Resconi, E; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schönert, S; Smirnov, O; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vogelaar, R B; Vitale, S; Zaimidoroga, O A

    2000-01-01

    The fluorescence light propagation in a large volume detector based on organic liquid scintillators is discussed. In particular, the effects of the fluor radiative transport and solvent Rayleigh scattering are emphasized. These processes have been modelled by a ray-tracing Monte Carlo method and have been experimentally investigated in the Borexino prototype which was a 4.3 ton, 4 pi sensitive detector. The comparison between the model prediction and the experimental data shows a satisfactory agreement indicating that the main aspects of these processes are well understood. Some features of the experimental time response of the detector are still under study.

  19. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, M. [LPTHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom); Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  20. Astrophysical and Cosmological Implications of Large Volume String Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph P

    2007-01-01

    We study the spectrum, couplings and cosmological and astrophysical implications of the moduli fields for the class of Calabi-Yau IIB string compactifications for which moduli stabilisation leads to an exponentially large volume V ~ 10^{15} l_s^6 and an intermediate string scale m_s ~ 10^{11}GeV, with TeV-scale observable supersymmetry breaking. All K\\"ahler moduli except for the overall volume are heavier than the susy breaking scale, with m ~ ln(M_P/m_{3/2}) m_{3/2} ~ (\\ln(M_P/m_{3/2}))^2 m_{susy} ~ 500 TeV and, contrary to standard expectations, have matter couplings suppressed only by the string scale rather than the Planck scale. These decay to matter early in the history of the universe, with a reheat temperature T ~ 10^7 GeV, and are free from the cosmological moduli problem (CMP). The heavy moduli have a branching ratio to gravitino pairs of 10^{-30} and do not suffer from the gravitino overproduction problem. The overall volume modulus is a distinctive feature of these models and is an M_{planck}-cou...

  1. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  2. Non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for craniopharyngiomas reduces radiation doses to the bilateral hippocampus: A planning study comparing dynamic conformal arc therapy, coplanar VMAT, and non-coplanar VMAT

    OpenAIRE

    Uto, Megumi; Mizowaki, Takashi; OGURA, KENGO; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that radiation-induced injuries to the hippocampus play important roles in compromising neurocognitive functioning for patients with brain tumors and it could be important to spare the hippocampus using modern planning methods for patients with craniopharyngiomas. As bilateral hippocampus are located on the same level as the planning target volume (PTV) in patients with craniopharyngioma, it seems possible to reduce doses to hippocampus using non-coplanar bea...

  3. SUSY’s Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY’s Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY’s Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  4. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  5. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  6. Volume visualization of multiple alignment of large genomicDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nameeta; Dillard, Scott E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Hamann, Bernd

    2005-07-25

    Genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced to date, and many more are being sequenced. As more and more sequence data sets become available, and as the challenge of comparing these massive ''billion basepair DNA sequences'' becomes substantial, so does the need for more powerful tools supporting the exploration of these data sets. Similarity score data used to compare aligned DNA sequences is inherently one-dimensional. One-dimensional (1D) representations of these data sets do not effectively utilize screen real estate. As a result, tools using 1D representations are incapable of providing informatory overview for extremely large data sets. We present a technique to arrange 1D data in 3D space to allow us to apply state-of-the-art interactive volume visualization techniques for data exploration. We demonstrate our technique using multi-millions-basepair-long aligned DNA sequence data and compare it with traditional 1D line plots. The results show that our technique is superior in providing an overview of entire data sets. Our technique, coupled with 1D line plots, results in effective multi-resolution visualization of very large aligned sequence data sets.

  7. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  8. Physical and plasmachemical aspects of diffuse coplanar barrier discharge as a novel atmospheric-pressure plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernak, M.; Kovacik, D.; Zahoranova, A.; Rahel, J.

    2008-07-01

    Collaborating Czech and Slovakian university teams have recently developed an innovative plasma source, the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD), which has the potential to move a step closer to the industry requirement for in-line treatment of low-added-value materials using a highly-nonequlibrium ambient air plasma (Simor et al. 2002, The idea is to generate a thin (on the order of 0.1 mm) layer of highly-nonequlibrium plasma with a high power density (up to 100 W/cm^3) in the immediate vicinity of the treated surface and bring it into a close contact with the treated surface. Comparing to atmospheric-pressure glow discharge, volume dielectric barrier discharge, and plasma jet plasmas, such a diffuse plasma layer is believed to provide substantial advantages in energy consumption, exposure time, and technical simplicity. A brief outline of physical mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD will given using the results of emission spectroscopy, high-speed camera, and spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy studies. The presentation will review also a current state of the art in in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DCSBD). The results obtained on the ambient air plasma treatments of textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.

  9. Tunable coplanar waveguide resonator with nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周渝; 郏涛; 翟计全; 汪橙; 钟先茜; 曹志敏; 孙国柱; 康琳; 吴培亨

    2015-01-01

    A tunable superconducting half-wavelength coplanar waveguide resonator (CPWR) with Nb parallel nanowires ∼300 nm in width embedded in the center conductor was designed, fabricated, and measured. The frequency shift and the amplitude attenuation of the resonance peak under irradiation of 404-nm pulse laser were observed with different light powers at 4.2 K. The RF power supplied to such a CPWR can serve as current bias, which will affect the light response of the resonator.

  10. Astrophysical and cosmological implications of large volume string compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Quevedo, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    We study the spectrum, couplings and cosmological and astrophysical implications of the moduli fields for the class of Calabi Yau IIB string compactifications for which moduli stabilisation leads to an exponentially large volume \\mathcal {V} \\sim 10^{15} l_{\\mathrm {s}}^6 and an intermediate string scale ms~1011 GeV, with TeV-scale observable supersymmetry breaking. All Kähler moduli except for the overall volume are heavier than the susy (supersymmetry) breaking scale, with m~ln(MP/m3/2)m3/2~(ln(MP/m3/2))2msusy~500 TeV and, contrary to standard expectations, have matter couplings suppressed only by the string scale rather than the Planck scale. These decay to matter early in the history of the universe, with a reheat temperature T~107 GeV, and are free from the cosmological moduli problem (CMP). The heavy moduli have a branching ratio to gravitino pairs of 10-30 and do not suffer from the gravitino overproduction problem. The overall volume modulus is a distinctive feature of these models and is an Mplanck-coupled scalar of mass m~1 MeV and subject to the CMP. A period of thermal inflation may help relax this problem. This field has a lifetime τ~1024 s and can contribute to dark matter. It may be detected through its decays to γγ or e+e-. If accessible the e+e- decay mode dominates, with \\mathrm {Br}(\\chi \\to \\gamma \\gamma) suppressed by a factor (ln(MP/m3/2))2. We consider the potential for detection of this field through different astrophysical sources: the Milky Way halo, the diffuse cosmic background and nearby galaxy clusters and find that the observed gamma ray background constrains \\Omega_{\\chi } \\lesssim 10^{-4} . The decays of this field may generate the 511 keV emission line from the galactic centre observed by INTEGRAL/SPI.

  11. Preliminary Results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) Deformation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A. J.; Couvy, H.; Skemer, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) apparatus, currently under development in the rock deformation lab at Washington University in St. Louis. The LVT is designed to deform disk-shaped samples (~4 mm in diameter) in torsion at lower-crustal to upper-mantle pressure and temperature conditions. Conceptually, the LVT complements and is similar in design to the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) (Yamakazi & Karato, 2001), which deforms smaller samples at higher pressures. As part of our recent development efforts, benchmarking experiments were performed on Carrara marble. Samples were deformed in torsion at a strain rate of ~5 x 10-5 s-1 to moderate shear strains (γ ≤ 10) under lower crustal conditions (800°C, 2 GPa confining pressure). Microstructural observations from optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show evidence for relict grain elongation and alignment; an increase in calcite twin density; and grain size reduction concurrent with recrystallized grain nucleation. Microstructural observations are comparable to data obtained from previous studies at lower pressure (e.g. Barnhoorn et al., 2004), confirming that the LVT provides reliable microstructural results.

  12. Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation ($\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$. It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields. The latter decay channel avoids the most stringent constraints of the sequestered setting. Nevertheless, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small "by accident" as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised ...

  13. Testing large volume water treatment and crude oil ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) partnered with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to build the Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) at the INL test site outside of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The WSTB was built using an 8-inch (20 cm) diameter cement-mortar lined drinking water pipe that was previously taken out of service. The pipe was exhumed from the INL grounds and oriented in the shape of a small drinking water distribution system. Effluent from the pipe is captured in a lagoon. The WSTB can support drinking water distribution system research on a variety of drinking water treatment topics including biofilms, water quality, sensors, and homeland security related contaminants. Because the WSTB is constructed of real drinking water distribution system pipes, research can be conducted under conditions similar to those in a real drinking water system. In 2014, WSTB pipe was experimentally contaminated with Bacillus globigii spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for the pathogenic B. anthracis, and then decontaminated using chlorine dioxide. In 2015, the WSTB was used to perform the following experiments: • Four mobile disinfection technologies were tested for their ability to disinfect large volumes of biologically contaminated “dirty” water from the WSTB. B. globigii spores acted as the biological contaminant. The four technologies evaluated included: (1) Hayward Saline C™ 6.0 Chlorination System, (2) Advanced Oxidation Process (A

  14. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  15. High-Tc superconductor coplanar waveguide filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Bajuk, Louis J.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Foote, Marc C.; Hunt, Brian D.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Riley, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide (CPW) low-pass filters made of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) on LaAlO3 substrates, with dimensions suited for integrated circuits, were fabricated and packaged. A complete filter gives a true idea of the advantages and difficulties in replacing thin-film metal with a high-temperature superconductor in a practical circuit. Measured insertion losses in liquid nitrogen were superior to the loss of a similar thin-film copper filter throughout the 0- to 9.5-GHz passband. These results demonstrate the performance of fully patterned YBCO in a practical CPW structure after sealing in a hermetic package.

  16. Comparison of coplanar and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Hung-Chi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the differences in dose-volume data among coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, noncoplanar IMRT, and helical tomotherapy (HT among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and portal vein thrombosis (PVT. Methods Nine patients with unresectable HCC and PVT underwent step and shoot coplanar IMRT with intent to deliver 46 - 54 Gy to the tumor and portal vein. The volume of liver received 30Gy was set to keep less than 30% of whole normal liver (V30 Results HT provided better uniformity for the planning-target volume dose coverage than both IMRT techniques. The noncoplanar IMRT technique reduces the V10 to normal liver with a statistically significant level as compared to HT. The constraints for the liver in the V30 for coplanar IMRT vs. noncoplanar IMRT vs. HT could be reconsidered as 21% vs. 17% vs. 17%, respectively. When delivering 50 Gy and 60-66 Gy to the tumor bed, the constraints of mean dose to the normal liver could be less than 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. Conclusion Noncoplanar IMRT and HT are potential techniques of radiation therapy for HCC patients with PVT. Constraints for the liver in IMRT and HT could be stricter than for 3DCRT.

  17. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  18. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  19. NEW RESULTS FROM TESTING OF COPLANAR-GRID CDZNTE DETECTOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARINI, G.A.; ET AL.

    2005-07-31

    New results from studies of coplanar-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors are presented. The coplanar-grid detectors, were investigated by using a highly collimated X-ray beam available at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source and by applying a pulse-shape analysis. The coplanar-grid detector operates as a single-carrier device. Despite the fact that its operational principle is well known and has been investigated by many groups in the past, we found some new details that may explain the performance limits of these types of devices. The experimental results have been confirmed by extensive computer modeling.

  20. Special Properties of Coherence Scanning Interferometers for large Measurement Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W, E-mail: W.bauer@polytec.de [Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

    2011-08-19

    In contrast to many other optical methods the uncertainty of Coherence Scanning Interferometer (CSI) in vertical direction is independent from the field of view. Therefore CSIs are ideal instruments for measuring 3D-profiles of larger areas (36x28mm{sup 2}, e.g.) with high precision. This is of advantage for the determination of form parameters like flatness, parallelism and steps heights within a short time. In addition, using a telecentric beam path allows measurements of deep lying surfaces (<70mm) and the determination of form parameters with large step-heights. The lateral and spatial resolution, however, are reduced. In this presentation different metrological characteristics together with their potential errors are analyzed for large-scale measuring CSIs. Therefore these instruments are ideal tools in quality control for good/bad selections, e.g. The consequences for the practical use in industry and for standardization are discussed by examples of workpieces of automotive suppliers or from the steel industry.

  1. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joseph D; Baird, James K; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M; Hodge, Teresa A; Huang, Sijay

    2015-04-01

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. These include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  2. Optimal impulsive ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The problem of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity was investigated in this paper.With reference frame established in the centroid of the target spacecraft,the process of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous was described by the relative equations based on cy-lindrical reference frame,and then the solutions and distributions of optimal rendezvous models of a kind of close ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous were provided.The simulation results showed that the guidance law based on the optimal rendezvous model in this research has good performance,and that the distributions of optimal rendezvous models of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with the chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity are similar,albeit with slight difference,to those of rendezvous between close circular orbits.The work in this paper is a useful extension to Prussing’s optimal ren-dezvous theory between close circular orbits.

  3. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  4. Development of Gas Ionization Chambers with Coplanar Electrodes for Alpha-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Tanaka, Naomichi; Murakami, Kohei; Kusano, Hiroki; Shibamura, Eido; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro

    A large-area alpha-ray spectrometer is required to measure the low level alpha emitters in environmental samples, which may be distributed in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. A gas ionization chamber with a coplanar electrode has attractive features such as with mechanical ruggedness, easy handling, easy fabrication of large electrode, and relatively well-known performance. We have investigated the performance of a gas ionization chamber with a coplanar electrode for alpha-ray spectrometry, particularly in the energy resolution. The present experiment shows that the energy resolution in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 129 keV (= 2.7%) for alpha-rays from Np with an energy of 4.78 MeV, 120 keV (= 2.2%) for those with 5.49 MeV from Am, and 109 keV (= 1.9%) for those with 5.81 MeV from Cm. It is found that the energy resolution obtained at the present experiment is dominated in the electronic noise caused by the large capacitance existed between the collecting anode (CA) and non-collecting anode (NCA) in the coplanar electrode.

  5. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  6. [INFLUENCE OF LIPOSUCTION OF LARGE VOLUME ON SYSTEMIC AND LUNG CIRCULATION, OXIGENATED LUNG FUNCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, I P; Kapranova, A S; Popova, V B; Lodyagin, A N; Frolova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The authors measured the changes of hemodynamics in 72 patients. It was also estimated a blood oxygenation and volume of liquid sectors of the organism in different degree of obesity before and after liposuction of the large volume. It was shown, that this operation facilitated to an improvement of respiratory lung function due to changes of pulmonary circulation.

  7. Ultrathin low-frequency sound absorbing panels based on coplanar spiral tubes or coplanar Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaobing; Guo, Qiuquan; Hu, Gengkai; Yang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Performance of classic sound absorbing materials strictly depends on their thickness, with a minimum of one-quarter wavelength to reach full sound absorption. In this paper, we report ultrathin sound absorbing panels that completely absorb sound energy with a thickness around one percent of wavelength. The strategy is to bend and coil up quarter-wavelength sound damping tubes into 2D coplanar ones, and embed them into a matrix to form sound absorbing panel. Samples have been designed and fabricated by 3D printing. Efficacies of sound absorption by these panels were validated through good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental measurements.

  8. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  9. LHC data and cosmic ray coplanarity at superhigh energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedshin, Rauf

    2016-01-01

    A new phenomenological model FANSY 2.0 is designed, which makes it possible to simulate hadron interactions via traditional QGSM-type particle generation as well as coplanar generation of most energetic particles, observed in cosmic ray experiments. FANSY 2.0 reproduces a lot of LHC (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, LHCf) data. Results of model simulations are compared with LHC data. Problems of coplanarity are considered and a testing experiment is proposed.

  10. Sand tank experiment of a large volume biodiesel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, K.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the subsurface have been well studied, the impacts of subsurface releases of highly degradable alternative fuels, including biodiesel, are not as well understood. One concern is the generation of CH4­ which may lead to explosive conditions in underground structures. In addition, the biodegradation of biodiesel consumes O2 that would otherwise be available for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons that may be present at a site. Until now, biodiesel biodegradation in the vadose zone has not been examined in detail, despite being critical to understanding the full impact of a release. This research involves a detailed study of a laboratory release of 80 L of biodiesel applied at surface into a large sandtank to examine the progress of biodegradation reactions. The experiment will monitor the onset and temporal evolution of CH4 generation to provide guidance for site monitoring needs following a biodiesel release to the subsurface. Three CO2 and CH4 flux chambers have been deployed for long term monitoring of gas emissions. CO2 fluxes have increased in all chambers over the 126 days since the start of the experiment. The highest CO2 effluxes are found directly above the spill and have increased from < 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1 to ~3.8 μmol m-2 s-1, indicating an increase in microbial activity. There were no measurable CH4 fluxes 126 days into the experiment. Sensors were emplaced to continuously measure O2, CO2, moisture content, matric potential, EC, and temperature. In response to the release, CO2 levels have increased across all sensors, from an average value of 0.1% to 0.6% 126 days after the start of the experiment, indicating the rapid onset of biodegradation. The highest CO2 values observed from samples taken in the gas ports were 2.5%. Average O2 concentrations have decreased from 21% to 17% 126 days after the start of the experiment. O2 levels in the bottom central region of the sandtank declined to approximately 12%.

  11. Large Variations in Ice Volume During the Middle Eocene "Doubthouse"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawber, C. F.; Tripati, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    The onset of glacial conditions in the Cenozoic is widely held to have begun ~34 million years ago, coincident with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary1. Warm and high pCO2 'greenhouse' intervals such as the Eocene are generally thought to be ice-free2. Yet the sequence stratigraphic record supports the occurrence of high-frequency sea-level change of tens of meters in the Middle and Late Eocene3, and large calcite and seawater δ18O excursions (~0.5-1.0 permil) have been reported in foraminifera from open ocean sediments4. As a result, the Middle Eocene is often considered the intermediary "doubthouse". The extent of continental ice during the 'doubthouse' is controversial, with estimates of glacioeustatic sea level fall ranging from 30 to 125m2,3,5. We present a new δ18Osw reconstruction for Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 1209 in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the first continuous high-resolution record for an open-ocean site that is not directly influenced by changes in the carbonate compensation depth, which enables us to circumvent many of the limitations of existing records. Our record shows increases of 0.8 ± 0.2 (1 s.e) permil and 1.1 ± 0.2 permil at ~44-45 and ~42-41 Ma respectively, which suggests glacioeustatic sea level variations of ~90 m during the Middle Eocene. Modelling studies have shown that fully glaciating Antarctica during the Eocene should drive a change in seawater (δ18Osw) of 0.45 permil, and lower sea level by ~55 m6. Our results therefore support significant ice storage in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere during the Middle Eocene 'doubthouse'. 1.Miller, Kenneth G. et al., 1990, Eocene-Oligocene sea-level changes in the New Jersey coastal plain linked to the deep-sea record. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102, 331-339 2.Pagani, M. et al., 2005, Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309 (5734), 600-603. 3.Browning, J., Miller, K., and Pak, D., 1996, Global implications

  12. LARGE VOLUME IONIZATION CHAMBER USED AS LABORATORY REFERENCE FOR LOW ENERGY X—RAY MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国山; 薛永库; 等

    1994-01-01

    A large volume spherical ionization chamber of 195mm diameter and 0.36mg/cm2 wall thickness made from conducting carbon-fibre epoxy composite material has been developed.The mechanical intensity of the chamber is satisfactory for a good longterm volume stability.Owing to its large volume and thin wall,the chamber is sensitive to low energy photon beams and has excellent energy-response characteristics.This ionization chamber is suitable not only for a laboratory reference but also for measurement of low energy photon beam exposure rates at protection-level.

  13. Large volume production of large size GaAs substrates and epitaxial wafers for microwave devices

    OpenAIRE

    Otoki, Y.; Kamogawa, H.; Ohnishi, M.; Inada, T.; Kashiwa, M.; Sakaguchi, H.

    1999-01-01

    Recent mass production techniques for LEC substrates and MOVPE wafers for microwave devices are described. Huge GaAs semi-insulating ingots (150mm diam., 310mm long) was obtained by Multi-hot-zone very large size pullar. Three step boule annealing and fully-automated process enabled mass production of the large size substrates. Epitaxiial wafers with abrupt hetero interface, excellent uniformity and reproducibility are producing largely by face down horizontal flow type MOVPE system, which ca...

  14. SU-E-T-436: Fluence-Based Trajectory Optimization for Non-Coplanar VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, G; Bamber, JC; Bedford, JL [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Evans, PM [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Saran, FH; Mandeville, HC [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a fluence-based trajectory optimization technique for non-coplanar VMAT for brain cancer. Methods: Single-arc non-coplanar VMAT trajectories were determined using a heuristic technique for five patients. Organ at risk (OAR) volume intersected during raytracing was minimized for two cases: absolute volume and the sum of relative volumes weighted by OAR importance. These trajectories and coplanar VMAT formed starting points for the fluence-based optimization method. Iterative least squares optimization was performed on control points 24° apart in gantry rotation. Optimization minimized the root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of PTV dose from the prescription (relative importance 100), maximum dose to the brainstem (10), optic chiasm (5), globes (5) and optic nerves (5), plus mean dose to the lenses (5), hippocampi (3), temporal lobes (2), cochleae (1) and brain excluding other regions of interest (1). Control point couch rotations were varied in steps of up to 10° and accepted if the cost function improved. Final treatment plans were optimized with the same objectives in an in-house planning system and evaluated using a composite metric - the sum of optimization metrics weighted by importance. Results: The composite metric decreased with fluence-based optimization in 14 of the 15 plans. In the remaining case its overall value, and the PTV and OAR components, were unchanged but the balance of OAR sparing differed. PTV RMS deviation was improved in 13 cases and unchanged in two. The OAR component was reduced in 13 plans. In one case the OAR component increased but the composite metric decreased - a 4 Gy increase in OAR metrics was balanced by a reduction in PTV RMS deviation from 2.8% to 2.6%. Conclusion: Fluence-based trajectory optimization improved plan quality as defined by the composite metric. While dose differences were case specific, fluence-based optimization improved both PTV and OAR dosimetry in 80% of cases.

  15. Optimization and experimental verification of coplanar interdigital electroadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Bamber, T.; Chamberlain, M.; Justham, L.; Jackson, M.

    2016-10-01

    A simplified and novel theoretical model for coplanar interdigital electroadhesives has been presented in this paper. The model has been verified based on a mechatronic and reconfigurable testing platform, and a repeatable testing procedure. The theoretical results have shown that, for interdigital electroadhesive pads to achieve the maximum electroadhesive forces on non-conductive substrates, there is an optimum electrode width/space between electrodes (width/space) ratio, approximately 1.8. On conductive substrates, however, the width/space ratio should be as large as possible. The 2D electrostatic simulation results have shown that, the optimum ratio is significantly affected by the existence of the air gap and substrate thickness variation. A novel analysis of the force between the electroadhesive pad and the substrate has highlighted the inappropriateness to derive the normal forces by the division of the measured shear forces and the friction coefficients. In addition, the electroadhesive forces obtained in a 5 d period in an ambient environment have highlighted the importance of controlling the environment when testing the pads to validate the models. Based on the confident experimental platform and procedure, the results obtained have validated the theoretical results. The results are useful insights for the investigation into environmentally stable and optimized electroadhesives.

  16. Electrolyte and Haemogram changes post large volume liposuction comparing two different tumescent solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common definitions of large volume liposuction refer to total 5 l volume aspiration during a single procedure (fat plus wetting solution. Profound haemodynamic and metabolic alterations can accompany large volume liposuction. Due to paucity of literature on the effect of different tumescent solutions on the electrolyte balance and haematological changes during large volume liposuction, we carried out this study using two different wetting solutions to study the same. Materials and Methods: Total 30 patients presenting with varying degrees of localized lipodystrophy in different body regions were enrolled for the study. Prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted by Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi from January 2011 to June 2012. Patients were randomized into two groups of 15 patients each by using computer generated random numbers. Tumescent formula used for Group A (normal saline [NS] was our modification of Klein′s Formula and Tumescent formula used for Group B (ringer lactate [RL] was our modification of Hunstadt′s formula. Serum electrolytes and hematocrit levels were done at preinduction, immediate postoperative period and postoperative day 1. Result: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Which showed statistically significant electrolytes and hematocrit changes occur during large volume liposuction. Conclusion: Statistically significant electrolytes and hematocrit changes occur during large volume liposuction and patients should be kept under observation of anaesthesist for at least 24 h. Patients require strict monitoring of vital parameters and usually Intensive Care Unit is not required. There was no statistical difference in the electrolyte changes using NS or RL as tumescent solution and both solutions were found safe for large volume liposuction.

  17. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom) and National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: o.rotariu@abdn.ac.uk; Ogden, Iain D. [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); MacRae, Marion [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Badescu, Vasile [National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania); Strachan, Norval J.C. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<1 pathogenic bacteria per ml) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a flow through immunomagnetic separator (FTIMS) has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (>50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method.

  18. Coplanar VMAT vs. noncoplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-Hua, Ning; Jing-Ting, Jiang; Xiao-Dong, Li; Jin-Ming, Mu; Jun-Chong, Mo; Jian-Xue, Jin; Ming, Gao; Qi-Lin, Li; Wen-Dong, Gu; Lu-Jun, Chen; Hong-Lei, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (NC-IMRT) for sinonasal cancer is superior to coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a newly introduced treatment modality, and the performance of noncoplanar VMAT for sinonasal cancer has not been well described to date. To compare the dosimetry difference of noncoplanar VMAT (NC-VMAT), coplanar VMAT (co-VMAT), and NC-IMRT for sinonasal cancer. Ten postoperative patients with sinonasal cancer were randomly selected for planning with NC-VMAT, co-VMAT, and NC-IMRT. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured representing high-risk and low-risk regions set to receive a median absorbed dose (D50%) of 68 Gy and 59 Gy, respectively. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and delivery efficiency were all evaluated. Both NC-VMAT and co-VMAT showed superior dose homogeneity and conformity in PTVs compared with NC-IMRT. There was no significant difference between NC-VMAT and co-VMAT in PTV coverage. Both VMAT plans provided a better protection for organs at risk (OARs) than NC-IMRT plans, and NC-VMAT showed a small improvement over co-VMAT in sparing of OARs. For peripheral doses, the doses to breast, thyroid, and larynx in the NC-IMRT plans were significantly higher than those in both VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT significantly reduced peripheral doses. NC-VMAT and co-VMAT reduced the average delivery time by 63.2 and 64.2%, respectively, in comparison with NC-IMRT. No differences in delivery efficiency were observed between the two VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and comparable OAR sparing but significantly reduced peripheral doses and positioning uncertainty. We propose to give priority to coplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer.

  19. Refined universal laws for hull volumes and perimeters in large planar maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2017-07-01

    We consider ensembles of planar maps with two marked vertices at distance k from each other, and look at the closed line separating these vertices and lying at distance d from the first one (d  faces within the hull is called the hull volume, and the length of the separating line the hull perimeter. We study the statistics of the hull volume and perimeter for arbitrary d and k in the limit of infinitely large planar quadrangulations, triangulations and Eulerian triangulations. We consider more precisely situations where both d and k become large with the ratio d/k remaining finite. For infinitely large maps, two regimes may be encountered: either the hull has a finite volume and its complementary is infinitely large, or the hull itself has an infinite volume and its complementary is of finite size. We compute the probability for the map to be in either regime as a function of d/k as well as a number of universal statistical laws for the hull perimeter and volume when maps are conditioned to be in one regime or the other.

  20. Research on Controlled Volume Operation Method of Large-scale Water Transfer Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; XU Duo; XIAO Hua

    2011-01-01

    The controlled volume method of operation is especially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system with complex operation requirements. An operating simulation model based on the storage volume control method for multi-reach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved controlled volume algorithm of the whole canal pools was proposed, and the simulation results indicated that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool could be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm had been adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, if the previously mentioned algorithm was adopted, then it certainly would cause some unnecessary gate adjustments, and consequently the disturbed canal pools would be increased. Therefore, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and corresponding algorithm was designed. Through simulating practical project, the results indicated that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating conditions could comparatively and obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturb canal pools for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, thus the control efficiency of canal system could be improved.

  1. Optimization of the electric field distribution in a large volume tissue-equivalent proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, P.K.; Waker, A.J. (Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1992-10-01

    Large volume tissue-equivalent proportional counters are of interest in radiation protection metrology, as the sensitivity in terms of counts per unit absorbed dose in these devices increases as the square of the counter diameter. Conventional solutions to the problem of maintaining a uniform electric field within a counter result in sensitive volume to total volume ratios which are unacceptably low when counter dimensions of the order of 15 cm diameter are considered and when overall compactness is an important design criterion. This work describes the design and optimization of an arrangement of field discs set at different potentials which enable sensitive volume to total volume ratios to approach unity. The method has been used to construct a 12.7 cm diameter right-cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter in which the sensitive volume accounts for over 95% of the total device volume and the gas gain uniformity is maintained to within 3% along the entire length of the anode wire. (author).

  2. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, C. [ed.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G. [and others

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  3. A universal and flexible theodolite-camera system for making accurate measurements over large volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Zhu, Zhaokun; Yuan, Yun; Li, Lichun; Sun, Xiangyi; Yu, Qifeng; Ou, Jianliang

    2012-11-01

    Typically, optical measurement systems can achieve high accuracy over a limited volume, or cover a large volume with low accuracy. In this paper, we propose a universal way of integrating a camera with a theodolite to construct a theodolite-camera (TC) measurement system that can make measurements over a large volume with high accuracy. The TC inherits the advantages of high flexibility and precision from theodolite and camera, but it avoids the need to perform elaborate adjustments on the camera and theodolite. The TC provides a universal and flexible approach to the camera-on-theodolite system. We describe three types of TC based separately on: (i) a total station; (ii) a theodolite; and (iii) a general rotation frame. We also propose three corresponding calibration methods for the different TCs. Experiments have been conducted to verify the measuring accuracy of each of the three types of TC.

  4. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  5. The impact of large tidal volume ventilation on the absorption of inhaled insulin in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Heide; Laursen, Torben; Ahrén, Bo;

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ventilation patterns affect absorption of inhaled compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of large tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) on the absorption of inhaled insulin in rabbits. Mechanically ventilated rabbits were given human insuli...

  6. Populating the Large-Wavevector Realm: Bloch Volume Plasmon Polaritons in Hyperbolic and Extremely Anisotropic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Optics of hyperbolic metamaterials is revisited in terms of large-wavevector waves, evanescent in isotropic media but propagating in presence of extreme anisotropy. Identifying the physical nature of these waves as Bloch volume plasmon polaritons, we derive their existence conditions and outline...... the strategy for tailoring their properties in multiscale metamaterials....

  7. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  8. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and silic

  9. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabu

  10. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderson, Michael, E-mail: michael.balderson@rmp.uhn.ca; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic–based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15 mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  11. Effect of electron transport properties on unipolar CdZnTe radiation detectors: LUND, SpectrumPlus, and Coplanar Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph B. James

    2000-01-07

    Device simulations of (1) the laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND), (2) the SpectrumPlus, (3) and the coplanar grid made of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were performed for {sup 137}Cs irradiation by 662.15 keV gamma-rays. Realistic and controlled simulations of the gamma-ray interactions with the CZT material were done using the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo program, and the detector responses were simulated using the Sandia three-dimensional multielectrode simulation program (SandTMSP). The simulations were done for the best and the worst expected carrier nobilities and lifetimes of currently commercially available CZT materials for radiation detector applications. For the simulated unipolar devices, the active device volumes were relatively large and the energy resolutions were fairly good, but these performance characteristics were found to be very sensitive to the materials properties. The internal electric fields, the weighting potentials, and the charge induced efficiency maps were calculated to give insights into the operation of these devices.

  12. Hot Jupiters from Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Cristobal

    2015-05-01

    We study the possibility that hot Jupiters (HJs) are formed through the secular gravitational interactions between two planets in eccentric orbits with relatively low mutual inclinations (≲ 20{}^\\circ ) and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We term this migration mechanism Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration (CHEM) because, like disk migration, it allows for migration to occur on the same plane in which the planets formed. CHEM can operate from the following typical initial configurations: (i) the inner planet in a circular orbit and the outer planet with an eccentricity ≳ 0.67 for {{m}in}/{{m}out}{{({{a}in}/{{a}out})}1/2}≲ 0.3; (ii) two eccentric (≳ 0.5) orbits for {{m}in}/{{m}out}{{({{a}in}/{{a}out})}1/2}≲ 0.16. A population synthesis study of hierarchical systems of two giant planets using the observed eccentricity distribution of giant planets shows that CHEM produces HJs with low stellar obliquities (≲ 30{}^\\circ ), with a semi-major axis distribution that matches the observations, and at a rate that can account for their observed occurrence. A different mechanism is needed to create large obliquity HJs, either a different migration channel or a mechanism that tilts the star or the protoplanetary disk. CHEM predicts that HJs should have distant (a≳ 5 AU) and massive (most likely ˜1-3 times more massive than the HJ) companions with relatively low mutual inclinations (≲ 20{}^\\circ ) and moderately high eccentricities (e˜ 0.2-0.5).

  13. Line segment matching and reconstruction via exploiting coplanar cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Yao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new system for reconstructing 3D scenes from Line Segments (LS) on images. A new LS matching algorithm and a novel 3D LS reconstruction algorithm are incorporated into the system. Two coplanar cues that indicates image LSs are coplanar in physical (3D) space are extensively exploited in both algorithms: (1) adjacent image LSs are coplanar in space in a high possibility; (2) the projections of coplanar 3D LSs in two images are related by the same planar homography. Based on these two cues, we efficiently match LSs from two images firstly in pairs through matching the V-junctions formed by adjacent LSs, and secondly in individuals by exploiting local homographies. We extract for each V-junction a scale and affine invariant local region to match V-junctions from two images. The local homographies estimated from V-junction matches are used to match LSs in individuals. To get 3D LSs from the obtained LS matches, we propose to first estimate space planes from clustered LS matches and then back-project image LSs onto the space planes. Markov Random Field (MRF) is introduced to help more reliable LS match clustering. Experiments shows our LS matching algorithm significantly improves the efficiency of state-of-the-art methods while achieves comparable matching performance, and our 3D LS reconstruction algorithm generates more complete and detailed 3D scene models using much fewer images.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of a Coplanar Airborne Separation Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Brantegem, K. C. R.; Van Paassen, M. M.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, an active conflict resolution task and a passive situation awareness assessment, were conducted that compared two versions of a constraint-based coplanar airborne separation assistance display. A baseline display showed a maneuver space based on 2-D projections of traffic and perfor

  15. Thin foil silicon solar cells with coplanar back contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, F.; Iles, P. A.; Baraona, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    To fabricate 50 microns thick, coplanar back contact (CBC) silicon solar cells, wraparound junction design was selected and proved to be effective. The process sequence used, the cell design, and the cell performance are described. CBC cells with low solar absorptance have shown AMO efficiencies to 13%, high cells up to 14%; further improvements are projected with predictable optimization.

  16. GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation.

  17. Understanding Subcutaneous Tissue Pressure for Engineering Injection Devices for Large-Volume Protein Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Diane V; Clawson, Corbin Z; Lambert, William; Subramony, J Anand

    2016-07-01

    Subcutaneous injection allows for self-administration of monoclonal antibodies using prefilled syringes, autoinjectors, and on-body injector devices. However, subcutaneous injections are typically limited to 1 mL due to concerns of injection pain from volume, viscosity, and formulation characteristics. Back pressure can serve as an indicator for changes in subcutaneous mechanical properties leading to pain during injection. The purpose of this study was to investigate subcutaneous pressures and injection site reactions as a function of injection volume and flow rate. A pressure sensor in the fluid path recorded subcutaneous pressures in the abdomen of Yorkshire swine. The subcutaneous tissue accommodates large-volume injections and with little back pressure as long as low flow rates are used. A 1 mL injection in 10 seconds (360 mL/h flow rate) generated a pressure of 24.0 ± 3.4 kPa, whereas 10 mL delivered in 10 minutes (60 mL/h flow rate) generated a pressure of 7.4 ± 7.8 kPa. After the injection, the pressure decays to 0 over several seconds. The subcutaneous pressures and mechanical strain increased with increasing flow rate but not increasing dose volume. These data are useful for the design of injection devices to mitigate back pressure and pain during subcutaneous large-volume injection. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large Eddy Simulations of Volume Restriction Effects on Canopy-Induced Increased-Uplift Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstratiou, E.; Bohrer, G.; Velissariou, V.

    2012-12-01

    ABSTRACT Previous modeling and empirical work have shown the development of important areas of increased uplift past forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones past backward-facing steps. Forests edges represent a special kind of step - a semi-porous one. Current models of the effects of forest edges on the flow represent the forest with a prescribed drag term and does not account for the effects of the solid volume in the forest that restrict the airflow. The RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) resolves flows inside and above forested canopies. RAFLES is spatially explicit, and uses the finite volume method to solve a descretized set of Navier-Stokes equations. It accounts for vegetation drag effects on the flow and on the flux exchange between the canopy and the canopy air, proportional to the local leaf density. For a better representation of the vegetation structure in the numerical grid within the canopy sub-domain, the model uses a modified version of the cut cell coordinate system. The hard volume of vegetation elements, in forests, or buildings, in urban environments, within each numerical grid cell is represented via a sub-grid-scale process that shrinks the open apertures between grid cells and reduces the open cell volume. We used RAFLES to simulate the effects of a canopy of varying foliage and stem densities on flow over virtual qube-shaped barriers under neutrally buoyant conditions. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the leaf drag by comparing drag-only simulations, where we prescribed no volume or aperture restriction to the flow, restriction-only simulations, where we prescribed no drag, and control simulations, where both drag and volume plus aperture restriction were included. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to obstacles to flow is important (figure 1) and leads to differences in the

  19. Comportamiento de Laminaciones Coplanares y No Coplanares en Acero API5L X52 Simuladas mediante Elementos Finitos Behavior of Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Laminations in API5L X52 Steel Simulated by Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Servin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el comportamiento mecánico de laminaciones simples y escalonadas modeladas por elementos finitos en condiciones no lineales de esfuerzo-deformación, para comprender la secuencia de la interacción de los campos de esfuerzos en los extremos de la grietas. Se estableció una matriz de simulación variando la extensión circunferencial de las laminaciones, con espesor del tubo de 610mm de diámetro, con separación vertical y horizontal para el caso de laminaciones escalonadas. Se determino la función de distribución de esfuerzos en la región de las laminaciones en función de la presión en la grieta y en el tubo. Se estableció la presión que origina alcanzar la cedencia y resistencia ultima del material API5L X52, determinando que las laminaciones simples cuya extensión circunferencial va de 24 a 127 mm, soportan 50% más de presión de cedencia que las laminaciones escalonadas, y el 100% más de presión máxima permisible. Basados en la graficas presión versus radio de las laminaciones se concluye que las laminaciones no coplanares representan mayor riesgo de agrietamiento en una tubería.The mechanical behavior of the coplanar and non coplanar laminations by finite element using non lineal material conditions was determined, with the purpose of knowing the interaction sequence of the stress fields in the crack tips. The analysis includes a matrix simulation considering the circumferential length lamination, wall thickness of the pipe 610mm diameter, with vertical and horizontal distance for non coplanar laminations. The stress distribution in the laminations regions as a function of the internal pressures in the cracks and pipe were determined. The simulations done allowed defining the yield and the strength pressure that reach the mechanical properties of the API 5L X52. It was found that coplanar laminations with 24 at 127mm of circumferential length resist 50% more yield pressure than the non coplanar laminations and

  20. Large pore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide synthesized via nano-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new nano-assembly approach has been proposed for the preparation of macropore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide supports. Secondary nano-assembly and a frame structure mechanism for large pore volume mesoporous supports have been proposed. In a primary nano-assembly supersoluble micelle,aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles were precipitated in situ in surfactants with a volume balance (VB) less than 1,followed by secondary nano-assembly in linear and cylindrical shapes. The secondary nano-assembly of cylindrical aluminum hydroxides was calcined to form nano cylindrical aluminum oxides. For the formation of macropore volume mesoporous supports,we utilized a frame structure mechanism of mesoporous support,in which the exterior surface of the carrier may not be continuous. This macropore volume support has been used for the hydrotreatment of a residual oil catalyst,which possesses the following physical characteristics:pore volume 1.8―2.7 mL·g-1,specific surface area 180―429 m2·g-1,average pore diameter 17―57 nm,average pore diameter more than 10 nm (81%―94%),porosity 87%―93%,and crush strength 7.7―25 N·mm-1.

  1. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  2. Some observations on the origins of large volumes of carbon dioxide accumulations in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wycherley, H. [Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mineralogy; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Science and Engineering; Fleet, A. [Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mineralogy; Shaw, H. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Science and Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Large volumes of carbon dioxide (i.e. up to 90 v/v%) have been encountered in sedimentary basins from various geological settings but their origins remain enigmatic. Evidence from carbon and noble gas isotope analyses indicate a variety of interpretations for the origins of the CO{sub 2} including mantle degassing, metamorphic reactions or magmatic processes. The formation of large accumulations of large volumes of CO{sub 2} in sedimentary basins is discussed with specific reference to published data from the Pannonian Basin, Hungary; the Cooper-Eromanga Basin, Australia; and the South Viking Graben, North Sea. These basins have occurrences of large volumes (i.e. over 15 v/v%) of isotopically heavy carbon dioxide (thought to be of inorganic origin), and, although they differ somewhat in terms of sedimentary fill, all have major structural features close to the gas accumulations. The available geochemical data are currently neither sufficient to confirm the specific origin(s) of the CO{sub 2} (e.g. mantle-derived. carbonate metamorphism) nor unscramble CO{sub 2} mixed from two or more sources; ongoing studies, especially those involving noble gas analyses, should provide fuller answers. (author)

  3. Lossless compression of very large volume data with fast dynamic access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongkai; Tao, Tao; Gabriel, Michael; Belford, Geneva

    2002-09-01

    The volumetric data set is important in many scientific and biomedical fields. Since such sets may be extremely large, a compression method is critical to store and transmit them. To achieve a high compression rate, most of the existing volume compression methods are lossy, which is usually unacceptable in biomedical applications. We developed a new context-based non-linear prediction method to preprocess the volume data set in order to effectively lower the prediction entropy. The prediction error is further encoded using Huffman code. Unlike the conventional methods, the volume is divided into cubical blocks to take advantage of the data's spatial locality. Instead of building one Huffman tree for each block, we developed a novel binning algorithm that build a Huffman tree for each group (bin) of blocks. Combining all the effects above, we achieved an excellent compression rate compared to other lossless volume compression methods. In addition, an auxiliary data structure, Scalable Hyperspace File (SHSF) is used to index the huge volume so that we can obtain many other benefits including parallel construction, on-the-fly accessing of compressed data without global decompression, fast previewing, efficient background compressing, and scalability etc.

  4. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with very large volume neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Yañez, J P

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies, and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters, and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  5. Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Yáñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  6. Comprehensive workflow for wireline fluid sampling in an unconsolidated formations utilizing new large volume sampling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, S.; Brun, M. [TOTAL EandP Norge (Norway); Achourov, V.; Gisolf, A. [Schlumberger (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Precise and accurate knowledge of fluid properties is essential in unconsolidated formations to the design of production facilities. Wireline formation testers (WFT) have a wide range of applications and the latest WFT can be used to define fluid properties in the wells drilled with oil based mud (OBM) by acquiring PVT and large volume samples. To use these technologies, a comprehensive workflow has to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to present such a workflow. A sampling was conducted in highly unconsolidated sand saturated with biodegradable fluid in the Hild filed in the North Sea. Results showed the use of comprehensive workflow to be successful in obtaining large volume samples with the contamination level below 1%. Oil was precisely characterized thanks to these samples and design updates to the project were made possible. This paper highlighted that the use of the latest WFT technologies can help better characterize fluids in unconsolidated formations and thus optimize production facilities design.

  7. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  8. Steady-state probability density function in wave turbulence under large volume limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeontaek Choia; Sang Gyu Job

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility for two-mode probability density function (PDF) to have a non-zero flux steady state solution. We take the large volume limit so that the space of modes becomes continuous. It is shown that in this limit all the steady-state two- or higher-mode PDFs are the product of one-mode PDFs. The flux of this steady-state solution turns out to be zero for any finite mode PDF.

  9. F-term stabilization of odd axions in LARGE volume scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xin, E-mail: gaoxin@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China); Shukla, Pramod, E-mail: shukla@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    In the context of the LARGE volume scenario, stabilization of axionic moduli is revisited. This includes both even and odd axions with their scalar potential being generated by F-term contributions via various tree-level and non-perturbative effects like fluxed E3-brane instantons and fluxed poly-instantons. In all the cases, we estimate the decay constants and masses of the axions involved.

  10. SU-E-T-217: Comprehensive Dosimetric Evaluation On 3D-CRT, IMRT and Non-Coplanar Arc Treatment for Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T; Yan, Y; Ramirez, E; Lee, P; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an effective treatment for early stage breast-cancer. Irradiation in a prone position can mitigate breast motion and spare heart and lung. In this study, a comprehensive study is performed to evaluate various treatment techniques for prone APBI treatment including: 3D-CRT, IMRT, co-planar and non-coplanar partial arcs treatment. Methods: In this treatment planning study, a left breast patient treated in prone position in our clinic was imported into Varian Eclipse TPS. Six beams tangential to chest wall were used in both 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. These six beams were coplanar in a transactional plane achieved by both gantry and couch rotation. A 60-beam IMRT plan was also created to explore the maximum benefit of co-planar IMRT. Within deliverable couch rotation range (±30°), partial arc treatment plans with one and up to ten couch positions were generated for comparison. For each plan, 30Gy in 6 fractions was prescribed to 95% PTV volume. Critical dosimetric parameters, such as conformity index, mean, maximum, and volume dose of organ at risk, are evaluated. Results: The conformity indexes (CI) are 3.53, 3.17, 2.21 and 1.08 respectively to 3D-CRT, 6-beam IMRT, 60-beam IMRT, and two-partial-arcs coplanar plans. However, arc plans increase heart dose. CI for non-coplanar arc plans decreases from 1.19 to 1.10 when increases couch positions. Maximum dose in ipsilateral lung (1.98 to 1.13 Gy), and heart (0.62 to 0.43 Gy) are steadily decreased with the increased number of non-coplanar arcs. Conclusions: The dosimetric evaluation results show that partial arc plans have improved CIs compared to conventional 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. Increasing number of partial arcs decreases lung and heart dose. The dosimetric benefit obtained from non-coplanar arcs should be considered with treatment delivery time.

  11. Low energy prompt gamma-ray tests of a large volume BGO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S.; Raashid, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    Tests of a large volume Bismuth Germinate (BGO) detector were carried out to detect low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium-contaminated water samples using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Inspite of strong interference between the sample- and the detector-associated prompt gamma-rays, an excellent agreement has been observed between the experimental and calculated yields of the prompt gamma-rays, indicating successful application of the large volume BGO detector in the PGNAA analysis of bulk samples using low energy prompt gamma-rays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance tests of a portable neutron generator based PGNAA setup for field measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of large volume BGO detector in prompt gamma analysis of bulk samples utilizing low energy prompt-gamma rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of interference of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays from bulk samples with BGO detector background spectrum.

  12. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  13. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2017-04-07

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  14. Prospects of the search for neutrino bursts from Supernovae with Baksan Large Volume Scintillation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, V B

    2015-01-01

    Observing a high-statistics neutrino signal from the supernova explosions in the Galaxy is a major goal of low-energy neutrino astronomy. The prospects for detecting all flavors of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the core-collapse supernova (ccSN) in operating and forthcoming large liquid scintillation detectors (LLSD) are widely discussed now. One of proposed LLSD is Baksan Large Volume Scintillation Detector (BLVSD). This detector will be installed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (BNO) of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, at a depth of 4800 m.w.e. Low-energy neutrino astronomy is one of the main lines of research of the BLVSD.

  15. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the programmed temperature vaporiser for large-volume injection of biological samples in gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W J; de Zeeuw, R.A; Franke, J.P.; de Jong, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a programmed temperature vaporiser (PTV) with a packed liner was evaluated for the injection of large volumes (up to 100 mu l) of plasma extracts in a gas chromatograph. Solvent purity, which is essential when large volumes are injected into the GC system, was determined. Special attentio

  17. Asymmetrical coupled coplanar-type transmission lines with anisotropic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Mittra, R.

    1986-07-01

    Various types of transmission lines with anisotropic substances were investigated for use in microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits. These include single and coupled striplines, slot lines, and coplanar-type transmission lines. The coplanar-type transmission lines (CTLs) are promising because of their easy adaptation to shunt element connections. The application of coupled coplanar-type transmission lines (C-CTLs) were studied based on the quasistatic and hybrid mode formulations and accurate numerical values are available for the cases with isotropic and/or anisotropic substrates. However, most of them assume structural symmetry. The theoretical approach for the asymmetrical version is available only for the propagation constant of the case with a single isotropic substrate. The analytical method for the general structure of asymmetrical C-CTLs with an anisotropic substrate. This method includes both the hybrid mode and the quasistatic formulations and is useful for accurately computing the characteristics impedances as well as propagation constants of various types of assymetrical C-CTLs.

  18. Large-N volume independence in conformal and confining gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle

    2010-08-26

    Consequences of large N volume independence are examined in conformal and confining gauge theories. In the large N limit, gauge theories compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} are independent of the S{sup 1} radii, provided the theory has unbroken center symmetry. In particular, this implies that a large N gauge theory which, on R{sup d}, flows to an IR fixed point, retains the infinite correlation length and other scale invariant properties of the decompactified theory even when compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k}. In other words, finite volume effects are 1/N suppressed. In lattice formulations of vector-like theories, this implies that numerical studies to determine the boundary between confined and conformal phases may be performed on one-site lattice models. In N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, the center symmetry realization is a matter of choice: the theory on R{sup 4-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} has a moduli space which contains points with all possible realizations of center symmetry. Large N QCD with massive adjoint fermions and one or two compactified dimensions has a rich phase structure with an infinite number of phase transitions coalescing in the zero radius limit.

  19. A pyramid-based approach to visual exploration of a large volume of vehicle trajectory data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing SUN; Xiang LI

    2012-01-01

    Advances in positioning and wireless communicating technologies make it possible to collect large volumes of trajectory data of moving vehicles in a fast and convenient fashion.These data can be applied to traffic studies.Behind this application,a methodological issue that still requires particular attention is the way these data should be spatially visualized.Trajectory data physically consists of a large number of positioning points.With the dramatic increase of data volume,it becomes a challenge to display and explore these data.Existing commercial software often employs vector-based indexing structures to facilitate the display of a large volume of points,but their performance downgrades quickly when the number of points is very large,for example,tens of millions.In this paper,a pyramid-based approach is proposed.A pyramid method initially is invented to facilitate the display of raster images through the tradeoff between storage space and display time.A pyramid is a set of images at different levels with different resolutions.In this paper,we convert vector-based point data into raster data,and build a gridbased indexing structure in a 2D plane.Then,an image pyramid is built.Moreover,at the same level of a pyramid,image is segmented into mosaics with respect to the requirements of data storage and management.Algorithms or procedures on grid-based indexing structure,image pyramid,image segmentation,and visualization operations are given in this paper.A case study with taxi trajectory data in Shanghai is conducted.Results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing commercial software.

  20. Volume-staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: an evolving paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Zachary A; Sneed, Penny K; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T; Molinaro, Annette M; Young, William; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V; Higashida, Randall T; McDermott, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain difficult to treat, and ideal treatment parameters for volume-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (VS-SRS) are still unknown. The object of this study was to compare VS-SRS treatment outcomes for AVMs larger than 10 ml during 2 eras; Era 1 was 1992-March 2004, and Era 2 was May 2004-2008. In Era 2 the authors prospectively decreased the AVM treatment volume, increased the radiation dose per stage, and shortened the interval between stages. METHODS All cases of VS-SRS treatment for AVM performed at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Of 69 patients intended for VS-SRS, 63 completed all stages. The median patient age at the first stage of VS-SRS was 34 years (range 9-68 years). The median modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (mRBAS), total AVM volume, and volume per stage in Era 1 versus Era 2 were 3.6 versus 2.7, 27.3 ml versus 18.9 ml, and 15.0 ml versus 6.8 ml, respectively. The median radiation dose per stage was 15.5 Gy in Era 1 and 17.0 Gy in Era 2, and the median clinical follow-up period in living patients was 8.6 years in Era 1 and 4.8 years in Era 2. All outcomes were measured from the first stage of VS-SRS. Near or complete obliteration was more common in Era 2 (log-rank test, p = 0.0003), with 3- and 5-year probabilities of 5% and 21%, respectively, in Era 1 compared with 24% and 68% in Era 2. Radiosurgical dose, AVM volume per stage, total AVM volume, era, compact nidus, Spetzler-Martin grade, and mRBAS were significantly associated with near or complete obliteration on univariate analysis. Dose was a strong predictor of response (Cox proportional hazards, p < 0.001, HR 6.99), with 3- and 5-year probabilities of near or complete obliteration of 5% and 16%, respectively, at a dose < 17 Gy versus 23% and 74% at a dose ≥ 17 Gy. Dose per stage, compact nidus, and total AVM volume remained significant predictors of near or complete obliteration on multivariate analysis. Seventeen

  1. The use of digital volume tomography in imaging an unusually large composite odontoma in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Bouquot, Jerry E

    2009-01-01

    The odontoma is the most common of all odontogenic tumors. Digital volume tomography (DVT) provides a major advantage of decreased radiation and cost-effectiveness, as compared to a conventional computed tomography. There is no known published report utilizing this DVT analysis for assessing and localizing on odontomo. The purpose of this case report was to document the use of digital volume tomography to assess an unusually large composite odontoma in the mondible. Tomographic sections revealed expansion of the buccol cortex and occasional thinning of both the buccol and lingual cortical plates, although there was no pronounced clinically detectable cortical expansion. The sections further demonstrated enomel ond dentin in on irregular mass bearing no morphologic similority to rudimentary teeth. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and intervention for treating on odontoma while demonstrating the value of tomographic imaging as on aid to diagnosis.

  2. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings.

  3. The Large-Volume Limit of a Quantum Tetrahedron is a Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Schliemann, John

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that the volume operator of a quantum tetrahedron is, in the sector of large eigenvalues, accurately described by a quantum harmonic oscillator. This result relies on the fact that (i) the volume operator couples only neighboring states of its standard basis, and (ii) its matrix elements show a unique maximum as a function of internal angular momentum quantum numbers. These quantum numbers, considered as a continuous variable, are the coordinate of the oscillator describing its quadratic potential, while the corresponding derivative defines a momentum operator. We also analyze the scaling properties of the oscillator parameters as a function of the size of the tetrahedron, and the role of different angular momentum coupling schemes.

  4. A volume law for specification of linear channel storage for estimation of large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangyou; Cordery, Ian; Sharma, Ashish

    2000-02-01

    A method of estimating large floods using a linear storage-routing approach is presented. The differences between the proposed approach and those traditionally used are (1) that the flood producing properties of basins are represented by a linear system, (2) the storage parameters of the distributed model are determined using a volume law which, unlike other storage-routing models, accounts for the distribution of storage in natural basins, and (3) the basin outflow hydrograph is determined analytically and expressed in a succinct mathematical form. The single model parameter is estimated from observed data without direct fitting, unlike most traditionally used methods. The model was tested by showing it could reproduce observed large floods on a number of basins. This paper compares the proposed approach with a traditionally used storage routing approach using observed flood data from the Hacking River basin in New South Wales, Australia. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach for estimation of large floods.

  5. SU-F-BRB-10: A Statistical Voxel Based Normal Organ Dose Prediction Model for Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A; Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Woods, K; Low, D; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge learned from previous plans can be used to guide future treatment planning. Existing knowledge-based treatment planning methods study the correlation between organ geometry and dose volume histogram (DVH), which is a lossy representation of the complete dose distribution. A statistical voxel dose learning (SVDL) model was developed that includes the complete dose volume information. Its accuracy of predicting volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy was quantified. SVDL provided more isotropic dose gradients and may improve knowledge-based planning. Methods: 12 prostate SBRT patients originally treated using two full-arc VMAT techniques were re-planned with 4π using 20 intensity-modulated non-coplanar fields to a prescription dose of 40 Gy. The bladder and rectum voxels were binned based on their distances to the PTV. The dose distribution in each bin was resampled by convolving to a Gaussian kernel, resulting in 1000 data points in each bin that predicted the statistical dose information of a voxel with unknown dose in a new patient without triaging information that may be collectively important to a particular patient. We used this method to predict the DVHs, mean and max doses in a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test and compared its performance against lossy estimators including mean, median, mode, Poisson and Rayleigh of the voxelized dose distributions. Results: SVDL predicted the bladder and rectum doses more accurately than other estimators, giving mean percentile errors ranging from 13.35–19.46%, 4.81–19.47%, 22.49–28.69%, 23.35–30.5%, 21.05–53.93% for predicting mean, max dose, V20, V35, and V40 respectively, to OARs in both planning techniques. The prediction errors were generally lower for 4π than VMAT. Conclusion: By employing all dose volume information in the SVDL model, the OAR doses were more accurately predicted. 4π plans are better suited for knowledge-based planning than

  6. The mechanism for large-volume fluid pumping via reversible snap-through of dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Yingxi; Foo, Choon Chiang; Godaba, Hareesh; Zhu, Jian; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2017-08-01

    Giant deformation of dielectric elastomers (DEs) via electromechanical instability (or the "snap-through" phenomenon) is a promising mechanism for large-volume fluid pumping. Snap-through of a DE membrane coupled with compressible air has been previously investigated. However, the physics behind reversible snap-through of a DE diaphragm coupled with incompressible fluid for the purpose of fluid pumping has not been well investigated, and the conditions required for reversible snap-through in a hydraulic system are unknown. In this study, we have proposed a concept for large-volume fluid pumping by harnessing reversible snap-through of the dielectric elastomer. The occurrence of snap-through was theoretically modeled and experimentally verified. Both the theoretical and experimental pressure-volume curves of the DE membrane under different actuation voltages were used to design the work loop of the pump, and the theoretical work loop agreed with the experimental work loop. Furthermore, the feasibility of reversible snap-through was experimentally verified, and specific conditions were found necessary for this to occur, such as a minimum actuation voltage, an optimal range of hydraulic pressure exerted on the DE membrane and a suitable actuation frequency. Under optimal working conditions, we demonstrated a pumping volume of up to 110 ml per cycle, which was significantly larger than that without snap-through. Furthermore, we have achieved fluid pumping from a region of low pressure to another region of high pressure. Findings of this study would be useful for real world applications such as the blood pump.

  7. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Barbara, E-mail: nickel.ba@gmail.com [US Teleradiology and Quantum Medical Radiology Group (United States); McClure, Timothy, E-mail: tmcclure@gmail.com; Moriarty, John, E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  8. Large-volume liposuction: a review of 631 consecutive cases over 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, G W; Halperin, B; Chang, C C

    2001-11-01

    Since the advent of epinephrine-containing wetting solutions and sophisticated fluid management techniques, increasingly larger and larger volumes of liposuction aspirations have been reported. Unfortunately, with these larger volumes of liposuction being routinely performed, greater rates of complications have also been reported, with the worst of these resulting in deaths. In a response to the increasing concerns over the safety of large-volume liposuction, a critical review of the senior author's own series has been performed to evaluate risks and benefits and to recommend guidelines for safe and effective large-volume liposuction. A retrospective chart review was performed on 631 consecutive patients who underwent liposuction procedures of at least 3000 cc total aspirate. All procedures were performed by the same senior surgeon between January of 1986 and March of 1998. Before September of 1996, traditional liposuction techniques were used. After September of 1996, ultrasound-assisted liposuction was performed. The superwet technique of fluid management was employed for all procedures performed after 1991. The particulars of the surgical and anesthetic techniques used are reviewed in the article. Data collection included preoperative patient demographics, preoperative and postoperative weights and measurements, and preoperative and postoperative photographs. Total aspirate volumes, fluid intakes, and fluid outputs were measured, and all complications were tallied. Average follow-up was 1 year. Results showed the majority of patients to be women, aged 17 to 74 years old. Of the preoperative weights, 98.7 percent were within 50 pounds of ideal chart weight. Total aspirate volumes ranged from 3 to 17 liters, with 94.5 percent of these under 10 liters. Fluid balance measurements showed an average of 120 cc/kg positive fluid balance at the end of the procedure, with none of these patients experiencing any significant fluid balance abnormalities. Cosmetic results

  9. Instrument configuration for dual-Doppler lidar coplanar scans: METCRAX II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nihanth Wagmi; Calhoun, Ronald; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Whiteman, C. David

    2015-01-01

    The second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) was designed to study downslope-windstorm-type flows occurring at the Barringer Meteorite Crater in Arizona. Two Doppler wind lidars were deployed to perform a coplanar dual-Doppler lidar analysis to capture the two-dimensional (2-D) vertical structure of these flows in the crater basin. This type of analysis allows the flow to be resolved on a 2-D Cartesian grid constructed in the range height indicator scan overlap region. Previous studies have shown that the dominant error in the coplanar dual-Doppler analysis mentioned above is due to the under sampling of radial velocities. Hence, it is necessary to optimize the setup and choose a scan strategy that minimizes the under sampling of radial velocities and provides a good spatial as well as temporal coverage of these short-lived events. A lidar simulator was developed using a large Eddy simulation wind field to optimize the lidar parameters for METCRAX II field experiment. A retrieval technique based on the weighted least squares technique with weights calculated based on the relative location of the lidar range gate centers to the grid intersection point was developed. The instrument configuration was determined by comparing the simulator retrievals to the background wind field and taking into account the limitations of commercially available lidars.

  10. Incarceration of umbilical hernia: a rare complication of large volume paracentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Contractor, Sohail

    2015-09-01

    We present two cases of umbilical hernia incarceration following large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Both patients became symptomatic within 48 hours after the LVP. Although being rare, given the significantly higher mortality rate of cirrhotic patients undergoing emergent herniorrhaphy, this complication of LVP is potentially serious. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be examined closely for the presence of umbilical hernias before removal of ascitic fluid and an attempt should be made for external reduction of easily reducible hernias, if a hernia is present.

  11. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  12. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  13. Durability of concrete incorporating large volumes of low-quality fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhua Jiang; Zhenqing Liu; Yiqun Ye [Hohai University, Nanjing (China). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2004-08-01

    The carbonation, corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and corrosion resistance of concrete, incorporating large volumes of low-quality fly ash (LVLQFA), were studied. The effect of concentration of carbon dioxide used in the experiment on estimating the carbonation resistance of LVLQFA concrete were also investigated. Test results show that the LVLQFA concrete with an activator has good carbonation and corrosion resistances of steel reinforcement. The corrosion resistance of LVLQFA concrete is better than that of the control concrete. The concentration of carbon dioxide used in the experiment has considerable effect on estimating the carbonation resistance of LVLQFA concrete.

  14. Stability, Tunneling and Flux Changing de Sitter Transitions in the Large Volume String Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S; Hatefi, E; Quevedo, F

    2013-01-01

    We study the non-perturbative stability of the Large Volume Scenario (LVS) of IIB string compactifications, by analysing transitions mediated by the Brown-Teitelboim (BT) brane nucleations and by Coleman De Luccia tunneling (CDL). We find that, as long as the effective field theory description holds, the LVS AdS minima are stable despite being non-supersymmetric. This opens the possibility of having a CFT dual. Metastable de Sitter vacua behave differently depending on the uplifting mechanism. We find explicit expressions for the different decay rates in terms of exponentials of the volume. Among the transitions of dS to dS those with increasing volume and decreasing vacuum energy are preferred, though dS decays to AdS (big-crunch sinks) have higher probability. Transitions via the CDL mechanism to decompactification are exponentially suppressed compared to these. The BT decays correspond to flux/D3 brane transitions mediated by the nucleation of D5/NS5 branes. We compare our results with previous analysis fo...

  15. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi- and Many-core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2011-01-01

    With the computing industry trending towards multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, ray-casting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with datasets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  16. First large volume characterization of the QIE10/11 custom front-end integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Dal Monte, L.; Freeman, J.; Hirschauer, J.; Hughes, E.; Roy, T.; Whitbeck, A.; Yumiceva, F.; Zimmerman, T.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photon detection and readout systems of its barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (HCAL) through the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018. A central feature of this upgrade is the development of two new versions of the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder), a Fermilab-designed custom ASIC for measurement of charge from detectors in high-rate environments. These most recent additions to the QIE family feature 17-bits of dynamic range with 1% digitization precision for high charge and a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with half nanosecond resolution all with 16 bits of readout per bunch crossing. For the first time, the CMS experiment has produced and characterized in great detail a large volume of chips. The characteristics and performance of the new QIE and their related chip-to-chip variations as measured in a sample of 10,000 chips is described.

  17. MPI-hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-03-20

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  18. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howison, M.; Bethel, E. W.; Childs, H.

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of "hybrid" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering - a staple visualization algorithm - on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today, as well as processors capable of running hundreds of concurrent threads (GPUs), we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  19. Geometry of magnetosonic shocks and plane-polarized waves: Coplanarity Variance Analysis (CVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, J. D.

    2005-02-01

    Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) is frequently used for the geometrical organization of a time series of vectors. The Coplanarity Variance Analysis (CVA) developed in this paper reproduces the layer geometry involving coplanar magnetosonic shocks or plane-polarized wave trains (including normals and coplanarity directions) 300 times more precisely (CVA technique exploits the eigenvalue degeneracy of the covariance matrix present at planar structures to find a consistent normal to the coplanarity plane of the fluctuations. Although Tangential Discontinuities (TDs) have a coplanarity plane, the eigenvalues of their covariance matrix are usually not degenerate; accordingly, CVA does not misdiagnose TDs as shocks or plane-polarized waves. Together CVA and MVA may be used to sort between the hypotheses that the time series is caused by a one-dimensional current layer that has magnetic disturbances that are (1) coplanar, linearly polarized (shocks/plane waves), (2) intrinsically helical (rotational/tangential discontinuities), or (3) neither 1 nor 2.

  20. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  1. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters.

  2. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinum, T.; Nieuwenhuy, C.

    1994-11-01

    The procedure developed at TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNO-PML) for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples was improved. The last step in this procedure, the laborious and non-reproducible transfer of an ethyl acetate extract onto a Tenax-adsorption tube followed by thermal desorption of the Tenax-tube, was replaced by large volume injection of the extract onto a capillary gas chromatographic system. The parameters controlling the injection of a large volume of an extract (200 ul) were investigated and optimized. As ethyl acetate caused severe problems, potential new solvents were evaluated. With the improved procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and VX could be determined in freshly prepared water samples at pg/ml (ppt) levels. The fate of the nerve agents under study in water at two pH`s (4.8 and 6) was investigated. For VX, the pH should be adjusted before extraction. Moreover, it is worthwhile to acidify water samples to diminish hydrolysis.

  3. A Repetitive Nanosecond Pulse Source for Generation of Large Volume Streamer Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Fengbo; ZHANG Qiaogen; GAO Bo; WANG Hu; LI Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Using a unipolar pulse with the rise time and the pulse duration in the order of microsecond as the primary pulse,a nanosecond pulse with the repetitive frequency of several kilohertz is generated by a spark gap switch.By varying both the inter-pulse duration and the pulse frequency,the voltage recovery rate of the spark gap switch is investigated at different working conditions such as the gas pressure,the gas composition as well as the bias voltage.The results reveal that either increase in gas pressure or addition of SF6 to the air can increase the voltage recovery rate.The effect of gas composition on the voltage recovery rate is discussed based on the transferring and distribution of the residual space charges.The repetitive nanosecond pulse source is also applied to the generation of large volume,and the discharge currents are measured to investigate the effect of pulse repetition rate on the large volume streamer discharge.

  4. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5 x 8 inches LaBr3:Ce Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giaz, A; Riboldi, S; Camera, F; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Ceruti, S; Coelli, S; Crespi, F C L; Csatlòs, M; Frega, S; Gulyàs, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Lodetti, S; Million, B; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Stuhl, L; Wieland, O

    2013-01-01

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5 x 8 inches (89 mm x 203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic gamma-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing gamma rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of gamma-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the LABRVD, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, v...

  5. Study of laser induced thermo-acoustic signals in a large ice volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissok, Martin; Laihem, Karim; Meures, Thomas; Paul, Larissa; Wiebusch, Christopher; Zierke, Simon [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A goal for next generation neutrino-telescopes is the exploration of the extremely high energy region (>EeV). Expected neutrino event rates in this energy range are low (<1 event/km{sup 3}/year) and therefore a detector volume which is increased by more than one order of magnitude compared to IceCube is desireable. A possible approach to achieve such an increase in a cost-effective way is the acoustic detection of neutrinos, based on the principle of thermoacoustic signal generation in neutrino-induced hadronic cascades. The Aachen Acoustic Laboratory (AAL) provides the means to study the thermoacoustic effect in a controlled environment. It consists of a large water-filled tank inside a cooling container. The freezing process is controlled and a large volume of bubble-free clear ice({proportional_to}3m{sup 3}) is produced. Thermoacoustic signals are generated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an energy of up to 55 mJ/pulse. The acoustic signals are recorded by an array of 19 piezo-based sensors embedded in the ice. In this talk we give a description of this test experiment and present results from an initial freezing period.

  6. Large-volume optical coherence tomography with real-time correction of geometric distortion artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2012-01-01

    Large-volume optical coherence tomography (OCT)-setups employ scanning mirrors and suffer from non-linear geometric distortion artifacts in which the degree of distortion is determined by the maximum angles over which the mirrors rotate. In this chapter, we describe a straightforward approach to correct for these distortion artifacts, creating an alternative to previously reported ray-tracing schemes that are unable to apply these corrections in real-time. By implementing the proposed 3D recalibration algorithm on the graphics card of a standard computer, this feature can be applied in real-time. We validate the accuracy of the technique using OCT measurements of a highly curved object within a large imaging volume of 12.35 x 10.13 x 2.36 mm^3. The resulting 3D object shape measurements are compared against high-resolution and aberration-free optical profilometry measurements. Maintaining an optical resolution of <10 micron within the sample, both axially and transversally, we realized a real-time, high-re...

  7. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-04-01

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form a narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. These results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.

  8. Large range rotation distortion measurement for remote sensing images based on volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Tian; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2012-10-01

    Volume holographic optical correlator can compute the correlation results between images at a super-high speed. In the application of remote imaging processing such as scene matching, 6,000 template images have been angularly multiplexed in the photorefractive crystal and the 6,000 parallel processing channels are achieved. In order to detect the correlation pattern of images precisely and distinguishingly, an on-off pixel inverted technology of images is proposed. It can fully use the CCD's linear range for detection and expand the normalized correlation value differences as the target image rotates. Due to the natural characteristics of the remote sensing images, the statistical formulas between the rotation distortions and the correlation results can be estimated. The rotation distortion components can be estimated by curve fitting method with the data of correlation results. The intensities of the correlation spots are related to the distortion between the two images. The rotation distortion could be derived from the intensities in the post processing procedure. With 18 rotations of the input image and sending them into the volume holographic system, the detection of the rotation variation in the range of 180° can be fulfilled. So the large range rotation distortion detection is firstly realized. It offers a fast, large range rotation measurement method for image distortions.

  9. VolumeExplorer: Roaming Large Volumes to Couple Visualization and Data Processing for Oil and Gas Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/; In this paper, we present a volume roaming system dedicated to oil and gas exploration. Our system combines probe-based volume rendering with data processing and computing. The daily oil production and the estimation of the world proven-reserves directly affect the barrel price and have a strong impact on the economy. Among others, production and correct estimation are linked to the accuracy of the subsurface model used for predicting oil reservoirs shape and size...

  10. Coplanar waveguide flux qubit suitable for quantum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Chris; Chen, Yu; Sank, D.; Kafri, D.; Megrant, A.; White, T. C.; Shabani, A.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.

    We introduce the ''fluxmon'' flux qubit, designed with the goal of practical quantum annealing. The qubit's capacitance and linear inductance are provided by a coplanar waveguide on a low loss substrate, minimizing dielectric dissipation and in principle allowing for GHz-scale inter-qubit coupling in a highly connected tunable architecture. Utilizing a dispersive microwave readout scheme, we characterize single-qubit noise and dissipation, and present a simple tunable inter-qubit coupler. We discuss tradeoffs between coherence and coupling in a quantum annealing architecture. This work was supported by Google Inc. and by the NSF GRFP.

  11. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887-2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km3 of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948-2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56-60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One

  12. Calcium isolation from large-volume human urine samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-08-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for (41)Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after (41)Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide (41)Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background.

  13. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  14. Random forest classification of large volume structures for visuo-haptic rendering in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastmeyer, Andre; Fortmeier, Dirk; Handels, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    For patient-specific voxel-based visuo-haptic rendering of CT scans of the liver area, the fully automatic segmentation of large volume structures such as skin, soft tissue, lungs and intestine (risk structures) is important. Using a machine learning based approach, several existing segmentations from 10 segmented gold-standard patients are learned by random decision forests individually and collectively. The core of this paper is feature selection and the application of the learned classifiers to a new patient data set. In a leave-some-out cross-validation, the obtained full volume segmentations are compared to the gold-standard segmentations of the untrained patients. The proposed classifiers use a multi-dimensional feature space to estimate the hidden truth, instead of relying on clinical standard threshold and connectivity based methods. The result of our efficient whole-body section classification are multi-label maps with the considered tissues. For visuo-haptic simulation, other small volume structures would have to be segmented additionally. We also take a look into these structures (liver vessels). For an experimental leave-some-out study consisting of 10 patients, the proposed method performs much more efficiently compared to state of the art methods. In two variants of leave-some-out experiments we obtain best mean DICE ratios of 0.79, 0.97, 0.63 and 0.83 for skin, soft tissue, hard bone and risk structures. Liver structures are segmented with DICE 0.93 for the liver, 0.43 for blood vessels and 0.39 for bile vessels.

  15. Volume changes of extremely large and giant intracranial aneurysms after treatment with flow diverter stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Angelo; Byrne, James V. [ohn Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Neurovascular and Neuroradiology Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rane, Neil; Kueker, Wilhelm; Cellerini, Martino; Corkill, Rufus [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed volume changes of unruptured large and giant aneurysms (greatest diameter >20 mm) after treatment with flow diverter (FD) stents. Clinical audit of the cases treated in a single institution, over a 5-year period. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the hospital records. Aneurysm volumes were measured by manual outlining at sequential slices using computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography data. The audit included eight patients (seven females) with eight aneurysms. Four aneurysms involved the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), three the supraclinoid ICA and one the basilar artery. Seven patients presented with signs and symptoms of mass effect and one with seizures. All but one aneurysm was treated with a single FD stent; six aneurysms were also coiled (either before or simultaneously with FD placement). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean 20 months). At follow-up, three aneurysms decreased in size, three were unchanged and two increased. Both aneurysms that increased in size showed persistent endosaccular flow at follow-up MR; in one case, failure was attributed to suboptimal position of the stent; in the other case, it was attributed to persistence of a side branch originating from the aneurysm (similar to the endoleak phenomenon of aortic aneurysms). At follow-up, five aneurysms were completely occluded; none of these increased in volume. Complete occlusion of the aneurysms leads, in most cases, to its shrinkage. In cases of late aneurysm growth or regrowth, consideration should be given to possible endoleak as the cause. (orig.)

  16. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin [School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China); Liu Yanming [School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A large volume cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Brugger, Joël; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott; Pring, Allan

    2010-10-01

    A hydrothermal cell with 320 ml internal volume has been designed and constructed for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations. The cell design adopts a dumbbell configuration assembled with standard commercial stainless steel components and a zero-scattering Ti-Zr alloy sample compartment. The fluid movement and heat transfer are simply driven by natural convection due to the natural temperature gradient along the fluid path, so that the temperature at the sample compartment can be stably sustained by heating the fluid in the bottom fluid reservoir. The cell can operate at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 90 bars and is suitable for studying reactions requiring a large volume of hydrothermal fluid to damp out the negative effect from the change of fluid composition during the course of the reactions. The capability of the cell was demonstrated by a hydrothermal phase transformation investigation from leucite (KAlSi2O6) to analcime (NaAlSi2O6ṡH2O) at 210 °C on the high intensity powder diffractometer Wombat in ANSTO. The kinetics of the transformation has been resolved by collecting diffraction patterns every 10 min followed by Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. The classical Avrami/Arrhenius analysis gives an activation energy of 82.3±1.1 kJ mol-1. Estimations of the reaction rate under natural environments by extrapolations agree well with petrological observations.

  18. Evaluation of Large Volume SrI2(Eu) Scintillator Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, B W; Cherepy, N J; Drury, O B; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Magyar, A F; Payne, S A; Burger, A; Boatner, L A; Ramey, J O; Shah, K S; Hawrami, R

    2010-11-18

    There is an ever increasing demand for gamma-ray detectors which can achieve good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and room-temperature operation. We are working to address each of these requirements through the development of large volume SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator detectors. In this work, we have evaluated a variety of SrI{sub 2} crystals with volumes >10 cm{sup 3}. The goal of this research was to examine the causes of energy resolution degradation for larger detectors and to determine what can be done to mitigate these effects. Testing both packaged and unpackaged detectors, we have consistently achieved better resolution with the packaged detectors. Using a collimated gamma-ray source, it was determined that better energy resolution for the packaged detectors is correlated with better light collection uniformity. A number of packaged detectors were fabricated and tested and the best spectroscopic performance was achieved for a 3% Eu doped crystal with an energy resolution of 2.93% FWHM at 662keV. Simulations of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystals were also performed to better understand the light transport physics in scintillators and are reported. This study has important implications for the development of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) detectors for national security purposes.

  19. On non-coplanar Hohmann Transfer using angles as parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, Angel; Lacruz, Elvis; Abellan, Gabriel; Diaz, Sttiwuer

    2015-01-01

    We study a more complex case of Hohmann orbital transfer of a satellite by considering non-coplanar and elliptical orbits, instead of planar and circular orbits. We use as parameter the angle between the initial and transference planes that minimizes the energy, and therefore the fuel of a satellite, through the application of two non-tangential impulses for all possible cases. We found an analytical expression that minimizes the energy for each configuration. Some reasonable physical constraints are used: we apply impulses at perigee or apogee of the orbit, we consider the duration of the impulse to be short compared to the duration of the trip, we take the nodal line of three orbits to be coincident and the three semimajor axes to lie in the same plane. We study the only four possible cases but assuming non-coplanar elliptic orbits. In addition, we validate our method through a numerical solution obtained by using some of the actual orbital elements of Sputnik I and Vanguard I satellites. For these orbits, ...

  20. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Michael; Melchior Hansen, Anders; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  2. The use of Enterprise Service Bus to transfer large volumes of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Górski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of Enterprise Service Bus (ESB to handle transfer of large volumes of data between IT systems. The use of ESB may affect the reduction of operating costs of the public entity minimizing the number of connections between systems, shortening the time of integration with external systems and increasing the reusability of software written. The design of integration was done according to the ‘1+5’ architectural views model adjusted to the integration solutions description. The previously proposed UML profile UML Profile for Integration Platform has been used. We present the solution, on a specific case study of Agricultural and Food Quality Inspection (AFQI (www.ijhars.gov.pl, showing how fast data can be transferred electronically using an ESB. Finally, benefits of the solution were analysed in the context of the reduced time of data transfer.

  3. Determination of 137Cs in large volume seawater using Cu-hexacyanoferrate cartridge filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Tumnoi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A simple method to determine 137Cs in seawater has been developed based on the use of a Cu-hexacyanoferrate scavenger. The Cu-hexacyanoferrate supported on cotton wound cartridge filter was used to absorb 137Cs from seawater by passing large volumes over the cartridge filters with flowrate of 240 L hr-1. Results from the Cu-hexacyanoferrate method were proved acceptable for accuracy with bias below ± 20 % i.e. - 9.16 to + 18.55 % when compared with the traditional ammonium molybdophosphate pre-concentration method. This developed method is cost-effective and less time consuming. In addition it can be easily performed at sampling fields.

  4. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  5. Large-volume liposuction and prevention of type 2 diabetes: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsete, Thomas; Narsete, Michele; Buckspan, Randy; Ersek, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary study investigating the effects of large-volume liposuction on the parameters that determine type 2 diabetes. The study enrolled 31 patients with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 30 kg/m(2) over a 1-year period. All the liposuction procedures were performed with the patient under local anesthesia using ketamine/valium sedation. Pre- and postoperative blood pressure, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), weight, and BMI were evaluated for 16 of the 30 patients who returned for a follow-up visit 3 to 12 months postoperatively. The average aspirate was 8,455 ml without dermolipectomy and 5,795 ml with dermolipectomy. The data reveal a trend of improvement in blood sugar levels associated with weight loss that helps the patients. The average blood sugar level dropped 18% in our return patients, and the average weight loss was 9.2%. The average drop in BMI was 6.2%, and HbA1C showed a decrease of 2.3%. The patients with the best weight loss had the best reduction in blood sugar level and blood pressure. No transfers to the hospital and no thromboebolism occurred for any of the 31 patients. One dehiscence, two wound infections, and three seromas were reported. The authors hypothesize that large-volume liposuction in their series may have motivated some to diet, which could be explored in a larger series with control groups. Liposuction alone did not improve obesity but helped to motivate some of the patients to lose weight. These patients had the best results.

  6. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  7. Volume Visualization and Compositing on Large-Scale Displays Using Handheld Touchscreen Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Gastelum, Cristhopper Jacobo Armenta

    2011-07-27

    Advances in the physical sciences have progressively delivered ever increasing, already extremely large data sets to be analyzed. High performance volume rendering has become critical to the scientists for a better understanding of the massive amounts of data to be visualized. Cluster based rendering systems have become the base line to achieve the power and flexibility required to perform such task. Furthermore, display arrays have become the most suitable solution to display these data sets at their natural size and resolution which can be critical for human perception and evaluation. The work in this thesis aims at improving the scalability and usability of volume rendering systems that target visualization on display arrays. The first part deals with improving the performance by introducing the implementations of two parallel compositing algorithms for volume rendering: direct send and binary swap. The High quality Volume Rendering (HVR) framework has been extended to accommodate parallel compositing where previously only serial compositing was possible. The preliminary results show improvements in the compositing times for direct send even for a small number of processors. Unfortunately, the results of binary swap exhibit a negative behavior. This is due to the naive use of the graphics hardware blending mechanism. The expensive transfers account for the lengthy compositing times. The second part targets the development of scalable and intuitive interaction mechanisms. It introduces the development of a new client application for multitouch tablet devices, like the Apple iPad. The main goal is to provide the HVR framework, that has been extended to use tiled displays, a more intuitive and portable interaction mechanism that can get advantage of the new environment. The previous client is a PC application for the typical desktop settings that use a mouse and keyboard as sources of interaction. The current implementation of the client lets the user steer and

  8. Dispersion characteristics of optically excited coplanar striplines - Comprehensive full-wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Dhananjay S.; Defonzo, A. P.; Das, Nirod K.

    1990-11-01

    A comprehensive full-wave formulation is developed to evaluate the dispersion and losses for coplanar striplines on substrates of finite and infinite thicknesses is presented. The loss mechanisms incorporated in the analysis are substrate losses and dielectric material losses. The method of Das and Pozar (1987) is generalized to include a complex propagation vector and can be used over a wide frequency range. A large range of line dimensions can also be handled, limits being set by the accuracy of the moment method. Metal losses can also be incorporated into this analysis by applying the appropriate boundary conditions for lossy metal. Analytically, the excitation of substrate modes is shown to correspond to the occurrence of the poles of the Green function in the reaction integrals. Results of the full-wave analysis are in good agreement with those obtained by established theory.

  9. Dose comparison between three planing prostate: 3-D conformational radiotherapy, coplanar arc therapy and non-coplanar arc therapy; Comparaison dosimetrique de trois balistiques prostatiques: radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle, arctherapie coplanaire et arctherapie non-coplanaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyant, C.; Baadj, A.; Biffi, K.; Leschi, D.; Lantieri, C. [Centre Hospitalier Dept. Castelluccio, Service de Radiotherapie, Ajaccio (France); Voyant, C. [Universite de Corse, Lab. SPE, CNRS-UMR 6134, Corte (France)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: Comparative study between a classical conformational prostate radiotherapy (3 D.R.T.C.) and two arc therapy techniques, a coplanar (A.T.-C) and the other non-coplanar (A.T.-N.C.). Patients and Methods:The comparison has been made retrospectively on 30 patients with localized prostate cancer (T.2-T.3a, P.S.A. < 20 ng/ml, Gleason < 7). The objective criteria for comparison were the N.T.C.P., E.U.D., and dose volume (on D.V.H.), for the volumes of bladder wall, rectal wall, femoral heads, small bowel, prostate (P) and seminal vesicles (V.S.). The treatment was 46 Gy on P.T.V.1 (V.S. + P + margins), and then an overdose of 30 Gy on P.T.V.1 (P + margins). Results: For prostate volumes exceeding 75 cm{sup 3}, arc therapy leads to a decrease in uniformity in the target volume and an increase in the dose received by the femoral heads, this method does not seem appropriate. For prostate volumes less than 75 cm{sup 3}, in addition to the coverage almost tumor, and radiation toxicity equivalent to the bladder and the small intestine, there is a significant increase in the dose to the femoral heads, while the remaining is still within limits, such as clinically tolerable. The contribution of arc therapy is mainly observed at the level of rectal doses. The dose received by 30% of the rectum is reduced by - 12% for A.T.-C and - 11.7% for A.T-N.C., and E.U.D. rectum - 5.2% and - 4.8%. Conclusion: In this virtual study, the arc therapy seems to generate a true dose reduction in the rectum wall. These results encourage us to continue the investigation for a possible integration in a dynamic clinical routine. (authors)

  10. Laser Vision Measurement System and Assessment Method for SMIC Lead Coplanarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Changku; QIU Yu; XUE Xiaojie; YE Shenghua

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a successful application of line-structured laser sensor, involved in SMIC chip lead coplanarity measurement, is presented. With the experimental measurement system and its corresponding mathematics model, a contact-datum-plane assessment of SMIC chip lead coplanarity is developed to provide method for on-line measurement.

  11. Calculation of S11 Parameter of Coplanar Strip and Influence of Technology Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Heindl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a calculation of the S11 parameter of the coplanar strips. The primary parameterscalculations of the coplanar strips are described in the first part. The scattering parameters are defined. The calculation of the S11 parameter and the comparison with the measured values are showed in the last part of the work.

  12. Electromagnetic design of the KATRIN large-volume air coil system

    CERN Document Server

    Glück, Ferenc; Leiber, Benjamin; Mertens, Susanne; Osipowicz, Alexander; Reich, Jan; Wandkowsky, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The KATRIN experiment is designed to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90 % CL) by measuring the electron energy spectrum close to the endpoint of molecular tritium beta decay. Electrons from a high-intensity gaseous tritium source are guided by a strong magnetic field of a few T to the analyzing plane of the main spectrometer where an integral energy analysis takes place in a low field region (B<0.5 mT). An essential design feature to obtain adiabatic electron transport through this spectrometer is a large volume air coil system surrounding the vessel. The system has two key tasks: to adjust and fine-tune the magnetic guiding field (Low Field Correction System), as well as to compensate the distorting effects of the earth magnetic field (Earth Field Compensation System). In this paper we outline the key electromagnetic design issues for this very large air coil system, which allows for well-defined electron transmission and optimized background reduction in the KATR...

  13. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  14. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  15. Beautiful small: Misleading large randomized controlled trials? The example of colloids for volume resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J Wiedermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In anesthesia and intensive care, treatment benefits that were claimed on the basis of small or modest-sized trials have repeatedly failed to be confirmed in large randomized controlled trials. A well-designed small trial in a homogeneous patient population with high event rates could yield conclusive results; however, patient populations in anesthesia and intensive care are typically heterogeneous because of comorbidities. The size of the anticipated effects of therapeutic interventions is generally low in relation to relevant endpoints. For regulatory purposes, trials are required to demonstrate efficacy in clinically important endpoints, and therefore must be large because clinically important study endpoints such as death, sepsis, or pneumonia are dichotomous and infrequently occur. The rarer endpoint events occur in the study population; that is, the lower the signal-to-noise ratio, the larger the trials must be to prevent random events from being overemphasized. In addition to trial design, sample size determination on the basis of event rates, clinically meaningful risk ratio reductions and actual patient numbers studied are among the most important characteristics when interpreting study results. Trial size is a critical determinant of generalizability of study results to larger or general patient populations. Typical characteristics of small single-center studies responsible for their known fragility include low variability of outcome measures for surrogate parameters and selective publication and reporting. For anesthesiology and intensive care medicine, findings in volume resuscitation research on intravenous infusion of colloids exemplify this, since both the safety of albumin infusion and the adverse effects of the artificial colloid hydroxyethyl starch have been confirmed only in large-sized trials.

  16. Technical and dosimetric considerations in IMRT treatment planning for large target volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Harish K; Raina, Sanjay; Avadhani, Jaiteerth S; deBoer, Steven; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2005-01-01

    The maximum width of an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment field is usually smaller than the conventional maximum collimator opening because of design limitations inherent in some multileaf collimators (MLCs). To increase the effective field width, IMRT fluences can be split and delivered with multiple carriage positions. However, not all treatment-planning systems and MLCs support this technique, and if they do, the maximum field width in multiple carriage position delivery is still significantly less than the maximum collimator opening. For target volumes with dimensions exceeding the field size limit for multiple carriage position delivery, such as liver tumors or other malignancies in the abdominal cavity, IMRT treatment can be accomplished with multiple isocenters or with an extended treatment distance. To study dosimetric statistics of large field IMRT planning, an elliptical volume was chosen as a target within a cubic phantom centered at a depth of 7.5 cm. Multiple three-field plans (one AP and two oblique beams with 160 degrees between them to avoid parallel opposed geometry) with constraints designed to give 100% dose to the elliptical target were developed. Plans were designed with a single anterior field with dual carriage positions, or with the anterior field split into two fields with separate isocenters 8 cm apart with the beams being forcibly matched at the isocenter or with a 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm overlap. The oblique beams were planned with a single carriage position in all cases. All beams had a nominal energy of 6 MV. In the dual isocenter plans, jaws were manually fixed and dose constraints remained unaltered. Dosimetric statistics were studied for plans developed for treatment delivery using both dynamic leaf motion (sliding window) and multiple static segments (step and shoot) with the number of segments varying from 5 to 30. All plans were analyzed based on the dose homogeneity in the isocenter plane, 2 cm anterior and 2

  17. Storage and eruption of large volumes of rhyolite lava: Example from Solfatara Plateau, Yellowstone Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.; Gardner, J. E.; Zinke, R.

    2010-12-01

    The cataclysmic volcanic history of Yellowstone caldera has been extensively documented in both popular media and scholarly journals. High-silica magmas should erupt explosively because of their high viscosity and volatile content; however, numerous passively-erupted, large-volume rhyolite lava flows have also erupted from Yellowstone caldera. We use petrologic observations of one such flow, the Solfatara Plateau obsidian lava, to provide insights into the eruptive dynamics and pre-eruptive magmatic conditions of large-volume rhyolite lava. Solfatara Plateau, a 7 km3 high-silica rhyolite lava that extends 4-15 km from vent, erupted 103±8 ka within the Yellowstone caldera1. Quartz and sanidine are the dominant phenocrysts, with crystal contents of 5-10% throughout. FTIR analyses of glass inclusions in quartz and sanidine phenocrysts indicate that pre-eruptive dissolved volatile contents were up to 3.0 wt. % H2O and 250 ppm CO2. Myrmekite blebs partially envelop quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in all samples from along the margins of the flow (up to 3 km from flow front). Sanidines in samples from near vent are unzoned at Or49±2. Those at the flow front have similar cores, but rims are more sodic (Or44±6). Alkali feldspars in myrmekite range from Or27 to Or50. Petrologic observations, such as heavily embayed quartz phenocrysts and dissolution of myrmekite indicate disequilibrium within the system, likely as a result of significant heating that caused portions of the magma body to go from near-solidus to near-liquidus conditions prior to erupting. When it did erupt, volatile loss during eruptive ascent led to undercooling and significant microlite crystallization of Fe-Ti oxide and clinopyroxene microlites. Fe-Ti microlites occur as roughly equidimensional crystals, 1-10 µm across, as well as high-aspect-ratio needles, 3-60 µm long. Clinopyroxene microlites occur primarily as individual prismatic crystals, but also occur as linked, curved chains or as overgrowths

  18. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  19. Magnetic hysteresis effects in superconducting coplanar microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothner, D.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Gruenzweig, M.; Ferdinand, B.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Wuensch, S.; Siegel, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Mikheenko, P.; Johansen, T.H. [University of Oslo (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    We present experimental data regarding the impact of external magnetic fields on quality factor and resonance frequency of superconducting microwave resonators in a coplanar waveguide geometry. In particular we focus on the influence of magnetic history and show with the assistance of numerical calculations that the found hysteretic behaviour can be well understood with a highly inhomogeneous microwave current density in combination with established field penetration models for type-II superconducting thin films. Furthermore we have used magneto-optical imaging techniques to check the field distribution which we have assumed in our calculations. Finally, we demonstrate that and how the observed hysteretic behaviour can be used to optimize and tune the resonator performance for possible hybrid quantum sytems in magnetic fields.

  20. Optimized Coplanar Waveguide Resonators for a Superconductor-Atom Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M A; Booth, D; Pritchard, J D; Saffman, M; McDermott, R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above $10^4$ can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 $\\mu$m above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  1. Annealing as grown large volume CZT single crystals increased spectral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Longxia Li

    2008-03-19

    The spectroscopic performance of current large-volume Cadmium 10% Zinc Telluride, Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te, (CZT) detectors is impaired by cumulative effect of tellurium precipitates (secondary phases) presented in CZT single-crystal grown by low-pressure Bridgman techniques(1). This statistical effect may limit the energy resolution of large-volume CZT detectors (typically 2-5% at 662 keV for 12-mm thick devices). The stochastic nature of the interaction prevents the use of any electronic or digital charge correction techniques without a significant reduction in the detector efficiency. This volume constraint hampers the utility of CZT since the detectors are inefficient at detecting photons >1MeV and/or in low fluency situations. During the project, seven runs CZT ingots have been grown, in these ingots the indium dopant concentrations have been changed in the range between 0.5ppm to 6ppm. The I-R mapping imaging method has been employed to study the Te-precipitates. The Teprecipitates in as-grown CZT wafers, and after annealing wafers have been systematically studied by using I-R mapping system (home installed, resolution of 1.5 {micro}m). We employed our I-R standard annealing CZT (Zn=4%) procedure or two-steps annealing into radiation CZT (Zn=10%), we achieved the 'non'-Te precipitates (size < 1 {micro}m) CZT n+-type with resistivity > 10{sup 9-10} {Omega}-cm. We believe that the Te-precipitates are the p-type defects, its reducing number causes the CZT became n+-type, therefore we varied or reduced the indium dapant concentration during the growth and changed the Te-precipitates size and density by using different Cd-temperature and different annealing procedures. We have made the comparisons among Te-precipitates size, density and Indium dopant concentrations, and we found that the CZT with smaller size of Te-precipitates is suitable for radiation uses but non-Te precipitates is impossible to be used in the radiation detectors, because the CZT

  2. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  3. SU-E-T-647: Plan Quality in Computerized Non-Coplanar IMRT Beam Angle Optimization is Highly Dependent on the Extent of the Beam direction Search Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, P; Rossi, L; Breedveld, S; Aluwini, S; Heijmen, B

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between plan quality and the extent of the beam direction search space in computerized beam angle selection for generating optimal (non-coplanar) IMRT plans for prostate SBRT with dose distributions simulating HDR brachytherapy. iCycle (1) was used to investigate the relationship between plan quality and the extent of the set of beam directions available for plan generation. For a group of 10 prostate patients, optimal plans were generated for 5 direction search spaces. For coplanar treatments (CP set), 72 orientations were available for selection (separation 5°). The fully non-coplanar set (F-NCP) included the CP directions plus 430 directions spread over the sphere. The CK set contained the directions available at the robotic Cyberknife unit. CK+ and CK++ were extensions of CK to investigate some of its characteristics. Generated plans were in accordance with our clinical SBRT protocol for Cyberknife treatment, delivering 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy. Adequate PTV coverage had the highest priority. Reduction of rectum dose was the highest OAR priority. The mean PTV coverage (V95) of all SBRT plans was 99% ï,± 0.9% (1 SD). F-NCP plans had most favorable OAR dose parameters, while for coplanar plans OAR doses were highest. Compared to coplanar treatment, rectum Dmean/V60 were 25% / 37% and 19% / 21% lower in F-NCP and CK plans. Higher rectum dose for the Cyberknife set compared to F-NCP was not caused by a lack of posterior beams for Cyberknife. For all search spaces, reduction in OAR dose only leveled off with > 20 beams in the plans (for CP, rectum V60 in 25 beam plans was reduced by 64% compared to 11 beams). In the non-coplanar set-ups, there was a preference for beams with a (large) lateral component. Plan quality clearly improved with the extent of the beam direction search space (coplanar worst), and the number of beam directions in the plan (25 clearly better than 11).(1) Breedveld S, Storchi P, Voet P, Heijmen B, Med Phys 2012

  4. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Determination of the efficiency of a detector in gamma spectrometry of large-volume samples

    CERN Document Server

    Tertyshnik, E G

    2012-01-01

    The experimental - calculated method is proposed to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of detectors {\\epsilon}(E) in case a measurement of the large-volume samples. Water is used as standard absorber in which the linear attenuation coefficients for photons {\\mu}0 (E) is well known. The value {\\mu} (E) in sample material (matrix of the sample) is determined experimentally by means of spectrometer. The formulas are given for calculation of the ratio {\\epsilon}(E)/ {\\epsilon}0(E), where {\\epsilon}0(E) is FEPE of the detector for photons those are arising in the container filled with water (it is found by adding in the container of the Reference radioactive solutions). To prove the validity of the method ethanol (density 0,8 g/cm3) and water solutions of salts (density 1,2 and 1,5 g/cm3) were used for simulation of the samples with different attenuation coefficients. Standard deviation between experimental and calculated efficiencies has been about 5 %.

  6. Twinning in vapour-grown, large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, B. K.; Mullins, J. T.; Pym, A. T. G.; Maneuski, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of twinning from (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) to (1 bar 3 bar 3 bar) in large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals, grown by vapour transport on (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) , often referred to as (211)B, oriented GaAs seeds, has been investigated using X-ray diffraction imaging (X-ray topography). Twinning is not associated with strains at the GaAs/CdTe interface as the initial growth was always in (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) orientation. Nor is twinning related to lattice strains associated with injection of Zn subsequent to initial nucleation and growth of pure CdTe as in both cases twinning occurred after growth of several mm length of Cd1-xZnxTe. While in both cases examined, there was a region of disturbed growth prior to the twinning transition, in neither crystal does this strain appear to have nucleated the twinning process. In both cases, un-twinned material remained after twinning was observed, the scale of the resulting twin boundaries being sub-micron. Simultaneous twinning across the whole sample surface was observed in one sample, whereas in the other, twinning was nucleated at different points and times in the growth.

  7. Development of a large mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating for APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Mike; Smee, Steve; Barkhouser, Robert; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Hearty, Fred; Harding, Al; Maseman, Paul; Holtzman, Jon; Schiavon, Ricardo; Gillespie, Bruce; Majewski, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are increasingly being used as diffractive elements in astronomical instruments due to their potential for very high peak diffraction efficiencies and the possibility of a compact instrument design when the gratings are used in transmission. Historically, VPH grating (VPHG) sizes have been limited by the size of manufacturer's holographic recording optics. We report on the design, specification and fabrication of a large, 290 mm × 475 mm elliptically-shaped, mosaic VPHG for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph. This high-resolution near-infrared multi-object spectrograph is in construction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). The 1008.6 lines/mm VPHG was designed for optimized performance over a wavelength range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. A step-and-repeat exposure method was chosen to fabricate a three-segment mosaic on a 305 mm × 508 mm monolithic fused-silica substrate. Specification considerations imposed on the VPHG to assure the mosaic construction will satisfy the end use requirements are discussed. Production issues and test results of the mosaic VPHG are discussed.

  8. Measurement of Throughput Variation Across A Large Format Volume-Phase Holographic Grating

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Sharples, R M; Robertson, D J; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Sharples, Ray M.; Robertson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report measurements of diffraction efficiency and angular dispersion for a large format (~ 25 cm diameter) Volume-Phase Holographic (VPH) grating optimized for near-infrared wavelengths (0.9 -- 1.8 micron). The aim of this experiment is to see whether optical characteristics vary significantly across the grating. We sampled three positions in the grating aperture with a separation of 5 cm between each. A 2 cm diameter beam is used to illuminate the grating. At each position, throughput and diffraction angle were measured at several wavelengths. It is found that whilst the relationship between diffraction angle and wavelength is nearly the same at the three positions, the throughputs vary by up to ~ 10\\% from position to position. We explore the origin of the throughput variation by comparing the data with predictions from coupled-wave analysis. We find that it can be explained by a combination of small variations over the grating aperture in gelatin depth and/or refractive index modulation a...

  9. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  10. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  11. Development testing of large volume water sprays for warm fog dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.; Beard, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new brute-force method of warm fog dispersal is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray induced air flow. Fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of the technique depends upon the drop size spectra in the spray, the height to which the spray can be projected, the efficiency with which fog laden air is processed through the curtain of spray, and the rate at which new fog may be formed due to temperature differences between the air and spray water. Results of a field test program, implemented to develop the data base necessary to assess the proposed method, are presented. Analytical calculations based upon the field test results indicate that this proposed method of warm fog dispersal is feasible. Even more convincingly, the technique was successfully demonstrated in the one natural fog event which occurred during the test program. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermokinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway.

  12. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  13. Exporting large volumes of municipal sewage sludge through turfgrass sod production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Eyob H; Annandale, John G; Steyn, Joachim M; Stirzaker, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The nutrient content of sludge produced by municipal water treatment works often far exceeds the requirements of nearby crops. Transporting sludge further afield is not always economically viable. This study reports on the potential to export large volumes of anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge through turfgrass sod production. Hypotheses examined are that sludge loading rates far above recommendations based on crop nutrient removal (i) are possible without reducing turf growth and quality, (ii) do not cause an accumulation of N and P below the active root zone, (iii) can minimize soil loss through sod harvesting, and (iv) do not cause unacceptably high nitrate and salt leaching. An 8 Mg ha(-1) sludge control (the recommended limit) was compared with sludge rates of 0, 33, 67, and 100 Mg ha(-1) on a loamy, kaolinitic, mesic, Typic Eutrustox soil near Johannesburg, South Africa. Sludge application rates up to 67 Mg ha(-1) significantly improved turfgrass establishment rate and color. The ability of sods to remain intact during handling and transport improved as the sludge application rate increased to 33 Mg ha(-1) but deteriorated at higher rates. A sludge application rate of 100 Mg ha(-1) was needed to eliminate soil loss, but this rate was associated with unacceptably high N leaching losses. All our hypotheses were accepted for application rates not exceeding 33 Mg ha(-1) on the proviso that some soil loss was acceptable and that the leaching fraction was carefully managed during the first 2 mo after sludge application.

  14. Practical gamma spectroscopy assay techniques for large volume low-level waste boxes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S. C. (Steven C.); Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Scheffing, C. C. (Candice C.); Gallegos, L. E. (Lucas E.); Bustos, R. M. (Roland M.)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAPrM (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known standards in large metal waste boxes (2.5 m' volume). The trials were designed to test the accuracy and variance of the analytical results for low-density combustible matrices and higher-density metal matrices at two discrete gamma-ray energies: 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV. For both matrix types the measurement method that produced the most accurate results with the lowest associated standard deviation involved combining four individual measurements taken at the geometric center of each of the box's four vertical sides. With this method the overall bias and the standard deviation amongst 24 individual results for the 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV gamma rays were as follows: 3.38% (k 20.19%) and 3.68% (k 15.47%) for the combustible matrix and 37,88% (k 67.64%) and 9.38% (k 33.15%) for the metal matrix. The persistent positive bias from measurements of the metal box is believed to be a result of a nonhomogenously distributed matrix.

  15. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-09-22

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system.

  16. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua; /SLAC; Cui, Yanou; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  17. Ionisation differential cross section measurements for N2 at low incident energy in coplanar and non-coplanar geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaamini, Ahmad; Amami, Sadek; Murray, Andrew James; Ning, Chuangang; Madison, Don

    2016-10-01

    Ionisation triple differential cross sections have been determined experimentally and theoretically for the neutral molecule N2 over a range of geometries from coplanar to the perpendicular plane. Data were obtained at incident electron energies ∼10 and ∼20 eV above the ionisation potential of the 3σ g, 1π u and 2σ g states, using both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The data were taken with the incident electron beam in the scattering plane (ψ = 0°), at 45° to this plane and orthogonal to the plane (ψ = 90°). The set of nine measured differential cross sections at a given energy were then inter-normalised to each other. The data are compared to new calculations using various distorted wave methods, and differences between theory and experiment are discussed.

  18. Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

  19. Stem cell harvesting protocol research in autologous transplantation setting: Large volume vs. conventional cytapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The use of peripheral blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (SCs is progressively increasing and has nearly supplanted bone marrow transplantation. Interpatient variability in the degree and kinetics of SC mobilization into peripheral blood is an expected event after conventional chemotherapy-based treatment, followed by sequential administration of recombinant granulocyte-colony- stimulating factor (rHu-CSF. In this study, specific factors associated with the application of two different SC-harvesting approaches, including the use of large volume leukapheresis (LVL vs. repetitive conventional apheresis (RCA, were analyzed. The basic goal of the study was to evaluate the influence of apheresis protocol (collection timing, processed blood volume and cell yield upon the clinical outcome of transplantation. Methods. Results obtained by LVL (76 pts and RCA (20 pts - control group were compared. The SC mobilizing regimen used was cyclophosphamide (4-7 g/m2 or polychemotherapy and rHuG-CSF 10-16 μg/kg of body mess (bm per day. Cell harvesting was performed using COBE-Spectra (Caridian-BCT, USA. The volume of processed blood in LVL setting was ≥ 3.5 - fold of the patient's circulating blood quantity (ranged from 12.7 to 37.8 l. All patients tolerated well the use of intensive treatment, without any side or adverse effects. Our original controlled-rate cryopreservation was carried out with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO using Planer R203/200R or Planer 560-16 equipments (Planer Products Ltd, UK. Total nucleated cell (NC and mononuclear cell (MNC counts were examined by flow cytometry (Advia-2120 Bayer, Germany; Technicon H-3 System, USA. The CD34+ cell surface antigen was investigated by the EPICS XL-MCL device (Coulter, Germany. Results. Performing LVL-apheresis, high-level MNC and CD34+ cell yields (7.6±4.6 × 108/kg bm and 11.8±6.5 × 106/kg bm, respectively were obtained. As a result, rapid hematopoietic reconstitution

  20. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric ...

  1. Electrode Design of Cylindrical Coplanar-grid CdZnTe Detector by Finite Element Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei; SANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Qi; MIN Jia-Hua; SHEN Yan

    2004-01-01

    Cylindrical coplanar- grid configurations, which offer a lot of advantages over established designs,can effectively overcome the problem of poor hole collection. Finite element analysis is utilized for simulating the potential distribution of the cylindrical coplanar-grid detector under different models by varying the widths of grid and pitch of electrodes. In addition, a modified grid pattern has been discussed to improve the weighting potential match between two grids. In this way, the geometry of electrodes for cylindrical coplanar- grid detectors is optimized.

  2. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhao, Jie; McDowell, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Wenting; Cui, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has ten times the theoretical capacity of its state-of-the-art carbonaceous counterpart. Silicon anodes can be used both in traditional lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li-O2 and Li-S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite-forming lithium metal anodes. The main challenges associated with silicon anodes are structural degradation and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the large volume change (~300%) during cycling, the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte, and the low volumetric capacity when the material size is reduced to a nanometre scale. Here, we propose a hierarchical structured silicon anode that tackles all three of these problems. Our design is inspired by the structure of a pomegranate, where single silicon nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction following lithiation and delithiation. An ensemble of these hybrid nanoparticles is then encapsulated by a thicker carbon layer in micrometre-size pouches to act as an electrolyte barrier. As a result of this hierarchical arrangement, the solid-electrolyte interphase remains stable and spatially confined, resulting in superior cyclability (97% capacity retention after 1,000 cycles). In addition, the microstructures lower the electrode-electrolyte contact area, resulting in high Coulombic efficiency (99.87%) and volumetric capacity (1,270 mAh cm-3), and the cycling remains stable even when the areal capacity is increased to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm-2).

  3. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  4. Type IIB orientifolds, D-brane instantons and the large volume scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauschinn, Erik

    2009-07-28

    This thesis is concerned with a branch of research in String Theory called String Phenomenology which aims for a better understanding of the connection between String Theory and Particle Physics. In particular, in this work we cover three topics which are important in order to establish this connection. The first topic is about String Theory model building in the context of so-called type IIB orientifolds with orientifold three- and seven-planes. After giving a brief overview, we work out in detail an important consistency condition for String Theory constructions, the so-called tadpole cancellation condition, and we verify explicitly that chiral anomalies are cancelled via the generalised Green-Schwarz mechanism. The second topic is concerned with so-called D-brane instantons which are nonperturbative effects in type II String Theory constructions. We recall the instanton calculus for such configurations, we derive the so-called A eck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential in String Theory and we develop an important constraint, a chiral zero-mode constraint, for instanton contributions in the presence of a realistic Particle Physics sector. The third topic is about moduli stabilisation in type IIB string compactifications. More concretely, we review the so-called KKLT as well as Large Volume Scenario, and we construct and study a model for the latter scenario where the constraint mentioned above has been taken into account explicitly. Although the three topics studied in this thesis are slightly different in nature, there is nevertheless a complex interplay between them with many interrelations. In order to uncover these connections, a detailed study of each individual subject has been performed which has led to new results such as the chiral zero-mode constraint. (orig.)

  5. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  6. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  7. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission new techniques have to be developed. One approach for carbon capture utilization (CCU) is the conversion of CO2 to more valuable chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) by means of non-thermal plasma generated at ambient conditions and supplied by excess energy from renewable sources. This paper reports about the effect of the admixture of inert gases, namely nitrogen or argon to CO2 in a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied voltage, frequency, flowrate and CO2 concentration in the influent. The composition of products, energy efficiency and yield were determined. Within the investigated parameter ranges, the maximum conversion of CO2 to CO efficiency of 1% was achieved when the specific input energy was 190 J L-1, whereas the maximum CO yield of 0.7% was achieved when the specific input energy was 210 J L-1. In conclusion, the energy efficiency can be significantly increased by operating the plasma in a diluted CO2 gas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  8. Coplanar (, 3) differential cross-section of He atom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Choubisa; A S Bhullar; K K Sud

    2003-06-01

    We present in this paper the results of our calculation of five-fold differential cross-section (FDCS) for (, 3) process on He atom in low momentum transfer and high electron impact energy in shake-off mechanism. The formalism has been developed in Born approximation using plane waves, Byron and Joachain as well as Le Sech and correlated BBK-type wave functions respectively for incident and scattered, bound and ejected electrons. The angular distribution of FDCS of our calculation is presented in various modes of coplanar geometry and comparison is made with the available experimental data. We observe that the present calculation is able to reproduce the trend of the experimental data. However, it differs in magnitude from the experiment. The present theory does not predict four-peak structure in summed mutual angle mode for lower excess ejected electron energies. We also discuss the importance of momentum transfer, post-collision interaction (PCI) and ion participation in the (, 3) process in constant 12 mode.

  9. Coplanar three-beam interference and phase edge dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patorski, Krzysztof; SłuŻewski, Łukasz; Trusiak, Maciej; Pokorski, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of grating three-beam interference to discover a broad range of the ratio of amplitudes A of +/-1 diffraction orders and the zero order amplitude C providing phase edge dislocations. We derive a condition A/C > 0.5 for the occurrence of phase edge dislocations in three-beam interference self-image planes. In the boundary case A/C = 0.5 singularity conditions are met in those planes (once per interference field period), but the zero amplitude condition is not accompanied by an abrupt phase change. For A/C > 0.5 two adjacent singularities in a single field period show opposite sign topological charges. The occurrence of edge dislocations for selected values of A/C was verified by processing fork fringes obtained by introducing the fourth beam in the plane perpendicular to the one containing three coplanar diffraction orders. Two fork pattern processing methods are described, 2D CWT (two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform) and 2D spatial differentiation.

  10. Coplanar back contacts for thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, G.; Scheinine, A.; Whitehouse, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Wrigley, C.; Giuliano, M.

    1981-01-01

    The type of coplanar back contact solar cell described was constructed with interdigitated n(+) and p(+) type regions on the back of the cell, such that both contacts are made on the back with no metallization grid on the front. This cell construction has several potential advantages over conventional cells for space use namely, convenience of interconnects, lower operating temperatures and higher efficiency due to the elimination of grid shadowing. However, the processing is more complex, and the cell is inherently more radiation sensitive. The latter problem can be reduced substantially by making the cells very thin (approximately 50 micrometers). Two types of interdigitated back contact cells are possible, the types being dependent on the character of the front surface. The front surface field cell has a front surface region that is of the same conductivity type as the bulk but is more heavily doped. This creates an electric field at the surface which repels the minority carriers. The tandem junction cell has a front surface region of a conductivity type that is opposite to that of the bulk. The junction thus created floats to open circuit voltage on illumination and injects carriers into the bulk which then can be collected at the rear junction. For space use, the front surface field cell is potentially more radiation resistant than the tandem junction cell because the flow of minority carriers (electrons) into the bulk will be less sensitive to the production of recombination centers, particularly in the space charge region at the front surface.

  11. Temperature monitoring in large volume spread footing foundations: case study "Parque da Cidade" - São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Couto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the construction of foundation elements from large-volume reinforced concrete is becoming increasingly common. This implies a potential increase in the risk of cracks of thermal origin, due to the heat of hydration of cement. Under these circumstances, these concrete elements need to be treated using the mass concrete theory, widespread in dam construction, but little used when designing buildings. This paper aims to present a case study about the procedures and problems involved in the construction of a spread footing with a volume of approximately 800m³ designed for the foundation of a shopping center in São Paulo, Brazil.

  12. Design aspects and comparison between high Tc superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  13. Design aspects and comparison between high T(sub c) superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  14. Influence of bone volume fraction and architecture on computed large-deformation failure mechanisms in human trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevill, Grant; Eswaran, Senthil K; Gupta, Atul; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-12-01

    Large-deformation bending and buckling have long been proposed as failure mechanisms by which the strength of trabecular bone can be affected disproportionately to changes in bone density, and thus may represent an important aspect of bone quality. We sought here to quantify the contribution of large-deformation failure mechanisms on strength, to determine the dependence of these effects on bone volume fraction and architecture, and to confirm that the inclusion of large-deformation effects in high-resolution finite element models improves predictions of strength versus experiment. Micro-CT-based finite element models having uniform hard tissue material properties were created from 54 cores of human trabecular bone taken from four anatomic sites (age = 70+/-11; 24 male, 27 female donors), which were subsequently biomechanically tested to failure. Strength predictions were made from the models first including, then excluding, large-deformation failure mechanisms, both for compressive and tensile load cases. As expected, strength predictions versus experimental data for the large-deformation finite element models were significantly improved (p deformation models in both tension and compression. Below a volume fraction of about 0.20, large-deformation failure mechanisms decreased trabecular strength from 5-80% for compressive loading, while effects were negligible above this volume fraction. Step-wise nonlinear multiple regression revealed that structure model index (SMI) and volume fraction (BV/TV) were significant predictors of these reductions in strength (R2 = 0.83, p deformation failure mechanisms on trabecular bone strength is highly heterogeneous and is not well explained by standard architectural metrics.

  15. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  16. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  17. Dosimetric comparison of preoperative single-fraction partial breast radiotherapy techniques: 3D CRT, noncoplanar IMRT, coplanar IMRT, and VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sua; Blitzblau, Rachel; Yin, Fang-Fang; Horton, Janet K

    2015-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of treatment plans among four techniques for preoperative single-fraction partial breast radiotherapy in order to select an optimal treatment technique. The techniques evaluated were noncoplanar 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRTNC), coplanar IMRT (IMRTCO), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The planning CT scans of 16 patients in the prone position were used in this study, with the single-fraction prescription doses of 15 Gy for the first eight patients and 18 Gy for the remaining eight patients. Six (6) MV photon beams were designed to avoid the heart and contralateral breast. Optimization for IMRT and VMAT was performed to reduce the dose to the skin and normal breast. All plans were normalized such that 100% of the prescribed dose covered greater than 95% of the clinical target volume (CTV) consisting of gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.5 cm margin. Mean homogeneity index (HI) was the lowest (1.05 ± 0.02) for 3D CRT and the highest (1.11 ± 0.04) for VMAT. Mean conformity index (CI) was the lowest (1.42 ± 0.32) for IMRTNC and the highest (1.60 ± 0.32) for VMAT. Mean of the maximum point dose to skin was the lowest (73.7 ± 11.5%) for IMRTNC and the highest (86.5 ± 6.68%) for 3D CRT. IMRTCO showed very similar HI, CI, and maximum skin dose to IMRTNC (differences radiotherapy, we can conclude that noncoplanar or coplanar IMRT were optimal in this study as IMRT plans provided homogeneous and conformal target coverage, skin sparing, and relatively short treatment delivery time.

  18. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  19. Fabrics, Facies And Flow Through A Large-Volume Ignimbrite: Pampa De Oxaya, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzman, Ellen; Cooper, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Large volume pyroclastic currents form during some of the most destructive volcanic eruptions on the planet, yet because they are underrepresented in the geological record they remain poorly understood. The Miocene Oxaya ignimbrites, exposed along the western Andean slopes in northern Chile, form one of the largest ignimbrite provinces on earth. We use anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in conjunction with rock magnetic measurements to investigate flow behavior and depositional processes in one of the largest members of the Oxaya succession, the Cardones ignimbrite. Despite its prominence the location of the source caldera remains unknown and fundamental processes remain poorly constrained. During 2012 nearly 8km (7,773m) of core was recovered from the early Miocene ignimbrites in 11 holes at elevations ranging from 2336m to 3805m along the Andean escarpment east of Arica, Chile. The drill cores are remarkable in that they penetrate through the entirety of the ignimbrite sequence and into the basement below. Samples for this study were collected from a > 1 km long core drilled at an altitude 3692m. The core sampled 981 m of Cardones ignimbrite and 15 m of underlying sediments and volcaniclastics before penetrating 148 m of basement. Detailed measurements of the variation in bulk magnetic properties including natural remanent magnetization (NRM), susceptibility, ARM, and IRM, were used to monitor changes in concentration, composition and grainsize of the magnetic components though the ignimbrite. AMS in conjunction with detailed rock magnetic measurements were used to constrain flow processes. The data reveal a well-defined flow direction and systematic variations in flow processes with depth. Low field bulk magnetic susceptibility averages 3.2x10-3 SI. Rock magnetic studies and petrographic examination indicate that magnetite is likely to be the dominant magnetic phase although paramagnetic mineral phases also contribute to the magnetic fabric. The degree

  20. Patient-specific quality assurance for spot scanning proton beams using a large-volume liquid scintillator detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    A large-volume liquid scintillator detector was used to measure individual energy layers from a clinical prostate treatment plan on a scanning proton beam system. Lateral and beam’s-eye view images of the dose distribution were acquired with two CCD cameras facing adjacent sides of a scintillator tank. The measured dose images were compared with calculated dose distributions from a validated Monte Carlo model. The measured and calculated dose distributions showed good agreement, with the exception of the Bragg peak region of the lateral view, which exhibited ionization quenching. The beam’s-eye and lateral views achieved gamma analysis passing rates of 99.7% and 92.5%, respectively, using gamma criteria of 3%, 3 mm. Large-volume scintillator detectors show promise for quick and accurate measurements of patient treatment fields for scanning proton beam systems.

  1. Distribution of Large Volume Image Data Using the Mixed Mode of Java Servlet and COM on Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mi; ZHU Xinyan; PAN Jun; CHEN Nengcheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports some researches on distribution of large volume image data using techniques of the Mixed Mode of Java Servlet and COM on Web. The architecture and key technologies are discussed in detail. The web distribution system of image is implemented and the system is tested by the application instances. At last, the advantages and disadvantages for this web image distribution mode are analyzed.

  2. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors' best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well.

  3. Axial vascularization of a large volume calcium phosphate ceramic bone substitute in the sheep AV loop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Justus P; Horch, Raymund E; Hess, Andreas; Arkudas, Andreas; Heinrich, Johanna; Loew, Johanna; Gulle, Heinz; Polykandriotis, Elias; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Kneser, Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    Vascularization still remains an obstacle to engineering of bone tissue with clinically relevant dimensions. Our aim was to induce axial vascularization in a large volume of a clinically approved biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic by transferring the arteriovenous (AV) loop approach to a large animal model. HA/beta-TCP granula were mixed with fibrin gel for a total volume of 16 cm(3), followed by incorporation into an isolation chamber together with an AV loop. The chambers were implanted into the groins of merino sheep and the development of vascularization was monitored by sequential non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The chambers were explanted after 6 and 12 weeks, the pedicle was perfused with contrast agent and specimens were subjected to micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan and histological analysis. Sequential MRI demonstrated a significantly increased perfusion in the HA/beta-TCP matrices over time. Micro-CT scans and histology confirmed successful axial vascularization of HA/beta-TCP constructs. This study demonstrates, for the first time, successful axial vascularization of a clinically approved bone substitute with a significant volume in a large animal model by means of a microsurgically created AV loop, thus paving the way for the first microsurgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered, axially vascularized bone with clinically relevant dimensions.

  4. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  5. Gravitational search for cryptovolcanism on the Moon: Evidence for large volumes of early igneous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.; Zuber, Maria T.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.

    2016-07-01

    We define lunar cryptovolcanism as volcanic deposits on the Moon hidden by overlying material. Notably, cryptovolcanism includes both cryptomaria (subsurface extrusive basaltic deposits that are obscured by overlying higher albedo basin and crater ejecta) and earlier candidate extrusives, such as the Mg-suite. Knowledge of the volume and extent of cryptovolcanism is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of lunar volcanic history, particularly in early (pre 3.8 Ga) epochs when abundant impact craters and basins obscured surface volcanic deposits by lateral emplacement of ejecta. We use Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gravity and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography data to construct maps of the Moon's positive Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, and explore the possibility that these features are due to mass excesses associated with cryptovolcanism by cross-referencing the regions with geologic data such as dark halo craters. We model the potential cryptovolcanic deposits as buried high-density rectangular prisms at depth in the upper crust, and find a volume of candidate buried cryptovolcanism between 0.4 × 106 km3 and 4.8 × 106 km3, depending on assumptions about density and crustal compensation state. These candidate deposits correspond to a surface area of between 0.50 × 106 km2 and 1.14 × 106 km2, which would increase the amount of the lunar surface containing volcanic deposits from 16.6% to between 17.9% and 19.5%. The inferred volume of cryptovolcanism is comparable to the smallest estimates of the volume of visible mare basalts and up to ∼50% of the largest estimates; the high-resolution GRAIL and LOLA observations thus would collectively indicate that early (pre 3.8 Ga) lunar volcanism is an important element of lunar thermal evolution. Alternatively, the buried material could represent the presence of intrusive Mg-suite sills or plutons.

  6. Ground Organic Monolith Particles Having a Large Volume of Macropores as Chromatographic Separation Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A reaction mixture was developed for formation of soft organic monolith that was easily smashed, rinsed, refluxed, filtered, and dried to give monolith particles having high pore volume of macropores. This phase was almost without mesopores. The reaction mixture was composed of methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, polyethylene glycol (porogen), and an initiator in a mixed solvent of toluene and isooctane. The selection of porogen and its amount was carefully carried out to obtain the optimized separation efficiency of the resultant phase. The median macropore size was 1.6 μm, and the total pore volume was 3.0-3.4 mL/g. The median particle size (volume based) was 15 μm, and the range of particle size distribution was very broad. Nevertheless the column (1 Χ 300 mm) packed with this phase showed good separation efficiency (N∼10,000-16,000) comparable to that of a commercial column packed with 5 μm C18 silica particles.

  7. A 3D time reversal cavity for the focusing of high-intensity ultrasound pulses over a large volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Arnal, B.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-02-01

    Shock wave ultrasound therapy techniques, increasingly used for non-invasive surgery, require extremely high pressure amplitudes in precise focal spots, and large high-power transducers arranged on a spherical shell are usually used to achieve that. This solution allows limited steering of the beam around the geometrical focus of the device at the cost of a large number of transducer elements, and the treatment of large and moving organs like the heart is challenging or impossible. This paper validates numerically and experimentally the possibility of using a time reversal cavity (TRC) for the same purpose. A 128-element, 1 MHz power transducer combined with different multiple scattering media in a TRC was used. We were able to focus high-power ultrasound pulses over a large volume in a controlled manner, with a limited number of transducer elements. We reached sufficiently high pressure amplitudes to erode an Ultracal® target over a 10 cm2 area.

  8. Large-Scale Context-Aware Volume Navigation using Dynamic Insets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Latest developments in electron microscopy (EM) technology produce high resolution images that enable neuro-scientists to identify and put together the complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, because of the massive size and underlying complexity of this kind of data, processing, navigation and analysis suffer drastically in terms of time and effort. In this work, we propose the use of state-of- the-art navigation techniques, such as dynamic insets, built on a peta-scale volume visualization framework to provide focus and context-awareness to help neuro-scientists in their mission to analyze, reconstruct, navigate and explore EM neuroscience data.

  9. Ultrastructurally smooth thick partitioning and volume stitching for large-scale connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Kenneth J; Xu, C Shan; Lu, Zhiyuan; Knott, Graham W; Fetter, Richard D; Tapia, Juan Carlos; Lichtman, Jeff W; Hess, Harald F

    2015-04-01

    Focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) has become an essential tool for studying neural tissue at resolutions below 10 nm × 10 nm × 10 nm, producing data sets optimized for automatic connectome tracing. We present a technical advance, ultrathick sectioning, which reliably subdivides embedded tissue samples into chunks (20 μm thick) optimally sized and mounted for efficient, parallel FIB-SEM imaging. These chunks are imaged separately and then 'volume stitched' back together, producing a final three-dimensional data set suitable for connectome tracing.

  10. Construction of Large-Volume Tissue Mimics with 3D Functional Vascular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Yun; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We used indirect stereolithography (SL) to form inner-layered fluidic networks in a porous scaffold by introducing a hydrogel barrier on the luminal surface, then seeded the networks separately with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung fibroblasts to form a tissue mimic containing vascular networks. The artificial vascular networks provided channels for oxygen transport, thus reducing the hypoxic volume and preventing cell death. The endothelium of the vascular networks significantly retarded the occlusion of channels during whole-blood circulation. The tissue mimics have the potential to be used as an in vitro platform to examine the physiologic and pathologic phenomena through vascular architecture. PMID:27228079

  11. Construction of Large-Volume Tissue Mimics with 3D Functional Vascular Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yun Kang

    Full Text Available We used indirect stereolithography (SL to form inner-layered fluidic networks in a porous scaffold by introducing a hydrogel barrier on the luminal surface, then seeded the networks separately with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung fibroblasts to form a tissue mimic containing vascular networks. The artificial vascular networks provided channels for oxygen transport, thus reducing the hypoxic volume and preventing cell death. The endothelium of the vascular networks significantly retarded the occlusion of channels during whole-blood circulation. The tissue mimics have the potential to be used as an in vitro platform to examine the physiologic and pathologic phenomena through vascular architecture.

  12. Usefulness of Non-coplanar Helical Tomotherapy Using Variable Axis Baseplate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jin Sook; Chung, Yoon Sun; Lee, Ik Jae; Shin, Dong Bong; Kim, Jong Dae; Kim, Sei Joon; Jeon, Mi Jin; Chok, Yoon Jin; Kim, Ki Kwang; Lee, Seul Bee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Helical Tomotherapy allows only coplanar beam delivery because it does not allow couch rotation. We investigated a method to introduce non-coplanar beam by tilting a patient's head for Tomotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare intrafractional movement during Tomotherapy between coplanar and non-coplanar patient's setup. Helical Tomotherapy was used for treating eight patients with intracranial tumor. The subjects were divided into three groups: one group (coplanar) of 2 patients who lay on S-plate with supine position and wore thermoplastic mask for immobilizing the head, second group (non-coplanar) of 3 patients who lay on S-plate with supine position and whose head was tilted with Variable Axis Baseplate and wore thermoplastic mask, and third group (non-coplanar plus mouthpiece) of 3 patients whose head was tilted and wore a mouthpiece immobilization device and thermoplastic mask. The patients were treated with Tomotherapy after treatment planning with Tomotherapy Planning System. Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) was performed before and after treatment, and the intrafractional error was measured with lateral(X), longitudinal(Y), vertical(Z) direction movements and vector ({radical}x{sup 2}+{radical}y{sup 2}+{radical}z{sup 2}) value for assessing overall movement. Intrafractional error was compared among three groups by taking the error of MVCT taken after the treatment. As the correction values (X, Y, Z) between MVCT image taken after treatment and CT-simulation image are close to zero, the patient movement is small. When the mean values of movement of each direction for non-coplanar setup were compared with coplanar setup group, X-axis movement was decreased by 13%, but Y-axis and Z-axis movement were increased by 109% and 88%, respectively. Movements of Y-axis and Z-axis with non-coplanar setup were relatively greater than that of X-axis since a tilted head tended to slip down. The mean of X-axis movement of the group who used a

  13. Evaluation of the accuracy of the HexaPOD evo RT system using non-coplanar beams in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Se Wuk; Cho, Kang Chul; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Kim, Joo Ho; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study, evaluate the accuracy of HeaxPOD evo RT system using the non-coplanar beam. 13 treatment plans are used which applied non-coplanar beams and 10 treatment plans which coplanar beams are used. the correction value what adjust to 6D couch is determined by each patient's setup errors only rotation direction. The study executed followings. first, Applying the correction value, measure the point dose and calculate the γ -index(γ=3% / 3 mm , γ =2%/ 2 mm). second, acquire data as previous methods without correction by HexaPOD. For comparing the two results, we find out the more precise applying HexaPOD by point dose 0.2% in coplanar and non-coplanar. in the case of γ-index<1(γ=3% / 3 mm), more precise 2.2% in coplanar and 7% in Non-coplanar. Particularly, γ - index<1(2% / 2 mm) show the difference 9.2% in coplanar and 15.1% non-coplanar between apply HexaPOD and dose not apply HexaPOD. Using the HexaPOD is more precise than without HexaPOD. It suggests that HexaPOD evo RT system is very useful for precise and high dose delivery.

  14. Underground low flux neutron background measurements in LSM using a large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Giomataris, I.; Bougamont, E.; Irastorza, I.; Aune, S.; Chapelier, M.; Charvin, P. H.; Colas, P.; Derre, J.; Ferrer, E.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Mangier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Salin, P.; Vergados, J. D.; Zampalo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter has been developed at CEA/Saclay, for low flux neutron measurements. The high voltage is applied to a small sphere 15mm in diameter, located in the center of the counter and the wall of the counter is grounded. Neutrons can be measured successfully, with high sensitivity, using 3He gas in the detector. The proton and tritium energy deposition in the drift gaseous volume, from the reaction 3He(n,p)3H, can provide the neutron spectra from thermal neutrons up to several MeV. The detector has been installed in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM) to measure the neutron background. The sphere has been has been filled with gas mixture of Ar + 2% CH4 +3gr He-3, at 275 mbar. The thermal neutron peak is well separated from the cosmic ray and gamma background, permitting of neutron flux calculation. Other potential applications requiring large volume of about 10 m in radius are described in detail in reference

  15. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C. [SETARAM Instrumentation, Caluire (France); Bachelet, F. [CEA Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  16. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 1999. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Meyer, Rosa [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998. Its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of new projects like e.g. the assembly of the synchrotron light source (SLS), design studies of a new proton therapy facility, the ultracold neutron source and a new intensive secondary beam line for low energy muons. A large fraction of this report is devoted to research especially in the field of materials Science. The studies include large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations on the elastic and plastic behavior of nanostructured metals, complemented by experimental mechanical testing using micro-indentation and miniaturized tensile testing, as well as microstructural characterisation and strain field mapping of metallic coatings and thin ceramic layers, the latter done with synchrotron radiation.

  17. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Guenter; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Foroughi, Fereydoun; Meyer, Rosa [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998 and its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of the assembly of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  18. Distributed location-based query processing on large volumes of moving items

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Se-gil; LEE Chung-woo; NAH Yunmook; KIM Moon-hae; HAN Ki-joon

    2004-01-01

    Recently, new techniques to efficiently manage current and past location information of moving objects have received significant interests in the area of moving object databases and location-based service systems. In this paper, we exploit query processing schemes for location management systems, which consist of multiple data processing nodes to handle massive volume of moving objects such as cellular phone users.To show the usefulness of the proposed schemes, some experimental results showing performance factors regarding distributed query processing are explained. In our experiments, we use two kinds of data set: one is generated by the extended GSTD simulator and another is generated by the real-time data generator which generates location sensing reports of various types of users having different movement patterns.

  19. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  20. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  1. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  2. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1994-12-31

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass-covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. figs., tabs., refs.

  3. On the beam direction search space in computerized non-coplanar beam angle optimization for IMRT-prostate SBRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Linda; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J M; Voet, Peter W J; Lanconelli, Nico; Aluwini, Shafak

    2012-09-01

    In a recent paper, we have published a new algorithm, designated 'iCycle', for fully automated multi-criterial optimization of beam angles and intensity profiles. In this study, we have used this algorithm to investigate the relationship between plan quality and the extent of the beam direction search space, i.e. the set of candidate beam directions that may be selected for generating an optimal plan. For a group of ten prostate cancer patients, optimal IMRT plans were made for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), mimicking high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry. Plans were generated for five different beam direction input sets: a coplanar (CP) set and four non-coplanar (NCP) sets. For CP treatments, the search space consisted of 72 orientations (5° separations). The NCP CyberKnife (CK) space contained all directions available in the robotic CK treatment unit. The fully non-coplanar (F-NCP) set facilitated the highest possible degree of freedom in selecting optimal directions. CK(+) and CK(++) were subsets of F-NCP to investigate some aspects of the CK space. For each input set, plans were generated with up to 30 selected beam directions. Generated plans were clinically acceptable, according to an assessment of our clinicians. Convergence in plan quality occurred only after around 20 included beams. For individual patients, variations in PTV dose delivery between the five generated plans were minimal, as aimed for (average spread in V(95): 0.4%). This allowed plan comparisons based on organ at risk (OAR) doses, with the rectum considered most important. Plans generated with the NCP search spaces had improved OAR sparing compared to the CP search space, especially for the rectum. OAR sparing was best with the F-NCP, with reductions in rectum D(Mean), V(40Gy), V(60Gy) and D(2%) compared to CP of 25%, 35%, 37% and 8%, respectively. Reduced rectum sparing with the CK search space compared to F-NCP could be largely compensated by expanding CK with beams with

  4. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  5. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  6. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  7. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with non-coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in coplanar hierarchical triple systems on initially circular orbits, with comparable masses and with well separated components, based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Now, the same technique is extended to non-coplanar orbits. However, it can only be applied to systems with ${I_{0}140.77^{\\circ}}$, where ${I}$ is the inclination of the two orbits, because of complications arising from the so-called 'Kozai effect'. The theoretical model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion.

  8. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  9. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  10. Coplanar VMAT vs. noncoplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Zhong-Hua; Mu, Jin-Ming; Mo, Jun-Chong; Gao, Ming; Li, Qi-Lin; Gu, Wen-Dong; Pei, Hong-Lei [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Changzhou (China); Jiang, Jing-Ting; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Lu-Jun [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, Changzhou (China); Jin, Jian-Xue [Elekta China Co. Ltd, Department of Radiation Physics, Beijing, Chaoyang District (China)

    2014-10-08

    Previous studies showed that noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (NC-IMRT) for sinonasal cancer is superior to coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a newly introduced treatment modality, and the performance of noncoplanar VMAT for sinonasal cancer has not been well described to date. To compare the dosimetry difference of noncoplanar VMAT (NC-VMAT), coplanar VMAT (co-VMAT), and NC-IMRT for sinonasal cancer. Ten postoperative patients with sinonasal cancer were randomly selected for planning with NC-VMAT, co-VMAT, and NC-IMRT. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured representing high-risk and low-risk regions set to receive a median absorbed dose (D{sub 50} {sub %}) of 68 Gy and 59 Gy, respectively. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and delivery efficiency were all evaluated. Both NC-VMAT and co-VMAT showed superior dose homogeneity and conformity in PTVs compared with NC-IMRT. There was no significant difference between NC-VMAT and co-VMAT in PTV coverage. Both VMAT plans provided a better protection for organs at risk (OARs) than NC-IMRT plans, and NC-VMAT showed a small improvement over co-VMAT in sparing of OARs. For peripheral doses, the doses to breast, thyroid, and larynx in the NC-IMRT plans were significantly higher than those in both VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT significantly reduced peripheral doses. NC-VMAT and co-VMAT reduced the average delivery time by 63.2 and 64.2 %, respectively, in comparison with NC-IMRT. No differences in delivery efficiency were observed between the two VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and comparable OAR sparing but significantly reduced peripheral doses and positioning uncertainty. We propose to give priority to coplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer. (orig.) [German] Fruehere Studien zeigten, dass die nichtkoplanare intensive modulierte

  11. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  12. Magnetostructural martensitic transformations with large volume changes and magneto-strains in all-d-metal Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K., E-mail: ekliu@iphy.ac.cn; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Y. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Han, X. L.; Du, Z. W. [National Center of Analysis and Testing for Nonferrous Metals and Electronic Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Luo, H. Z.; Liu, G. D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The all-d-metal Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Mn{sub 50}Ni{sub 40−x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 10} (x = 8 and 9.5) are realized. With a generic comparison between d-metal Ti and main-group elements in lowering the transformation temperature, the magnetostructural martensitic transformations are established by further introducing Co to produce local ferromagnetic Mn-Co-Mn configurations. A 5-fold modulation and (3, −2) stacking of [00 10] of martensite are determined by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis. Based on the transformation, a large magneto-strain of 6900 ppm and a large volume change of −2.54% are observed in polycrystalline samples, which makes the all-d-metal magnetic martensitic alloys of interest for magnetic/pressure multi-field driven applications.

  13. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  14. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  15. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 2000. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Zumkeller, Lotty [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The PSI Department Large Research Facilities (GFA) joins the efforts to provide an excellent research environment to Swiss and foreign research groups on the experimental facilities driven by our high intensity proton accelerator complex. Its divisions care for the running, maintenance and enhancement of the accelerator complex, the primary proton beamlines, the targets and the secondary beams as well as the neutron spallation source SINQ. The division for technical support and coordination provides for technical support to the research facility complementary to the basic logistic available from the department for logistics and marketing. Besides running the facilities, the staff of the department is also involved in theoretical and experimental research projects. Some of them address basic scientific questions mainly concerning the properties of micro- or nanostructured materials: experiments as well as large scale computer simulations of molecular dynamics were performed to investigate nonclassical materials properties. Others are related to improvements or extensions of the capabilities of our facilities. We also report on intriguing results from applications of the neutron capture radiography, the prompt gamma activation method and the isotope production facility at SINQ.

  16. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, D; Agnes, P; Agostino, L; Bottino, B; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A M; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Jollet, C; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Pocar, A; Renshaw, A L; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Suvorov, Y; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Wang, H; Zavatarelli, S

    2015-01-01

    The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equival...

  17. Effects of large gut volume in gelatinous zooplankton: ingestion rate, bolus production and food patch utilization by the jellyfish Sarsia tubulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Many gelatinous zooplankton consume a large amount of prey and have stomach volumes much greater than the volume of individual prey. We suggest that jellyfish can use their voluminous stomach as a buffering food-accumulating organ that allows the organism to feed at maximum clearance rate in a wide...

  18. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Inui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126 to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  19. Mammalian cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-13

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  20. Planning, Designing, Building, and Moving a Large Volume Maternity Service to a New Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Heather; Legorreta, Kimberly; Maher, Mary Ann; Lavin, Melanie M

    Our health system recognized the need to update facility space and associated technology for the labor and birth unit within our large volume perinatal service to improve the patient experience, and enhance safety, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. When an organization decides to invest $30 million dollars in a construction project such as a new labor and birth unit, many factors and considerations are involved. Financial support, planning, design, and construction phases of building a new unit are complex and therefore require strong interdisciplinary collaboration, leadership, and project management. The new labor and birth unit required nearly 3 years of planning, designing, and construction. Patient and family preferences were elicited through consumer focus groups. Multiple meetings with the administrative and nursing leadership teams, staff nurses, nurse midwives, and physicians were held to generate ideas for improvement in the new space. Involving frontline clinicians and childbearing women in the process was critical to success. The labor and birth unit moved to a new patient tower in a space that was doubled in square footage and geographically now on three separate floors. In the 6 months prior to the move, many efforts were made in our community to share our new space. The marketing strategy was very detailed and creative with ongoing input from the nursing leadership team. The nursing staff was involved in every step along the way. It was critical to have champions as workflow teams emerged. We hosted simulation drills and tested scenarios with new workflows. Move day was rehearsed with representatives of all members of the perinatal team participating. These efforts ultimately resulted in a move time of ~5 hours. Birth volumes increased 7% within the first 6 months. After 3 years in our new space, our birth volumes have risen nearly 15% and are still growing. Key processes and roles responsible for a successful build, efficient and safe move

  1. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  2. Fast large volume simulations of the 21-cm signal from the reionization and pre-reionization epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. G.; Ferramacho, L.; Silva, M. B.; Amblard, A.; Cooray, A.

    2010-08-01

    While limited to low spatial resolution, the next-generation low-frequency radio interferometers that target 21-cm observations during the era of reionization and prior will have instantaneous fields of view that are many tens of deg2 on the sky. Predictions related to various statistical measurements of the 21-cm brightness temperature must then be pursued with numerical simulations of reionization with correspondingly large volume box sizes, of the order of 1000 Mpc on one side. We pursue a semi-numerical scheme to simulate the 21-cm signal during and prior to reionization by extending a hybrid approach where simulations are performed by first laying down the linear dark matter density field, accounting for the non-linear evolution of the density field based on second-order linear perturbation theory as specified by the Zel'dovich approximation, and then specifying the location and mass of collapsed dark matter haloes using the excursion-set formalism. The location of ionizing sources and the time evolving distribution of ionization field is also specified using an excursion-set algorithm. We account for the brightness temperature evolution through the coupling between spin and gas temperature due to collisions, radiative coupling in the presence of Lyman α photons and heating of the intergalactic medium, such as due to a background of X-ray photons. The hybrid simulation method we present is capable of producing the required large volume simulations with adequate resolution in a reasonable time, so a large number of realizations can be obtained with variations in assumptions related to astrophysics and background cosmology that govern the 21-cm signal.

  3. 3D printed biomimetic whisker-based sensor with co-planar capacitive sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamare, John; Sanders, Remco; Krijnen, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a whisker sensor for tactile purposes and which is fabricated by 3D printing. Read-out consists of a capacitive measurement of a co-planar capacitance which is affected by a dielectric that is driven into the electric field of the capacitance. The current impl

  4. Characterisation and optimisation of a coplanar waveguide fed logarithmic spiral antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A cavity backed coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS)-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna, which covers a 9 to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun is used to accomplish the transition from the unbalanced CPW transmiss......A cavity backed coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS)-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna, which covers a 9 to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun is used to accomplish the transition from the unbalanced CPW...... pattern, due to the absorbing material. Only half of the input power is transformed into radiated power due to the presence of the absorber. The simulated performance of the spiral antenna is very promising. The simulations indicated that the antenna has a radiation efficiency of more than 70...

  5. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  6. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  7. 3D printed biomimetic whisker-based sensor with co-planar capacitive sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamare, John; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a whisker sensor for tactile purposes and which is fabricated by 3D printing. Read-out consists of a capacitive measurement of a co-planar capacitance which is affected by a dielectric that is driven into the electric field of the capacitance. The current impl

  8. A comparison study of on-chip short pulse generation circuits based on a coplanar waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹焕; 耿永涛; 王平山; 李家胤

    2011-01-01

    A few traditional pulse-forming circuits are implemented in a commercial 0.13 μm digital complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These circuits, based on a coplanar waveguide, are analyzed and compared through CadenceTM Spectre simulati

  9. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  10. Brain perfusion CT for acute stroke using a 256-slice CT: improvement of diagnostic information by large volume coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, F. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Muenzel, D.; Meier, R.; Rummeny, E.J.; Huber, A. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Poppert, H. [Technical University, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To compare a 256-slice CT with a simulated standard CT for brain CT perfusion (CTP). CTP was obtained in 51 patients using a 256-slice CT (128 detector rows, flying z-focus, 8-cm detector width, 80 kV, 120mAs, 20 measurements, 1 CT image/2.5 s). Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were compared in grey and white matter. Perfusion maps were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in hypoperfused areas and corresponding contralateral regions. Two reconstructed 10-mm slices for simulation of a standard CT (SDCT) were compared with the complete data sets (large-volume CT, LVCT). Adequate image quality was achieved in 50/51 cases. SNR were significantly different in grey and white matter. A perfusion deficit was present in 27 data sets. Differences between the hypoperfusions and the control regions were significant for MTT and CBF, but not for CBV. Three lesions were missed by SDCT but detected by LVCT; 24 lesions were covered incompletely by SDCT, and 6 by LVCT. 21 lesions were detected completely by LVCT, but none by SDCT. CTP imaging of the brain using an increased detector width can detect additional ischaemic lesions and cover most ischaemic lesions completely. (orig.)

  11. Development and sea trials of a subsea holographic camera for large volume in-situ recording of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith

    2002-06-01

    We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.

  12. Pretherapy metabolic tumour volume is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanelli, Myriam; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Itti, Emmanuel [Paris-Est University, Nuclear Medicine and Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Georges-Francois Leclerc Center, Le Bocage Hospital, Dijon (France); Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Siegel, Barry A.; Cashen, Amanda F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vera, Pierre; Tilly, Herve [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Henri Becquerel Center, Rouen (France); Versari, Annibale [Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). TMTV was measured in 114 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline before immunochemotherapy. TMTV was computed by summing the volumes of all lymphomatous lesions after applying the local SUVmax threshold of 41 % using semiautomatic software. Prognostic value was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 39 months. Average pretherapy TMTV was 509 ± 568 cm{sup 3}. The 3-year estimates of PFS were 77 % in the low metabolic burden group (TMTV ≤550 cm{sup 3}) and 60 % in the high metabolic burden group (TMTV >550 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.04), and prediction of OS was even better (87 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.0003). Cox regression showed independence of TMTV for OS prediction (p = 0.002) compared with other pretherapy indices of tumour burden, such as tumour bulk and the International Prognostic Index. Pretherapy TMTV is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  13. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  14. The properties of a large volume-limited sample of face-on low surface brightness disk galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hu Zhong; Yan-Chun Liang; Feng-Shan Liu; Francois Hammer; Karen Disseau; Li-Cai Deng

    2012-01-01

    We select a large volume-limited sample of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs,2021) to investigate in detail their statistical properties and their differences from high surface brightness galaxies (HSBGs,3639).The distributions of stellar masses of LSBGs and HSBGs are nearly the same and they have the same median values.Thus this volume-limited sample has good completeness and is further removed from the effect of stellar masses on their other properties when we compare LSBGs to HSBGs.We found that LSBGs tend to have lower stellar metallicities and lower effective dust attenuations,indicating that they have lower dust than HSBGs.The LSBGs have relatively higher stellar mass-to-light ratios,higher gas fractions,lower star forming rates (SFRs),and lower specific SFRs than HSBGs.Moreover,with the decreasing surface brightness,gas fraction increases,but the SFRs and specific SFRs decrease rapidly for the sample galaxies.This could mean that the star formation histories between LSBGs and HSBGs are different,and HSBGs may have stronger star forming activities than LSBGs.

  15. Large volume injection in gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface operating under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Álvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Gea, Sara; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a modification of the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption (TOTAD) interface, consisting of coupling a vacuum system to reduce the consumption of the helium needed to totally remove the eluent for large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography (GC). Two different retention materials in the liner of the TOTAD interface were evaluated: Tenax TA, which was seen to be unsuitable for working under vacuum conditions, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which provided satisfactory repeatability as well as a good sensitivity. No variability was observed in the retention times in either case. Solutions containing organophosphorous pesticides in two different solvents, a polar (methanol/water) and a non-polar (hexane) solvent, were used to evaluate the modification. The vacuum system coupled to the TOTAD interface allowed up to 90% helium to be saved without affecting the performance.

  16. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  17. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  18. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from small and large volume water samples using a compressed foam filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, D P; Parton, A; Parton, A C; Roberts, J; Bergmann, K

    1998-12-01

    A novel filter system comprising open cell reticulated foam rings compressed between retaining plates and fitted into a filtration housing was evaluated for the recovery of oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water. Mean recoveries of 90.2% from seeded small and large volume (100-2000 l) tap water samples, and 88.8% from 10-20 l river water samples, were achieved. Following a simple potassium citrate flotation concentrate clean-up procedure, mean recoveries were 56.7% for the tap water samples and 60.9% for river water samples. This represents a marked improvement in capture and recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water compared with conventional polypropylene wound cartridge filters and membrane filters.

  19. Characterization of large volume 3.5″×8″ LaBr3:Ce detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Frega, S.; Gulyàs, J.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Lodetti, S.; Million, B.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2013-11-01

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5″×8″ (89 mm×203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of γ-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the “LABRVD”, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, voltage divider and applied voltage, some significant deviation from the ideally proportional response of the detector and some pulse shape deformation appear. In addition, crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts affect the (measured) energy resolution especially in case of high-energy γ rays. We also measured the time resolution of detectors with different sizes (from 1″×1″ up to 3.5″×8″), correlating the results with both the intrinsic properties of PMTs and GEANT simulations of the scintillation light collection process. The detector absolute full energy efficiency was measured and simulated up to γ-rays of 30 MeV

  20. Characterization of large volume 3.5″×8″ LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Camera, F., E-mail: Franco.Camera@mi.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Blasi, N.; Boiano, C. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bracco, A. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brambilla, S. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ceruti, S. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Coelli, S. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Crespi, F.C.L. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Csatlòs, M. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Frega, S. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gulyàs, J.; Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Lodetti, S. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Million, B. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Owens, A.; Quarati, F. [SRE-PA, ESA/ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Stuhl, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); and others

    2013-11-21

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5″×8″ (89 mm×203 mm) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic γ–ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of γ-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the “LABRVD”, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, voltage divider and applied voltage, some significant deviation from the ideally proportional response of the detector and some pulse shape deformation appear. In addition, crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts affect the (measured) energy resolution especially in case of high-energy γ rays. We also measured the time resolution of detectors with different sizes (from 1″×1″ up to 3.5″×8″), correlating the results with both the intrinsic properties of PMTs and GEANT simulations of the scintillation light collection process. The detector absolute full energy efficiency was measured and simulated up to γ-rays of 30 MeV.

  1. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  2. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  3. X-ray diffraction and electroresistance measurements under high pressure and temperature using a large-volume cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principi, E; Minicucci, M [CNISM, CNR-INFM SOFT and Dipartimento di Fisica Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri 62032, Camerino (Italy); Di Cicco, A

    2008-07-15

    In this communication we report about original experimental techniques for in-house x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance measurements under high-temperature and high pressure conditions, using large volume cells in the opposite anvil recessed geometry. The high-pressure devices we are currently using are a compact Paris-Edinburgh (PE) V5 150 Tons press and a 50 Tons standard hydraulic press, coupled usually with WC anvils and 10 mm or 7 mm boron-epoxy or pyrophyllite biconical gaskets for x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements respectively. Limiting pressures, using such a non-toroidal sample assembly and WC anvils, are about 10 GPa on samples of large sizes (10-20 mm{sup 3}). Samples can be heated using an hollow graphite cylinder as a crucible reaching temperatures as high as 2300 K, while the temperature can be measured up to 1300 K by using a K-type thermocouple. The highly automated setup developed for resistance measurements is described in details. In particular, we present electroresistance measurements of Bi melting under pressure and measurements of the Ge and LiF EOS (equation of state) at high temperature and pressure obtained using x-ray diffraction showing the sensitivity of the techniques. The relevance of these experiments to the exploitation of the potential of equipments available at synchrotron radiation facilities is emphasized.

  4. Long-term effects of large-volume liposuction on metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, B Selma; Cohen, Samuel; Reeds, Dominic; Young, V Leroy; Klein, Samuel

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although we previously found that using liposuction surgery to remove abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) did not result in metabolic benefits, it is possible that postoperative inflammation masked the beneficial effects. Therefore, this study provides a long-term evaluation of a cohort of subjects from our original study. Body composition and metabolic risk factors for CHD, including oral glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, and blood pressure were evaluated in seven obese (39 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) women before and at 10, 27, and 84-208 weeks after large-volume liposuction. Liposuction surgery removed 9.4 +/- 1.8 kg of body fat (16 +/- 2% of total fat mass; 6.1 +/- 1.4 kg decrease in body weight), primarily from abdominal SAT; body composition and weight remained the same from 10 through 84-208 weeks. Metabolic endpoints (oral glucose tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure and plasma triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations) obtained at 10 through 208 weeks were not different from baseline and did not change over time. These data demonstrate that removal of a large amount of abdominal SAT by using liposuction does not improve CHD metabolic risk factors associated with abdominal obesity, despite a long-term reduction in body fat.

  5. Transurethral dividing vaporesection for the treatment of large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia using 2 micron continuous wave laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-chong; YANG Yong; WEI Zhi-tao; HONG Bao-fa; ZHANG Xu

    2010-01-01

    Background The safety and efficiency of transurethral laser resection of the prostate to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia have been verified. However, this method does still not manage large volume prostates efficiently. To tackle this problem, we have designed a method of "transurethral dividing vaporesection of prostate" using a 2 micron continuous wave laser. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of this method in the management of large prostates (>80 ml).Methods In this study, 45 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia with a median prostatic volume of (123.7±26.7) ml (range, 80.2-159.8 ml) were treated by the same surgeon under epidural anesthesia. During the surgery, superapubic catheters were needed, and saline solution was used for irrigation. First, the prostate was divided longitudinally into several parts from the bladder neck to the prostatic apex, and then gradually incised transversely chip by chip. Intraoperative blood transfusion rate, postoperative complications, maximum urinary flow rate, International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life scores were recorded for statistical analysis using SPSS 16.0 software.Results Intraoperatively, no transurethral resection syndrome was observed, and no blood transfusions were needed.The resected prostatic chips were easily flushed out of the bladder through the resectoscope sheath without the use of a morcellator. Median vaporesection time was (95.0±13.2) minutes (range, 75-120 minutes), and the median retrieved and removed prostatic tissue were (25.2±5.1) g (range, 15.5-34.7 g) and (75.4±16.4) g (range, 43.8-106.1 g), respectively. Median catheter time and hospital stay were (3.3±0.9) days (range, 3-5 days) and (4.8±1.8) days (range, 3-9 days), respectively. After a follow-up of 6 to 12 months, two patients had stress urinary incontinence and three had anterior urethral strictures. Satisfactory improvement was seen in maximum urinary flow rate, International Prostate

  6. Serial sectioning and electron microscopy of large tissue volumes for 3D analysis and reconstruction: a case study of the calyx of Held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffpauir, Brian K; Pope, Brian A; Spirou, George A

    2007-01-01

    Serial section electron microscopy is typically applied to investigation of small tissue volumes encompassing subcellular structures. However, in neurobiology, the need to relate subcellular structure to organization of neural circuits can require investigation of large tissue volumes at ultrastructural resolution. Analysis of ultrastructure and three-dimensional reconstruction of even one to a few cells is time consuming, and still does not generate the necessary numbers of observations to form well-grounded insights into biological principles. We describe an assemblage of existing computer-based methods and strategies for graphical analysis of large photographic montages to accomplish the study of multiple neurons through large tissue volumes. Sample preparation, data collection and subsequent analyses can be completed within 3-4 months. These methods generate extremely large data sets that can be mined in future studies of nervous system organization.

  7. Investigation of the coplanar barrier discharge in synthetic air at atmospheric pressure by cross-correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoder, T [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); SIra, M [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Kozlov, K V [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wagner, H-E [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2008-02-07

    The barrier discharge in the coplanar arrangement operating in a single-filament mode was studied spectroscopically. The evolution of the discharge luminosity was measured by the technique of cross-correlation spectroscopy. The 1D-spatially and temporally resolved luminosities of the first negative (at 391.5 nm) and the second positive (at 337.1 nm) system of molecular nitrogen were recorded using the above-mentioned technique. A cathode-directed ionizing wave (IW) was clearly seen on the plot for radiation intensity at 337.1 nm. In addition to this, also observed was a wave of the enhanced electric field propagating over the anode. In this paper, the propagation of these waves is described and their velocities are determined. The discharge evolution is divided into three phases-the Townsend phase, the phase of the IWs propagation and the extinction phase. Since the above-mentioned luminosity distributions could be interpreted approximately as the electric field (for 391.5 nm) and the electron density (for 337.1 nm) distribution, the qualitative description of the discharge is made accordingly. All these parameters are compared with similar measurements of the volume discharge. Apart from this, an attempt to determine the reduced electric field is made according to the kinetic model.

  8. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Pollution of natural bodies of water (rivers, lakes, ground water, etc) is unfortunately very common, both from natural sources like volcanic activity; and, even more importantly, from human activity, including disposal of industrial and municipal waste, mining, etc. Many toxic substances are harmful for humans and other organisms even in very low concentrations (e.g., less than 1 µg/L of cadmium is harmful, for Hg it is 0.5 µg/L, for phenol - 1 µg/L), and can remain in water for decades or longer. Cleaning large volumes of water even from low concentrations of pollutants is a challenging technological task and is very expensive. We propose to use suspension of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents, for example, nanostructured ferro-carbon particles, produced by plasmachemical technique, for removing small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water. The suspension is introduced into the water. Due to their small sizes and densities similar to water (we measured the density of FC-4 ferro-carbon to be about 1 g/cm3; presumably due to porosity) the particles do not sediment for a long time (hours, days or longer), move due to Brownian motion and adsorb a variety of substances from the water. The particle surface can be modified to provide selectivity of the adsorption. Sorption capacities of ferro-carbon adsorbents is in dozens of percent. Therefore, to collect 1 kg of a pollutant, 2 to 20 kg of the adsorbents is required. Then the particles with the adsorbed contaminant can be collected (e.g., downstream of the river) using a variety of magnetic traps. The traps can consist of ferromagnetic wires and permanent magnets, a variety of simple and inexpensive designs are available. As a model system, the kinetics of adsorption of a highly diluted (0.002 mg/ml) aqueous solution of a low molecular weight compound (toluidine blue) by a small concentration of a ferro-carbon powder (FC-4) was studied by spectrophotometry. Before each measurement, the particles

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT AND PROCESSING OF LARGE DATA VOLUMES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a computerized society, technological resources become a source of identification for any community, institution or country. Globalization of information becomes a reality, all the resources having entered into a relationship of subordination with the World Wide Web, the information highways and the Internet. "Information technology - with its most important branch, data management computer science - enters a new era, in which the computer leads to the benefit of a navigable and transparent communication space, focusing on information". Therefore, in an information-based economy, information systems have been established which, based on management systems through the methods of algebra, with applications in economic engineering, have come to manage and process large volumes of data, especially in public institutions. Consequently, the Ministry of Public Affairs has implemented the “Increasing the public administration’s responsibility by modernising the information systems for generating the reports of the financial situations of public institutions” project (FOREXEBUG”, cod SMIS 34952, for which it received in 2012 non-refundable financing from the European Social Fund through the Operational Program for Developing the Administrative Capacity 2007-2013, based on which this paper will analyse the usefulness of implementing such a program in public institutions. Such a system aims to achieve a new form of reporting of budget execution and financial statements (including information related to legal commitments submitted monthly by each public institution in electronic, standardized, secure form, with increasing the reliability of data collected by cross-checking data from the treasury and providing reliable information for use by the Ministry of Finance, public institutions, other relevant institutions and the public, both at the level of detail and the consolidation possibilities at various levels, in parallel with their use for

  10. Superconducting Pb as material for coplanar waveguide resonators on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köpke, M., E-mail: m.koepke@fkf.mpg.de; Weis, J., E-mail: j.weis@fkf.mpg.de

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We investigate Pb as a material for superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators. • It is easily processed, has high T{sub C}, and high tolerance against magnetic fields. • Corrosion during aging is present, but shown to be acceptable. - Abstract: We investigate Pb as a material for superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators. It is easily fabricated, has relatively high tolerance against magnetic fields, and possesses high T{sub C}. It thus combines the advantages of the most widely used superconductors, Al and Nb, which is especially beneficial for experiments on (Al,Ga)As-based heterostructures. Its main disadvantage is corrosion during aging which we have shown to be present, but acceptable on GaAs substrates.

  11. Interactions of Nucleic Acid Bases with Temozolomide. Stacked, Perpendicular, and Coplanar Heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasende, Okuma Emile; Nziko, Vincent de Paul N; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) was paired with each of the five nucleic acid bases, and the potential energy surface searched for all minima, in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory and MP2 methods. Three types of arrangements were observed, with competitive stabilities. Coplanar H-bonding structures, reminiscent of Watson-Crick base pairs were typically the lowest in energy, albeit by a small amount. Also very stable were perpendicular arrangements that included one or more H-bonds. The two monomers were stacked approximately parallel to one another in the third category, some of which contained weak and distorted H-bonds. Dispersion was found to be a dominating attractive force, largest for the stacked structures, and smallest for the coplanar dimers.

  12. Study of Temperature Characteristics of Micromachined Suspended Coplanar Waveguides for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent development on biosensors, coplanar waveguide based microwave dielectric sensors have been attracting more and more attentions. In this paper, microwave performance of a suspended coplanar waveguide subject to temperature variations, particularly in a small range, is studied. The prototype is realized through a MEMS fabrication foundry. The thermal transfer analysis of the device is conducted using finite element method, and the microwave properties of the device are characterized. One of the results shows that at 20 GHz, the S11 has decreased by 7.4%, and S21 has increased by 3.5% when the voltage applied to the heaters varies from 9 V to 29 V.

  13. Extraction of glass-wafers electrical properties based on S-parameters measurements of coplanar waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, P. M.; Polyakov, A.; Bartek, M.; Burghartz, J.N.; Correia, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The measured S-parameters of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) propagating the dominant mode were used to obtain the electrical permittivity and the dielectric loss tangent of three different glass wafers: non-alkaline Schott AF45, Corning Pyrex #7740 and Hoya SD-2. These properties were obtained up to 10 GHz. The obtained values were used together with the CPW model in ADS to obtain the simulated S-parameters for the used CPW cell. The obtained results shows good agreement b...

  14. Millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on novel probe microstrip line and coplanar stripline exciters

    OpenAIRE

    Iezhov, Oleksandr; Omelianenko, Mykhaylo

    2009-01-01

    Novel designs of compact integrated waveguide exciters of microstrip line and coplanar stipline are presented in the paper. An E-plane microstrip 0-π phase-shift modulator with independent p-i-n diode control networks has been designed at 24 GHz on the basis of proposed exciters. The total length of the integrated circuit substrate including exciters is no more than 0.62 of waveguide wavelength.

  15. Transparent, low-power pressure sensor matrix based on coplanar-gate graphene transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qijun; Kim, Do Hwan; Park, Sang Sik; Lee, Nae Yoon; Zhang, Yu; Lee, Jung Heon; Cho, Kilwon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-07-16

    A novel device architecture for preparing a transparent and low-voltage graphene pressure-sensor matrix on plastic and rubber substrates is demonstrated. The coplanar gate configuration of the graphene transistor enables a simplified procedure. The resulting devices exhibit excellent device performance, including a high transparency of ca. 80% in the visible range, a low operating voltage less than 2 V, a high pressure sensitivity of 0.12 kPa(-1) , and excellent mechanical durability over 2500 cycles.

  16. Vision Servo Motion Control and Error Analysis of a Coplanar XXY Stage for Image Alignment Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.

  17. Buoyancy effects in vertical rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field and single sided heat load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, I.R. [NIIEFA – JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, St. Petersburg, 196641 (Russian Federation); Obukhov, D.M., E-mail: obukhov@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [NIIEFA – JSC “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”, St. Petersburg, 196641 (Russian Federation); Genin, L.G. [MPEI – National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”, 14 Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Sviridov, V.G.; Razuvanov, N.G.; Batenin, V.M.; Belyaev, I.A. [JIHT – Joint Institute of High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Science, 13/19, Igorskaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Poddubnyi, I.I. [MPEI – National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”, 14 Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Pyatnitskaya, N.Yu. [JIHT – Joint Institute of High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Science, 13/19, Igorskaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer in vertical duct mercury flow in coplanar magnetic field is studied. • Mean velocity, temperature and temperature pulsations are measured. • Buoyancy influence on heat transfer is found. - Abstract: This article investigates an effect which was found out in downward flow of liquid metal (LM) in vertical rectangular duct in coplanar magnetic field (MF). The experiments have been performed on facility which located in JIHT. This facility is magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) mercury close-loop. The temperature field measurements have been performed at one side heating conditions in coplanar magnetic field. The averaged temperature fields, wall temperature distributions and statistical characteristics of temperature fluctuation have been obtained. The strong influence of counter thermo-gravitational convection (TGC) on average and fluctuation parameters has been observed. The influence of TGC in magnetic field leads to developing of temperature low-frequency fluctuations with high magnitude. The temperature fluctuation amplitude in a wide range of operating conditions is higher than turbulence level.

  18. PLATFORM DEFORMATION PHASE CORRECTION FOR THE AMiBA-13 COPLANAR INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics, and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Guo-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, 251-37 Tamsui, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Molnar, Sandor M. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yen, E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: jhpw@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  19. Coplanar UHF RFID tag antenna with U-shaped inductively coupled feed for metallic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Karrar Naji; Ismail, Alyani; Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Saeedi, Tale

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel compact, coplanar, tag antenna design for metallic objects. Electrically small antenna has designed for a UHF RFID (860-960 MHz) based on a proximity-coupled feed through. Furthermore, two symmetrical Via-loaded coplanar grounds fed by a U-shaped inductively coupled feed through an embedded transmission line. This configuration results in an antenna with dimensions of 31 × 19.5 × 3.065 mm3 at 915 MHz, and the total gain for the antenna is 0.12 dBi. The Via-loaded coplanar and U-shaped inductively coupled feeds allow the antenna to provide flexible tuning in terms of antenna impedance. In addition, a figure of merit is applied for the proposed tag antenna, and the results are presented. The read range is measured to be 4.2 m, which is very close to simulated values. This antenna measurement shows very good agreement with simulations.

  20. Characterization of coplanar grid CZT detectors with highly collimated x-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Gabriella A.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Wright, Gomez W.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Siddons, D. P.; James, Ralph B.

    2004-10-01

    CdZnTe detectors demonstrated great potentials for detection of gamma radiation. However, energy resolution of CdZnTe detectors is significantly affected by uncollected holes which have low mobility and short lifetime. To overcome this deleterious effects upon energy resolution special detector designs have to be implemented. The most practical of them are the small pixel effect device, the co-planar grid device, and the virtual Frisch-grid device. We routinely use a highly collimated high-intensity X-ray beams provided by National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study of CdZnTe material and performances of the different types of devices on the micron-scale. This powerful tool allows us to evaluate electronic properties of the material, device performance, uniformity of the detector responses, effects related to the device's contact pattern and electric field distribution, etc. In particular, in this paper we present new results obtained from the performance studies of 15 x 15 x 7.5 mm3 coplanar-grid devices coupled to readout ASIC. We observed the effect of the strip contacts comprising the grids on the energy resolution of the coplanar-grid device.

  1. A study on the microwave responses of YBCO and TBCCO thin films by coplanar resonator technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    YBa2CuaO7(YBCO) thin films have been prepped by thermal coevaporation on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates, and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8(TBCCO) thin films are synthesized by magnetron sputtering method on LAO substrates. The transition temperature Tc is 90 K for YBCO/LAO and 104K for TBCCO/LAO. Microwave responses of the films are studied systematically by coplanar resonator technique. Energu gaps of the films obtained are △0 = 1.04kBTc for YBCO films and △0 = 0.84kBTc for TBCCO films by analysing the temperature dependence of resonant frequencies of coplanar resonator. Penetration depth at 0K λ0 = 198 nm for YBCO films and λ0 = 200 nm for TBCCO films could also be obtained by using the weak coupling theory and two fluid theory. Results of penetration depth and energy gap confirm the weak coupling properties of the films. In addition, microwave surface resistances Rs of YBCO/LAO and TBCCO/LAO are also investigated by analysing the quality factor and insert loss of the coplanar resonator. Surface resistance of TBCCO/LAO is less than that of YBCO/LAO, so that TBCCO/LAO films may have more potential applications.

  2. Uncertainty quantification of seabed parameters for large data volumes along survey tracks with a tempered particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, J.; Quijano, J. E.; Dosso, S. E.; Holland, C. W.; Mandolesi, E.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical seabed properties are important for the detection and classification of unexploded ordnance. However, current surveying methods such as vertical seismic profiling, coring, or inversion are of limited use when surveying large areas with high spatial sampling density. We consider surveys based on a source and receiver array towed by an autonomous vehicle which produce large volumes of seabed reflectivity data that contain unprecedented and detailed seabed information. The data are analyzed with a particle filter, which requires efficient reflection-coefficient computation, efficient inversion algorithms and efficient use of computer resources. The filter quantifies information content of multiple sequential data sets by considering results from previous data along the survey track to inform the importance sampling at the current point. Challenges arise from environmental changes along the track where the number of sediment layers and their properties change. This is addressed by a trans-dimensional model in the filter which allows layering complexity to change along a track. Efficiency is improved by likelihood tempering of various particle subsets and including exchange moves (parallel tempering). The filter is implemented on a hybrid computer that combines central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) to exploit three levels of parallelism: (1) fine-grained parallel computation of spherical reflection coefficients with a GPU implementation of Levin integration; (2) updating particles by concurrent CPU processes which exchange information using automatic load balancing (coarse grained parallelism); (3) overlapping CPU-GPU communication (a major bottleneck) with GPU computation by staggering CPU access to the multiple GPUs. The algorithm is applied to spherical reflection coefficients for data sets along a 14-km track on the Malta Plateau, Mediterranean Sea. We demonstrate substantial efficiency gains over previous methods. [This

  3. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  4. Safety Analysis in Large Volume Vacuum Systems Like Tokamak: Experiments and Numerical Simulation to Analyze Vacuum Ruptures Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large volume vacuum systems are used in many industrial operations and research laboratories. Accidents in these systems should have a relevant economical and safety impact. A loss of vacuum accident (LOVA due to a failure of the main vacuum vessel can result in a fast pressurization of the vessel and consequent mobilization dispersion of hazardous internal material through the braches. It is clear that the influence of flow fields, consequence of accidents like LOVA, on dust resuspension is a key safety issue. In order to develop this analysis an experimental facility is been developed: STARDUST. This last facility has been used to improve the knowledge about LOVA to replicate a condition more similar to appropriate operative condition like to kamaks. By the experimental data the boundary conditions have been extrapolated to give the proper input for the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical simulations, developed by the commercial CFD numerical code. The benchmark of numerical simulation results with the experimental ones has been used to validate and tune the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical model that has been developed by the authors to replicate the LOVA conditions inside STARDUST. In present work, the facility, materials, numerical model, and relevant results will be presented.

  5. Anomalously large formula unit volume and its effect on the thermal behavior of LiBF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny; Zemva, Boris

    2006-02-09

    The crystal structure of LiBF4 has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. LiBF4 crystallizes as a merohedral twin in the trigonal space group P3(1)21 with a=4.892(5) A, c=11.002(12) A, V=228.0(4) A3, and Z=3 at 200 K. The twin is generated by a 2-fold rotation about the [10] direction. The lithium cation is coordinated by four fluorine atoms in a distorted tetrahedral manner, wherein two Li-F distances of 1.862(5) and 1.846(5) A are observed. The formula unit volume (FUV=V/Z) of 77.9 A3 for LiBF4 at 298 K is considerably larger than 72.7 A3 for NaBF4 and 72.5 A3 for AgBF4, despite the smaller size of Li+, indicating loose ionic packing of LiBF4. The thermodynamic evaluation of the decomposition temperature for LiBF4 was performed using the empirical relationship between the standard entropy and the FUV obtained. The results indicate that the large FUV of LiBF4 contributes to its higher decomposition temperature compared to that of LiPF6.

  6. Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a simple insulin infusion protocol in a large volume cardiac surgery unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Inpatient hyperglycemia management is essential, but difficult to achieve especially in a large volume cardiac surgery setup, thus necessitating use of nurse-led insulin protocols. A rapid flux of nurses dealing with a huge workload has been a cause for traditionally not using nurse-led protocols in most Indian institutes. The challenges we faced were to have a simple protocol for the nurses to accept it without compromising on glycemic control. Therefore, this observational study was planned to measure the efficacy and safety of the insulin infusion protocol in cardiac surgery patients. Materials and Methods: Insulin protocol was implemented, using seven fixed columns of infusion with the nurse making decisions to initiate and titrate doses based on simple rules. Blood glucose (BG data captured from blood gas analyzers (glucometrics in the intervention group (i.e., after protocol implementation were compared to control group (i.e., before the protocol implementation. Results: The mean BG for the first 48 h was lower in the intervention group as compared to control group, without an increase in the episodes of hypoglycemia. The nurses found the protocol easy to understand, less time-consuming and there was no protocol deviation over 8 months after implementation. Conclusion: A small change in the process, allowing nurses to titrate insulin doses based on some rules and having seven fixed columns of insulin infusion rates, improved glycemic control and efficiency.

  7. Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a simple insulin infusion protocol in a large volume cardiac surgery unit in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Inpatient hyperglycemia management is essential, but difficult to achieve especially in a large volume cardiac surgery setup, thus necessitating use of nurse-led insulin protocols. A rapid flux of nurses dealing with a huge workload has been a cause for traditionally not using nurse-led protocols in most Indian institutes. The challenges we faced were to have a simple protocol for the nurses to accept it without compromising on glycemic control. Therefore, this observational study was planned to measure the efficacy and safety of the insulin infusion protocol in cardiac surgery patients. Insulin protocol was implemented, using seven fixed columns of infusion with the nurse making decisions to initiate and titrate doses based on simple rules. Blood glucose (BG) data captured from blood gas analyzers (glucometrics) in the intervention group (i.e., after protocol implementation) were compared to control group (i.e., before the protocol implementation). The mean BG for the first 48 h was lower in the intervention group as compared to control group, without an increase in the episodes of hypoglycemia. The nurses found the protocol easy to understand, less time-consuming and there was no protocol deviation over 8 months after implementation. A small change in the process, allowing nurses to titrate insulin doses based on some rules and having seven fixed columns of insulin infusion rates, improved glycemic control and efficiency.

  8. Successful Large-volume Leukapheresis for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection in a Very-low-weight Brain Tumor Infant with Coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Liao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral apheresis has become a safe procedure to collect hematopoietic stem cells, even in pediatric patients and donors. However, the apheresis procedure for small and sick children is more complicated due to difficult venous access, relatively large extracorporeal volume, toxicity of citrate, and unstable hemostasis. We report a small and sick child with refractory medulloblastoma, impaired liver function, and coagulopathy after several major cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. She successfully received large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection, although the patient experienced severe coagulopathy during the procedures. Health care providers should be alert to this potential risk.

  9. Minimum fuel coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer using collocation and nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun Yuan; Young, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) without plane change. The basic approach here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the coplanar aeroassisted HEO to LEO orbit transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into a elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and drag modulation to satisfy heating constraints and to exit the atmosphere with the desired flight path angle and velocity so that the apogee of the exit orbit is the altitude of the desired LEO. Finally, the second impulse is required to circularize the orbit at LEO. The performance index is maximum final mass. Simulation results show that the coplanar aerocapture is quite different from the case where orbital plane changes are made inside the atmosphere. In the latter case, the vehicle has to penetrate deeper into the atmosphere to perform the desired orbital plane change. For the coplanar case, the vehicle needs only to penetrate the atmosphere deep enough to reduce the exit velocity so the vehicle can be captured at the desired LEO. The peak heating rates are lower and the entry corridor is wider. From the thermal protection point of view, the coplanar transfer may be desirable. Parametric studies also show the maximum peak heating rates and the entry corridor width are functions of maximum lift coefficient. The problem is solved using a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the states and controls and collocation to represent the differential equations. This converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem

  10. Large wood recruitment processes and transported volumes in Swiss mountain streams during the extreme flood of August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Badoux, Alexandre; Rickli, Christian; Waldner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The extreme flood event that occurred in August 2005 was the most costly (documented) natural hazard event in the history of Switzerland. The flood was accompanied by the mobilization of > 69,000 m3 of large wood (LW) throughout the affected area. As recognized afterward, wood played an important role in exacerbating the damages, mainly because of log jams at bridges and weirs. The present study aimed at assessing the risk posed by wood in various catchments by investigating the amount and spatial variability of recruited and transported LW. Data regarding LW quantities were obtained by field surveys, remote sensing techniques (LiDAR), and GIS analysis and was subsequently translated into a conceptual model of wood transport mass balance. Detailed wood budgets and transport diagrams were established for four study catchments of Swiss mountain streams, showing the spatial variability of LW recruitment and deposition. Despite some uncertainties with regard to parameter assumptions, the sum of reconstructed wood input and observed deposition volumes agree reasonably well. Mass wasting such as landslides and debris flows were the dominant recruitment processes in headwater streams. In contrast, LW recruitment from lateral bank erosion became significant in the lower part of mountain streams where the catchment reached a size of about 100 km2. According to our analysis, 88% of the reconstructed total wood input was fresh, i.e., coming from living trees that were recruited from adjacent areas during the event. This implies an average deadwood contribution of 12%, most of which was estimated to have been in-channel deadwood entrained during the flood event.

  11. Effect of high temperature curing on the compressive strength of concrete incorporating large volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Villarreal, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The effect of using different types of heat treatment on the compressive strength of concrete with and without large volumes of fly ash was studied. Curing of concrete is important to obtain a good quality concrete, but it is important to keep concrete from drying until the originally water-filled space in fresh cement paste has been filled to the desired extent by the products of hydration. In hot weather, high temperature promotes faster drying of concrete so a given degree of hydration is reached more rapidly than at lower temperatures. The provision of moist curing is advantageous because of a gradual gain in strength and because of reduced plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage-cracking. The portland cement content in all the mixtures used in this study was 200 kg per cubic metre and the amount of fly ash varied from 0 to 33, 43, 50 and 56 per cent by mass of the total binder. A superplasticizer was used to obtain 200-220 mm slump. The compressive strength was tested at 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 days and at 6 months. Results showed that, using ASTM standard curing, the compressive strength of portland cement concrete made at 35 degrees C was reduced by about 12 per cent at 28 days compared to that of the concrete made at 23 degrees C. The AASHTO curing strength was found to be a bit higher than with the ASTM curing. The concrete made at 35 degrees C showed no loss of strength when continuous moist-curing was applied. The fly ash concrete mixtures that were cast at 35 degrees C were cured by covering them with membrane curing compounds and placed under ambient conditions. It was crucial to allow enough curing water to promote the pozzolanic reaction. The membrane curing did not allow the ingress of water to the concrete mass. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Risk scores to facilitate preoperative prediction of transfusion and large volume blood transfusion associated with adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R; Sterne, J A C; Verheyden, V; Bhabra, M; Ranucci, M; Murphy, G J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop two novel risk prediction scores for transfusion and bleeding that would be used to inform treatment decisions, quality assurance, and clinical trial design in cardiac surgery. Clinical data prospectively collected from 26 UK cardiac surgical centres and a single European centre were used to develop two risk prediction models: one for any red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the other for large volume blood transfusion (≥4 RBC units; LVBT), an index of severe blood loss. 'Complete case' data were available for 24 749 patients. Multiple imputation was used for missing covariate data (typically data set containing 39 970 patients. Risk models were developed in the complete case data set, with internal validation using leave-one-centre-out cross-validation. The final selected models were fitted to the imputed data set. Final risk scores were then compared with the performance of three existing scores: the Transfusion Risk and Clinical Knowledge score (TRACK), the Transfusion Risk Understanding Scoring Tool (TRUST), and the Papworth Bleeding Risk Score (BRiSc). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.77) for the any RBC transfusion score and AUC 0.80 (0.79-0.80) for the LVBT score in the imputed data set. The LVBT model also showed excellent discrimination (Hosmer-Lemeshow P=0.32). In the imputed data set, the AUCs for the TRACK and TRUST scores for any RBC transfusion were 0.71 and 0.71, respectively, and for LVBT the AUC for the BRiSc score was 0.69. Two new risk scores for any RBC transfusion or LVBT among cardiac surgery patients have excellent discrimination, and could inform clinical decision making. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  14. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10-4 during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  15. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhaoli, E-mail: zl-yan@mail.ioa.ac.cn; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Bin [School of Automation, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-12-15

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10{sup −4} during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  16. Advanced fractional crystallisation and homogenization of large-volume rhyolite before the Oraefajokull 1362 AD plinian eruption, SE Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, R. S.; Tronnes, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    In the 50 km wide Icelandic rift zones rhyolite magma is generated by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust, subsiding under the weight of the growing volcanic pile. This mechanism of silicic melt formation is indicated by the basalt-rhyolite bimodality and rhyolite O-isotope composition. The low 18/16O-isotope ratios of rift zone rhyolites trace the high-latitude meteoric water component of the subsiding hydrated basalts [1]. The rhyolites of the volcanic flank zones (VFZ), however, have generally as heavy oxygen as the associated alkaline to transitional basalts and intermediate volcanics [2,3]. The minor volcanic loading of the older, thicker and stronger VFZ crust is insufficient for significant subsidence, and less pronounced basalt-rhyolite bimodality combined with other geochemical features support silicic melt generation by fractional crystallization. An extreme case in Icelandic, as well as global, perspective is the rhyolite magma of the plinian eruption from the large VFZ-volcano, Oraefajokull, in 1362 AD [4]. Glass, mineral and bulk tephra analyses show no chemical variation exceeding the analytical precision for the entire erupted volume of 2 km3 DRE. This applies even to the glass shards from distant locations in Greenland, Norway and Ireland. The total phenocryst content is 0.5-1 wt percent, with oligoclase (An14 Ab81 Or5.5), fayalite (Fa99.7 Fo0.3) and hedenbergite (Wo44.7 En2.6 Fs52.7) constituting 50- 80, 10-25 and 10-25 percent of the total phenocrysts, respectively. The extreme mineral compositions (especially pure fayalite and hedenbergite) resemble those of the granophyres in the Skaergaard and Bushveld complexes and differ from all other investigated rhyolites. The advanced fractionation and homogenisation to form the erupted 2 km3 DRE rhyolite is petrogenetically challenging, and a parental magma chamber of 20-40 km3 seems like a conservative estimate. The time-scale of the historic magma chamber evolution under Oraefajokull is

  17. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for the treatment of a large planning target volume in thoracic esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmar S; Moseley, Douglas; Kassam, Zahra; Kim, Sun Mo; Cho, Charles

    2013-05-06

    Recently, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has demonstrated the ability to deliver radiation dose precisely and accurately with a shorter delivery time compared to conventional intensity-modulated fixed-field treatment (IMRT). We applied the hypothesis of VMAT technique for the treatment of thoracic esophageal carcinoma to determine superior or equivalent conformal dose coverage for a large thoracic esophageal planning target volume (PTV) with superior or equivalent sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs) doses, and reduce delivery time and monitor units (MUs), in comparison with conventional fixed-field IMRT plans. We also analyzed and compared some other important metrics of treatment planning and treatment delivery for both IMRT and VMAT techniques. These metrics include: 1) the integral dose and the volume receiving intermediate dose levels between IMRT and VMATI plans; 2) the use of 4D CT to determine the internal motion margin; and 3) evaluating the dosimetry of every plan through patient-specific QA. These factors may impact the overall treatment plan quality and outcomes from the individual planning technique used. In this study, we also examined the significance of using two arcs vs. a single-arc VMAT technique for PTV coverage, OARs doses, monitor units and delivery time. Thirteen patients, stage T2-T3 N0-N1 (TNM AJCC 7th edn.), PTV volume median 395 cc (range 281-601 cc), median age 69 years (range 53 to 85), were treated from July 2010 to June 2011 with a four-field (n = 4) or five-field (n = 9) step-and-shoot IMRT technique using a 6 MV beam to a prescribed dose of 50 Gy in 20 to 25 F. These patients were retrospectively replanned using single arc (VMATI, 91 control points) and two arcs (VMATII, 182 control points). All treatment plans of the 13 study cases were evaluated using various dose-volume metrics. These included PTV D99, PTV D95, PTV V9547.5Gy(95%), PTV mean dose, Dmax, PTV dose conformity (Van't Riet conformation number (CN)), mean lung dose

  18. Discrimination of alpha particles in CdZnTe detectors with coplanar grid for the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebber, Henning [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A background rate in the order of 10{sup -3} counts per keV, kg and year is intended in order to be sensitive to a half-life larger than 10{sup 26} years. Measurements from a demonstrator setup and Monte Carlo simulations indicate that a large background component is due to alpha particles. These generate charge clouds of only few μm in diameter in the detector, leading to characteristic pulse features. Parameter-based cut criteria were developed to discriminate alpha events by means of their pulse shapes. The cuts were tested on data from alpha and beta irradiation of a (1 x 1 x 1) cm{sup 3} CdZnTe detector with coplanar grid. The pulse shapes of all event signals were read out by FADCs with a sampling rate of 100 MHz. The signals were reproduced by a detector simulation which hence was used to study the cuts for energies up to 3 MeV and different detector regions.

  19. The unsettled world of leak rate physics: 1 atm large-volume considerations do not apply to MEMS packages: a practitioner's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Richard C.; Jonath, Arthur; Lowry, Robert K.

    2012-03-01

    The world of leak testing, and the applicable physics, is unsettled. While globally lower MIL-STD leak rate criteria are under consideration even for 1 atm-large volume packages, industry is conversely moving rapidly into very small volume MEMS and vacuum packaging for advanced devices. These changes point out serious conceptual disconnects between the reality of properly characterizing a leak and the conceptual tools used to ensure the desired lifetime. The physical understandings and associated tool sets used to test and model the leaks are described. We modeled two actual packages, a large, ~200 cc volume multichip module for aerospace applications and a small ~0.01cc volume MEMS package for sensor applications. Impacts of various physical models of leak flow into a package are compared to include Fickian Diffusion, The Davy Model, Howl-Mann, and an empirically derived model based on Kr-85 leak testing as called out in the most recent edition of MIL-STD-883. As shown in the comparisons, simple He leak testing and physical models based thereon fall apart in the small volume MEMS packaging space.

  20. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: Characteristics and Advantages Evaluated for Radiofrequency and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers in NASA Lewis Research Center s Electron Device Technology Branch are developing transmission lines for radiofrequency and wireless circuits that are more efficient, smaller, and make lower cost circuits possible. Traditionally, radiofrequency and wireless circuits have employed a microstrip or coplanar waveguide to interconnect the various electrical elements that comprise a circuit. Although a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is widely viewed as better than a microstrip for most applications, it too has problems. To solve these problems, NASA Lewis and the University of Michigan developed a new version of a coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes. Through extensive numerical modeling and experimental measurements, we have characterized the propagation constant of the FGC waveguide, the lumped and distributed circuit elements integrated in the FGC waveguide, and the coupling between parallel transmission lines. Although the attenuation per unit length is higher for the FGC waveguide because of higher conductor loss, the attenuation is comparable when the ground plane width is twice the center conductor width as shown in the following graph. An upper limit to the line width is derived from observations that when the total line width is greater than ld/2, spurious resonances due to the parallel plate waveguide mode are established. Thus, the ground plane width must be less than ld/4 where ld is the wavelength in the dielectric. Since the center conductor width S is typically less than l/10 to maintain good transverse electromagnetic mode characteristics, it follows that a ground plane width of B = 2S would also be electrically narrow. Thus, we can now treat the ground strips of the FGC waveguide the same way that the center conductor is treated.

  1. Volume rendering acceleration method based on optimal bricking for large volume data%基于最优化分块的大规模数据体绘制加速方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 李建新; 闫镔; 童莉; 陈健; 管士勇

    2011-01-01

    GPU-based volume rendering has become an active research area in the domain of volume visualization.Large volume data cannot be uploaded directly due to the limitation of GPU memory, which has been a bottleneck of the application of GPU.Bricking method could not only solve this problem, but also maintain the quality of original volume-rendered image.However, the data exchange via the graphics bus is really time consuming and will definitely degrade the render performance.As for these difficulties, the optimal bricking for large volume data was calculated by establishing the model for optimal bricking, and also a 3D texture named node code texture was constructed and distance template was improved to accelerate the octree-based bricking volume rendering.The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can significantly accelerate the bricking-based volume rendering for large volume data.%GPU加速体绘制已成为体可视化领域的研究热点,然而超出显存的大规模数据无法直接载入,成为GPU应用的瓶颈.分块技术能够在保证图像质量的条件下解决该问题,但分块数据的频繁加载和访问明显降低了绘制速度.针对上述问题,通过建立最优化分块模型得到了大规模数据的最优分块,并通过构造节点编号纹理和改进距离模板设计的方法进一步提高了基于八叉树的分块体绘制算法的绘制速度.实验结果表明,该方法加速效果明显.

  2. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther;

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested...... and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 mu m beads from 1 mu m as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes...... of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results....

  3. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Hideyuki Inui; Toshimasa Itoh; Keiko Yamamoto; Shin-Ichi Ikushiro; Toshiyuki Sakaki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high ac...

  4. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We develop a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in hierarchical triple systems with well separated components. We investigate systems with initially circular and coplanar orbits and comparable masses. The technique is based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector for calculating short period terms by using first order perturbation theory. The combination of the short period terms with terms arising from octupole level secular theory, results in the derivation of a rather simple formula for the eccentricity of the inner binary. The theoretical results are tested against numerical integrations of the full equations of motion. Comparison is also made with other results on the subject.

  5. Driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions from a co-planar microwave waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, S D; Merkt, F; Thiele, T; Filipp, S; Wallraff, A

    2011-01-01

    The coherent interaction between ensembles of helium Rydberg atoms and microwave fields in the vicinity of a solid-state co-planar waveguide is reported. Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, at frequencies between 25 GHz and 38 GHz, have been studied for states with principal quantum numbers in the range 30 - 35 by selective electric-field ionization. An experimental apparatus cooled to 100 K was used to reduce effects of blackbody radiation. Inhomogeneous, stray electric fields emanating from the surface of the waveguide have been characterized in frequency- and time-resolved measurements and coherence times of the Rydberg atoms on the order of 250 ns have been determined.

  6. Plan Quality and Treatment Efficiency for Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases: Non-Coplanar RapidArc vs Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the dosimetry and efficiency of two modern radiosurgery (SRS modalities for multiple brain metastases (Gamma Knife and LINAC-based RapidArc/volumetric modulated arc therapy, with a special focus on the comparison of low dose spread.Methods: Six patients with three or four small brain metastases were used in this study. The size of targets varied from 0.1 ~ 10.5 cc. SRS doses were prescribed according to size of lesions. SRS plans were made using both Gamma Knife® Perfexion and a single-isocenter, multiple non-coplanar RapidArc®. Dosimetric parameters analyzed included RTOG conformity index (CI, gradient index (GI, 12 Gy isodose volume (V12Gy for each target, and the dose spread (Dspread for each plan. Dspread reflects SRS plan’s capability of confining radiation to within the local vicinity of the lesion and to not spread out to the surrounding normal brain tissues. Each plan has a dose (Dspread, such that once dose decreases below Dspread (on total tissue DVH, isodose volume starts increasing dramatically. Dspread is defined as that dose when volume increase first exceeds 20 cc per 0.1 Gy dose decrease. Results: RapidArc SRS has smaller CI (1.19 ±0.14 vs. 1.50 ± 0.16, p<0.001 and larger GI (4.77 ± 1.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.98, p <0.01. V12Gy results were comparable (2.73 ± 1.38 cc vs. 3.06 ± 2.20 cc, p = 0.58. Moderate to lower dose spread, V6, V4.5, and V3, were also equivalent. Gamma Knife plans achieved better very low dose spread (≤3 Gy and also had slightly smaller Dspread, 1.9 Gy vs 2.5 Gy. Total treatment time for Gamma Knife is estimated between 60~100 min. Gamma Knife treatments are between 3~5 times longer compared to RapidArc treatment techniques.Conclusion: Dosimetric parameters reflecting prescription dose conformality (CI, dose fall off (GI, radiation necrosis indicator (V12Gy, and dose spread (Dspread were compared between Gamma Knife SRS and RapidArc SRS for multi-mets. RapidArc plans have

  7. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

  8. Control of polymer-packing orientation in thin films through synthetic tailoring of backbone coplanarity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-10-22

    Controlling solid-state order of π-conjugated polymers through macromolecular design is essential for achieving high electronic device performance; yet, it remains a challenge, especially with respect to polymer-packing orientation. Our work investigates the influence of backbone coplanarity on a polymer\\'s preference to pack face-on or edge-on relative to the substrate. Isoindigo-based polymers were synthesized with increasing planarity by systematically substituting thiophenes for phenyl rings in the acceptor comonomer. This increasing backbone coplanarity, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of representative trimers, leads to the narrowing of polymer band gaps as characterized by ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Among the polymers studied, regiosymmetric II and TII polymers exhibited the highest hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), while in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), TBII polymers that display intermediate levels of planarity provided the highest power conversion efficiencies. Upon thin-film analysis by atomic force microscropy (AFM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), we discovered that polymer-packing orientation could be controlled by tuning polymer planarity and solubility. Highly soluble, planar polymers favor face-on orientation in thin films while the less soluble, nonplanar polymers favor an edge-on orientation. This study advances our fundamental understanding of how polymer structure influences nanostructural order and reveals a new synthetic strategy for the design of semiconducting materials with rationally engineered solid-state properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. X-ray powder diffraction characterization of the large-volume unit cell of the M8 murataite polytype

    OpenAIRE

    MAKI, Ryosuke S. S.; Morgan, Peter E. D.; Suzuki, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    We have used conventional X-ray powder diffraction to study one of the largest volume inorganic mixed oxide unit-supercell structures done so far. This necessitated some small-angle X-ray scattering-like observations at low angles from

  10. Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Veendaal, D.; Speld, W.M.H. van der; Visser, Ate; Hoogenboezem, W.; Kooij, D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological methods for determining the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in water are too small to assess the actual concentration in the last stages of a water treatment. Consequently no accurate information can be obtained about the removal

  11. Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Veendaal, D.; Speld, W.M.H. van der; Visser, Ate; Hoogenboezem, W.; Kooij, D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological methods for determining the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in water are too small to assess the actual concentration in the last stages of a water treatment. Consequently no accurate information can be obtained about the removal

  12. Trophic interactions among sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species in volume change conditions in a large, shallow, tropical lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the water volume of shallow lakes impose a restriction on species segregation promoting more interactions in the trophic relationships. The diets of three closely related zooplanktivorous silversides belonging to the Atherinopsidae species flock of lake Chapala , Mexico, were analyzed at two sites (Chirostoma jordani, C. labarcae, and C. consocium. Diets were described in critical shallow (August 2000 and volume recovery conditions (August 2005. Diets included mainly cladocerans (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, and Daphnia and copepods (Cyclops. A significant difference in diets was detected when comparing years (MRPP analysis, A = 0.22, p < 0.0001 and sites at different years (MRPP analysis, A = 0.17, p = 0.004. According to niche breadth mean values, species were classified as specialized and intermediate feeders. In shallow conditions, the small range of niche breadth (1.72 to 3.64 and high diet overlap values (D = 0.64, L = 8.62 indicated a high potential for interspecific exploitative interaction. When the lake volume recovered, an increase in the niche breadth range (1.04 to 4.96 and low niche overlap values (D = 0.53, L = 2.32 indicated a reduction of the species interaction. The Mann-Whitney U-test supported this pattern by showing a significant difference between years for niche overlap (p = 0.006. The increased interaction during the low volume suggests alternative segregation in life-history variations and other niche dimensions such as spatial or temporal distribution.

  13. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Cracking Behavior of Brittle Sandstone Containing Two Non-coplanar Fissures Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ranjith, P. G.; Ju, Yang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the fracture mechanism in all kinds of rock engineering, it is important to investigate the fracture evolution behavior of pre-fissured rock. In this research, we conducted uniaxial compression experiments to evaluate the influence of ligament angle on the strength, deformability, and fracture coalescence behavior of rectangular prismatic specimens (80 × 160 × 30 mm) of brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures. The experimental results show that the peak strength of sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures depends on the ligament angle, but the elastic modulus is not closely related to the ligament angle. With the increase of ligament angle, the peak strength decreased at a ligament angle of 60°, before increasing up to our maximum ligament angle of 120°. Crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence were all observed and characterized from the inner and outer tips of pre-existing non-coplanar fissures using photographic monitoring. Based on the results, the sequence of crack evolution in sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures was analyzed in detail. In order to fully understand the crack evolution mechanism of brittle sandstone, numerical simulations using PFC2D were performed for specimens containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results. By analyzing the stress field, the crack evolution mechanism in brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression is revealed. These experimental and numerical results are expected to improve the understanding of the unstable fracture mechanism of fissured rock engineering structures.

  14. High Voltage Test Apparatus for a Neutron EDM Experiment and Lower Limit on the Dielectric Strength of Liquid Helium at Large Volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Long, J C; Boissevain, J G; Clark, D J; Cooper, M D; Gómez, J J; Lamoreaux, S K; Mischke, R E; Penttila, S I

    2006-01-01

    A new search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is underway using ultracold neutrons produced and held in a bath of superfluid helium. Attaining the target sensitivity requires maintaining an electric field of several tens of kilovolts per centimeter across the experimental cell, which is nominally 7.5 cm wide and will contain about 4 liters of superfluid. The electrical properties of liquid helium are expected to be sufficient to meet the design goals, but little is known about these properties for volumes and electrode spacings appropriate to the EDM experiment. Furthermore, direct application of the necessary voltages from an external source to the experimental test cell is impractical. An apparatus to amplify voltages in the liquid helium environment and to test the electrical properties of the liquid for large volumes and electrode spacings has been constructed. The device consists of a large-area parallel plate capacitor immersed in a 200 liter liquid helium dewar. Preliminary r...

  15. Preparation of High Surface Area, Large Pore Volume Alumina by Using β-Cyclodextrin as a Non-surfactant Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Jun WANG; Ming Fen WEN; Yu Shan LI; Dong YANG; Jing CHEN; Chong Li SONG

    2006-01-01

    A series of alumina samples were prepared using β-cyclodextrin as the non-surfactant template. These samples were characterized by XRD, BET and TEM. The results showed that the alumina samples prepared using β-cyclodextrin template had the higher surface areas (124-484 m2/g), larger pore volumes (0.7-1.27 mL/g) and more thermal stability than samples prepared without using β-cyclodextrin.

  16. 3-D EM exploration of the hepatic microarchitecture – lessons learned from large-volume in situ serial sectioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald John Shami; Delfine Cheng; Minh Huynh; Celien Vreuls; Eddie Wisse; Filip Braet

    2016-01-01

    To-date serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) dominates as the premier technique for generating three-dimensional (3-D) data of resin-embedded biological samples at an unprecedented depth volume. Given the infancy of the technique, limited literature is currently available regarding the applicability of SBF-SEM for the ultrastructural investigation of tissues. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and rigorous appraisal of five different SBF-SEM sample preparation protocols fo...

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary

  18. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

  19. A novel porous bioceramics scaffold by accumulating hydroxyapatite spherulites for large bone tissue engineering in vivo. II. Construct large volume of bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Duan, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jianxin; Zhu, Zhuoli; Huang, Peng; Xia, Tian; Liao, Ga; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In vivo engineering of bone autografts using bioceramic scaffolds with appropriate porous structures is a potential approach to prepare autologous bone grafts for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. This study investigated the evolutionary process of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and compressive strength of bioceramic scaffolds implanted in two non-osseous sites of dogs: the abdominal cavity and the dorsal muscle. Hydroxyapatite (HA) sphere-accumulated scaffolds with controlled porous structures were prepared and placed in the two sites for up to 6 months. Analyses of retrieved scaffolds found that osteogenesis and angiogenesis were faster in scaffolds implanted in dorsal muscles compared with those placed in abdominal cavities. The abdominal cavity, however, can accommodate larger bone grafts with designed shape. Analyses of scaffolds implanted in abdominal cavities [an environment of a low mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) density] further demonstrated that angiogenesis play critical roles during osteogenesis in the scaffolds, presumably by supplying progenitor cells and/or MSCs as seed cells. This study also examined the relationship between the volume of bone grafts and the physiological environment of in vivo bioreactor. These results provide basic information for the selection of appropriate implanting sites and culture time required to engineer autologous bone grafts for the clinical bone defect repair. Based on these positive results, a pilot study has applied the grafts constructed in canine abdominal cavity to repair segmental bone defect in load-bearing sites (limbs).

  20. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  1. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  2. Multiphase flow modelling using non orthogonal collocated finite volumes : application to fluid catalytical cracking and large scale geophysical flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. M.; Nicolas, A. N.

    2003-04-01

    A modeling approach of gas solid flow, taking into account different physical phenomena such as gas turbulence and inter-particle interactions is presented. Moment transport equations are derived for the second order fluctuating velocity tensor which allow to involve practical closures based on single phase turbulence modeling on one hand and kinetic theory of granular media on the other hand. The model is applied to fluid catalytic cracking processes and explosive volcanism. In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are modeled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents oscillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillations of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. Pentadiagonal linear systems are solved in each geometrical direction (the so

  3. Synthesis of Macro-Mesostructuredγ-Al2O3 with Large Pore Volume and High Surface Area by a Facile Secondary Reforming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiuhong; Duan Linhai; Xie Xiaohua; Wang Qiang; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Through improving the aging process during synthesis of the support,γ-Al2O3 with large pore volume and high surface area was synthesized by a facile secondary reforming method. The synthesis parameters, such as the reaction tem-perature, the ifrst aging temperature and the second aging temperature, were investigated. The textural properties ofγ-Al2O3 were characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TG). The experimental results indicated that AACH and amorphous AlOOH were the precursors of alumina, which were formed via precipitation from solutions after reaction of aluminum sulphate with ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The precursor nanocrystallites grew and re-assembled during the secondary reforming process, which resulted in an increased pore size and pore volume and a decreased bulk density. The as-synthesizedγ-Al2O3 materials featured meso/macroporosity, large pore volume (2.175 cm3/g), high surface area (237.8 m2/g), and low bulk density (0.284 g/mL).

  4. Cryo-FIB-SEM serial milling and block face imaging: Large volume structural analysis of biological tissues preserved close to their native state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Akiva, Anat; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Rechav, Katya; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Schertel, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Many important biological questions can be addressed by studying in 3D large volumes of intact, cryo fixed hydrated tissues (⩾10,000μm(3)) at high resolution (5-20nm). This can be achieved using serial FIB milling and block face surface imaging under cryo conditions. Here we demonstrate the unique potential of the cryo-FIB-SEM approach using two extensively studied model systems; sea urchin embryos and the tail fin of zebrafish larvae. We focus in particular on the environment of mineral deposition sites. The cellular organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi, ER, nuclei and nuclear pores are made visible by the image contrast created by differences in surface potential of different biochemical components. Auto segmentation and/or volume rendering of the image stacks and 3D reconstruction of the skeleton and the cellular environment, provides a detailed view of the relative distribution in space of the tissue/cellular components, and thus of their interactions. Simultaneous acquisition of secondary and back-scattered electron images adds additional information. For example, a serial view of the zebrafish tail reveals the presence of electron dense mineral particles inside mitochondrial networks extending more than 20μm in depth in the block. Large volume imaging using cryo FIB SEM, as demonstrated here, can contribute significantly to the understanding of the structures and functions of diverse biological tissues.

  5. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  6. MIDAS prototype Multispectral Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 2: Charge coupled device investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, F.; Marshall, R.; Sternberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    MIDAS is a third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensors. MIDAS, for example, can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The need for advanced onboard spacecraft processing of remotely sensed data is stated and approaches to this problem are described which are feasible through the use of charge coupled devices. Tentative mechanizations for the required processing operations are given in large block form. These initial designs can serve as a guide to circuit/system designers.

  7. The dynamics and control of large flexible space structures. Volume 3, part B: The modelling, dynamics, and stability of large Earth pointing orbiting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, P. M.; Kumar, V. K.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics and stability of large orbiting flexible beams, and platforms and dish type structures oriented along the local horizontal are treated both analytically and numerically. It is assumed that such structures could be gravitationally stabilized by attaching a rigid light-weight dumbbell at the center of mass by a spring loaded hinge which also could provide viscous damping. For the beam, the small amplitude inplane pitch motion, dumbbell librational motion, and the anti-symmetric elastic modes are all coupled. The three dimensional equations of motion for a circular flat plate and shallow spherical shell in orbit with a two-degree-of freedom gimballed dumbbell are also developed and show that only those elastic modes described by a single nodal diameter line are influenced by the dumbbell motion. Stability criteria are developed for all the examples and a sensitivity study of the system response characteristics to the key system parameters is carried out.

  8. Qualitative Properties of Orbits for Minimum-Fuel Impulsive Transfers between Circular Coplanar Orbits with a Given Launch Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichnikov, S. N.; Vorobyev, A. Yu.; Teterin, S. N.

    2003-09-01

    The coplanar problem of minimizing propellant consumption in impulsive transfer between circular boundary orbits is investigated. The launch time and the initial configuration of objects on the boundary orbits are specified arbitrarily. The qualitative properties of optimal two-impulse trajectories and their optimality in the class of multi-impulse transfers are studied.

  9. Extensions to the quasi-static expressions for the line parameters of coplanar waveguide with relatively thick conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission line can be configured as a sensor to measure the complex permittivity of biological materials. By placing a material with unknown permittivity on the CPW and measuring the scattering parameters with a vector network analyzer, the characteristic impedance and e...

  10. Coplanar PCB congeners increase uterine weight and frontal cortical dopamine in the developing rat: implications for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, Richard F; Brosch, Karl O; Okoniewski, Richard J

    2005-07-01

    We show that developmental exposure of the laboratory rat to the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and the structurally similar congener 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PtCB) elevates dopamine (DA) concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To determine whether these coplanar congeners are estrogenic, and may thus contribute to the elevations in PFC DA, we measured uterine wet weight (UWW) in prepubertal rats exposed to TCB or PtCB. For comparison, additional animals were exposed to either the ortho-substituted congener 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (o-TCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB), a coplanar congener highly resistant to metabolism. Both TCB and PtCB increased UWW, but this effect was blocked after exposure to the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780. Neither o-TCB nor HCB altered UWW. These results demonstrate that certain coplanar PCB congeners and/or their metabolites, are estrogenic, and suggest that exposure during critical periods of neuronal development may increase central DA concentrations, and by inference, alter behavior.

  11. An ultra-wideband dielectric material characterization method using grounded coplanar waveguide and genetic algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2015-10-01

    An ultra-wideband complex permittivity extraction method is reported here using numerical fitting of scattering parameters to measured results. A grounded coplanar waveguide transmission line is realized on an unknown dielectric material, whose dielectric constant and loss tangent are extracted by the best fitting of the simulated magnitude, |S21|, and phase, ϕ21, of forward scattering parameter using an electromagnetic full-wave simulator (high frequency structure simulator) to the measured results. The genetic algorithm is employed for optimum rapid extraction, where errors between the numerically simulated and measured S21 (|S21| and ϕ21) are minimized in an iterative manner. As long as the convergence criterion is not satisfied, modifications to dielectric properties are made with this genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab. Feasibility of this extraction technique is validated on benzocyclobutane polymer from 10 MHz to 40 GHz.

  12. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  13. Self-aligned coplanar amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Chul; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2015-01-01

    Self-aligned coplanar amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IZO TFTs) were fabricated. The a-IZO TFTs had a field-effect mobility of μFE = 24.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, a subthreshold slope of 180 mV/dec, and an on/off ratio of 109. As the channel length decreased, the threshold voltage VTH shifted to more negative voltages, and μFE increased due to the diffused carriers from the contact regions. The intrinsic field-effect mobility was estimated to be 15.05 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the linear mode and 13.28 cm2 V-1 s-1 in saturation mode. Under positive/negative bias-temperature-illumination stress, the shift in VTH was less than ±0.7 V after 11,000 s.

  14. A note on the total least squares problem for coplanar points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.L.

    1994-09-01

    The Total Least Squares (TLS) fit to the points (x{sub k}, y{sub k}), k = 1, {hor_ellipsis}, n, minimizes the sum of the squares of the perpendicular distances from the points to the line. This sum is the TLS error, and minimizing its magnitude is appropriate if x{sub k} and y{sub k} are uncertain. A priori formulas for the TLS fit and TLS error to coplanar points were originally derived by Pearson, and they are expressed in terms of the mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the data. In this note, these TLS formulas are derived in a more elementary fashion. The TLS fit is obtained via the ordinary least squares problem and the algebraic properties of complex numbers. The TLS error is formulated in terms of the triangle inequality for complex numbers.

  15. Design of an Ultra-Wideband Transition from Double-Sided Parallel Stripline to Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design method of an ultra-wideband transition from double-sided parallel stripline (DSPSL to coplanar waveguide (CPW is proposed based on analytical expressions of characteristic impedance. The conformal mapping is used to obtain the characteristic impedance for each section of the transition within 3.7% accuracy as compared with the EM simulation results. An efficient and clear guideline for the design of the transition is proposed. The implemented transition performs less than 0.6 dB insertion loss per transition for frequencies from 40 MHz to 12 GHz and less than 1.2 dB insertion loss to 27 GHz, which well exceeds the previous results in the literature.

  16. The geometry of three-dimensional measurement from paired coplanar x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    This article outlines the geometric principles which underlie the process of making craniofacial measurements in three dimensions by combining information from pairs of coplanar x-ray images. The main focus is upon the rationale of the method rather than upon the computational details. We stress particularly the importance of having available accurate measurements as to the relative positions of the x-ray tubes and the film plane. The use of control arrays of radiopaque "points" whose projected images upon the film plane allow the retrospective calculation of the spatial relationship between the x-ray tubes and the film plane is explained. Finally, the question of correcting for movement of the subject between two films of an image pair is considered briefly.

  17. Planar self-aligned imprint lithography for coplanar plasmonic nanostructures fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a cost-efficient nanopatterning technology because of its promising advantages of high throughput and high resolution. However, accurate multilevel overlay capability of NIL required for integrated circuit manufacturing remains a challenge due to the high cost of achieving mechanical alignment precision. Although self-aligned imprint lithography was developed to avoid the need of alignment for the vertical layered structures, it has limited usage in the manufacture of the coplanar structures, such as integrated plasmonic devices. In this paper, we develop a new process of planar self-alignment imprint lithography (P-SAIL) to fabricate the metallic and dielectric structures on the same plane. P-SAIL transfers the multilevel imprint processes to a single-imprint process which offers higher efficiency and less cost than existing manufacturing methods. Such concept is demonstrated in an example of fabricating planar plasmonic structures consisting of different materials. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Uniplanar Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A uniplanar millimeter-wave broadband printed log-periodic dipole array (PLPDA antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW is introduced. This proposed structure consists of several active dipole elements, feeding lines, parallel coupled line, and the CPW, which are etched on a single metallic layer of the substrate. The parallel coupled line can be optimized to act as a transformer between the CPW and the PLPDA antenna. Meanwhile, this transform performs the task of a balun to achieve a wideband, low cost, low loss, simple directional antenna. The uniplanar nature makes the antenna suitable to be integrated into modern printed communication circuits, especially the monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC. The antenna has been carefully examined and measured to present the return loss, far-field patterns, and antenna gain.

  19. On the Nonlinear Stability of Plane Parallel Shear Flow in a Coplanar Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanxi; Lan, Wanli

    2016-10-01

    Lyapunov direct method has been used to study the nonlinear stability of laminar flow between two parallel planes in the presence of a coplanar magnetic field for streamwise perturbations with stress-free boundary planes. Two Lyapunov functions are defined. By means of the first, it is proved that the transverse components of the perturbations decay unconditionally and asymptotically to zero for all Reynolds numbers and magnetic Reynolds numbers. By means of the second, it is showed that the other components of the perturbations decay conditionally and exponentially to zero for all Reynolds numbers and the magnetic Reynolds numbers below π ^2/2M , where M is the maximum of the absolute value of the velocity field of the laminar flow.

  20. Three-dimensional x-ray stereometry from paired coplanar images: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    More than fifty years ago, Broadbent reported the development of a three-dimensional cephalometric method which complexed information from pairs of x-ray images oriented in two planes at right angles to each other. Empirical problems have prevented the routine clinical use of this "biplanar" method, notwithstanding its obvious conceptual brilliance. The present article reports on recent work toward the development of an alternative method of three-dimensional cephalometry in which the two images of each x-ray pair are positioned in the same plane rather than being at right angles to each other. It is believed that this "coplanar" method avoids many of the technical problems that have limited the use of the Broadbent method.

  1. CyberArc: a non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm for CyberKnife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Cheung, Joey P.; McGuinness, Christopher; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm (CyberArc). This method aims to reduce the delivery time of conventional CyberKnife treatments by allowing for continuous beam delivery. CyberArc uses a 4 step optimization strategy, in which nodes, beams, and collimator sizes are determined, source trajectories are calculated, intermediate radiation models are generated, and final monitor units are calculated, for the continuous radiation source model. The dosimetric results as well as the time reduction factors for CyberArc are presented for 7 prostate and 2 brain cases. The dosimetric quality of the CyberArc plans are evaluated using conformity index, heterogeneity index, local confined normalized-mutual-information, and various clinically relevant dosimetric parameters. The results indicate that the CyberArc algorithm dramatically reduces the treatment time of CyberKnife plans while simultaneously preserving the dosimetric quality of the original plans.

  2. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Hyttel Clausen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 μm beads from 1 μm as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results.

  3. Significance of coplanar macrocells to corrosion in concrete-embedded steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. [Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Ramirez, E. [Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica Industrial y de Normas Tecnicas, Lima (Peru); Feliu, S.; Gonzalez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, W. [CEMEX, S.A. Monterrey (Mexico)

    1999-03-01

    The influence of microcells and galvanic macrocells on the corrosion kinetics of concrete-embedded steel was investigated experimentally. Nine stainless steel/carbon steel coplanar macrocouples in cathodic-to-anodic ratios of 0.02 to 50 were cast in concrete slabs made from cement, sand, and water in a 1:3:0:5 proportion plus 2% calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) per cement weight. Corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), galvanic current (i{sub g}), polarization resistance (R{sub p}), and impedance measurements from 100 kHz to 0.01 Hz were made for the two metals, coupled and uncoupled. i{sub g} data provided by a zero resistance ammeter led to potentially underestimated corrosion rates for anodic areas, whereas R{sub p} measurements provided fairly reliable corrosion rates. Macrocells polarized anodic areas very slightly at points where an anodic and a cathodic process took place simultaneously.

  4. Diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge -- basic properties and its application in surface treatment of nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacik, Dusan; Rahel, Jozef; Kubincova, Jana; Zahoranova, Anna; Cernak, Mirko

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma surface treatments have become a hot topic because of the potential of fast and efficient in-line processing fabrication without expensive vacuum equipment. A major problem of atmospheric pressure treatment in air is insufficient treatment uniformity because, particularly at the higher plasma power densities, the air plasma has the tendency of filamentation and transition into an arc discharge. Diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) plasma source has been developed to overcome these problems. This type of discharge enables to generate macroscopically homogeneous thin (˜ 0.3 mm) plasma layer with power density of some 100 W/cm^3 practically in any gas without admixture of He. It was found that the ambient air plasma of DCSBD is capable to make lightweight polypropylene nonwoven fabrics permanently hydrophilic, without any pinholing and with low power consumption of some 1 kWh/kg.

  5. Electron impact ionization of Li+ (ls2) in the coplanar equal energy-sharing geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾祥富; 刘明海

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the triple differential cross section for the low-energy electron impact ionization of the Li+ ionis considered in the coplanar equal energy-sharing kinematics at an incident energy of 114.083eV. The emergence of structures in the calculated cross sections is explained in terms of isolated two-body final-state interactions and three-body coupling. The cross section shows two peaks originating from ‘classical' sequential two-body collisions. The position of these peaks is determined by two-body final-state interactions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the signature of three-body interactions is carried by the magnitude and ratio of these two peaks. The direct and exchange amplitudes are also considered.

  6. UHF coplanar-slot antenna for aircraft-to-satellite data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The initiative for starting the Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR) Program came from a recognition that much of the world's weather originates in the data sparse area of the tropics which are primarily ocean. The ASDAR system consists of (1) a data acquisition and control unit to acquire, store and format these data; (2) a clock to time the data sampling and transmission periods; and (3) a transmitter and low-profile upper hemisphere coverage antenna to relay the formatted data via satellite to the National Weather Service ground stations, as shown schematically. The low-profile antenna is a conformal antenna based on the coplanar-slot approach. The antenna is circular polarized and has an on-axis gain of nearly 2.5 dB and a HPBW greater than 90 deg. The discussion covers antenna design, radiation characteristics, flight testing, and system performance.

  7. Orbital instability of close-in exomoons in non-coplanar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yu-Cian; Nicholson, Philip D; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the dynamical instability that can happen to close-in satellites when planet oblateness is not accounted for in non-coplanar multiplanet systems. Simulations include two secularly interacting Jupiter-mass planets mutually inclined by 10 degrees, with the host planet either oblate or spherical. With a spherical host planet, moons within a critical planetocentric distance experience high inclinations and in some cases high eccentricities, while more distant moons orbit stably with low inclinations and eccentricities, as expected. These counter-intuitive dynamical phenomena disappear with an oblate host planet, in which case the moons' Laplace plane transitions from the host planet's equatorial plane to the host planet's precessing orbital plane as their semi-major axes increase, and all moons are dynamically stable with very mild changes in orbits. Direct perturbation from the perturbing planet has been investigated and ruled out as an explanation for the behavior of the innermost satellites, th...

  8. A Reconfigurable Coplanar Waveguide Bowtie Antenna Using an Integrated Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel printed antenna with a frequency reconfigurable feed network is presented. The antenna consists of a bowtie structure patch radiating element in the inner space of an annulus that is on a nongrounded substrate with a ferroelectric (FE Barium Strontium Titanate (BST thin film. The bowtie patch is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission line that also includes a CPW-based BST shunt varactor. Reconfiguration of the compact 8 mm × 8 mm system has been demonstrated by shifting the antenna system’s operating frequency 500 MHz in the 7–9 GHz band by applying a DC voltage bias.

  9. Simulation of the superconducting multiturn flux transformer integrated with a coplanar resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. R.; Zhang, Y.; Klein, N.

    2000-06-01

    The analysis of the structure of a superconducting multiturn flux transformer integrated with a coplanar resonator for radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices is described. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that the loss is dominated by the high loss tangent of the dielectric film used for the separation of the upper and lower superconducting films. The simulated current distribution at its resonant frequency shows that the highest current density is distributed on the multiturn input coil. This current distribution leads to a very high loss when the loss tangent of the dielectric film is high. However, for the same loss tangent of the dielectric film, it is possible to get a reasonably high unloaded quality factor by providing a normal shunt for the multiturn input coil.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on PTFE surfaces by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tučeková, Zlata; Koval'ová, Zuzana; Zahoranová, Anna; Machala, Zdenko; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) was tested for decontamination of bacteria Escherichia coli on polymer surfaces. We investigated the optical parameters of DCSBD plasma generated in synthetic air with different relative humidity. Our study was provided to estimate the main plasma components active during the DCSBD plasma degradation of E. coli contamination prepared on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) surface, in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The DCSBD plasma was characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. The inactivation of E. coli bacteria was evaluated by standard microbiological cultivation (CFU plate counting). The experimental results of the germicidal efficiency obtained for short plasma exposure times proved the effectiveness of DCSBD plasma for the polymer surface decontamination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  11. Quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a split-ring-resonator-based left-handed coplanar waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2011-04-01

    We study the propagation of quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a nonlinear left-handed coplanar waveguide coupled with split-ring resonators. By considering the relevant transmission line analog, we derive a nonlinear lattice model which is studied analytically by means of a quasidiscrete approximation. We derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and find that the system supports bright envelope soliton solutions in a relatively wide subinterval of the left-handed frequency band. We perform systematic numerical simulations, in the framework of the nonlinear lattice model, to study the propagation properties of the quasidiscrete microwave solitons. Our numerical findings are in good agreement with the analytical predictions, and suggest that the predicted structures are quite robust and may be observed in experiments.

  12. Electromagnetic Modeling of Distributed-Source-Excitation of Coplanar Waveguides: Applications to Traveling-Wave Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Davide; Neto, Andrea; Wyss, Rolf A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work an electromagnetic model and subsequent design is presented for a traveling-wave, coplanar waveguide (CPW) based source that will operate in the THz frequency regime. The radio frequency (RF) driving current is a result of photoexcitation of a thin GaAs membrane using two frequency-offset lasers. The GaAs film is grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) and displays sub-ps carrier lifetimes which enable the material conductivity to be modulated at a very high rate. The RF current flows between electrodes deposited on the GaAs membrane which are biased with a DC voltage source. The electrodes form a CPW and are terminated with a double slot antenna that couples the power to a quasi-optical system. The membrane is suspended above a metallic reflector to launch all radiation in one direction. The theoretical investigation and consequent design is performed in two steps. The first step consists of a direct evaluation of the magnetic current distribution on an infinitely extended coplanar waveguide excited by an impressed electric current distributed over a finite area. The result of the analysis is the difference between the incident angle of the laser beams and the length of the excited area that maximizes the RF power coupled to the CPW. The optimal values for both parameters are found as functions of the CPW and membrane dimensions as well as the dielectric constants of the layers. In the second step, a design is presented of a double slot antenna that matches the CPW characteristic impedance and gives good overall performance. The design is presently being implemented and measurements will soon be available.

  13. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  14. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  15. Experiment Pamir-3. Coplanar emission of high energy gamma-quanta at interaction of hadrons with nuclei of air atoms at energies above 10 to the 7th power GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatiani, T. L.; Genina, L. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic analysis of large gamma families, detected in X-ray emulsion chambers, cases of multicore halos have been observed, and among them five events in which the halo is divided into three of four separate cores with their alignment observed in the target diagram (coplanarity of axes of corresponding electron photon cascades). The halo alignment (tendency to the straight line) leads to the aximuthal asymmetry (thrust). The analysis of lateral and momentum distributions of particles in these families shows that they also have thrust that correlates with the direction of the halo core alignment.

  16. BROAD SPECTRUM ANALYSIS FOR TRACE ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN LARGE VOLUMES OF WATER BY XAD RESINS-COLUMN DESIGN-FACTS AND MYTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Wicklund, A.; Suffet, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 'rule of thumb' that large volumes of water can be sampled for trace organic pollutants by XAD resin columns which are designed by small column laboratory studies or pure compounds is examined and shown to be a problem. A theory of multicomponent breakthrough is presented as a frame of reference to help solve the problem and develop useable criteria to aid the design of resin columns. An important part of the theory is the effect of humic substances on the breakthrough character of multicomponent chemical systems.

  17. 'Dip-sticks' calibration handles self-attenuation and coincidence effects in large-volume gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterbeek, H T

    2000-01-01

    Routine gamma-spectrometric analyses of samples with low-level activities (e.g. food, water, environmental and industrial samples) are often performed in large samples, placed close to the detector. In these geometries, detection sensitivity is improved but large errors are introduced due to self-attenuation and coincidence summing. Current approaches to these problems comprise computational methods and spiked standard materials. However, the first are often regarded as too complex for practical routine use, the latter never fully match real samples. In the present study, we introduce a dip-sticks calibration as a fast and easy practical solution to this quantification problem in a routine analytical setting. In the proposed set-up, calibrations are performed within the sample itself, thus making it a broadly accessible matching-reference approach, which is principally usable for all sample matrices.

  18. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 1: System description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1977-01-01

    A third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system (MIDAS) able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensots is described. The program can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principle objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in the overall program is described. The system contains a midi-computer to control the various high speed processing elements in the data path, a preprocessor to condition data, and a classifier which implements an all digital prototype multivariate Gaussian maximum likelihood or a Bayesian decision algorithm. Sufficient software was developed to perform signature extraction, control the preprocessor, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, operate the color display and printer, and diagnose operation.

  19. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jingna; Wu, Yi; Li, Ying; Mo, Xuemei; Chen, Wei; Xie, Bing; Qiu, Mingguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model) and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB) could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test); the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  20. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test; the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  1. On Assumptions in Development of a Mathematical Model of Thermo-gravitational Convection in the Large Volume Process Tanks Taking into Account Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Shkapov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a mathematical model of thermo-gravity convection in a large volume vertical cylinder. The heat is removed from the product via the cooling jacket at the top of the cylinder. We suppose that a laminar fluid motion takes place. The model is based on the NavierStokes equation, the equation of heat transfer through the wall, and the heat transfer equation. The peculiarity of the process in large volume tanks was the distribution of the physical parameters of the coordinates that was taken into account when constructing the model. The model corresponds to a process of wort beer fermentation in the cylindrical-conical tanks (CCT. The CCT volume is divided into three zones and for each zone model equations was obtained. The first zone has an annular cross-section and it is limited to the height by the cooling jacket. In this zone the heat flow from the cooling jacket to the product is uppermost. Model equation of the first zone describes the process of heat transfer through the wall and is presented by linear inhomogeneous differential equation in partial derivatives that is solved analytically. For the second and third zones description there was a number of engineering assumptions. The fluid was considered Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. Convective motion considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The effect of viscous dissipation is not considered. The topology of fluid motion is similar to the cylindrical Poiseuille. The second zone model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with the introduction of a simplified and the heat equation in the liquid layer. The volume that is occupied by an upward convective flow pertains to the third area. Convective flows do not mix and do not exchange heat. At the start of the process a medium has the same temperature and a zero initial velocity in the whole volume that allows us to specify the initial conditions for the process. The paper shows the

  2. Trophic interactions among sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species in volume change conditions in a large, shallow, tropical lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the water volume of shallow lakes impose a restriction on species segregation promoting more interactions in the trophic relationships. The diets of three closely related zooplanktivorous silversides belonging to the Atherinopsidae species flock of lake Chapala , Mexico, were analyzed at two sites (Chirostoma jordani, C. labarcae, and C. consocium. Diets were described in critical shallow (August 2000 and volume recovery conditions (August 2005. Diets included mainly cladocerans (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, and Daphnia and copepods (Cyclops. A significant difference in diets was detected when comparing years (MRPP analysis, A = 0.22, p La reducción significativa en el volumen de agua de los lagos someros impone una restricción en la segregación de las especies y promueve una mayor interacción en las relaciones tróficas. Se analizó la dieta de tres especies cercanamente emparentadas de zooplanctívoros pertenecientes al flock de Aterinópsidos del lago de Chapala en dos sitios (Chirostoma jordani, C. labarcae y C. consocium. Las dieta fue descrita en una condición somera crítica (Agosto 2000 y en una condición de recuperación del lago (Agosto 2005. En la dieta se incluyen principalmente cladóceros (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia y Daphnia y copépodos (Cyclops. Se detectó una diferencia significativa en la dieta cuando se comparan los años (análisis MRPP, A = 0.22, p < 0.0001 y los sitios en los diferentes años (análisis MRPP, A = 0.17, p = 0.004. De acuerdo a los valores promedio de amplitud de nicho, las especies fueron clasificadas como especialistas y consumidores intermediarios. En condiciones someras, el pequeño intervalo de la amplitud de nicho (1.72 a 3.64 y los altos valores del traslape de nicho (D = 0.64, L = 8.62 indicaron un alto potencial para una interacción explotativa inter-específica. Cuando el lago se recupera en su volumen, un incremento en el intervalo de amplitud de nicho (1.04 a 4.96 y los

  3. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  4. Obesity is associated with larger prostate volume but not with worse urinary symptoms: analysis of a large multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhindi, Bimal; Margel, David; Trottier, Greg; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hersey, Karen M; Finelli, Antonio; Trachtenberg, John; Zlotta, Alexandre; Toi, Ants; Evans, Andrew; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Fleshner, Neil E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and prostate volume (PV) and lower urinary tract symptoms in a multiethnic cohort. A cohort of men without prostate cancer seen at our institution was assembled, excluding those with previous transurethral resection of the prostate. Height and weight were measured to compute BMI, PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was administered. After stratified bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression and ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effect of BMI on PV and IPSS, respectively. The cohort included 1613 patients, and mean BMI was 27.1 kg/m(2). Patients with a BMI of obese men. There were no significant differences in IPSS or usage of benign prostatic hyperplasia medications between BMI categories. In multivariable analyses, higher BMI was associated with larger PV (P <.001) but not IPSS (P = .91). On the basis of our model, given a PV of 40 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL, each 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a 2.19 mL, 2.74 mL, and 3.29 mL increase in PV, respectively. Body weight (P <.001) but not height (P = .13) was associated with PV. Higher BMI is associated with larger PV but not worse lower urinary tract symptoms (measured using IPSS). Usage rate of alpha blockers or 5 alpha reductase inhibitors was not significantly different between BMI categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrafast, sensitive and large-volume on-chip real-time PCR for the molecular diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssin, Timothée; Cramer, Jérémy; Grojsman, Rébecca; Bellahsene, Lyes; Colas, Guillaume; Moulet, Hélène; Minnella, Walter; Pannetier, Christophe; Leberre, Maël; Plecis, Adrien; Chen, Yong

    2016-04-21

    To control future infectious disease outbreaks, like the 2014 Ebola epidemic, it is necessary to develop ultrafast molecular assays enabling rapid and sensitive diagnoses. To that end, several ultrafast real-time PCR systems have been previously developed, but they present issues that hinder their wide adoption, notably regarding their sensitivity and detection volume. An ultrafast, sensitive and large-volume real-time PCR system based on microfluidic thermalization is presented herein. The method is based on the circulation of pre-heated liquids in a microfluidic chip that thermalize the PCR chamber by diffusion and ultrafast flow switches. The system can achieve up to 30 real-time PCR cycles in around 2 minutes, which makes it the fastest PCR thermalization system for regular sample volume to the best of our knowledge. After biochemical optimization, anthrax and Ebola simulating agents could be respectively detected by a real-time PCR in 7 minutes and a reverse transcription real-time PCR in 7.5 minutes. These detections are respectively 6.4 and 7.2 times faster than with an off-the-shelf apparatus, while conserving real-time PCR sample volume, efficiency, selectivity and sensitivity. The high-speed thermalization also enabled us to perform sharp melting curve analyses in only 20 s and to discriminate amplicons of different lengths by rapid real-time PCR. This real-time PCR microfluidic thermalization system is cost-effective, versatile and can be then further developed for point-of-care, multiplexed, ultrafast and highly sensitive molecular diagnoses of bacterial and viral diseases.

  6. Large volume of water samples introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Chen, Fujiang; Song, Zhiyu; Sun, Caixia; Li, Zuguang; Liu, Wenhan; Lee, Mawrong

    2016-10-01

    A novel method of large volume of water samples directly introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed, which is based on ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas (CO2) breaking down the emulsion for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This technique makes low-density extraction solvent toluene (180 μL) dissolve in 200 mL of samples containing 0.05 mol L(-1) of HCl and 5 % of NaCl (w/v) to form a well emulsion by synergy of ultrasound and manual shaking, and injects NaHCO3 solution (1.0 mol L(-1)) to generate CO2 achieving phase separation with the assistance of ultrasound. The entire process is accomplished within 8 min. The injection of NaHCO3 to generate CO2 achieves phase separation that breaks through the centrifugation limited large volume aqueous samples. In addition, the device could be easily cleaned, and this kind of vessel could be reconfigured for any volume of samples. Under optimal conditions, the low limits of detection ranging from 0.7 to 51.7 ng L(-1), wide linearity, and enrichment factors obtained were in the range 924-3669 for different triazole fungicides. Southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water (Hangzhou, China) was used to verify the applicability of the developed method. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas breaking down the emulsion.

  7. A biomechanical perspective on the role of large stem volume and high water content in baobab trees (Adansonia spp.; Bombacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-09-01

    The stems of large trees serve in transport, storage, and support; however, the degree to which these roles are reflected in their morphology is not always apparent. The large, water-filled stems of baobab trees (Adansonia spp.) are generally assumed to serve a water storage function, yet recent studies indicate limited use of stored water. Through an analysis of wood structure and composition, we examined whether baobab morphology reflects biomechanical constraints rather than water storage capacity in the six Madagascar baobab species. Baobab wood has a high water content (up to 79%), low wood density (0.09-0.17 g · cm(-3)), high parenchyma content (69-88%), and living cells beyond 35 cm into the xylem from the cambium. Volumetric construction cost of the wood is several times lower than in more typical trees, and the elastic modulus approaches that of parenchyma tissue. Safety factors calculated from estimated elastic buckling heights were low, indicating that baobabs are not more overbuilt than other temperate and tropical trees, yet the energy investment in stem material is comparable to that in temperate deciduous trees. Furthermore, the elastic modulus of the wood decreases with water content, such that excessive water withdrawal from the stem could affect mechanical stability.

  8. A method for rapid in situ extraction and laboratory determination of Th, Pb, and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, M.; Murphy, David J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Orr, James C.; Schink, David R.

    1993-04-01

    An in situ pump and six channel extraction system, operating typically at 351 min -1, can not only filter seawater samples but also extract dissolved Th, Pb and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater at six different depths on a single lowering. By gamma counting the ash residues of three cartridges (one particle extractor and two nuclide extractors), we can determine 234Th and 210Pb concentrations in the particulate and dissolved phase. Extraction efficiencies for 234Th from the dissolved phase average 93 ± 5% and for 210Pb average ≥90%. At the same time we can determine radium isotopic ratios precisely, but, at present radium concentrations can only be established by the determination of 226Ra in a 30-1 cohort sample. This system can be deployed easily from ships having an A-frame. It eliminates the problems of transporting and processing large volumes of samples and involves relatively little manual labor and analytical time. We have tested and used this device repeatedly in the Gulf of Mexico. Our preliminary results agree well with values of 234Th and 210Pb concentrations and 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios reported in the literature for the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and megaplasmid-deficient mutant M5 evaluated using a large headspace volume technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang-Eun [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea); Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Husen [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Guiltinan, Mark J. [Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E.; Regan, John M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Biohydrogen production is measured using a variety of techniques, ranging from low cost intermittent gas release methods where yields are usually reduced due to high partial pressures of hydrogen, to expensive respirometers that can eliminate pressure buildup. A new large headspace volume technique was developed that reduces the potential for hydrogen gas inhibition without the need for a respirometer. We tested this method with two strains of clostridia, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its mutant M5 that lacks a megaplasmid responsible for butanol and acetone production, and a mixed culture (heat-treated sludge). The hydrogen yield using M5 (2.64 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose) was 47% higher than that of the parent strain (1.79 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), and 118% larger than that obtained in tests with the sludge inoculum (1.21 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose). The increased yield for M5 was primarily due to a decrease in biomass synthesis (38%) compared to the parent strain. Hydrogen yields measured using this new method were on average 14% higher than those obtained using a conventional respirometric method. These findings indicate enhanced biohydrogen production from the megaplasmid-deficient mutant of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and that an intermittent gas-sampling technique can effectively measure high hydrogen gas by using a large headspace volume. (author)

  10. Long-range and wide field of view optical coherence tomography for in vivo 3D imaging of large volume object based on akinetic programmable swept source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Xu, Jingjiang; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-11-01

    Current optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging suffers from short ranging distance and narrow imaging field of view (FOV). There is growing interest in searching for solutions to these limitations in order to expand further in vivo OCT applications. This paper describes a solution where we utilize an akinetic swept source for OCT implementation to enable ~10 cm ranging distance, associated with the use of a wide-angle camera lens in the sample arm to provide a FOV of ~20 x 20 cm(2). The akinetic swept source operates at 1300 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of 100 nm. We propose an adaptive calibration procedure to the programmable akinetic light source so that the sensitivity of the OCT system over ~10 cm ranging distance is substantially improved for imaging of large volume samples. We demonstrate the proposed swept source OCT system for in vivo imaging of entire human hands and faces with an unprecedented FOV (up to 400 cm(2)). The capability of large-volume OCT imaging with ultra-long ranging and ultra-wide FOV is expected to bring new opportunities for in vivo biomedical applications.

  11. Investigation of hydrodynamics and heat transfer at liquid metal downflow in a rectangular duct in a coplanar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a liquid metal downflow in a rectangular duct with an aspect ratio of approximately 3/1 in a coplanar magnetic field (MF) are studied upon inhomogeneous (one-sided) heating of the duct. The flow in the heat-transfer duct of the cooling system of a liquid-metal blanket module of the tokamak-type thermonuclear reactor is modeled. Experiments were carried out at the mercury magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) test facility, which is a part of the MHD-complex of Moscow Power Engineering Institute-Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A probe technique is used for measurements in the flow. The studies are performed within the following ranges of regime parameters: Reynolds numbers Re = 10000-55000, Hartmann numbers Ha = 0-800, and Grashof numbers Grq = 0-6 × 108. Averaged profiles of velocity, temperature, temperature fluctuations of the flow, and duct wall temperature are presented for two typical flow regimes. Detailed measurements are performed in the duct cross-section distant from the heating beginning in the region of homogeneous MF. MF leads to the turbulent transport suppression, owing to which the temperature on the heated wall increases. A considerable influence of the heat-gravitational counter-convection, the interaction of which with the external MF leads in some regimes to the appearance and development of instabilities in the laminarized flow, is revealed under the downflow conditions. Generation of large-scale secondary vortices with the axis parallel to the MF induction causes temperature fluctuations of the abnormal intensity that considerably exceeds the level of turbulent fluctuations. Such temperature fluctuations easily penetrate into the duct wall and can lead to the fatigue breakdown of thermonuclear reactor cooling paths. Ranges of unallowable regime parameters are determined and the boundary in coordinates Gr-Re is presented, where this effect is revealed or vanishes. The numerical

  12. Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.111-124Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1 is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2, white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2 is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2, unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity, crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O. A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3. Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.

  13. Determination of nifuroxazide in biological fluids by automated high-performance liquid chromatography with large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebault, P R; Broquaire, M; Braithwaite, R A

    1981-01-16

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the measurement of nifuroxazide in plasma is described. The technique is based on the single extraction of the drug from buffered plasma with chloroform, using nifuratel as internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a 15 cm x 4.6 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Spherisorb ODS, 5 micrometer, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.5) (30:70). The method was able to measure accurately plasma nifuroxazide concentrations down to 2 ng . ml-1 using 2 ml of sample with no interference from endogenous compounds. The coefficients of variation of the method at 200 and 2 ng . ml-1 were 3% and 15%, respectively, and the calibration graph was linear in this range. The use of automatic injection makes the method suitable for the routine analysis of large numbers of samples.

  14. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Veronica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. Results In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux, which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. Conclusion JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in

  15. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Mariano; Silva, Herman; Saba, Juan; Guziolowski, Carito; Vizoso, Paula; Martinez, Veronica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Morales, Andrea; Caroca, Rodrigo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Meisel, Lee A

    2006-11-23

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux), which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in fruit exportation". However, due to its ability to

  16. The large-volume high-pressure facility at GSECARS: A 'Swiss-army-knife' approach to synchrotron-based experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanbin; Rivers, Mark; Sutton, Steve; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Uchida, Takeyuki; Sanehira, Takeshi; (UC)

    2009-06-01

    A number of new techniques have been developed at the large-volume press (LVP) high-pressure facility at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) sector of the advanced photon source (APS). This article describes the 10 MN (1000 T) and 2.5 MN (250 T) hydraulic presses in the insertion device (ID) and bending magnet (BM) beamlines, respectively, with several apparatus and various diffraction and imaging techniques developed since the inception of the facility. Several Kawai-type high-pressure modules, whose second-stage anvils range from 10 mm to 25.4 mm in edge lengths, are used in the hydraulic presses, with pressure (P) and temperature (T) capabilities up to 30 GPa and 3000 K. A DIA-type apparatus can be compressed in both presses for studies requiring large sample volumes. A deformation DIA (D-DIA) has been developed to allow controlled deformation studies on both crystalline and glass materials, using monochromatic diffraction and imaging, up to 20 GPa and 1800 K. A high-pressure tomography apparatus is available for conducting tomography studies at high P and T, with a typical spatial resolution of a few micrometers. Toroidal anvil modules provide large 2{theta} angles for studies of non-crystalline materials, and a new large D-DIA module is under construction for double-stage megabar pressure generation as well as deformation on large samples with the capability of acoustic emission detection. The flexible design of the monochromator at the BM beamline makes it feasible to switch between monochromatic and white-beam mode during an experiment, ideal for monochromatic imaging studies (e.g., high-P tomography) with energy-dispersive diffraction for pressure measurements. A new angle-dispersive diffraction technique has been developed for high P-T crystallography studies, where a solid-state detector is step-scanned, thereby collecting a large number of angle-dispersive spectra over a wide range of photon energies recorded in the multi-channel analyzer. An ultrasonic

  17. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization of Radiation Sources on UF Campus Using a Large Volume NaI Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jesse A.; Gardiner, Hannah E.; Jordan, Kelly A.; Baciak, James E.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental radiation surveys are important for applications such as safety and regulations. This is especially true for areas exposed to emissions from nuclear reactors, such as the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR). At the University of Florida, surveys are performed using the RSX-1 NaI detector, developed by Radiation Solutions Inc. The detector uses incoming gamma rays and an Advanced Digital Spectrometer module to produce a linear energy spectrum. These spectra can then be analyzed in real time with a personal computer using the built in software, RadAssist. We report on radiation levels around the University of Florida campus using two mobile detection platforms, car-borne and cart-borne. The car-borne surveys provide a larger, broader map of campus radiation levels. On the other hand, cart-borne surveys provide a more detailed radiation map because of its ability to reach places on campus cars cannot go. Throughout the survey data, there are consistent radon decay product energy peaks in addition to other sources such as medical I-131 found in a large crowd of people. Finally, we investigate further applications of this mobile detection platform, such as tracking the Ar-41 plume emitted from the UFTR and detection of potential environmental hazards.

  18. Comparison of a new noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique for craniospinal irradiation with 3 coplanar techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders T; Lukacova, Slavka; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.;

    2015-01-01

    patient using the noncoplanar IMRT-based technique, a coplanar IMRT-based technique, and a coplanar volumetric-modulated arch therapy (VMAT) technique. Dosimetry data for all patients were compared with the corresponding data from the conventional treatment plans. The new noncoplanar IMRT technique......When standard conformal x-ray technique for craniospinal irradiation is used, it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory dose coverage of the target including the area of the cribriform plate, while sparing organs at risk. We present a new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), noncoplanar...... technique, for delivering irradiation to the cranial part and compare it with 3 other techniques and previously published results. A total of 13 patients who had previously received craniospinal irradiation with standard conformal x-ray technique were reviewed. New treatment plans were generated for each...

  19. A Ka-band monolithic low phase noise coplanar waveguide oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Delong; Hsu, Shawn; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Chin, Patrick; Block, Tom

    2002-02-01

    A Ka-band oscillator has been designed, fabricated and tested using InAlAs/InGaAs HBTs. Coplanar waveguide technology has been employed to improve the Q-factor of the circuit. An output power of 2.6 dBm with DC to RF conversion efficiency of 7.8% was measured at 31.7 GHz. Low phase noise of -87 and -112 dBc/Hz were achieved at an offset frequency of 100 kHz and 1 MHz respectively. These low phase noise values can be attributed to the low 1/ f noise of the InAlAs/InGaAs HBT devices and the coplanar design used for the circuit.

  20. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  1. 8-AminoBODIPYs: cyanines or hemicyanines? The effect of the coplanarity of the amino group on their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Martínez, Carlos A; Urías-Benavides, Arlette; Gómez-Durán, C F Azael; Bañuelos, Jorge; Esnal, Ixone; López Arbeloa, Iñigo; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo

    2012-06-15

    The role of the amino group twisting ability in the BODIPY photophysics for nonsterically hindered and constrained molecular structures was studied. When a coplanar disposition of the amino and the BODIPY core is feasible, a hemicyanine-like delocalized π-system gives rise to novel blue and efficient BODIPY laser dyes. The key role of such rotamer is confirmed by newly synthesized derivatives where the amino and the BODIPY core are electronically decoupled by steric repulsions.

  2. Co-sputtered Mo/Re superconducting coplanar resonators compatible with carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blien, Stefan; Stiller, Peter L.; Goetz, Karl; Vavra, Ondrej; Huber, Thomas; Mayer, Thomas; Strunk, Christoph; Huettel, Andreas K. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are simultaneously prototypical single electron tunneling devices and nano-electromechanical resonators. In particular for ''ultraclean'' devices, where the nanotube is grown in a last fabrication step over pre-existing chip structures, highly regular quantum spectra and high mechanical quality factors emerge. Targeting optomechanical experiments, a coupling of these devices to on-chip superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators is highly desirable. The conditions for in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes over metal contacts are quite detrimental to most superconductors: the CVD growth process takes place in a hydrogen/methane atmosphere heated up to 900 {sup circle} C. We present data on transmission line resonators fabricated of a co-sputtered molybdenum rhenium alloy that withstand CVD and remain superconducting with critical temperatures up to 8K after growth. Resonant operation at cryogenic temperatures is demonstrated, and the behaviour is highly consistent with a combination of Mattis-Bardeen theory and two-level systems in the substrate.

  3. Miniature Coplanar Implantable Antenna on Thin and Flexible Platform for Fully Wireless Intracranial Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Waqas A. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive approach to intracranial pressure monitoring is desired for long-term diagnostics. The monitored pressure is transmitted outside the skull through an implant antenna. We present a new miniature (6 mm × 5 mm coplanar implant antenna and its integration on a sensor platform to establish a far-field data link for the sensor readout at distances of 0.5 to 1 meter. The implant antenna was developed using full-wave electromagnetic simulator and measured in a liquid phantom mimicking the dielectric properties of the human head. It achieved impedance reflection coefficient better than −10 dB from 2.38 GHz to 2.54 GHz which covers the targeted industrial, scientific, and medical band. Experiments resulted in an acceptable peak gain of approximately −23 dBi. The implant antenna was submerged in the liquid phantom and interfaced to a 0.5 mW voltage controlled oscillator. To verify the implant antenna performance as a part of the ICP monitoring system, we recorded the radiated signal strength using a spectrum analyzer. Using a half-wavelength dipole as the receiving antenna, we captured approximately −58.7 dBm signal at a distance of 1 m from the implant antenna which is well above for the reader with sensitivity of −80 dBm.

  4. Multi-frequency spin manipulation using rapidly tunable superconducting coplanar waveguide microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, A. T.; Sigillito, A. J.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of frequency-tunable superconducting NbTiN coplanar waveguide microresonators for multi-frequency pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. By applying a bias current to the center pin, the resonance frequency (˜7.6 GHz) can be continuously tuned by as much as 95 MHz in 270 ns without a change in the quality factor of 3000 at 2 K. We demonstrate the ESR performance of our resonators by measuring donor spin ensembles in silicon and show that adiabatic pulses can be used to overcome magnetic field inhomogeneities and microwave power limitations due to the applied bias current. We take advantage of the rapid tunability of these resonators to manipulate both phosphorus and arsenic spins in a single pulse sequence, demonstrating pulsed double electron-electron resonance. Our NbTiN resonator design is useful for multi-frequency pulsed ESR and should also have applications in experiments where spin ensembles are used as quantum memories.

  5. Underlying Architecture of Planetary Systems Based on Kepler Data: Number of Planets and Coplanarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Julia; Margot, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the underlying architecture of planetary systems by deriving the distribution of planet multiplicity (number of planets) and the distribution of orbital inclinations based on the sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our study included solar-like stars and planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and with radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters 1 through 6. Our analysis improves on previous work by including all available quarters, extending to 200-day periods, and fitting models to observables such as normalized transit duration ratios that contain information on mutual orbital inclinations; these improvements lend to a deeper investigation of the intrinsic distributions of planetary systems. We created models of planetary systems with different distributions of planet multiplicity and orbital inclinations, simulated observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the number and properties of the transits of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Based on the underlying distributions of our best-fit models, 75-80% of planetary systems have 1 or 2 planets with orbital periods less than 200 days. In addition, over 85% of planets have orbital inclinations less than 3 degrees. This high degree of coplanarity is comparable to that seen in our Solar System, with the exception of Mercury. These results provide important constraints and insights into theories of planet formation and evolution.

  6. Planar architecture for microstrip interfaced packaging of coplanar-waveguide-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Giridhar, Malalahalli Sreenivasamurthy; Rao, Cheemalamarri Venkata Narasimha; Bhalke, Sangam; Islam, Rifqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of microstrip (MS) interfaced packaging of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-based radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch in a hermetic metal-ceramic RF package. The switch is integrated along with CPW to MS (CPW-MS) transitions within the package itself. This makes the MS interfaced packaged switch module readily mountable on MS based RF boards and subsystems. The CPW-MS transition for the package was designed as a separate off-chip entity on an alumina substrate and utilizes via hole. The integrated three-dimensional model of the package consisting of the RF MEMS switch and the transitions was simulated using high frequency structure simulator. The realized module shows an insertion loss of 0.2 and 1.1 dB at 100 MHz and 7 GHz, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 60 dB at 100 MHz and 30 dB at 7 GHz. The return loss is better than 15 dB up to 7 GHz. The estimated packaging and transitioning loss is 0.5 dB at 5 GHz. This packaging architecture is a planar solution for the MS interfaced packaging of CPW based RF MEMS switches for designers who do not have access to high-end technologies, such as zero-level packaging, through silicon via or low temperature co-fired ceramics.

  7. Template-stripped, ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Nagaiyanallur V; Pei, Jia; Cremmel, Clément V M; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-08-01

    Ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns, exhibiting extremely low roughness over the entire surface, have been obtained by a modified template-stripping procedure. Titanium is deposited onto photolithographically predefined regions of a silicon template. Following photoresist lift-off, the entire surface is backfilled with gold, template stripping is conducted, and an ultraflat micropatterned surface is revealed. Atomic force microscopy confirms a roughness of surface-chemical maps of the patterned surfaces have been obtained by means of imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (i-XPS) as well as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). They confirm the presence of well-separated Ti and Au regions, with a chemical contrast that is sharp (as determined by ToF-SIMS) and complete (as determined by i-XPS) across the Ti-Au interface. Thus, a surface has been fabricated that is physically homogeneous down to the nanoscale incorporating chemically distinct micropatterns consisting of two different metals, with totally contrasting surface chemistries.

  8. Novel Micromachined Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Lines for Application in Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Chang-Wook; Jung, Sanghwa; Kim, Hong-Teuk; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, novel micromachined coplanar waveguide(CPW) transmission lines for application in millimeter-wave circuits are proposed. Two types of transmission lines with the length of 1 cm are fabricated and the measured characteristics are compared with those of the conventional CPW transmission line. One is the elevated CPW(ECPW) transmission line and the other is the overlay CPW(OCPW) line. These transmission lines are composed of 3-μm-thick electroplated gold lines with overhanging parts. By elevating the metal lines from the substrate using micromachining technology, the conductor and substrate dielectric loss can be reduced and easily integrated with conventional monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Compared with the conventional CPW line showing 2.65 dB/cm insertion loss at 50 GHz, the loss can be reduced to 1.9 dB/cm and 1.25 dB/cm at 50 GHz in the case of the ECPW and OCPW transmission lines, respectively. Also, the OCPW transmission line shows that the insertion loss does not vary with the change of the characteristic impedance. As shown in the measured and simulated results, the insertion loss is maintained below 1.4 dB/cm over wide impedance ranges.

  9. Oscillatory motion of water droplets in kerosene above co-planar electrodes in microfluidic chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beránek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally observed oscillatory motion of water droplets in microfluidic systems with coplanar microelectrodes under imposed DC electric fields. Two-electrode arrangement with no bipolar electrode and eight-electrode arrangement with six bipolar microelectrodes were investigated. Kerosene was used as the continuous phase. We studied the dependences of the oscillation frequency on the electric field intensity and ionic strength of the water phase. We found that the electric field dependence is strongly nonlinear and discussed possible reasons of this phenomenon, e.g., the droplet deformation at electrode edges that affects the charge transfer between the electrode and droplet or the interplay between the Coulomb force on free charge and the dielectrophoretic force. Our experiments further revealed that the oscillation frequency decreases with growing salt concentration in the two-electrode arrangement, but increases in the eight-electrode arrangement, which was attributed to surface tension related processes and electrochemical processes on the bipolar electrodes. Finally, we analyzed the effects of the electric field on the oscillatory motion by means of a simplified mathematical model. It was shown that the electric force imposed on the droplet charge is the key factor to induce the oscillations and the dielectrophoretic force significantly contributes to the momentum transfer at the electrode edges. For the same electric field strength, the model is able to predict the same oscillation frequency as that observed in the experiments.

  10. Fluorescence (TALIF) measurement of atomic hydrogen concentration in a coplanar surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrkvičková, M.; Ráheľ, J.; Dvořák, P.; Trunec, D.; Morávek, T.

    2016-10-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration above the dielectric of coplanar barrier discharge are presented for atmospheric pressure in 2.2% H2/Ar. The measurements were carried out in the afterglow phase by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). The difficulties of employing the TALIF technique in close proximity to the dielectric surface wall were successfully addressed by taking measurements on a suitable convexly curved dielectric barrier, and by proper mathematical treatment of parasitic signals from laser-surface interactions. It was found that the maximum atomic hydrogen concentration is situated closest to the dielectric wall from which it gradually decays. The maximum absolute concentration was more than 1022 m-3. In the afterglow phase, the concentration of atomic hydrogen above the dielectric surface stays constant for a considerable time (10 μs-1 ms), with longer times for areas situated farther from the dielectric surface. The existence of such a temporal plateau was explained by the presented 1D model: the recombination losses of atomic hydrogen farther from the dielectric surface are compensated by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen from regions close to the dielectric surface. The fact that a temporal plateau exists even closest to the dielectric surface suggests that the dielectric surface acts as a source of atomic hydrogen in the afterglow phase.

  11. Uptake of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorobiphenyls in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirard, Catherine; De Pauw, Edwin

    2005-05-01

    Twelve chickens raised according to commercial standards were fed a diet containing about 30 ng total toxic equivalent (TEQ)/kg for 10 weeks. Persistent pollutants were introduced into the poultry feed via recycled oil to mimic contamination conditions closely resembling those occurring during the Belgian crisis five years ago. Absorption of congeners with the same chlorination degree did not seem to depend on the substitution, demonstrating that unlike for cows, no preferential absorption for 2,3,7,8-substituted compounds could be remarked for chickens. As already observed, absorption decreased with increasing number of chlorines and was not linearly dependent on the octanol/water partition coefficient. On the other hand, no real differences were observed in the absorption of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (c-PCBs) with regard to degree of chlorination. When monitored during the course of experiment, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and c-PCBs in excreta reached an apparent steady state after 5 weeks. Only 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins or furans were found in tissues and eggs. All organs showed the same congener profile and similar lipid-normalized concentration, except for the liver. Bioconcentration factors were evaluated, highlighting that the liver preferentially retained highly chlorinated congeners. No depletion of dioxin and PCB concentration was observed after 8 and 14 weeks of control diet, but high inter-individual variation occurs.

  12. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  13. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction and large-volume injection gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of multiresidue pesticides in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, D; Carro, A M; Cela, R; Lorenzo, R A

    2010-09-01

    A microwave-assisted extraction method followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) for the analysis of 17 pesticides in wild and aquaculture edible seaweeds has been developed. An experimental central composite design was employed to evaluate the effects of the main variables potentially affecting the extraction (temperature, time, and solvent volume) and to optimize the process. The most effective microwave extraction conditions were achieved at 125 °C and 12 min with 24 mL of hexane/ethyl acetate (80:20). SPE clean-up of the extracts with graphitized carbon and Florisil, optimized by means of the experimental design, proved to be efficient in the removal of matrix interferences. The analytical recoveries were close to 100% for all the analytes, with relative standard deviations lower than 13%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 23.1 pg g(-1) and the limits of quantification were between 2.3 and 76.9 pg g(-1), far below the maximum residue levels established by the European Union for pesticides in seaweed. The results obtained prove the suitability of the microwave-assisted extraction for the routine analysis of pesticides in aquaculture and wild seaweed samples.

  15. Large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations for phase coarsening at ultrahigh volume fraction on high-performance architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Wang, K. G.; Jones, Jim E.

    2016-06-01

    A parallel algorithm for large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations of phase coarsening is developed and implemented on high-performance architectures. From the large-scale simulations, a new kinetics in phase coarsening in the region of ultrahigh volume fraction is found. The parallel implementation is capable of harnessing the greater computer power available from high-performance architectures. The parallelized code enables increase in three-dimensional simulation system size up to a 5123 grid cube. Through the parallelized code, practical runtime can be achieved for three-dimensional large-scale simulations, and the statistical significance of the results from these high resolution parallel simulations are greatly improved over those obtainable from serial simulations. A detailed performance analysis on speed-up and scalability is presented, showing good scalability which improves with increasing problem size. In addition, a model for prediction of runtime is developed, which shows a good agreement with actual run time from numerical tests.

  16. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  17. Large pore volume mesoporous copper particles and scaffold microporous carbon material obtained from an inorganic-organic nanohybrid material, copper-succinate-layered hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Bagheri, Narjes; Sadrnezhaad, S K

    2011-10-01

    Copper-succinate-layered hydroxide (CSLH), a new nanohybrid material, was synthesized as an inorganic-organic nanohybrid, in which organic moiety was intercalated between the layers of a single cation layered material, copper hydroxide nitrate. Microporous scaffold carbon material was obtained by thermal decomposition of the nanohybrid at 500 °C under argon atmosphere followed by acid washing process. Furthermore, the heat-treated product of the nanohybrid at 600 °C was ultrafine mesoporous metallic copper particles. The results of this study confirmed the great potential of CSLH to produce the carbon material with large surface area (580 m(2)/g) and high pore volume copper powder (2.04 cm(3)/g).

  18. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  19. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4(+) strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A retrospective study on the use of a low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboembolism prophylaxis in large-volume liposuction and body contouring procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Germán; Ruiz-Razura, Amado; Mentz, Henry A; Patronella, Christopher K; Ibarra, Francis R; Zarak, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxeparin) as a prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the management of large-volume liposuction, added body-contouring procedures, or both. The author present an 18-month experience with the use of this therapy for 291 consecutive patients. All the patients fell into the categories of high risk and highest risk for the development of deep vein thrombosis, embolism, or both. Three patients experienced transient DVT-like symptoms and underwent a thorough workup by an independent highly specialized critical care medical team. The results were found ultimately to be inconclusive for DVT and pulmonary embolism. However, all the patients experienced a complete recovery. The results show a 0% incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism among patients who received enoxeparin as prophylaxis. The medication did not precipitate major bleeding when administered 1 h after surgery. This study offers the first report that describes the use of enoxeparin in aesthetic surgery for high-risk patients. The authors feel the need to inform their colleagues of the benefits obtained over the past 18 months by incorporating this therapy in large-volume liposuction and extensive body-contouring procedures performed during the same operative session. This study was conducted by a highly experienced surgical team in a fully accredited outpatient facility with established protocols for handling these types of procedures on a daily basis. The authors are optimistic about the results, and the use of enoxeparin is now part of their postoperative regimen in high-risk aesthetic surgery cases.

  1. Geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic characterization of Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in the southwestern United States and their implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, Alexandra

    Travertines are freshwater carbonates that precipitate from carbonic groundwater due to the degassing of CO2. Travertine deposits are often situated along faults that serve as conduits for CO2-charged groundwater and their geochemistry often records mixing of deeply-derived fluids and volatiles with shallow meteoric water. Travertines are surface expressions of dynamic mantle processes related to the tectonic setting. This dissertation includes four chapters that focus on different aspects of travertine formation and their scientific value. They are excellent, although underestimated, diagnostic tools for climatology, hydrology, tectonics, geochemistry, geomicrobiology, and they can inform carbon sequestration models. Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur in an extensional tectonic stress regime on the southeastern Colorado Plateau and along the Rio Grande rift. They accumulated above fault systems during episodes of high hydraulic head in confined aquifers, increased regional volcanic activity, and high input of mantle-derived volatiles such as CO 2 and He. Stable isotope and trace element geochemistry of travertines is controlled by groundwater geochemistry as well as the degassing of CO 2. The geochemical composition allows for distinguishing different travertine facies and evaluating past groundwater flow. The travertine deposits in New Mexico are interpreted to be extinct CO2 fields due to the large volumes that accumulated and in analogy to the travertine deposits in Arizona that are associated with an active CO2-gas field. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems that bypassed regional cap rocks and they provide important insight into the migration of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface. The volume of travertine can be used to infer the integrated CO2 leakage along a fault system over geologic time. This leakage is estimated as: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon

  2. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Bullier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  3. Beam’s-eye-view imaging during non-coplanar lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Stephen S. F., E-mail: syip@lroc.harvard.edu; Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Beam’s-eye-view (BEV) imaging with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) can be performed during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to monitor the tumor location in real-time. Image quality for each patient and treatment field depends on several factors including the patient anatomy and the gantry and couch angles. The authors investigated the angular dependence of automatic tumor localization during non-coplanar lung SBRT delivery. Methods: All images were acquired at a frame rate of 12 Hz with an amorphous silicon EPID. A previously validated markerless lung tumor localization algorithm was employed with manual localization as the reference. From ten SBRT patients, 12 987 image frames of 123 image sequences acquired at 48 different gantry–couch rotations were analyzed. δ was defined by the position difference of the automatic and manual localization. Results: Regardless of the couch angle, the best tracking performance was found in image sequences with a gantry angle within 20° of 250° (δ = 1.40 mm). Image sequences acquired with gantry angles of 150°, 210°, and 350° also led to good tracking performances with δ = 1.77–2.00 mm. Overall, the couch angle was not correlated with the tracking results. Among all the gantry–couch combinations, image sequences acquired at (θ = 30°, ϕ = 330°), (θ = 210°, ϕ = 10°), and (θ = 250°, ϕ = 30°) led to the best tracking results with δ = 1.19–1.82 mm. The worst performing combinations were (θ = 90° and 230°, ϕ = 10°) and (θ = 270°, ϕ = 30°) with δ > 3.5 mm. However, 35% (17/48) of the gantry–couch rotations demonstrated substantial variability in tracking performances between patients. For example, the field angle (θ = 70°, ϕ = 10°) was acquired for five patients. While the tracking errors were ≤1.98 mm for three patients, poor performance was found for the other two patients with δ ≥ 2.18 mm, leading to average tracking error of 2.70 mm. Only one

  4. Non-coplanar compact configurations of nuclei and non-compound-nucleus contribution in the fusion cross section of the 12C+93Nb reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sahila; Hemdeep, Kaur, Arshdeep; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-02-01

    Background: In our earlier study of the 12C+93Nb→*105Ag reaction at three near- and below-barrier energies (Ec .m .=41.097 , 47.828, and 54.205 MeV), using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with various nuclear interaction potentials (the Blocki et al. pocket formula and others derived from the Skyrme energy density formalism) for compact, coplanar (Φc=00 ) nuclei, we found a large non-compound-nucleus (nCN) contribution in the measured fusion cross section of this reaction. Purpose: In the present work, we look for the effect of using non-coplanar, compact configurations (Φc≠00 ), in the Blocki et al. pocket formula of the nuclear proximity potential, on the non-compound-nucleus (nCN) contribution, using the DCM. Methods: Allowing the Φ degree of freedom in the DCM formalism, we calculate the compound-nucleus (CN) and nCN cross sections. The only parameter of the DCM is the neck-length parameter Δ R , which also fits the empirically determined nCN cross section nearly exactly, under the assumption of considering it like a quasifission process where the fragment preformation factor P0=1 . Results: With the Φ degree of freedom included, at the higher two energies the nCN cross section gets enhanced, and hence the pure CN cross section is decreased, since the calculated (total) fusion cross section is fitted to experimental data. The parameter Δ R for the nCN contribution is smaller, and hence the reaction time larger, than for the CN decay process. Also, the contributing angular momentum ℓmax value increases in going from Φc=00 to Φc≠00 for both the CN and nCN processes. The intermediate mass fragments (IMFs), measured up to mass 13 in this reaction, are shown extended up to mass 16, and the fusion-fission (f f ) region is identified as A /2 ±16 , the same as for the Φc=00 case. Conclusions: As a result of enhanced nCN cross section due to Φc≠00 , the CN fusion probability PCN for *105Ag changes its behavior from an increasing to a

  5. A propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Khaled W; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Barbour, Elie K; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2014-10-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 10(2) cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings.

  6. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Origin and emplacement of the andesite of Burroughs Mountain, a zoned, large-volume lava flow at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockstill, Karen R.; Vogel, Thomas A.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Burroughs Mountain, situated at the northeast foot of Mount Rainier, WA, exposes a large-volume (3.4 km 3) andesitic lava flow, up to 350 m thick and extending 11 km in length. Two sampling traverses from flow base to eroded top, over vertical sections of 245 and 300 m, show that the flow consists of a felsic lower unit (100 m thick) overlain sharply by a more mafic upper unit. The mafic upper unit is chemically zoned, becoming slightly more evolved upward; the lower unit is heterogeneous and unzoned. The lower unit is also more phenocryst-rich and locally contains inclusions of quenched basaltic andesite magma that are absent from the upper unit. Widespread, vuggy, gabbronorite-to-diorite inclusions may be fragments of shallow cumulates, exhumed from the Mount Rainier magmatic system. Chemically heterogeneous block-and-ash-flow deposits that conformably underlie the lava flow were the earliest products of the eruptive episode. The felsic-mafic-felsic progression in lava composition resulted from partial evacuation of a vertically-zoned magma reservoir, in which either (1) average depth of withdrawal increased, then decreased, during eruption, perhaps due to variations in effusion rate, or (2) magmatic recharge stimulated ascent of a plume that brought less evolved magma to shallow levels at an intermediate stage of the eruption. Pre-eruptive zonation resulted from combined crystallization-differentiation and intrusion(s) of less evolved magma into the partly crystallized resident magma body. The zoned lava flow at Burroughs Mountain shows that, at times, Mount Rainier's magmatic system has developed relatively large, shallow reservoirs that, despite complex recharge events, were capable of developing a felsic-upward compositional zonation similar to that inferred from large ash-flow sheets and other zoned lava flows.

  8. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  9. Improving the Sensitivity, Resolution, and Peak Capacity of Gradient Elution in Capillary Liquid Chromatography with Large-Volume Injections by Using Temperature-Assisted On-Column Solute Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachael E; Groskreutz, Stephen R; Weber, Stephen G

    2016-05-17

    Capillary HPLC (cLC) with gradient elution is the separation method of choice for the fields of proteomics and metabolomics. This is due to the complementary nature of cLC flow rates and electrospray or nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The small column diameters result in good mass sensitivity. Good concentration sensitivity is also possible by injection of relatively large volumes of solution and relying on solvent-based solute focusing. However, if the injection volume is too large or solutes are poorly retained during injection, volume overload occurs which leads to altered peak shapes, decreased sensitivity, and lower peak capacity. Solutes that elute early even with the use of a solvent gradient are especially vulnerable to this problem. In this paper, we describe a simple, automated instrumental method, temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF), that is capable of focusing large volume injections of small molecules and peptides under gradient conditions. By injecting a large sample volume while cooling a short segment of the column inlet at subambient temperatures, solutes are concentrated into narrow bands at the head of the column. Rapidly raising the temperature of this segment of the column leads to separations with less peak broadening in comparison to solvent focusing alone. For large volume injections of both mixtures of small molecules and a bovine serum albumin tryptic digest, TASF improved the peak shape and resolution in chromatograms. TASF showed the most dramatic improvements with shallow gradients, which is particularly useful for biological applications. Results demonstrate the ability of TASF with gradient elution to improve the sensitivity, resolution, and peak capacity of volume overloaded samples beyond gradient compression alone. Additionally, we have developed and validated a double extrapolation method for predicting retention factors at extremes of temperature and mobile phase composition. Using this method

  10. Symmetry and coplanarity of organic molecules affect their packing and photovoltaic properties in solution-processed solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shang-Che; Raghunath, Putikam; Lu, Yueh-Hsin; Wang, Yi-Chien; Lin, Shu-Wei; Liu, Chih-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ming-Chang; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2014-06-25

    In this study we synthesized three acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) organic molecules, TB3t-BT, TB3t-BTT, and TB3t-BDT, comprising 2,2'-bithiophene (BT), benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b':5,6-d″]trithiophene (BTT), and benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) units, respectively, as central cores (donors), terthiophene (3t) as π-conjugated spacers, and thiobarbituric acid (TB) units as acceptors. These molecules display different degrees of coplanarity as evidenced by the differences in dihedral angles calculated from density functional theory. By using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractions for probing their crystallization characteristics and molecular packing in active layers, we found that the symmetry and coplanarity of molecules would significantly affect the melting/crystallization behavior and the formation of crystalline domains in the blend film with fullerene, PC61BM. TB3t-BT and TB3t-BDT, which each possess an inversion center and display high crystallinity in their pristine state, but they have different driving forces in crystallization, presumably because of different degrees of coplanarity. On the other hand, the asymmetrical TB3t-BTT behaved as an amorphous material even though it possesses a coplanar structure. Among our tested systems, the device comprising as-spun TB3t-BDT/PC61BM (6:4, w/w) active layer featured crystalline domains and displayed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.1%. In contrast, the as-spun TB3t-BT/PC61BM (6:4, w/w) active layer showed well-mixed morphology and with a device PCE of 0.2%; it increased to 3.9% after annealing the active layer at 150 °C for 15 min. As for TB3t-BTT, it required a higher content of fullerene in the TB3t-BTT/PC61BM (4:6, w/w) active layer to optimize its device PCE to 1.6%.

  11. Theoretical calculation of triple differential cross sections of 3s orbital of argon in coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xing-Ju; Chen Xiang-Jun; Shan Xu; Chen Li-Qing; Xu Ke-Zun

    2004-01-01

    The triple differential cross section for the low-energy electron impact ionization of inner-valence 3s orbital of argon has been calculated using the modified distorted wave Born approximation in coplanar symmetric energy-sharing geometry. Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment is achieved when the polarization and post-collisional interaction (PCI) are included in the calculations. It is shown that the polarization and PCI effects play a very important role in the case of argon at low incident energies.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of a co-planar detector in diamond for low energy single ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. B. S.; Aguirre, B. A.; Pacheco, J. L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Bielejec, E.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate low energy single ion detection using a co-planar detector fabricated on a diamond substrate and characterized by ion beam induced charge collection. Histograms are taken with low fluence ion pulses illustrating quantized ion detection down to a single ion with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 10. We anticipate that this detection technique can serve as a basis to optimize the yield of single color centers in diamond. The ability to count ions into a diamond substrate is expected to reduce the uncertainty in the yield of color center formation by removing Poisson statistics from the implantation process.

  13. Design and performance evaluation of a coplanar multimodality scanner for rodent imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, E; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Tapias, G; Abella, M; Rodriguez-Ruano, A; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, J E [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza (Spain); Udias, A [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada (Spain)], E-mail: elage@mce.hggm.es

    2009-09-21

    This work reports on the development and performance evaluation of the VrPET/CT, a new multimodality scanner with coplanar geometry for in vivo rodent imaging. The scanner design is based on a partial-ring PET system and a small-animal CT assembled on a rotatory gantry without axial displacement between the geometric centers of both fields of view (FOV). We report on the PET system performance based on the NEMA NU-4 protocol; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment and the imaging capability of the whole system are also evaluated on phantom and animal studies. Tangential spatial resolution of PET images ranged between 1.56 mm at the center of the FOV and 2.46 at a radial offset of 3.5 cm. The radial resolution varies from 1.48 mm to 1.88 mm, and the axial resolution from 2.34 mm to 3.38 mm for the same positions. The energy resolution was 16.5% on average for the entire system. The absolute coincidence sensitivity is 2.2% for a 100-700 keV energy window with a 3.8 ns coincident window. The scatter fraction values for the same settings were 11.45% for a mouse-sized phantom and 23.26% for a rat-sized phantom. The peak noise equivalent count rates were also evaluated for those phantoms obtaining 70.8 kcps at 0.66 MBq/cc and 31.5 kcps at 0.11 MBq/cc, respectively. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment is below half the PET resolution, and the image quality of biological specimens agrees with measured performance parameters. The assessment presented in this study shows that the VrPET/CT system is a good performance small-animal imager, while the cost derived from a partial ring detection system is substantially reduced as compared with a full-ring PET tomograph.

  14. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  15. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  16. Turbidite record of frequency and source of large volume (>100 km3) Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Implications for landslide triggers and geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Talling, P. J.; Masson, D. G.

    2013-07-01

    During the last two decades, numerous studies have focused on resolving the landslide histories of the Canary Islands. Issues surrounding the preservation and dating of onshore and proximal submarine landslide deposits precludes accurate determination of event ages. However, submarine landslides often disaggregate and generate sediment gravity flows. Volcaniclastic turbidites sampled from Madeira Abyssal Plain piston cores represent a record of eight large-volume failures from the Western Canary Islands in the last 1.5 Ma. During this time, there is a mean recurrence rate of 200 ka, while the islands of El Hierro and Tenerife have individual landslide recurrences of 500 ka and 330 ka, respectively. Deposits from the 15 ka El Golfo landslide from El Hierro and 165 ka Icod landslide from Tenerife are examined. This study also identifies potential deposits associated with the Orotava (535 ka), Güímar (850 ka), and Rogues de García landslides (1.2 Ma) from Tenerife, El Julan (540 ka), and El Tiñor (1.05 Ma) landslides from El Hierro, and the Cumbre Nueva landslide (485 ka) from La Palma. Seven of eight landslides occurred during major deglaciations or subsequent interglacial periods, which represent 55% of the time. However, all of the studied landslides occur during or at the end of periods of protracted island volcanism, which generally represent 60% of the island histories. Although climate may precondition failures, it is suggested that volcanism presents a more viable preconditioning and trigger mechanism for Canary Island landslides.

  17. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-04

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk.

  18. High total metabolic tumor volume in PET/CT predicts worse prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with bone marrow involvement in rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Moo-Kon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Lim, Sung-Nam; Shin, Seunghyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kwon, Seong Young; Shim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Bong-Hoi; Kim, In-Suk; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Geun; Oh, So-Yeon

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow involvement (BMI) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was naively regarded as an adverse clinical factor. However, it has been unknown which factor would separate clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients with BMI. Recently, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was suggested to predict prognosis in several lymphoma types. Therefore, we investigated whether MTV would separate the outcomes in DLBCL patients with BMI. MTV on PET/CT was defined as an initial tumor burden as target lesion ≥ standard uptake value, 2.5 in 107 patients with BMI. Intramedullary (IM) MTV was defined as extent of BMI and total MTV was as whole tumor burden. 260.5 cm(3) and 601.2 cm(3) were ideal cut-off values for dividing high and low MTV status in the IM and total lymphoma lesions in Receiver Operating Curve analysis. High risk NCCN-IPI (phigh IM MTV status (phigh total MTV status (phigh risk NCCN-IPI (PFS, p=0.006; OS, p=0.013), concordant subtype (PFS, p=0.005; OS, p=0.007), and high total MTV status (PFS, p<0.001; OS, p<0.001) had independent clinical impacts. MTV had prognostic significances for survivals in DLBCL with BMI.

  19. 大体积承台混凝土配合比设计及工程应用%Design and Construction Application of Large Volume Cap Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏图

    2016-01-01

    针对东明黄河公路大桥主桥主墩承台混凝土的特点,通过掺加大掺量复合矿物掺合料、细集料采用机制砂及掺加聚羧酸缓凝高效减水剂的方案,配制出密实性好、水化热低、抗裂性能好的大体积混凝土。同时,结合科学的施工措施,有效防止了大体积承台温度裂缝的产生。%Aimed at the characteristics of the main pier pile concrete of the main bridge of Dongming Yellow River Highway Bridge, the mass concrete with good compactness, low hydration heat, good crack resistance is made by the plan of mixing lots of composite mineral admixture, using machine-made sand as fine aggregate and adding polycarboxylic acid retarded high efficiency water reducing agent. At the same time, the large volume cap temperature cracks are effectively prevented by the scientific construction measures.

  20. The application of large volume airgun sources to the onshore-offshore seismic surveys: implication of the experimental results in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU XueLin; CHEN Yong; ZHU RiXiang; XU HuiLong; SHI XiaoBin; YE ChunMing; ZHAO MingHui; XIA ShaoHong

    2007-01-01

    Onshore-offshore seismic experiments were carried out for the first time in northern South China Sea using large volume airgun sources at sea and seismic stations on land. The experimental results indicate that seismic signals from the new airgun array of R/V Shiyan 2 can be detected as far as 255 km. The signal effective area reaches nearly 50000 km2, which covers Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta. Compared with the old airgun array, the signal amplitude, propagation distance and effective area of the new airgun array have been increased notably, which demonstrates that the upgrade of the airgun source was successful. Comparisons with previous experimental results in other regions show that the shooting effect of the new airgun array is similar to those best airgun sources in the world. Especially, it is a new breakthrough in using the permanent seismic stations onshore to record long distance airgun signals offshore, which has great significance to the realization of the "seismic radar" concept and the 3D seismic surveys of crustal structure in coastal areas.

  1. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5” x 8” LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5” PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ−ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ−rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ−rays.

  2. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Gulyàs, J.; Lodetti, S.; Frega, S.; Miani, A.; Million, B.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2014-03-01

    A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5" x 8" LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5" PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU) and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD) will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ-rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ-rays.

  3. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of nitrophenols in soils by microvial insert large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-07-22

    A rapid and sensitive procedure for the determination of six NPs in soils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is used for NP extraction from soil matrices to an organic solvent, while the environmentally friendly technique dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is used for the preconcentration of the resulting UAE extracts. NPs were derivatized by applying an "in-situ" acetylation procedure, before being injected into the GC-MS system using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting UAE, DLLME, derivatization and injection steps were investigated. The optimized procedure provided recoveries of 86-111% from spiked samples. Precision values of the procedure (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) lower than 12%, and limits of quantification ranging from 1.3 to 2.6ngg(-1), depending on the compound, were obtained. Twenty soil samples, obtained from military, industrial and agricultural areas, were analyzed by the proposed method. Two of the analytes were quantified in two of the samples obtained from industrial areas, at concentrations in the 4.8-9.6ngg(-1) range.

  4. Towards Large Volume Big Divisor D3-D7 "mu-Split Supersymmetry" and Ricci-Flat Swiss-Cheese Metrics, and Dimension-Six Neutrino Mass Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a "mu-split SUSY" scenario [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor Sigma_B. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy Higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of mu-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the 3-body decays of the gluino into a quark, a squark and a neutralino or Goldstino, as well as 2-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino or a Goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kaehler potential for Sigma_B obtained in [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in [4] p...

  5. Large volume sample stacking with EOF and sweeping in CE for determination of common preservatives in cosmetic products by chemometric experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Cian; Wang, Chun-Chi; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2012-05-01

    This study proposes a capillary electrophoresis method incorporating large volume sample stacking, EOF and sweeping for detection of common preservatives used in cosmetic products. The method was developed using chemometric experimental design (fractional factorial design and central composite design) to determine multiple separation variables by efficient steps. The samples were loaded by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 90 s), and separated by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 3) containing 30% methanol and 80 mM SDS at -20 kV. During method validation, calibration curves were found to be linear over a range of 5-100 μg/mL for butyl paraben and isobutyl paraben; 0.05-10 μg/mL for ethyl paraben; 0.2-50 μg/mL for dehydroacetic acid; 0.5-70 μg/mL for methyl paraben; 5-350 μg/mL for sorbic acid; 0.02-450 μg/mL for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 0.05-10 μg/mL for salicylic acid and benzoic acid. The analytes were analysed simultaneously and their detection limits (S/N = 3) were down to 0.005-2 μg/mL. The analysis method was successfully used for detection of preservatives used in commercial cosmetics.

  6. Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Homma

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter. The use of ferric hydroxide gel, impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter enable us to recover 62.5% of virus (Poliomylitis type I, Lsc strain exsogeneously added to 400 liters of tap-water. The virus concentrator system consists of four cartridge filters, in which the three first one are clarifiers, where the contaminants are removed physically, without significant virus loss at this stage. The last cartridge filter is impregnated with ferric hydroxide gel, where the virus is adsorbed. After the required volume of water has been processed, the last filter is removed from the system and the viruses are recovered from the gel, using 1 liter of glycine/NaOH buffer, at pH 11. Immediately the eluate is clarified through series of cellulose acetate membranes mounted in a 142mm Millipore filter. For the second step of virus concentration, HC1 1N is added slowly to the eluate to achieve pH 3.5-4. MgC1, is added to give a final concentration of 0.05M and the viruses are readsorbed on a 0.45 , porosity (HA cellulose acetate membrane, mounted in a 90 mm Millipore filter. The viruses are recovered using the same eluent plus 10% of fetal calf serum, to a final volume of 3 ml. In this way, it was possible to concentrate virus from 400 liters of tap-water, into 1 liter in the first stage of virus concentration and just to 3 ml of final volume in a second step. The efficiency, simplicity and low operational cost, provded by the method, make it feasible to study viral pollution of recreational and tap-water sources.Relata-se o emprego de um concentrador portátil, o qual se mostrou capaz de recuperar 62,5% dos vírus (Polio I, amostra Lsc experimentalmente dispersos em 400 litros de água, os quais foram reduzidos a 3 ml. O sistema concentrador de vírus é composto de quatro

  7. The prognostic value of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in steroid-naive large-vessel vasculitis: introduction of volume-based parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellavedova, L. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Carletto, M.; Maffioli, L.S. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Faggioli, P.; Sciascera, A.; Mazzone, A. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, Internal Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Del Sole, A. [University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse if the result of a baseline {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) patients, is able to predict the course of the disease, not only in terms of presence/absence of final complications but also in terms of favourable/complicated progress (response to steroid therapy, time to steroid suspension, relapses, etc.). A total of 46 consecutive patients, who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT between May 2010 and March 2013 for fever of unknown origin (FUO) or suspected vasculitis (before starting corticosteroid therapy), were enrolled. The diagnosis of LVV was confirmed in 17 patients. Considering follow-up results, positive LVV patients were divided into two groups, one characterized by favourable (nine) and the other by complicated progress (eight), on the basis of presence/absence of vascular complications, presence/absence of at least another positive PET/CT during follow-up and impossibility to comply with the tapering schedule of the steroid due to biochemical/symptomatic relapse. Vessel uptake in subjects of the two groups was compared in terms of intensity and extension. To evaluate the extent of active disease, we introduced two volume-based parameters: ''volume of increased uptake'' (VIU) and ''total lesion glycolysis'' (TLG). The threshold used to calculate VIU on vessel walls was obtained by the ''vessel to liver'' ratio by means of receiver-operating characteristic analysis and was set at 0.92 x liver maximum standardized uptake value in each patient. Measures of tracer uptake intensity were significantly higher in patients with complicated progress compared to those with a favourable one (p < 0.05). Measures of disease extension were even more significant and TLG emerged as the best parameter to separate the two groups of patients (p = 0.01). This pilot study shows that, in LVV patients, the

  8. Rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide transitions at U-band using e-plane probe and wire bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide (CPW) transitions at U-band (40–60 GHz) using E-plane probe and wire bonding. The designs of CPWs based on quartz substrate with and without aluminum cover are explained. The single and double layer rectangular waveguide-to-CPW trans......This paper presents rectangular waveguide-to-coplanar waveguide (CPW) transitions at U-band (40–60 GHz) using E-plane probe and wire bonding. The designs of CPWs based on quartz substrate with and without aluminum cover are explained. The single and double layer rectangular waveguide......-to-CPW transitions using E-plane probe and wire bonding are designed. The proposed rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition using wire bonding can provide 10 GHz bandwidth at U-band and does not require extra CPWs or connections between CPWs and chips. A single layer rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition using E......-plane probe with aluminum package has been fabricated and measured to validate the proposed transitions. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first time that a wire bonding is used as a probe for rectangular waveguide-to-CPW transition at U-band....

  9. Toxicity and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase-inducing potency of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Andersson, L.

    1988-10-01

    The toxicities of the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) were compared in a 72-h study on chick embryos. The substances were injectied into the air sacs of hens's eggs preincubated for 7 days. Mortality was measured 72 h later and corresponding LD/sub 50/ values were calculated. The rank order of toxicity was PeCB>TCB>HCB. Using the same injection procedure, the potencies of these chlorobiphenyls with regard to their induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were compared. The ranking order of the substances as inducers was the same as their order when ranked according to toxicity. The three coplanar chlorobiphenyls were considerably more toxic and potent as inducers than the non-planar 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. In a 2-week toxicity study, PeCB and HCB were injected into the yolks of hens' eggs preincubated for 4 days. PeCB was about 50-fold more potent than HCB in causing embryonic death. Both substances caused abnormalities, including edema, liver lesions, microphthalmia and beak deformities.

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of phenols by acetonitrile stacking coupled with sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography with large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Liu, Shuhui; Meng, Zhaofu; Hu, Shibing

    2014-09-26

    The current routes to couple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) are evaporation of water immiscible extractants and backextraction of analytes. The former is not applicable to extractants with high boiling points, the latter being effective only for acidic or basic analytes, both of which limit the further application of DLLME-CE. In this study, with 1-octanol as a model DLLME extractant and six phenols as model analytes, a novel method based on acetonitrile stacking and sweeping is proposed to accomplish large-volume injection of 1-octanol diluted with a solvent-saline mixture before micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Brij-35 and β-cyclodextrin were employed as pseudostationary phases for sweeping and also for improving the compatibility of sample zone and aqueous running buffer. A short solvent-saline plug was used to offset the adverse effect of the water immiscible extractant on focusing efficiency. The key parameters affecting separation and concentration were systematically optimized; the effect of Brij-35 and 1-octanol on focusing mechanism was discussed. Under the optimized conditions, with ∼ 30-fold concentration enrichment by DLLME, the diluted extractant (8×) was then injected into the capillary with a length of 21 cm (42% of the total length), which yielded the overall improvements in sensitivity of 170-460. Limits of detection and qualification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL and 1.0 to 3.4 g/mL, respectively. Acceptable repeatability lower than 3.0% for migration time and 9.0% for peak areas were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of the phenol pollutants in real water samples.

  11. A new method to address unmet needs for extracting individual cell migration features from a large number of cells embedded in 3D volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Adanja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro cell observation has been widely used by biologists and pharmacologists for screening molecule-induced effects on cancer cells. Computer-assisted time-lapse microscopy enables automated live cell imaging in vitro, enabling cell behavior characterization through image analysis, in particular regarding cell migration. In this context, 3D cell assays in transparent matrix gels have been developed to provide more realistic in vitro 3D environments for monitoring cell migration (fundamentally different from cell motility behavior observed in 2D, which is related to the spread of cancer and metastases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we propose an improved automated tracking method that is designed to robustly and individually follow a large number of unlabeled cells observed under phase-contrast microscopy in 3D gels. The method automatically detects and tracks individual cells across a sequence of acquired volumes, using a template matching filtering method that in turn allows for robust detection and mean-shift tracking. The robustness of the method results from detecting and managing the cases where two cell (mean-shift trackers converge to the same point. The resulting trajectories quantify cell migration through statistical analysis of 3D trajectory descriptors. We manually validated the method and observed efficient cell detection and a low tracking error rate (6%. We also applied the method in a real biological experiment where the pro-migratory effects of hyaluronic acid (HA were analyzed on brain cancer cells. Using collagen gels with increased HA proportions, we were able to evidence a dose-response effect on cell migration abilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developed method enables biomedical researchers to automatically and robustly quantify the pro- or anti-migratory effects of different experimental conditions on unlabeled cell cultures in a 3D environment.

  12. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water.

  13. Theoretical calculation of the triple differential cross sections of the 2p orbital of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛自明; 周雅君; 吕志伟; 王治文

    2002-01-01

    The triple differential cross sections of the 2p electron of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry have beencalculated with the modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the target Hartree-Fock approximationmethods. The damping polarization of the semi-classical short-range potentials and the Mee factor are included in thedistorting potentials of the modified DWBA. Theoretical results are compared with a recent experiment. The dynamicmechanism of inner shell ionization in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry (e, 2e) reaction are also discussed.

  14. Use of Raman Spectroscopy and Delta Volume Growth from Void Collapse to Assess Overwrap Stress Gradients Compromising the Reliability of Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezirian, Michael T.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are frequently used for storing pressurized gases aboard spacecraft and aircraft when weight saving is desirable compared to all-metal versions. Failure mechanisms in fibrous COPVs and variability in lifetime can be very different from their metallic counterparts; in the former, catastrophic stress-rupture can occur with virtually no warning, whereas in latter, a leak before burst design philosophy can be implemented. Qualification and certification typically requires only one burst test on a production sample (possibly after several pressure cycles) and the vessel need only meet a design burst strength (the maximum operating pressure divided by a knockdown factor). Typically there is no requirement to assess variability in burst strength or lifetime, much less determine production and materials processing parameters important to control of such variability. Characterizing such variability and its source is crucial to models for calculating required reliability over a given lifetime (e.g. R = 0.9999 for 15 years). In this paper we present a case study of how lack of control of certain process parameters in COPV manufacturing can result in variations among vessels and between production runs that can greatly increase uncertainty and reduce reliability. The vessels considered are 40-inch ( NASA Glenn Research center, Cleveland, OH, 44135 29,500 in3 ) spherical COPVs with a 0.74 in. thick Kevlar49/epoxy overwrap and with a titanium liner of which 34 were originally produced. Two burst tests were eventually performed that unexpectedly differed by almost 5%, and were 10% lower than anticipated from burst tests on 26-inch sister vessels similar in every detail. A major observation from measurements made during proof testing (autofrettage) of the 40-inch vessels was that permanent volume growth from liner yielding varied by a factor of more than two (150 in3 to 360 in3 ), which suggests large differences in the residual

  15. Large density amplification measured on jets ejected from a magnetized plasma gun

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gunsu S.; You, Setthivoine; Bellan, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of a large density amplification in the collimating plasma jet ejected from a coplanar coaxial plasma gun is reported. The jet velocity is ~30 km s^-1 and the electron density increases from ~10^20 to 10^(22–23) m^-3. In previous spheromak experiments, electron density of the order 10^(19–21) m^-3 had been measured in the flux conserver region, but no density measurement had been reported for the source gun region. The coplanar geometry of our electrodes permits direct observation...

  16. 基于大体积循环进样的低丰度蛋白质富集%Protein enrichment based on large volume recycling injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张权青; 张磊; 高小迪; 张维冰; 张庆合

    2014-01-01

    发展了一种大体积循环进样方法,用于富集低丰度蛋白质。在优化的色谱分离条件下,通过增加蛋白质样品的上样体积提高低丰度蛋白质的绝对含量;进一步采用增加样品进样循环次数的方法提高蛋白质的富集效率。以猪肝提取蛋白质为样品,每次上样量500μL 的大体积11次循环进样。根据色谱峰的信号强弱,选择了在原始谱图中看不到色谱峰、有较少小峰和有较多小峰出现的时间段等有代表性的馏分进行研究。在中等极性的组分中,保留时间为11.38 min 和12.58 min 组分的富集效率分别提高了52倍和61倍,实验结果与理论富集效率相近。所发展的方法为生物蛋白质样品研究提供了一种新的富集制备及检测方法。%Biological proteins have great differences in size,hydrophobicity,pH and relative abundance. Especially,the relative contents of high-abundance proteins and low abundance proteins can reach 11 orders of magnitude or more in blood. However,the contents of proteins which have an important impact on the biological function and have related to major diseases are usually very low in body fluids or tissues. So,it is very meaningful to detect the low abun-dance proteins in biological samples. A method of large volume recycling injection was devel-oped as a new sample enrichment technology in this study. The low absolute contents of pro-teins in a sample were improved by increasing the volume of sample,and the enrichment effi-ciency was also increased with the addition of injection times. With the pork liver protein as an example,under the optimized conditions,the representative contents which were no peaks or little peaks and more peaks with low signals were studied. The contents of peaks at the reten-tion times of 11. 38 min and 12. 58 min were enriched by 11 time injections of 500 μL each time. The enrichment factors respectively reached 52 and 61 which were closed to

  17. Hippocampal volume is positively associated with behavioural inhibition (BIS) in a large community-based sample of mid-life adults: the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Windsor, Tim D; Anstey, Kaarin J; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2008-09-01

    The fields of personality research and neuropsychology have developed with very little overlap. Gray and McNaughton were among the first to recognize that personality traits must have neurobiological correlates and developed models relating personality factors to brain structures. Of particular note was their description of associations between conditioning, inhibition and activation of behaviours, and specific neural structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality constructs representing the behavioural inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) were associated with volumetric measures of the hippocampus and amygdala in humans. Amygdalar and hippocampal volumes were measured in 430 brain scans of cognitively intact community-based volunteers. Linear associations between brain volumes and the BIS/BAS measures were assessed using multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, intra-cranial and total brain volume. Results showed that hippocampal volumes were positively associated with BIS sensitivity and to a lesser extent with BAS sensitivity. No association was found between amygdalar volume and either the BIS or BAS. These findings add support to the model of Gray and McNaughton, which proposes a role of the hippocampus in the regulation of defensive/approach behaviours and trait anxiety but suggest an absence of associations between amygdala volume and BIS/BAS measures.

  18. iCycle: Integrated, multicriterial beam angle, and profile optimization for generation of coplanar and noncoplanar IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Storchi, Pascal R. M.; Voet, Peter W. J.; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To introduce iCycle, a novel algorithm for integrated, multicriterial optimization of beam angles, and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) profiles. Methods: A multicriterial plan optimization with iCycle is based on a prescription called wish-list, containing hard constraints and objectives with ascribed priorities. Priorities are ordinal parameters used for relative importance ranking of the objectives. The higher an objective priority is, the higher the probability that the corresponding objective will be met. Beam directions are selected from an input set of candidate directions. Input sets can be restricted, e.g., to allow only generation of coplanar plans, or to avoid collisions between patient/couch and the gantry in a noncoplanar setup. Obtaining clinically feasible calculation times was an important design criterium for development of iCycle. This could be realized by sequentially adding beams to the treatment plan in an iterative procedure. Each iteration loop starts with selection of the optimal direction to be added. Then, a Pareto-optimal IMRT plan is generated for the (fixed) beam setup that includes all so far selected directions, using a previously published algorithm for multicriterial optimization of fluence profiles for a fixed beam arrangement Breedveld et al.[Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 7199-7209 (2009)]. To select the next direction, each not yet selected candidate direction is temporarily added to the plan and an optimization problem, derived from the Lagrangian obtained from the just performed optimization for establishing the Pareto-optimal plan, is solved. For each patient, a single one-beam, two-beam, three-beam, etc. Pareto-optimal plan is generated until addition of beams does no longer result in significant plan quality improvement. Plan generation with iCycle is fully automated. Results: Performance and characteristics of iCycle are demonstrated by generating plans for a maxillary sinus case, a cervical cancer patient, and a

  19. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  20. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3–4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9–12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump. PMID:24355621

  1. Stability of ischemic core volume during the initial hours of acute large vessel ischemic stroke in a subgroup of mechanically revascularized patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finitsis, Stephanos [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Neuroradiologie, Hamburg (Germany); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Neuroradiology Department, Ahepa Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kemmling, Andrea; Fiehler, Jens; Brekenfeld, Caspar [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Neuroradiologie, Hamburg (Germany); Havemeister, Stephanie; Thomalla, Goetz [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    This study aimed to relate growth of the infarct core with time to recanalization in patients receiving mechanical recanalization in whom the time of recanalization is known. We analyzed data from patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who underwent mechanical recanalization. Demographic and angiographic characteristics, initial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) infarct volume, time-to-peak defect volume, revascularization grade, 24-48 h nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) infarct volume, symptom onset to recanalization time, diffusion-weighted imaging to recanalization time, and discharge National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were compared between minimal and substantial infarct growth groups. Substantial infarct growth was defined as an increase of infarct volume >10 cm{sup 3} assessed by subtracting initial ADC infarct core volume from infarct volume at 24-48 h CT. Of 25 patients, 9 had minimal infarct growth (median 0 cm{sup 3}, interquartile range (IQR) -3 to 5 cm{sup 3}) and 16 had substantial infarct growth (median 103 cm{sup 3}, IQR 48-132 cm{sup 3}). Patients with minimal infarct growth had a median time from symptom onset to recanalization of 329 min (IQR 314-412 min) and a median time from imaging to recanalization of 231 min (IQR 198-309 min). On univariate analysis, minimal infarct growth was related to male gender (p = 0.04), smaller initial ADC volume (p = 0.04), higher recanalization grade (p < 0.001), and lower discharge NIHSS (p = 0.04) and mRS grades (p = 0.04). There was no or minimal infarct core growth in at least one third of patients despite an exceptionally long median time from magnetic resonance imaging to recanalization of almost 4 h. (orig.)

  2. Large cone angle magnetization precession of an individual nanopatterned ferromagnet with dc electrical detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costache, M. V.; Watts, S. M.; Sladkov, M.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Wees, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The on-chip resonant driving of large cone-angle magnetization precession of an individual nanoscale Permalloy element is demonstrated. Strong driving is realized by locating the element in close proximity to the shorted end of a coplanar strip waveguide, which generates a microwave magnetic field.

  3. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  4. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  5. (e, 2e) triple-differential cross sections for Ag+(4p, 4s) in coplanar symmetric geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Li-Xia; Yan You-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The (e,2e) triple-differential cross sections of Ag+ (4p,4s) are calculated based on the three-body distorted-wave Born approximation considering post-collision interaction in coplanar symmetric geometry.The energy of the outgoing electron is set to be 50,70,100,200,300,500,700,and 1000 eV,and the intensity and splitting of forward and backward peaks are discussed in detail.Some new structures are observed around 15° and 85° for 4p and 4s orbitals.Structures in triple-differential cross sections at 15° are reported for the first time.A double-binary collision is proposed to explain the formation of such structures.The structures at 85° are also considered as the result of one kind of double-binary collision.

  6. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  7. Influence of patterned electrode geometry on performance of co-planar, single-chamber, solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Jooho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Joosun [Nano-Materials Research Center, KIST, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2007-09-27

    Co-planar, single-chamber, solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) with linearly patterned electrode structures on one surface of the electrolyte are fabricated via a robo-dispensing method. The SC-SOFCs with various electrode patterns are prepared to investigate the relationship between electrode geometry and cell performance. The open-circuit voltage (OCV) for cells with a single electrode pair is unaffected by the anode-to-cathode distance. By contrast, for cells with multiple electrode pairs, increasing the number of electrode pairs leads to a gradual decrease in OCV. These observations confirm that the inter-mixing of product gases causes a loss in OCV and power density, which in turn reduces the oxygen partial pressure gradient between the anode and cathode. Keeping the electrode pairs apart by {proportional_to}4 mm permits cells with complex electrode geometry to exhibit higher OCVs and power densities. (author)

  8. Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient.

  9. Influence of patterned electrode geometry on performance of co-planar, single-chamber, solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Jooho; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Joosun

    Co-planar, single-chamber, solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) with linearly patterned electrode structures on one surface of the electrolyte are fabricated via a robo-dispensing method. The SC-SOFCs with various electrode patterns are prepared to investigate the relationship between electrode geometry and cell performance. The open-circuit voltage (OCV) for cells with a single electrode pair is unaffected by the anode-to-cathode distance. By contrast, for cells with multiple electrode pairs, increasing the number of electrode pairs leads to a gradual decrease in OCV. These observations confirm that the inter-mixing of product gases causes a loss in OCV and power density, which in turn reduces the oxygen partial pressure gradient between the anode and cathode. Keeping the electrode pairs apart by ∼4 mm permits cells with complex electrode geometry to exhibit higher OCVs and power densities.

  10. A First-Order Analytical Theory for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptical Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete first-order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through canonical transformation theory. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control theory with Cartesian elements—position and velocity vectors—as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin maximum principle and determining the maximum Hamiltonian, classical orbital elements are introduced through a Mathieu transformation. The short periodic terms are then eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the average canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through separation of variables technique. For transfers between close orbits a simplified solution is straightforwardly derived by linearizing the new Hamiltonian and the generating function obtained through Hori method.

  11. Design and analysis of an electronically steerable microstrip patch and a novel Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) fed slot antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Hamad

    Conformal Phased Array Antennas (CPAAs) are very attractive for their high gain, low profile, and beam scanning ability while being conformal to their mounting surface. Among them are microstrip patch phased arrays and wideband slot phased arrays which are of particular significance. In this work, first the study, design, and implementation of a conformal microstrip patch phased array is presented which consists of a high gain beam scanning array implemented using microstrip delay lines controlled using GaAs SPDT switches. Then the study and design of a wideband Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)-fed slot phased array antenna is presented. In both cases the array beam scanning properties are elucidated by incorporating the measured delay line scattering parameters inside Ansys Designer simulation models and then computing and presenting their full-wave radiation characteristics.

  12. A Nafion®-based co-planar electrode amperometric sensor for methanol determination in the gas phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Wallgren; S Sotiropoulos

    2009-09-01

    A co-planar electrode device, fabricated with all electrodes (working, counter and reference) on the same face of a Nafion® polymer electrolyte membrane, is proposed for the amperometric detection of gaseous methanol using Pt as the working electrode. Clear voltammetry is obtained for methanol oxidation from its vapours in equilibrium with methanol aqueous solutions, both in the absence and presence of oxygen in the gas stream. Using an appropriate pulse sequence to keep the indicator electrode active, methanol vapours in the 1-13 Torr partial pressure range (in equilibrium with methanol aqueous solutions in the 1-10% w/w concentration range) could be determined, in a constant potential, amperometric mode. The methanol detector could be operated both in a nitrogen stream and (in what is essential for practical applications) in an air atmosphere too, with estimated detection limits of 1.2 and 1.4 Torr respectively.

  13. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  14. Exposure to coplanar PCBs induces endothelial cell inflammation through epigenetic regulation of NF-κB subunit p65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Perkins, Jordan T.; Petriello, Michael C.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones alter cellular phenotypes without changing genetic codes. Alterations of epigenetic marks can be induced by exposure to environmental pollutants and may contribute to associated disease risks. Here we test the hypothesis that endothelial cell dysfunction induced by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is mediated in part though histone modifications. In this study, human vascular endothelial cells were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of several PCBs congeners (e.g., PCBs 77, 118, 126 and 153) followed by quantification of inflammatory gene expression and changes of histone methylation. Only exposure to coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 induced the expression of histone H3K9 trimethyl demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, activated NF-κB signaling as evidenced by nuclear translocation of p65, and up-regulated p65 target inflammatory genes, such as interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-1α/β. The increased accumulation of JMJD2B in the p65 promoter led to a depletion of H3K9me3 repression mark, which accounts for the observed up-regulation of p65 and associated inflammatory genes. JMJD2B gene knockdown confirmed a critical role for this histone demethylase in mediating PCB-induced inflammation of the vascular endothelium. Finally, it was determined, via chemical inhibition, that PCB-induced up-regulation of JMJD2B was estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) dependent. These data suggest that coplanar PCBs may exert endothelial cell toxicity through changes in histone modifications. PMID:26519613

  15. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines and Finite Ground Coplanar Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Bushyager, N.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tentzeris, E. M.; Laskar, J.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/mm-wave integrated circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers. It is expected that these circuits will replace the ones fabricated on GaAs and reduce the overall system cost. However, the closely spaced transmission lines that are required for a high-density circuit environment are susceptible to high levels of cross-coupling, which degrades the overall circuit performance. In this paper, theoretical and experimental results on coupling and ways to reduce it are presented for two types of transmission lines: a) the microstrip line and b) the Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) line. For microstrip lines it is shown that a fence of metalized via-holes can significantly reduce coupling, especially in the case when both lines are on the same polyimide layer or when the shielding structure extends through several polyimide layers. For closely spaced microstrip lines, coupling is lower for a metal filled trench shield than a via-hole fence. Coupling amongst microstrip lines is dependent on the ratio of line separation to polyimide thickness and is primarily due to magnetic fields. For FGC lines it is shown that they have in general low coupling that can be reduced significantly when there is even a small gap between the ground planes of each line. FGC lines have approximately 8 dB lower coupling than coupled coplanar waveguides (CPW). In addition, forward and backward characteristics of the FGC lines do not resemble those of other transmission lines such as microstrip. Therefore, the coupling mechanism of the FGC lines is different compared to thin film microstrip lines.

  16. Correlations of emission concentrations among PCDDs/PCDFs, co-planar PCBs and HCB from major thermal stationary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.C.; Choe, S.H.; Na, J.G.; Hwang, S.R.; Lee, Z.H.; Chang, J.Y.; Cho, H.J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Inchon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are known as unintentionally produced chemicals (UPCs) from a variety of manufacturing and thermal processes. The UPCs are contained in products as impurities or byproducts in the manufacturing processes of chlorinated pesticides and solvents, and in the bleaching process of pulp. In particular, thermal processes such as incinerator and melting or smelting furnaces produce theses chemicals as products of incomplete combustion (PICs), which are resulted from the insufficient 3Ts for complete combustion: temperature, time, and turbulence. These characteristics of UPCs, therefore, lead to difficulty not only in estimating the formation and emission concentrations but also in applying removal technologies for these chemicals. In addition, PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs have many congeners of 210 and 209 types, respectively, and are emitted into the atmosphere at trace levels. Thus, the analysis of the emission concentration of UPCs requires a precise sampling and analytical procedure, which is time-consuming and high cost-consumable work. Some articles6,7, which discussed municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, have proposed the prediction of the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs with simply measured indicators, such as operating parameters or other low-molecular-weight chemicals in flue gas. In the present study, major stationary emission sources of UPCs, such as MSW incinerators, sintering furnaces, and smelting furnaces in the ferrous and nonferrous metal industry were selected for an investigation of the emission levels of UPCs. HCB, which has single congener and can be more simply measured by gaschromatographic separation than PCDDs/PCDFs or co-planar PCBs, was used as an indicator to evaluate the correlation of emission concentrations among UPCs and to predict the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs and co-planar PCBs.

  17. Association between hospital procedure volume and early complications after pacemaker implantation: results from a large, unselected, contemporary cohort of the German nationwide obligatory external quality assurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bernd; Tasche, Karl; Barnewold, Linda; Heller, Günther; Schmidt, Boris; Bordignon, Stefano; Chun, K R Julian; Fürnkranz, Alexander; Mehta, Rajendra H

    2015-05-01

    Several studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between cardioverter-defibrillator implantation volume and complication rates, suggesting better outcomes for higher volume centres. However, the association of institutional procedural volume with patient outcomes for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation remains less known, especially in decentralized implantation systems. We performed retrospective examination of data on patients undergoing PPM from the German obligatory quality assurance programme (2007-12) to evaluate the relationship of hospital PPM volume (categorized into quintiles of their mean annual volume) with risk-adjusted in-hospital surgical complications (composite of pneumothorax, haemothorax, pericardial effusion, or pocket haematoma, all requiring intervention, or device infection) and pacemaker lead dislocation. Overall 430 416 PPM implantations were documented in 1226 hospitals. Systems included dual (72.8%) and single (25.8%) chamber PPM and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices (1.1%). Complications included surgical (0.92%), and ventricular (0.99%), and atrial (1.22%) lead dislocation. Despite an increase in relatively complex procedures (dual chamber, CRT), there was a significant decrease in the procedural and fluoroscopy times and complications from lowest to highest implantation volume quintiles (P for trend <0.0001). The greatest difference was observed between the lowest (1-50 implantations/year-reference group) and the second-lowest (51-90 implantations/year) quintile: surgical complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.69; confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.78], atrial lead dislocations (OR 0.69; CI 0.59-0.80), and ventricular lead dislocations (OR 0.73; CI 0.63-0.84). Hospital annual PPM volume was directly related to indication-based implantation of relatively more complex PPM and yet inversely with procedural times and rates of early surgical complications and lead dislocations. Thus, our data suggest better performance and lower

  18. 大输液包装材质与注射用药物相容性研究进展与思考%Research Advance and Investigation on Compatibility of Large Volume Parenteral Solution Package Material with Injectable Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐帆; 杨伶俐; 毛盼盼; 喻琼丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:促进临床合理用药。方法调研相关文献,分析不同包装材质大输液的性质、特点及其对注射用药物的吸附性作用。结果与结论大输液作为临床治疗和静脉药物治疗不可缺少的载体或溶剂,在现代临床治疗中具有极其重要的地位,临床医务人员已逐渐开始关注药物与大输液包装材质的相容性与安全性。目前,我国医疗市场多种材质包装的大输液并存。临床医务人员应更加准确地把握不同包装材质大输液的特性,静脉用药物治疗时选择适当包装材质的大输液,以确保患者输液安全。%Objective To promote the rational drug use. Methods By investigating and consulting the related literature,the properties, characteristics and adsorptive effect on injectable drugs of the large volume parenteral solution package materials were analyzed. Results and Conclusion The large volume parenteral solution as the indispensable carrier or solvent possesses the extreme important status in the modern clinical treatment. The clinical medical staffs have gradually begin to pay close attention to the compatibility and safety of drugs and the large volume parenteral solution package materials. At present,the large volume parenteral solutions packaged by various materials coexist in the medical market of our country. The clinical medical staffs should more accurately grasp the characteristics of the large volume parenteral solutions with different package materials. Intravenous medication should select the large volume parenteral solu-tions with the proper package materials for ensuring the intravenous infusion safety of patients.

  19. Applications of Kinetic Inductance: Parametric Amplifier & Phase Shifter, 2DEG Coupled Co-planar Structures & Microstrip to Slotline Transition at RF Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdi, Harshad

    Kinetic inductance springs from the inertia of charged mobile carriers in alternating electric fields and it is fundamentally different from the magnetic inductance which is only a geometry dependent property. The magnetic inductance is proportional to the volume occupied by the electric and magnetic fields and is often limited by the number of turns of the coil. Kinetic inductance on the other hand is inversely proportional to the density of electrons or holes that exert inertia, the unit mass of the charge carriers and the momentum relaxation time of these charge carriers, all of which can be varied merely by modifying the material properties. Highly sensitive and broadband signal amplifiers often broaden the field of study in astrophysics. Quantum-noise limited travelling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifiers offer a noise figure of around 0.5 K +/- 0.3 K as compared to 20 K in HEMT signal amplifiers and can be designed to operate to cover the entire W-band (75 GHz -- 115 GHz). The research cumulating to this thesis involves applying and exploiting kinetic inductance properties in designing a W-band orthogonal mode transducer, quadratic gain phase shifter with a gain of ~49 dB over a meter of microstrip transmission line. The phase shifter will help in measuring the maximum amount of phase shift Deltaφmax(I) that can be obtained from half a meter transmission line which helps in predicting the gain of a travelling wave parametric amplifier. In another project, a microstrip to slot line transition is designed and optimized to operate at 150 GHz and 220 GHz frequencies, that is used as a part of horn antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector proposed to operate from 138 GHz to 250 GHz. In the final project, kinetic inductance in a 2D electron gas (2DEG) is explored by design, simulation, fabrication and experimentation. A transmission line model of a 2DEG proposed by Burke (1999), is simulated and verified experimentally by fabricating a

  20. Intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid increases the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated in a large osteochondral defect by implantation of a double-network gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takaaki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Yokota, Masashi; Kondo, Eiji; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-04-01

    Implantation of PAMPS/PDMAAm double-network (DN) gel can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in the osteochondral defect. However, it is a problem that the volume of the regenerated cartilage tissue is gradually reduced at 12 weeks. This study investigated whether intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) increases the volume of the cartilage regenerated with the DN gel at 12 weeks. A total of 48 rabbits were used in this study. A cylindrical osteochondral defect created in the bilateral femoral trochlea was treated with DN gel (Group DN) or left without any implantation (Group C). In both Groups, we injected 1.0 mL of HA in the left knee, and 1.0 mL of saline solution in the right knee. Quantitative histological evaluations were performed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks, and PCR analysis was performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. In Group DN, the proteoglycan-rich area was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 12 weeks (P = 0.0247), and expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 mRNAs was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 2 weeks (P = 0.0475, P = 0.0257, P = 0.0222, respectively). The intra-articular administration of HA significantly enhanced these gene expression at 2 weeks and significantly increased the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated by implantation of a DN gel at 12 weeks. This information is important to develop an additional method to increase the volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue in a potential cartilage regeneration strategy using the DN gel.

  1. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  2. Small-volume storage facilities as alternative flexibility instruments in the procurement portfolio of large natural gas suppliers; Kleinvolumige Speicher als alternative Flexibilitaetsinstrumente im Bezugsportfolio grosser Erdgasversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschkan, Peter [WIEN ENERGIE Speicher GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    This article analyses the positive economic effects of small-volume storage facilities on the management of the medium to long-term natural gas procurement portfolio of a major urban supplier in the context of the liberalized Austrian market in natural gas. Due to low investment and operating costs and short construction times, these facilities represent attractive possibilities, for instance for public utility companies, in structuring their natural gas procurement. However, unlike storage products normally available on the market, which also facilitate seasonal balancing between supply and demand, they can only be used in the context of influencing the daily and hourly loads (peak shaving). Below, we examine the effects of including small-volume storage facilities (such as pipe storage) on the cost situation of the natural gas supplier for various consumption patterns and customer structures, as part of an optimization model. The results of the analysis indicate the obvious benefits in the case of load patterns strongly influenced by temperature that decline significantly with decreasing share of heating load. (orig.)

  3. Fabrication of Buried Co-Planar Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanojunctions with a Gap Lower than 10nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, V.; Joachim, C.; Itoua, S.; Rousset, B.; Fabre, N.

    1995-12-01

    An improvement of a process to fabricate co-planar metal-insulator-metal nanojunctions is presented to reach a gap length much lower than 10 nm using a 20 keV e-beam and an AuPd lift-off. The electrodes of the nanojunction are less than 100 nm in width and are buried in the SiO2 substrate. For the 8 nm nanojunctions, the gap is still filled with SiO2 if care is taken about the SiO2 etching step of the process. Un procédé de fabrication est proposé pour obtenir des nanojonctions métal-isolant-métal co-planaires d'une largeur d'isolant bien inférieure à 10nm en utilisant un masqueur électronique à 20keV et un “lift-off” à l'or-palladium. Les électrodes de la nanojonction enterrées dans la silice ont une largeur de moins de 100nm et sont distantes de 8nm. En optimisant l'étape de sous gravure, il est possible de conserver de la silice comme isolant entre les électrodes.

  4. SiGe BiCMOS balanced transmission line based on coplanar waveguide and split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Enrique; Borja, Alejandro L.; Boccia, Luigi; Cascon, Joaquin; Ibrahim, Safwat; Calzona, D.; Amendola, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the design of a right-/left-handed composite transmission line implementation with passband characteristics is demonstrated on 0.13 µm silicon-germanium bipolar CMOS (SiGe BiCMOS) technology. The proposed structure is formed by a shorted coplanar waveguide transmission line loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs). As it will be shown, by controlling the geometry of the SRRs as well as their electric coupling with the host line, it is possible to achieve a balanced passband response with widespread bandwidth at millimeter wave frequencies. Besides, this paper introduces a configuration that allows to significantly lower the resonant frequency of the SRRs by loading the rings with Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors. It will be illustrated how this approach allows to reduce the center band frequency of about 40% preserving the balanced behavior and without increasing the resonator size. Finally, the proposed design was experimentally validated with a prototype exhibiting an extended passband with a fractional bandwidth of 19.3% and -3.2 dB of insertion loss around the central frequency of 60 GHz. The use of these transmission lines can be foreseeing in high-capacity millimeter wave communication systems which require compact passband blocks integrated on chip.

  5. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Neil B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along {rvec B}. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization.

  6. Optimized determination of trace jet fuel volatile organic compounds in human blood using in-field liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent laboratory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and on-column large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Pleil, J D

    2001-03-05

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing techniques, and a new on-column large-volume injection method for GC-MS analysis. With the optimized methods, the extraction efficiency was improved by 4.3 to 20.1 times and the detection sensitivity increased up to 660 times over the standard method. Typical detection limits in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) level range were achieved for all monitored JP-8 constituents; this is sufficient for assessing human fuels exposures at trace environmental levels as well as occupational exposure levels. The sample extractions are performed in the field and only solvent extracts need to be shipped to the laboratory. The method is implemented with standard biological laboratory equipment and a modest bench-top GC-MS system.

  7. A Coupled Mean Field / Gurson-Tvergaard Micromechanical Model For Ductile Fracture In Multiphase Materials With Large Volume Fraction of Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thibaut; Piérard, Olivier; Lani, Frédéric

    2007-04-01

    In the framework of the European project PROHIPP (New design and manufacturing processes for high pressure fluid power product — NMP 2-CT-2004-50546), CENAERO develops a library of constitutive models used to predict the mechanical response of a family of cast iron. The present contribution focuses on one particular microstructure, corresponding to a ferrite matrix containing spheroidal graphite and isolated inclusions of pearlite. An incremental mean field homogenisation scheme such as the one developed by Doghri and Ouaar is used. In the present application, the ferrite matrix is described by a Gurson type constitutive law (porous plasticity) while the pearlite inclusions are assumed to obey the classical isotropic J2 plasticity. The predictions of the micromechanical model are compared to the results of Finite Element simulations performed on three-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs).

  8. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  9. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  10. Lateral Scanning Linnik Interferometry for Large Field of View and Fast Scanning: Wafer Bump Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Y.; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2011-07-01

    Wafer-level packaging is currently the major trend in semiconductor packaging for miniaturization and high-density integration. To ensure the package reliability, the wafer and substrate bumps utilized as connection junctions need to be in-line inspected as regards their top-height distribution, coplanarity, and volume uniformity. This article proposes a lateral scanning interferometric system for wafer bump shape inspection in three dimensions with a large field of view and fast inspection speed based on an optomechatronic system design. For multiple-peak interferogram from wafer bumps around a transparent film layer, two-step information extraction algorithms are suggested, including top surface profile and under-layer surface profile detection algorithms. The multiple-peak interferogram is acquired with variations of lateral position of the reference mirror by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). A series of experiments is performed for representative wafer samples with solder and gold bumps, and the effectiveness of the proposed inspection system is verified from the test results.

  11. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  12. Determining the organ of origin of large pelvic masses in females using multidetector CT angiography and three-dimensional volume rendering CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, YangKang; Chen, JunWei; Chen, XueYin; Lin, JianBang; Cai, AiQun; Zhou, XiuGuo [Cancer Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Department of Radiology, Shantou, Guangdong Province (China); Zheng, Yu [Cancer Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Shantou (China)

    2015-04-01

    To study the value of tumour feeding arteries and the ovarian vein in determining the organ of origin of large pelvic tumours in females using multidetector CT. One hundred and thirty patients with 131 pathologically proven tumours (>6.5 cm) were retrospectively reviewed. Conventional CT images and CT angiography were evaluated, with focus on assessing the value of tumour feeding arteries and the ovarian vein in differentiating ovarian from non-ovarian tumours. For 97 ovarian tumours, the feeding arteries included the ovarian artery (n = 51) and the ovarian branch of uterine artery (n = 64). For 34 non-ovarian tumours, the feeding arteries included the ovarian artery (n = 2), the uterine artery (n = 21), the mesenteric artery (n = 5), and the internal iliac artery (n = 1). The ovarian vein was identified in 86 ovarian tumours and 12 non-ovarian tumours. When the feeding arteries and the ovarian vein were combined to confirm ovarian origin, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 97.8 %, 84.2 %, 93.8 %, 94.1 %, and 93.9 %, respectively. The accuracy was significantly higher than that of independently using the ovarian vein or the ovarian feeding arteries. Combined application of tumour feeding arteries and the ovarian vein is valuable to differentiate large ovarian from non-ovarian tumours. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and large-volume solid-phase extraction techniques to measure water concentrations of 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDD in Lake Chelan, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Steven G; Booij, Kees; Kaputa, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) spiked with the performance reference compound PCB29 were deployed 6.1 m above the sediments of Lake Chelan, Washington, for a period of 27 d, to estimate the dissolved concentrations of 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDD. Water concentrations were estimated using methods proposed in 2002 and newer equations published in 2006 to determine how the application of the newer equations affects historical SPMD data that used the older method. The estimated concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDD calculated using the older method were 1.5-2.9 times higher than the newer method. SPMD estimates from both methods were also compared to dissolved and particulate DDT concentrations measured directly by processing large volumes of water through a large-volume solid-phase extraction device (Infiltrex 300). SPMD estimates of DDD+DDE+DDT (SigmaDDT) using the older and newer methods were lower than Infiltrex concentrations by factors of 1.1 and 2.3, respectively. All measurements of DDT were below the Washington State water quality standards for the protection of human health (0.59 ng l(-1)) and aquatic life (1.0 ng l(-1)).

  14. Study on the yellow bags after sterilization of packaging non -PVC large volume injections%非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后黄袋问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美丽; 宋艳萍; 臧恒昌

    2016-01-01

    By studying of non -PVC multi -layer co -extruded film properties,the sterilization process of non -PVC packaging of large volume injections and the characteristics of the water bath sterilizer,the authors found the reasons for making the bags yellow.And the issue on the yellow bags after sterilization of non -PVC packaging large volume injections can be solved by the Methods of transformation and regular cleaning.%通过研究非 PVC 多层共挤膜的特性、非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌工艺、水浴灭菌柜的特点,找到造成黄袋问题的原因,通过改造灭菌柜及定期清洁等方法,解决非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后出现的黄袋问题。

  15. Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi–Yau’s

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A

    2008-01-01

    We consider two sets of issues in this paper. The first has to do with moduli stabilization, existence of “area codes” [A. Giryavets, New attractors and area codes, JHEP 0603 (2006) 020, hep-th/0511215] and the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of -branes as in KKLT for type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the “inverse problem” [K. Saraikin, C. Vafa, Non-supersymmetric black holes and topological strings, hep-th/0703214] and “fake superpotentials” [A. Ceresole, G. Dall'Agata, Flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes, JHEP 0703 (2007) 110, hep-th/0702088] for extremal (non-)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a “Swiss cheese” Calabi–Yau [J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, K. Suruliz, Large-volume flux compactifications: Moduli spectrum and D3/D7 soft supersymmetry breaking, JHEP 0508 (2005) 007, hep-th/0505076] expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP4[1,1,1,6,9] in the “large-volume...

  16. 大体积进样气相色谱法测定水中乙醛%Detection of acetaldehyde in water by large volume injection-gas chromatography process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟士; 赵小敏

    2011-01-01

    试验采用大体积直接进样,气相色谱填充柱进行分离分析水中乙醛浓度.结果表明该方法分离度好、灵敏度高,水中乙醛检出限为0.01 mg/L,乙醛样品加标回收率为98.4%~108.4%;平行测定结果的相对标准差为4.1%(n=7).大体积进样气相色谱法简便、快速、准确、重现性好,适合于水体中乙醛的测定.%The acetaldehyde in water was separated and detected using the combined process of large volume injection and packed column gas chromatography. The results of the test showed that, the said process had good separable degree and high sensitivity, the detection limit of acetaldehyde was 0.01 mg/L, and the recovery of standard addition was 98.4% - 108.4%; the relative standard deviation got from the parallel determination was 4.1%(n = 7). It could be seen that, large volume injection-gas chromatography process had advantages of convenient, quick, accurate and good reproductivity, which was suitable for the detection of acetaldehyde in water.

  17. Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1981-06-01

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitab