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Sample records for large subduction thrust

  1. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  2. Seismic variability of subduction thrust faults: Insights from laboratory models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Ranalli, G.; Heuret, A.

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory models are realized to investigate the role of interface roughness, driving rate, and pressure on friction dynamics. The setup consists of a gelatin block driven at constant velocity over sand paper. The interface roughness is quantified in terms of amplitude and wavelength of protrusions, jointly expressed by a reference roughness parameter obtained by their product. Frictional behavior shows a systematic dependence on system parameters. Both stick slip and stable sliding occur, depending on driving rate and interface roughness. Stress drop and frequency of slip episodes vary directly and inversely, respectively, with the reference roughness parameter, reflecting the fundamental role for the amplitude of protrusions. An increase in pressure tends to favor stick slip. Static friction is a steeply decreasing function of the reference roughness parameter. The velocity strengthening/weakening parameter in the state- and rate-dependent dynamic friction law becomes negative for specific values of the reference roughness parameter which are intermediate with respect to the explored range. Despite the simplifications of the adopted setup, which does not address the problem of off-fault fracturing, a comparison of the experimental results with the depth distribution of seismic energy release along subduction thrust faults leads to the hypothesis that their behavior is primarily controlled by the depth- and time-dependent distribution of protrusions. A rough subduction fault at shallow depths, unable to produce significant seismicity because of low lithostatic pressure, evolves into a moderately rough, velocity-weakening fault at intermediate depths. The magnitude of events in this range is calibrated by the interplay between surface roughness and subduction rate. At larger depths, the roughness further decreases and stable sliding becomes gradually more predominant. Thus, although interplate seismicity is ultimately controlled by tectonic parameters (velocity of

  3. Effects of Flat Slab Subduction on Andean Thrust Kinematics and Foreland Basin Evolution in Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; McKenzie, N. R.; Constenius, K. N.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Debate persists over the effects of flat-slab subduction on the kinematics of overriding plate deformation and the evolution of retroarc sedimentary basins. In western Argentina, major spatial and temporal variations in the geometry of the subducting Nazca slab since ~15 Ma provide opportunities to evaluate the late Cenozoic response of the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin to subhorizontal subduction. Preliminary results from several structural and sedimentary transects spanning the frontal thrust belt and foreland basin system between 31°S and 35°S reveal Oligocene-middle Miocene hinterland exhumation during normal-slab subduction followed thereafter by progressive slab shallowing with initial rapid cratonward propagation of ramp-flat thrust structures (prior to basement-involved foreland uplifts) and accompanying wholesale exhumation and recycling of the early Andean foreland basin (rather than regional dynamic subsidence). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data prove instrumental for revealing shifts in thrust-belt exhumation, defining depositional ages within the foreland basin, and constraining the timing of activity along frontal thrust structures. In both the San Juan (31-32°S) and Malargüe (34-35°S) segments of the fold-thrust belt, geochronological results for volcaniclastic sandstones and syndeformational growth strata are consistent with a major eastward advance in shortening at 12-9 Ma. This episode of rapid thrust propagation precedes the reported timing of Sierras Pampeanas basement-involved foreland uplifts and encompasses modern regions of both normal- and flat-slab subduction, suggesting that processes other than slab dip (such as inherited crustal architecture, critical wedge dynamics, and arc magmatism) are additional regulators of thrust-belt kinematics and foreland basin evolution.

  4. Localized fluid discharge in subduction zones: Insights from tension veins around an ancient megasplay fault (Nobeoka Thrust, SW Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, M.; Hardebeck, J.; Miyakawa, A.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid-rock interactions along seismogenic faults are of great importance to understand fault mechanics. The fluid loss by the formation of mode I cracks (tension cracks) increases the fault strength and creates drainage asperities along the plate interface (Sibson, 2013, Tectonophysics). The Nobeoka Thrust, in southwestern Japan, is an on-land example of an ancient megasplay fault and provides an excellent record of deformation and fluid flow at seismogenic depths of a subduction zone (Kondo et al., 2005, Tectonics). We focus on (1) Pore fluid pressure loss, (2) Amount of fault strength recovery, and (3) Fluid circulation by the formation of mode I cracks in the post-seismic period around the fault zone of the Nobeoka Thrust. Many quartz veins that filled mode I crack at the coastal outcrops suggest a normal faulting stress regime after faulting of the Nobeoka Thrust (Otsubo et al., 2016, Island Arc). We estimated the decrease of the pore fluid pressure by the formation of the mode I cracks around the Nobeoka Thrust in the post-seismic period. When the pore fluid pressure exceeds σ3, veins filling mode I cracks are constructed (Jolly and Sanderson, 1997, Jour. Struct. Geol.). We call the pore fluid pressure that exceeds σ3 "pore fluid over pressure". The differential stress in the post-seismic period and the driving pore fluid pressure ratio P* (P* = (Pf - σ3) / (σ1 - σ3), Pf: pore fluid pressure) are parameters to estimate the pore fluid over pressure. In the case of the Nobeoka Thrust (P* = 0.4, Otsubo et al., 2016, Island Arc), the pore fluid over pressure is up to 20 MPa (assuming tensile strength = 10 MPa). 20 MPa is equivalent to fluid pressure around the Nobeoka Thrust (depth = 10 km, density = 2.7 kg/m3). When the pore fluid pressure decreases by 4%, the normalized pore pressure ratio λ* (λ* = (Pf - Ph) / (Pl - Ph), Pl: lithostatic pressure; Ph: hydrostatic pressure) changes from 0.95 to 0.86. In the case of the Nobeoka Thrust, the fault strength can

  5. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 1. Insights from laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Moroni, M.; van Dinther, Y.; Mai, Paul Martin; Dalguer, L. A.; Faccenna, C.

    2013-01-01

    Subduction megathrust earthquakes occur at the interface between the subducting and overriding plates. These hazardous phenomena are only partially understood because of the absence of direct observations, the restriction of the instrumental seismic record to the past century, and the limited resolution/completeness of historical to geological archives. To overcome these restrictions, modeling has become a key-tool to study megathrust earthquakes. We present a novel model to investigate the seismic cycle at subduction thrusts using complementary analog (paper 1) and numerical (paper 2) approaches. Here we introduce a simple scaled gelatin-on-sandpaper setup including realistic tectonic loading, spontaneous rupture nucleation, and viscoelastic response of the lithosphere. Particle image velocimetry allows to derive model deformation and earthquake source parameters. Analog earthquakes are characterized by “quasi-periodic” recurrence. Consistent with elastic theory, the interseismic stage shows rearward motion, subsidence in the outer wedge and uplift of the “coastal area” as a response of locked plate interface at shallow depth. The coseismic stage exhibits order of magnitude higher velocities and reversal of the interseismic deformation pattern in the seaward direction, subsidence of the coastal area, and uplift in the outer wedge. Like natural earthquakes, analog earthquakes generally nucleate in the deeper portion of the rupture area and preferentially propagate upward in a crack-like fashion. Scaled rupture width-slip proportionality and seismic moment-duration scaling verifies dynamic similarities with earthquakes. Experimental repeatability is statistically verified. Comparing analog results with natural observations, we conclude that this technique is suitable for investigating the parameter space influencing the subduction interplate seismic cycle.

  6. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 1. Insights from laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    Corbi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Subduction megathrust earthquakes occur at the interface between the subducting and overriding plates. These hazardous phenomena are only partially understood because of the absence of direct observations, the restriction of the instrumental seismic record to the past century, and the limited resolution/completeness of historical to geological archives. To overcome these restrictions, modeling has become a key-tool to study megathrust earthquakes. We present a novel model to investigate the seismic cycle at subduction thrusts using complementary analog (paper 1) and numerical (paper 2) approaches. Here we introduce a simple scaled gelatin-on-sandpaper setup including realistic tectonic loading, spontaneous rupture nucleation, and viscoelastic response of the lithosphere. Particle image velocimetry allows to derive model deformation and earthquake source parameters. Analog earthquakes are characterized by “quasi-periodic” recurrence. Consistent with elastic theory, the interseismic stage shows rearward motion, subsidence in the outer wedge and uplift of the “coastal area” as a response of locked plate interface at shallow depth. The coseismic stage exhibits order of magnitude higher velocities and reversal of the interseismic deformation pattern in the seaward direction, subsidence of the coastal area, and uplift in the outer wedge. Like natural earthquakes, analog earthquakes generally nucleate in the deeper portion of the rupture area and preferentially propagate upward in a crack-like fashion. Scaled rupture width-slip proportionality and seismic moment-duration scaling verifies dynamic similarities with earthquakes. Experimental repeatability is statistically verified. Comparing analog results with natural observations, we conclude that this technique is suitable for investigating the parameter space influencing the subduction interplate seismic cycle.

  7. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: Insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The underestimation of the size of recent megathrust earthquakes illustrates our limited understanding of their spatiotemporal occurrence and governing physics. To unravel their relation to associated subduction dynamics and long-term deformation, we developed a 2-D continuum viscoelastoplastic model that uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian finite difference framework with similar on- and off-fault physics. We extend the validation of this numerical tool to a realistic subduction zone setting that resembles Southern Chile. The resulting quasi-periodic pattern of quasi-characteristic M8–M9 megathrust events compares quantitatively with observed recurrence and earthquake source parameters, albeit at very slow coseismic speeds. Without any data fitting, surface displacements agree with GPS data recorded before and during the 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake, including the presence of a second-order flexural bulge. These surface displacements show cycle-to-cycle variations of slip deficits, which overall accommodate ∼5% of permanent internal shortening. We find that thermally (and stress) driven creep governs a spontaneous conditionally stable downdip transition zone between temperatures of ∼350°C and ∼450°C. Ruptures initiate above it (and below the forearc Moho), propagate within it, interspersed by small intermittent events, and arrest below it as ductile shearing relaxes stresses. Ruptures typically propagate upward along lithological boundaries and widen as pressures drop. The main thrust is constrained to be weak due to fluid-induced weakening required to sustain regular subduction and to generate events with natural characteristics (fluid pressures of ∼75–99% of solid pressures). The agreement with a range of seismological, geodetic, and geological observations demonstrates the validity and strength of this physically consistent seismo-thermo-mechanical approach.

  8. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: Insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.; Gerya, T. V.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin; Morra, G.; Giardini, D.

    2013-01-01

    The underestimation of the size of recent megathrust earthquakes illustrates our limited understanding of their spatiotemporal occurrence and governing physics. To unravel their relation to associated subduction dynamics and long-term deformation, we developed a 2-D continuum viscoelastoplastic model that uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian finite difference framework with similar on- and off-fault physics. We extend the validation of this numerical tool to a realistic subduction zone setting that resembles Southern Chile. The resulting quasi-periodic pattern of quasi-characteristic M8–M9 megathrust events compares quantitatively with observed recurrence and earthquake source parameters, albeit at very slow coseismic speeds. Without any data fitting, surface displacements agree with GPS data recorded before and during the 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake, including the presence of a second-order flexural bulge. These surface displacements show cycle-to-cycle variations of slip deficits, which overall accommodate ∼5% of permanent internal shortening. We find that thermally (and stress) driven creep governs a spontaneous conditionally stable downdip transition zone between temperatures of ∼350°C and ∼450°C. Ruptures initiate above it (and below the forearc Moho), propagate within it, interspersed by small intermittent events, and arrest below it as ductile shearing relaxes stresses. Ruptures typically propagate upward along lithological boundaries and widen as pressures drop. The main thrust is constrained to be weak due to fluid-induced weakening required to sustain regular subduction and to generate events with natural characteristics (fluid pressures of ∼75–99% of solid pressures). The agreement with a range of seismological, geodetic, and geological observations demonstrates the validity and strength of this physically consistent seismo-thermo-mechanical approach.

  9. Slip parameters on major thrusts at a convergent plate boundary: regional heterogeneity of potential slip distance at the shallow portion of the subducting plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Kaneki, Shunya; Hirono, Tetsuro

    2018-03-01

    Understanding variations of slip distance along major thrust systems at convergent margins is an important issue for evaluation of near-trench slip and the potential generation of large tsunamis. We derived quantitative estimates of slip along ancient subduction fault systems by using the maturity of carbonaceous material (CM) of discrete slip zones as a proxy for temperature. We first obtained the Raman spectra of CM in ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers in discrete slip zones at depths below the seafloor of 1-4 km and 2.5-5.5 km, respectively. By comparing the area-under-the-peak ratios of graphitic and disordered bands in those Raman spectra with spectra of experimentally heated CM from surrounding rocks, we determined that the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers had been heated to temperatures of up to 700 and 1300 °C, respectively. Numerical simulation of the thermal history of CM extracted from rocks near the two slip zones, taking into consideration these temperature constraints, indicated that slip distances in the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers were more than 3 and 7 m, respectively. Thus, potential distance of coseismic slip along the subduction-zone fault system could have regional variations even at shallow depth (≤ 5.5 km). The slip distances we determined probably represent minimum slips for subduction-zone thrusts and thus provide an important contribution to earthquake preparedness plans in coastal areas facing the Nankai and Sagami Troughs.

  10. Friction and Lubrication of Large Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wasilczuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluid film bearings have been extensively used in the industry because of their unbeatable durability and extremely low friction coefficient, despite a very low coefficient of friction dissipation of energy being noticeable, especially in large bearings. Lubricating systems of large tilting pad thrust bearings utilized in large, vertical shaft hydrogenerators are presented in this paper. A large amount of heat is generated due to viscous shearing of the lubricant large tilting pad thrust bearings, and this requires systems for forced cooling of the lubricant. In the dominant bath lubrication systems, cooling is realized by internal coolers or external cooling systems, with the latter showing some important advantages at the cost of complexity and also, potentially, lower reliability. Substantial losses in the bearings, reaching 1 MW in extreme cases, are a good motivation for the research and development aimed at reducing them. Some possible methods and their potential efficiency, along with some effects already documented, are also described in the paper.

  11. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  12. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.; Gerya, T. V.; Dalguer, L. A.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  13. On the Possibilities of Decreasing Power Loss in Large Tilting Pad Thrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilczuk, Michal; Rotta, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Different systems of direct oil supply have been developed in order to facilitate efficient introduction of fresh lubricant to the oil gap and reduction of churning power loss in tilting pad thrust bearings. Up to now there is no documented application of the supply groove in large thrust bearings used in water power plants. The results of modeling lubricant flow in the lubricating groove of a thrust bearing pad will be presented in the paper. CFD software was used to carry out fluid film cal...

  14. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  15. The Research Status and Progress of Heavy/Large Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to improve the rotation speed of heavy/large CNC vertical lathe, the machining efficiency, and machining precision is one of the key issues which need to be solved urgently. Hydrostatic thrust bearing is the key part to the heavy/large CNC vertical lathe; its performance directly affects the machining quality and operation efficiency. This paper analyses the latest research results from the perspective of the mechanical properties of hydrostatic thrust bearing, oil film lubrication, static pressure bearing thermal deformation, and the high efficiency refrigeration and evaluates the future scientific research direction in this area. Analysis shows that with the development of hydrostatic thrust bearing to the high speed, high precision, high efficiency, high stability, high multifunction, and high power, the study of hydrostatic thrust bearing will focus on the optimal design of the oil chamber to produce the least amount of heat, how to control the thermal deformation of hydrostatic thrust bearing, and the high efficiency refrigeration to ensure the machining accuracy of CNC equipment.

  16. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  17. Numerical modeling of the deformations associated with large subduction earthquakes through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Garaud, J.; Vigny, C.; Cailletaud, G.; Simons, W. J.; Satirapod, C.; Shestakov, N.

    2012-12-01

    A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes: Sumatra, Japan and Chile. The mesh featuring a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere is refined close to the subduction zones. The model is constrained by 6 years of postseismic data in Sumatra area and over a year of data for Japan and Chile plus preseismic data in the three areas. The coseismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted from the coseismic displacements using the finite element program and provide the initial stresses. The predicted horizontal postseismic displacements depend upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. Non-dimensionalized by the coseismic displacements, they present an almost uniform value between 500km and 1500km from the trench for elastic plates 80km thick. The time evolution of the velocities is function of the creep law (Maxwell, Burger or power-law creep). Moreover, the forward models predict a sizable far-field subsidence, also with a spatial distribution which varies with the geometry of the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Slip on the subduction interface does not induce such a subsidence. The observed horizontal velocities, divided by the coseismic displacement, present a similar pattern as function of time and distance from trench for the three areas, indicative of similar lithospheric and asthenospheric thicknesses and asthenospheric viscosity. This pattern cannot be fitted with power-law creep in the asthenosphere but indicates a lithosphere 60 to 90km thick and an asthenosphere of thickness of the order of 100km with a burger rheology represented by a Kelvin-Voigt element with a viscosity of 3.1018Pas and μKelvin=μelastic/3. A second Kelvin-Voigt element with very limited amplitude may explain some characteristics of the short time-scale signal. The postseismic subsidence is

  18. How large is the subducted water flux? New constraints on mantle regassing rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-02-01

    Estimates of the subducted water (H2O) flux have been used to discuss the regassing of the mantle over Earth history. However, these estimates vary widely, and some are large enough to have reduced the volume of water in the global ocean by a factor of two over the Phanerozoic. In light of uncertainties in the hydration state of subducting slabs, magma production rates and mantle source water contents, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to set limits on long-term global water cycling and the return flux of water to the deep Earth. Estimates of magma production rates and water contents in primary magmas generated at ocean islands, mid-ocean ridges, arcs and back-arcs are paired with estimates of water entering trenches via subducting oceanic slab in order to construct a model of the deep Earth water cycle. The simulation is constrained by reconstructions of Phanerozoic sea level change, which suggest that ocean volume is near steady-state, though a sea level decrease of up to 360 m may be supported. We provide limits on the return flux of water to the deep Earth over the Phanerozoic corresponding to a near steady-state exosphere (0-100 meter sea level decrease) and a maximum sea level decrease of 360 m. For the near steady-state exosphere, the return flux is 1.4 - 2.0- 0.3+ 0.4 × 1013 mol/yr, corresponding to 2-3% serpentinization in 10 km of lithospheric mantle. The return flux that generates the maximum sea level decrease over the Phanerozoic is 3.5- 0.3+ 0.4 × 1013 mol/yr, corresponding to 5% serpentinization in 10 km of lithospheric mantle. Our estimates of the return flux of water to the mantle are up to 7 times lower than previously suggested. The imbalance between our estimates of the return flux and mantle output flux leads to a low rate of increase in bulk mantle water content of up to 24 ppm/Ga.

  19. Interpretation of interseismic deformations and the seismic cycle associated with large subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubienko, Olga; Fleitout, Luce; Garaud, Jean-Didier; Vigny, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    The deformations of the overriding and subducting plates during the seismic cycle associated with large subduction earthquakes are modelled using 2D and 3D finite element techniques. A particular emphasis is put on the interseismic velocities and on the impact of the rheology of the asthenosphere. The distance over which the seismic cycle perturbs significantly the velocities depends upon the ratio of the viscosity in the asthenosphere to the period of the seismic cycle and can reach several thousand km for rheological parameters deduced from the first years of deformation after the Aceh earthquake. For a same early postseismic velocity, a Burger rheology of the asthenosphere implies a smaller duration of the postseismic phase and thus smaller interseismic velocities than a Maxwell rheology. A low viscosity wedge (LVW) modifies very significantly the predicted horizontal and vertical motions in the near and middle fields. In particular, with a LVW, the peak in vertical velocity at the end of the cycle is predicted to be no longer above the deep end of the locked section of the fault but further away, above the continentward limit of the LVW. The lateral viscosity variations linked to the presence at depth of the subducting slab affect substantially the results. The north-south interseismic compression predicted by this preliminary 2D model over more than 1500 km within the Sunda block is in good agreement with the pre-2004 velocities with respect to South-China inferred from GPS observations in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. In Japan, before the Tohoku earthquake, the eastern part of northern Honshu was subsiding while the western part was uplifting. This transition from subsidence to uplift so far away from the trench is well fitted by the predictions from our models involving a LVW. Most of the results obtained here in a 2D geometry are shown to provide a good estimate of the displacements for fault segments of finite lateral extent, with a 3D spherical

  20. Systematic deficiency of aftershocks in areas of high coseismic slip for large subduction zone earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Nadav; Lay, Thorne; Brodsky, Emily E.; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Fault slip during plate boundary earthquakes releases a portion of the shear stress accumulated due to frictional resistance to relative plate motions. Investigation of 101 large [moment magnitude (Mw) ≥ 7] subduction zone plate boundary mainshocks with consistently determined coseismic slip distributions establishes that 15 to 55% of all master event–relocated aftershocks with Mw ≥ 5.2 are located within the slip regions of the mainshock ruptures and few are located in peak slip regions, allowing for uncertainty in the slip models. For the preferred models, cumulative deficiency of aftershocks within the central three-quarters of the scaled slip regions ranges from 15 to 45%, increasing with the total number of observed aftershocks. The spatial gradients of the mainshock coseismic slip concentrate residual shear stress near the slip zone margins and increase stress outside the slip zone, driving both interplate and intraplate aftershock occurrence near the periphery of the mainshock slip. The shear stress reduction in large-slip regions during the mainshock is generally sufficient to preclude further significant rupture during the aftershock sequence, consistent with large-slip areas relocking and not rupturing again for a substantial time. PMID:29487902

  1. A large mantle water source for the northern San Andreas Fault System: A ghost of subduction past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.; Wang, Kelin; Brocher, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the shallow mantle of the Cascadia subduction margin under near-coastal Pacific Northwest U.S. is cold and partially serpentinized, storing large quantities of water in this wedge-shaped region. Such a wedge probably formed to the south in California during an earlier period of subduction. We show by numerical modeling that after subduction ceased with the creation of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), the mantle wedge warmed, slowly releasing its water over a period of more than 25 Ma by serpentine dehydration into the crust above. This deep, long-term water source could facilitate fault slip in San Andreas System at low shear stresses by raising pore pressures in a broad region above the wedge. Moreover, the location and breadth of the water release from this model gives insights into the position and breadth of the SAFS. Such a mantle source of water also likely plays a role in the occurrence of Non-Volcanic Tremor (NVT) that has been reported along the SAFS in central California. This process of water release from mantle depths could also mobilize mantle serpentinite from the wedge above the dehydration front, permitting upward emplacement of serpentinite bodies by faulting or by diapiric ascent. Specimens of serpentinite collected from tectonically emplaced serpentinite blocks along the SAFS show mineralogical and structural evidence of high fluid pressures during ascent from depth. Serpentinite dehydration may also lead to tectonic mobility along other plate boundaries that succeed subduction, such as other continental transforms, collision zones, or along present-day subduction zones where spreading centers are subducting.

  2. Holocene Tsunami Deposits From Large Tsunamis Along the Kuril Subduction Zone, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayama, F.; Furukawa, R.; Satake, K.; Soeda, Y.; Shigeno, K.

    2003-12-01

    Holocene tsunami deposits in eastern Hokkaido between Nemuro and Tokachi show that the Kuril subduction zone repeatedly produced earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those recorded in this region since AD 1804 (Nanayama et al., Nature, 424, 660-663, 2003). Twenty-two postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 9500 years are preserved on lake bottom near Kushiro City, and about ten postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 3000 years are preserved in peat layers on the coastal marsh of Kiritappu. We dated these ten tsunami deposits (named Ts1 to Ts10 from shallower to deeper) in peat layers by radiocarbon and tephrochronology, correlated them with historical earthquakes and tsunamis, and surveyed their spatial distribution to estimate the tsunamisO inland inundation limits. Ts10 and Ts9 are under regional tephra Ta-c2 (ca. 2.5 ka) and represent prehistorical events. Ts8 to Ts5 are between two regional tephra layers Ta-c2 and B-Tm (ca. 9th century). In particular, Ts5 is found just below B-Tm, so it is dated 9th century (Heian era). Ts4 is dated ca 13th century (Kamakura era), while Ts3, found just below Us-b and Ta-b (AD 1667-1663), is dated 17th century (Edo era). Ts2 is dated 19th century (Edo era) and may correspond to the AD 1843 Tempo Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.0) recorded in a historical document Nikkanki of Kokutai-ji temple at Akkeshi. Ts1 is inferred 20th century and may correspond to the tsunami from the AD 1960 Chilean earthquake (M 9.5) or the AD 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.2). Our detailed surveys indicate that Ts3 and Ts4 can be traced more than 3 km from the present coast line in Kirittapu marsh, much longer than the limits (< 1 km) of recent deposits Ts1 and Ts2 or documented inundation of the 19th and 20th century tsunamis. The recurrence intervals of great tsunami inundation are about 400 to 500 years, longer than that of typical interplate earthquakes along the Kuril subduction zone. The longer interval and the apparent large tsunami

  3. Foreshock patterns preceding large earthquakes in the subduction zone of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest earthquakes in the globe occur in the subduction zone of Chile. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate foreshock patterns preceding such earthquakes. Foreshocks in Chile were recognized as early as 1960. In fact, the giant (Mw9.5) earthquake of 22 May 1960, which was the largest ever instrumentally recorded, was preceded by 45 foreshocks in a time period of 33h before the mainshock, while 250 aftershocks were recorded in a 33h time period after the mainshock. Four foreshocks were bigger than magnitude 7.0, including a magnitude 7.9 on May 21 that caused severe damage in the Concepcion area. More recently, Brodsky and Lay (2014) and Bedford et al. (2015) reported on foreshock activity before the 1 April 2014 large earthquake (Mw8.2). However, 3-D foreshock patterns in space, time and size were not studied in depth so far. Since such studies require for good seismic catalogues to be available, we have investigated 3-D foreshock patterns only before the recent, very large mainshocks occurring on 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Mw8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Mw8.4). Although our analysis does not depend on a priori definition of short-term foreshocks, our interest focuses in the short-term time frame, that is in the last 5-6 months before the mainshock. The analysis of the 2014 event showed an excellent foreshock sequence consisting by an early-weak foreshock stage lasting for about 1.8 months and by a main-strong precursory foreshock stage that was evolved in the last 18 days before the mainshock. During the strong foreshock period the seismicity concentrated around the mainshock epicenter in a critical area of about 65 km mainly along the trench domain to the south of the mainshock epicenter. At the same time, the activity rate increased dramatically, the b-value dropped and the mean magnitude increased significantly, while the level of seismic energy released also increased. In view of these highly significant seismicity

  4. Effects of deep basins on structural collapse during large subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, Nasser A.; Eberhard, Marc O.; Berman, Jeffrey W.; Wirth, Erin A.; Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Deep sedimentary basins are known to increase the intensity of ground motions, but this effect is implicitly considered in seismic hazard maps used in U.S. building codes. The basin amplification of ground motions from subduction earthquakes is particularly important in the Pacific Northwest, where the hazard at long periods is dominated by such earthquakes. This paper evaluates the effects of basins on spectral accelerations, ground-motion duration, spectral shape, and structural collapse using subduction earthquake recordings from basins in Japan that have similar depths as the Puget Lowland basin. For three of the Japanese basins and the Puget Lowland basin, the spectral accelerations were amplified by a factor of 2 to 4 for periods above 2.0 s. The long-duration subduction earthquakes and the effects of basins on spectral shape combined, lower the spectral accelerations at collapse for a set of building archetypes relative to other ground motions. For the hypothetical case in which these motions represent the entire hazard, the archetypes would need to increase up to 3.3 times its strength to compensate for these effects.

  5. Large paleoearthquake timing and displacement near Damak in eastern Nepal on the Himalayan Frontal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Pierce, Ian K.; Reedy, Tabor; Angster, Stephen J.; Giri, Bibek

    2017-08-01

    An excavation across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust near Damak in eastern Nepal shows displacement on a fault plane dipping 22° has produced vertical separation across a scarp equal to 5.5 m. Stratigraphic, structural, geometrical, and radiocarbon observations are interpreted to indicate that the displacement is the result of a single earthquake of 11.3 ± 3.5 m of dip-slip displacement that occurred 1146-1256 A.D. Empirical scaling laws indicate that thrust earthquakes characterized by average displacements of this size may produce rupture lengths of 450 to >800 km and moment magnitudes Mw of 8.6 to >9. Sufficient strain has accumulated along this portion of the Himalayan arc during the roughly 800 years since the 1146-1256 A.D. earthquake to produce another earthquake displacement of similar size.

  6. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J.L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  7. Subducted slab-plume interaction traced by magnesium isotopes in the northern margin of the Tarim Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xie, Qiuhong; Hou, Tong; Ke, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Incorporation of subducted slabs may account for the geochemical and isotopic variations of large igneous provinces (LIPs). However, the mechanism and process by which subducted slabs are involved into magmas is still highly debated. Here, we report a set of high resolution Mg isotopes for a suite of alkaline and Fe-rich rocks (including basalts, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, diabase dykes and mantle xenoliths in the kimberlitic rocks) from Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP). We observed that δ26 Mg values of basalts range from -0.29 to - 0.45 ‰, -0.31 to - 0.42 ‰ for mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, -0.28 to - 0.31 ‰ for diabase dykes and -0.29 to - 0.44 ‰ for pyroxenite xenoliths from the kimberlitic rocks, typically lighter than the normal mantle source (- 0.25 ‰ ± 0.04, 2 SD). After carefully precluding other possibilities, we propose that the light Mg isotopic compositions and high FeO contents should be ascribed to the involvement of recycled sedimentary carbonate rocks and pyroxenite/eclogite. Moreover, from basalts, through layered intrusions to diabase dykes, (87Sr/86Sr)i values and δ18OV-SMOW declined, whereas ε (Nd) t and δ26 Mg values increased with progressive partial melting of mantle, indicating that components of carbonate rock and pyroxenite/eclogite in the mantle sources were waning over time. In combination with the previous reported Mg isotopes for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks in TLIP, two distinct mantle domains are recognized for this province: 1) a lithospheric mantle source for basalts and mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions which were modified by calcite/dolomite and eclogite-derived high-Si melts, as evidenced by enriched Sr-Nd-O and light Mg isotopic compositions; 2) a plume source for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks which were related to magnesite or periclase/perovskite involvement as reflected by depleted Sr-Nd-O and extremely light Mg isotopes. Ultimately, our study suggests

  8. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  9. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-18

    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  10. A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoniu; Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Mojian

    2017-06-01

    A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint is proposed in this paper. The motor is comprised of a V-shaped transducer, a slider, a clamp, and a base. The V-shaped transducer consists of two piezoelectric beams connected through a flexible joint to form an appropriate coupling angle. The V-shaped motor is operated in the coupled longitudinal-bending mode. Longitudinal and bending movements are transferred by the flexible joint between the two beams. Compared with the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the single piezoelectric beam or the symmetrical and asymmetrical modes of the previous V-shaped transducer, the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the V-shaped transducer with a flexible joint provides higher vibration efficiency and more convenient mode conformance adjustment. A finite element model of the V-shaped transducer is created to numerically study the influence of geometrical parameters and to determine the final geometrical parameters. In this paper, three prototypes were then fabricated and experimentally investigated. The modal test results match well with the finite element analysis. The motor mechanical output characteristics of three different coupling angles θ indicate that V-90 (θ = 90°) is the optimal angle. The mechanical output experiments conducted using the V-90 prototype (Size: 59.4 mm × 30.7 mm × 4 mm) demonstrate that the maximum unloaded speed is 1.2 m/s under a voltage of 350 Vpp, and the maximum output force is 15 N under a voltage of 300 Vpp. The proposed novel V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor has a compact size and a simple structure with a large thrust-weight ratio (0.75 N/g) and high speed.

  11. Southward Ejection of Subcontinental Lithosphere and large-scale Asthenospheric Enrichment beneath central Chile resulting from Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, G.; Hoernle, K.; Schaefer, B. F.; Hauff, F.; Gill, J.; Holm, P. M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Folguera, A.; Lara, L.; Ramos, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flat subduction is a common process in subduction zones, causing crustal shortening and thickening and possibly subduction erosion. These processes can lead to the contamination of asthenospheric melts either by lithospheric assimilation (e.g. MASH) or by subduction erosion of lithosphere into the asthenospheric source. We present new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O-Os isotope data for a transect of Quaternary volcanic rocks across the Northern Southern Volcanic Front (NSVZ) of Chile at ~33.5°S, just south of the area of flat subduction, extending from the volcanic front (VF) to the rear arc (RA). The newly discovered calc-alkaline to alkaline RA rocks are more mafic (MgO~4-9wt.%) than the VF rocks (MgO~2.0-4.5wt.%). Both groups have overlapping Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions that are more enriched than lavas from further south in the SVZ with two RA trachybasalts displaying extreme 87Sr/86Sr (0.710), eNd (-6) and eHf (-9). The RA samples, however, have less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions with the two extreme RA trachybasalt samples having the least radiogenic Pb. The 207Pb/204Pb vs. Nd/Pb, Ce/Pb and Nb/U form good inverse linear correlations extending from subducted sediments to a mantle-like component. Mesozoic/Paleozoic crust and Grenvillian Argentinian lower crust do not fall on or along an extension of these arrays. The ol, plag and groundmassd18O (normalized to melt) of samples covering the full range in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic composition lie within the mantle range (5.5-5.9). High Os abundances (~330ppt) in radiogenic Os (187Os/188Os=0.18) samples are not consistent with derivation from a mantle plume or continental crust. eNd and eHf increase to the south along the VF, e.g. eHf ranges from -9 to +10, forming an excellent linear correlation (r2=0.99), indicating that the enriched component is present in the source for >1000km to at least ~43°S. We propose that flattening of the Pampean slab 1) triggered subduction erosion of enriched

  12. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  13. Wind-tunnel investigation of the thrust augmentor performance of a large-scale swept wing model. [in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. G.; Falarski, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were made in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to determine the forward speed effects on wing-mounted thrust augmentors. The large-scale model was powered by the compressor output of J-85 driven viper compressors. The flap settings used were 15 deg and 30 deg with 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg aileron settings. The maximum duct pressure, and wind tunnel dynamic pressure were 66 cmHg (26 in Hg) and 1190 N/sq m (25 lb/sq ft), respectively. All tests were made at zero sideslip. Test results are presented without analysis.

  14. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  15. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  16. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  17. Revisiting the physical characterisitics of the subduction interplate seismogenic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuret, Arnauld; Lallemand, Serge; Funiciello, Francesca; Piromallo, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Based on the Centennial earthquake catalog, the revised 1964-2007 EHB hypocenters catalog and the 1976-2007 CMT Harvard catalog, we have extracted the hypocenters, nodal planes and seismic moments of worldwide subduction earthquakes for the 1900-2007 period. For the 1976-2007 period, we combine the focal solutions provided by Harvard and the revised hypocenters from Engdahl et al. (1998). Older events are extracted from the Centennial catalogue (Engdahl and Villasenor, 2002) and they are used to estimate the cumulated seismic moment only. The selection criteria for the subduction earthquakes are similar to those used by Mc Caffrey (1994), i.e., we test if the focal mechanisms are consistent with 1/ shallow thrust events (depth > 70 km, positive slips, and at least one nodal plane gets dip 8). We assume that the seismogenic zone coincides with the distribution of 5.5 statistical study done by Pacheco et al. (1993) and test some empirical laws obtained for example by Ruff and Kanamori (1980) in light of a more complete, detailed, accurate and uniform description of the subduction interplate seismogenic zone. Since subduction earthquakes result from stress accumulation along the interplate and stress depends on plates kinematics, subduction zone geometry, thermal state and seismic coupling, we aim to isolate some correlations between parameters. The statistical analysis reveals that: 1- vs, the subduction velocity is the first order controlling parameter of seismogenic zone variability, both in term of geometry and seismic behaviour; 2- steep dip, large vertical extent and narrow horizontal extent of the seismogenic zone are associated to fast subductions, and cold slabs, the opposite holding for slow subductions and warm slabs; the seismogenic zone usually ends in the fore-arc mantle rather than at the upper plate Moho depth; 3- seismic rate () variability is coherent with the geometry of the seismogenic zone:  increases with the dip and with the vertical

  18. Early history and reactivation of the rand thrust, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwaite, Clay E.; Jacobson, Carl E.

    The Rand thrust of the Rand Mountains in the northwestern Mojave Desert separates an upper plate of quartz monzonite and quartzofeldspathic to amphibolitic gneiss from a lower plate of metagraywacke and mafic schist (Rand Schist). The Rand thrust is considered part of the regionally extensive Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust system, which is commonly believed to represent a Late Cretaceous subduction zone. The initial direction of dip and sense of movement along the Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust are controversial. Microfabrics of mylonites and quartzites from the Rand Mountains were analyzed in an attempt to determine transport direction for this region, but the results are ambiguous. In addition, the southwestern portion of the Rand thrust was found to have been reactivated as a low-angle normal fault after subduction. Reactivation might have occurred shortly after subduction, in which case it could account for the preservation of high-pressure mineral assemblages in the Rand Schist, or it could be related to mid-Tertiary extension in the western United States. In either event, the reactivation might be responsible for the complicated nature of the microfabrics. The Rand Schist exhibits an inverted metamorphic zonation. Isograds in the schist are not significantly truncated by the reactivated segment of the Rand thrust. This indicates that other segments of the Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust should be re-evaluated for the possibility of late movement, even if they show an apparently undisturbed inverted metamorphic zonation.

  19. Geochemistry of subduction zone serpentinites: A review

    OpenAIRE

    DESCHAMPS, Fabien; GODARD, Marguerite; GUILLOT, Stéphane; HATTORI, Kéiko

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, numerous studies have emphasized the role of serpentinites in the subduction zone geodynamics. Their presence and role in subduction environments are recognized through geophysical, geochemical and field observations of modern and ancient subduction zones and large amounts of geochemical database of serpentinites have been created. Here, we present a review of the geochemistry of serpentinites, based on the compilation of ~ 900 geochemical data of abyssal, mantle wedge ...

  20. Wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL aircraft model with wing root and wing thrust augmentors. [Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, K.; Aiken, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale V/STOL aircraft model with thrust augmentors. The model had a double-delta wing of aspect ratio 1.65 with augmentors located in the wing root and the wing trailing edge. The supply air for the augmentor primary nozzles was provided by the YJ-97 turbojet engine. The airflow was apportioned approximately 74 percent to the wing root augmentor and 24 percent to wing augmentor. Results were obtained at several trailing-edge flap deflections with the nozzle jet-momentum coefficients ranging from 0 to 7.9. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with the agumentor operating with and without the horizontal tail. A limited amount of six component data are also presented.

  1. Sandbox Simulations of the Evolution of a Subduction Wedge following Subduction Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, M. T.; Ma, K. F.; DeWolf, W.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction wedges at accreting subduction zones are bounded by a landward dipping pro-shear zone (= subduction thrust) and a seaward-dipping retro-shear zone in the overriding plate. For the Cascadia subduction zone, the surface trace of the retro-shear zone corresponds to the east side of the Coast Ranges of Oregon and Washington and the Insular Mountains of Vancouver Island. This coastal high or forearc high shows clear evidence of long-term uplift and erosion along its entire length, indicating that it is an active part of the Cascadia subduction wedge. The question addressed here is what controls the location of the retro-shear zone? In the popular double-sided wedge model of Willet et al (Geology 1993), the retro-shear zone remains pinned to the S point, which is interpreted to represent where the upper-plate Moho intersects the subduction zone. For this interpretation, the relatively strong mantle is considered to operate as a flat backstop. That model, however. is somewhat artificial in that the two plates collide in a symmetric fashion with equal crustal thicknesses on both sides. Using sandbox experiments, we explore a more realistic configuration where the upper and lower plate are separated by a gentle dipping (10 degree) pro-shear zone, to simulate the initial asymmetric geometry of the subduction thrust immediately after initiation of subduction. The entire lithosphere must fail along some plane for subduction to begin and this failure plane must dip in the direction of subduction. Thus, the initial geometry of the overriding plate is better approximated as a tapered wedge than as a layer of uniform thickness, as represented in the Willett et al models. We demonstrate this model using time-lapse movies of a sand wedge above a mylar subducting plate. We use particle image velocimetry (PIV) to show the evolution of strain and structure within the overriding plate. Material accreted to the tapered end of the overriding plate drives deformation and causes

  2. Slab1.0: A three-dimensional model of global subduction zone geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Wald, David J.; Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, http://on.doi.gov/d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of ‘average’ active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested.

  3. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  4. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  5. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  6. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  7. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Mai, Paul Martin; Maruyama, Takuma; Mori, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario

  8. Complex Morphology of Subducted Lithosphere in the Mantle below the Molucca Collision Zone from Non-linear Seismic Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyantoro

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of seismic studies presented in previous publications depict two opposing subducted oceanic lithospheric slabs under the Molucca region. This unique structure is related to the arc-arc collision between the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs. Recently, we have revisited the complex subduction zone structure by employing a non-linear tomographic imaging technique in which 3-D ray tracing has been implemented. We have used P- as well as S-wave arrival times from carefully reprocessed global data set. The results provide some improvements in the positioning of wave-speed anomalies. Consistent with earlier results, the new P-wave model depicts the two opposing subducted slabs of the Molucca Sea plate. The intriguing new observation is that the westward dipping slab appears to penetrate into the lower mantle by taking the form of folded slab. We envisage that the folding behavior may have been caused by the shift of the whole subduction system in the Molucca region toward the Eurasian continent due to the westward thrust of the Pacific plate combined with the large left-lateral movement of the Sorong fault. The inversion of travel-time residuals of direct S phases strongly confirms the new observation.

  9. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  10. Metamorphic Perspectives of Subduction Zone Volatiles Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Field study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks provides "ground-truthing" for experimental and theoretical petrologic studies estimating extents of deep volatiles subduction, and provides information regarding devolatilization and deep subduction-zone fluid flow that can be used to reconcile estimates of subduction inputs and arc volcanic outputs for volatiles such as H2O, N, and C. Considerable attention has been paid to H2O subduction in various bulk compositions, and, based on calculated phase assemblages, it is thought that a large fraction of the initially structurally bound H2O is subducted to, and beyond, subarc regions in most modern subduction zones (Hacker, 2008, G-cubed). Field studies of HP/UHP mafic and sedimentary rocks demonstrate the impressive retention of volatiles (and fluid-mobile elements) to depths approaching those beneath arcs. At the slab-mantle interface, high-variance lithologies containing hydrous phases such as mica, amphibole, talc, and chlorite could further stabilize H2O to great depth. Trench hydration in sub-crustal parts of oceanic lithosphere could profoundly increase subduction inputs of particularly H2O, and massive flux of H2O-rich fluids from these regions into the slab-mantle interface could lead to extensive metasomatism. Consideration of sedimentary N concentrations and δ15N at ODP Site 1039 (Li and Bebout, 2005, JGR), together with estimates of the N concentration of subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC), indicates that ~42% of the N subducting beneath Nicaragua is returned in the corresponding volcanic arc (Elkins et al., 2006, GCA). Study of N in HP/UHP sedimentary and basaltic rocks indicates that much of the N initially subducted in these lithologies would be retained to depths approaching 100 km and thus available for addition to arcs. The more altered upper part of subducting oceanic crust most likely to contribute to arcs has sediment-like δ15NAir (0 to +10 per mil; Li et al., 2007, GCA), and study of HP/UHP eclogites

  11. Inverse models of plate coupling and mantle rheology: Towards a direct link between large-scale mantle flow and mega thrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Liu, X.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing high-resolution inverse models for plate motions and mantle flow to recover the degree of mechanical coupling between plates and the non-linear and plastic parameters governing viscous flow within the lithosphere and mantle. We have developed adjoint versions of the Stokes equations with fully non-linear viscosity with a cost function that measures the fit with plate motions and with regional constrains on effective upper mantle viscosity (from post-glacial rebound and post seismic relaxation). In our earlier work, we demonstrate that when the temperature field is known, the strength of plate boundaries, the yield stress and strain rate exponent in the upper mantle are recoverable. As the plate boundary coupling drops below a threshold, the uncertainty of the inferred parameters increases due to insensitivity of plate motion to plate coupling. Comparing the trade-offs between inferred rheological parameters found from a Gaussian approximation of the parameter distribution and from MCMC sampling, we found that the Gaussian approximation—which is significantly cheaper to compute—is often a good approximation. We have extended our earlier method such that we can recover normal and shear stresses within the zones determining the interface between subducting and over-riding plates determined through seismic constraints (using the Slab1.0 model). We find that those subduction zones with low seismic coupling correspond with low inferred values of mechanical coupling. By fitting plate motion data in the optimization scheme, we find that Tonga and the Marianas have the lowest values of mechanical coupling while Chile and Sumatra the highest, among the subduction zones we have studies. Moreover, because of the nature of the high-resolution adjoint models, the subduction zones with the lowest coupling have back-arc extension. Globally we find that the non-linear stress-strain exponent, n, is about 3.0 +/- 0.25 (in the upper mantle and lithosphere) and a

  12. Frontal compression along the Apennines thrust system: The Emilia 2012 example from seismicity to crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Improta, Luigi; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Moretti, Milena; Govoni, Aladino; Di Bona, Massimo; Margheriti, Lucia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Nardi, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the Apennines thrust-and-fold belt is related to heterogeneous process of subduction and continental delamination that generates extension within the mountain range and compression on the outer front of the Adria lithosphere. While normal faulting earthquakes diffusely occur along the mountain chain, the sparse and poor seismicity in the compressional front does not permit to resolve the ambiguity that still exists about which structure accommodates the few mm/yr of convergence observed by geodetic data. In this study, we illustrate the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence that is the most significant series of moderate-to-large earthquakes developed during the past decades on the compressional front of the Apennines. Accurately located aftershocks, along with P-wave and Vp/Vs tomographic models, clearly reveal the geometry of the thrust system, buried beneath the Quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. The seismic sequence ruptured two distinct adjacent thrust faults, whose different dip, steep or flat, accounts for the development of the arc-like shape of the compressional front. The first shock of May 20 (Mw 6.0) developed on the middle Ferrara thrust that has a southward dip of about 30°. The second shock of May 29 (Mw 5.8) ruptured the Mirandola thrust that we define as a steep dipping (50-60°) pre-existing (Permo-Triassic) basement normal fault inverted during compression. The overall geometry of the fault system is controlled by heterogeneity of the basement inherited from the older extension. We also observe that the rupture directivity during the two main-shocks and the aftershocks concentration correlate with low Poisson ratio volumes, probably indicating that portions of the fault have experienced intense micro-damage.

  13. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.

    2010-12-01

    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  14. Large-scale thrusting at the northern Junggar Basin since Cretaceous and its implications for the rejuvenation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wulungu Depression is the northernmost first-order tectonic unit in the Junggar Basin. It can be divided into three sub-units: the Hongyan step-fault zone, the Suosuoquan sag and the Wulungu south slope. The Cenozoic strata in the basin are intact and Mesozoic–Cenozoic deformation can be observed in the Wulungu step-fault zone, so this is an ideal place to study the Mesozoic–Cenozoic deformation. By integration of fault-related folding theories, regional geology and drilling data, the strata of the Cretaceous–Paleogene systems are divided into small layers which are selected as the subjects of this research. The combination of the developing unconformity with existing growth strata makes it conceivable that faults on the step-fault zone have experienced different degrees of reactivation of movement since the Cretaceous. Evolutionary analyses of the small layers using 2D-Move software showed certain differences in the reactivation of different segments of the Wulungu Depression such as the timing of reactivation of thrusting, for which the reactivity time of the eastern segment was late compared with those of the western and middle segments. In addition the resurrection strength was similarly slightly different, with the shortening rate being higher in the western segment than in the other segments. Moreover, the thrust fault mechanism is basement-involved combined with triangle shear fold, for which a forward evolution model was proposed.

  15. How much does geometry of seismic sources matter in tsunami modeling? A sensitivity analysis for the Calabrian subduction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, R.; Maesano, F. E.; Tiberti, M. M.; Romano, F.; Scala, A.; Lorito, S.; Volpe, M.; Basili, R.

    2017-12-01

    The geometry of seismogenic sources could be one of the most important factors concurring to control the generation and the propagation of earthquake-generated tsunamis and their effects on the coasts. Since the majority of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes occur offshore, the corresponding faults are generally poorly constrained and, consequently, their geometry is often oversimplified as a planar fault. The rupture area of mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones, where most of the greatest tsunamis have occurred, extends for tens to hundreds of kilometers both down dip and along strike, and generally deviates from the planar geometry. Therefore, the larger the earthquake size is, the weaker the planar fault assumption become. In this work, we present a sensitivity analysis aimed to explore the effects on modeled tsunamis generated by seismic sources with different degrees of geometric complexities. We focused on the Calabrian subduction zone, located in the Mediterranean Sea, which is characterized by the convergence between the African and European plates, with rates of up to 5 mm/yr. This subduction zone has been considered to have generated some past large earthquakes and tsunamis, despite it shows only in-slab significant seismic activity below 40 km depth and no relevant seismicity in the shallower portion of the interface. Our analysis is performed by defining and modeling an exhaustive set of tsunami scenarios located in the Calabrian subduction and using different models of the subduction interface with increasing geometrical complexity, from a planar surface to a highly detailed 3D surface. The latter was obtained from the interpretation of a dense network of seismic reflection profiles coupled with the analysis of the seismicity distribution. The more relevant effects due to the inclusion of 3D complexities in the seismic source geometry are finally highlighted in terms of the resulting tsunami impact.

  16. The rigid Andean sliver hypothesis challenged : impact on interseismic coupling on the Chilean subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    Convergence partitioning between subduction zones and crustal active structures has been widely evidenced. For instance, the convergence between the Indian and Sunda plates is accommodated both by the Sumatra subduction zone and the Great Sumatran strike-slip fault, that defines a narrow sliver. In Cascadia, small-scale rotating rigid blocks bounded by active faults have been proposed (e.g. McCaffrey et al. 2007). Recent advances in geodetic measurements along the South-American margin especially in Ecuador, Peru and Chile and the need for precise determination of the coupling amount on the megathrust interface in particular for seismic hazard assessment, led several authors to propose the existence of large-scale Andean slivers rotating clockwise and counter-clockwise South and North of the Arica bend, respectively (e.g. Chlieh et al. 2011, Nocquet et al. 2014, Métois et al. 2013). In Chile, one single large Andean sliver bounded to the west by the subduction thrust and to the east by the subandean fold-an-thrust belt active front is used to mimic the velocities observed in the middle to far field that are misfitted by elastic coupling models on the megathrust interface alone (Métois et al. 2016). This rigid sliver is supposed to rotate clockwise around a Euler pole located in the South Atlantic ocean, consistently with long-term observed rotations detected by paleomagnetism (e.g. Arriagada et al. 2008). However, recent GPS data acquired in the Taltal area ( 26°S, Klein et al. submitted) show higher than expected middle-field eastward velocities and question the first-order assumption of a rigid Andean sliver. Mis-modeling the fore-arc deformation has a direct impact on the inverted coupling amount and distribution, and could therefore bias significantly the megathrust rupture scenarios. Correctly estimating the current-day deformation of the Andes is therefore required to properly assess for coupling on the plate interface and is challenging since crustal

  17. Subduction and exhumation of a continental margin in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Insights from ultrahigh pressure metamorphism, late orogenic basins and 3D numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) represents a plate collision zone of Himalayan style and scale. Three fundamental characteristics of this orogen are: (1) early foreland-directed, tectonic transport and stacking of nappes; (2) late, wholesale reversal of tectonic transport; (3) ultrahigh pressure metamorphism of felsic crust derived from the underthrusting plate at several levels in the orogenic wedge and below the main thrust surface, indicating subduction of continental crust into the mantle. The significance of this for crustal evolution is the profound remodeling of continental crust, direct geochemical interaction of such crust and the mantle and the opening of accommodation space trapping large volumes of clastic detritus within the orogen. The orogenic wedge of the SC was derived from the upper crust of the Baltica continental margin (a hyper-extended passive margin), plus terranes derived from an assemblage of outboard arcs and intra-oceanic basins and, at the highest structural level, elements of the Laurentian margin. Nappe emplacement was driven by Scandian ( 430Ma) collision of Baltica with Laurentia, but emerging Middle Ordovician ages for diamond-facies metamorphism for the most outboard (or rifted) elements of Baltica suggest prior collision with an arc or microcontinent. Nappes derived from Baltica continental crust were subducted, in some cases to depths sufficient to form diamond. These then detached from the upper part of the down-going plate along major thrust faults, at which time they ceased to descend and possibly rose along the subduction channel. Subduction of the remaining continental margin continued below these nappes, possibly driven by slab-pull of the previously subducted Iapetus oceanic lithosphere and metamorphic densification of subducted felsic continental margin. 3D numerical modelling based upon a Caledonide-like plate scenario shows that if a continental corner or promontory enters the subduction zone, the continental margin

  18. Cenozoic sedimentation and exhumation of the foreland basin system preserved in the Precordillera thrust belt (31-32°S), southern central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Mariya; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-09-01

    Andean retroarc compression associated with subduction and shallowing of the oceanic Nazca plate resulted in thin-skinned thrusting that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin fill in the Precordillera of west-central Argentina. Evolution of the central segment of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt is informed by new analyses of clastic nonmarine deposits now preserved in three intermontane regions between major east directed thrust faults. We focus on uppermost Oligocene-Miocene basin fill in the axial to frontal Precordillera at 31-32°S along the Río San Juan (Albarracín and Pachaco sections) and the flank of one of the leading thrust structures (Talacasto section). The three successions record hinterland construction of the Frontal Cordillera, regional arc volcanism, and initial exhumation of Precordillera thrust sheets. Provenance changes recorded by detrital zircon U-Pb age populations suggest that initial shortening in the Frontal Cordillera coincided with an early Miocene shift from eolian to fluvial accumulation in the adjacent foreland basin. Upward coarsening of fluvial deposits and increased proportions of Paleozoic clasts reflect cratonward (eastward) advance of deformation into the Precordillera and resultant structural fragmentation of the foreland basin into isolated intermontane segments. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of basin fill constrains to 12-9 Ma the most probable age of uplift-induced exhumation and cooling of Precordillera thrust sheets. This apparent pulse of exhumation is evident in each succession, suggestive of rapid, large-scale exhumation by synchronous thrusting above a single décollement linking major structures of the Precordillera.

  19. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  20. GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

  1. Electrical resistivity structures and tectonic implications of Main Karakorum Thrust (MKT) in the western Himalayas: NNE Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Tallataf Hussain; Zhao, Junmeng; Xiao, Qibin; Bhatti, Zahid Imran; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Zhang, Heng; Deng, Gong; Liu, Hongbing

    2018-06-01

    We discovered a conductive zone along Main Karakoram Thrust which could be an indication of flat subduction of Kohistan island arc beneath the Eurasian plate. Kohistan island arc collided with the Karakoram Block of the Eurasian Plate in the Early Cretaceous. However, according to findings of many researchers, the subduction ceased about 75 Ma ago. The presence of the conductive zone is an indication of current magmatism or hydrothermal fluids. Maximum low-frequency band data from Fourteen sites with recording periods of 10-2-103 s was acquired along a profile crossing MKT. Our results reveal the existence of multiple low resistivity zones beneath the region extending from shallow to the depths of more than 100 km. These low-resistivity zones might be a signature of the ongoing magmatic activities or hydrothermal fluids along the Shyok Suture Zone. In addition, we discovered another large conductive body towards the south of the study area which could be a result of uprising magmatic plumes generated by the subducting Indian plate along the Indian suture zone and their entrapment in the overlying Kohistan block.

  2. Constraints on inner forearc deformation from balanced cross sections, Fila Costeña thrust belt, Costa Rica

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    Sitchler, Jason C.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Protti, Marino

    2007-12-01

    The Fila Costeña thrust belt in the forearc of Costa Rica is accommodating a significant portion of the convergence of the Cocos plate and Panama microplate. Geologic mapping of the thrust belt depicts a duplex with three horses that incorporate Eocene limestones and Oligocene to early Miocene clastics inboard of the subducting Cocos Ridge axis. By constructing a cross section at this location along a NE-SW trending transect perpendicular to the thrust belt, we constrain a shortening rate of approximately 40 mm/a and propose that as much as 50% of the total plate convergence rate is taken up in the inner forearc. The Eocene limestones at the base of the thrust sheets pinch out in both directions away from the onland projection of the Cocos Ridge axis owing to decrease in slip on faults and a lateral ramp in the basal décollement. The thrust belt terminates near the Panama border at the onland projection of the subducting Panama Fracture Zone. These observations suggest that shortening is propagating to the east with the migration of the Panama triple junction and the onset of shallow subduction of the thickened edge of the Cocos plate. The absence of similar features in the Nicaraguan forearc, where the subducting crust is older, subducts more steeply, and lacks incoming ridges and seamounts, indicates that deformation of the forearc basin in Costa Rica reflects greater coupling between the converging plates inboard of the Cocos Ridge.

  3. Heterogeneous coupling along Makran subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, located in the southeast of Iran and southern Pakistan, extends for almost 900 km along the Eurasian-Arabian plate boundary. The seismic activities in the eastern and western Makran exhibit very different patterns. The eastern Makran characterized by infrequent large earthquakes and low level of seismicity. The only large instrumentally recorded earthquake in the eastern Makran, the 27 Nov. 1945 (Mw=8.1) earthquake, was followed by tsunami waves with the maximum run-up height of 13 m and disastrous effects in Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. The western Makran, however, is apparently quiescent without strong evidence on occurrence of large earthquakes in historical times, which makes it difficult to ascertain whether the slab subducts aseismically or experiences large earthquakes separated by long periods exceeding the historical records. We used seismicity and Trench Parallel Free air and Bouguer Anomalies (TPGA and TPBA) to study the variation in coupling in the slab interface. Using a 3D mechanical Finite Element (FE) model, we show how heterogeneous coupling can influence the rate of deformation in the overriding lithosphere and the state of stress in the outer rise, overriding, and subducting plates within the shortest expected cycle of earthquake. We test the results of FE model against the observed focal mechanism of earthquakes and available GPS measurements in Makran subduction zone.

  4. Geochemistry of subduction zone serpentinites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Fabien; Godard, Marguerite; Guillot, Stéphane; Hattori, Kéiko

    2013-09-01

    Over the last decades, numerous studies have emphasized the role of serpentinites in the subduction zone geodynamics. Their presence and role in subduction environments are recognized through geophysical, geochemical and field observations of modern and ancient subduction zones and large amounts of geochemical database of serpentinites have been created. Here, we present a review of the geochemistry of serpentinites, based on the compilation of ~ 900 geochemical data of abyssal, mantle wedge and exhumed serpentinites after subduction. The aim was to better understand the geochemical evolution of these rocks during their subduction as well as their impact in the global geochemical cycle. When studying serpentinites, it is essential to determine their protoliths and their geological history before serpentinization. The geochemical data of serpentinites shows little mobility of compatible and rare earth elements (REE) at the scale of hand-specimen during their serpentinization. Thus, REE abundance can be used to identify the protolith for serpentinites, as well as magmatic processes such as melt/rock interactions before serpentinization. In the case of subducted serpentinites, the interpretation of trace element data is difficult due to the enrichments of light REE, independent of the nature of the protolith. We propose that enrichments are probably not related to serpentinization itself, but mostly due to (sedimentary-derived) fluid/rock interactions within the subduction channel after the serpentinization. It is also possible that the enrichment reflects the geochemical signature of the mantle protolith itself which could derive from the less refractory continental lithosphere exhumed at the ocean-continent transition. Additionally, during the last ten years, numerous analyses have been carried out, notably using in situ approaches, to better constrain the behavior of fluid-mobile elements (FME; e.g. B, Li, Cl, As, Sb, U, Th, Sr) incorporated in serpentine phases

  5. Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, J.H.; Lewis, S.D.; Cande, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction

  6. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Scholl, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    At ocean margins where two plates converge, the oceanic plate sinks or is subducted beneath an upper one topped by a layer of terrestrial crust. This crust is constructed of continental or island arc material. The subduction process either builds juvenile masses of terrestrial crust through arc volcanism or new areas of crust through the piling up of accretionary masses (prisms) of sedimentary deposits and fragments of thicker crustal bodies scraped off the subducting lower plate. At convergent margins, terrestrial material can also bypass the accretionary prism as a result of sediment subduction, and terrestrial matter can be removed from the upper plate by processes of subduction erosion. Sediment subduction occurs where sediment remains attached to the subducting oceanic plate and underthrusts the seaward position of the upper plate's resistive buttress (backstop) of consolidated sediment and rock. Sediment subduction occurs at two types of convergent margins: type 1 margins where accretionary prisms form and type 2 margins where little net accretion takes place. At type 2 margins (???19,000 km in global length), effectively all incoming sediment is subducted beneath the massif of basement or framework rocks forming the landward trench slope. At accreting or type 1 margins, sediment subduction begins at the seaward position of an active buttress of consolidated accretionary material that accumulated in front of a starting or core buttress of framework rocks. Where small-to-mediumsized prisms have formed (???16,300 km), approximately 20% of the incoming sediment is skimmed off a detachment surface or decollement and frontally accreted to the active buttress. The remaining 80% subducts beneath the buttress and may either underplate older parts of the frontal body or bypass the prism entirely and underthrust the leading edge of the margin's rock framework. At margins bordered by large prisms (???8,200 km), roughly 70% of the incoming trench floor section is

  7. Links Between Earthquake Characteristics and Subducting Plate Heterogeneity in the 2016 Pedernales Ecuador Earthquake Rupture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  8. Spacing of Imbricated Thrust Faults and the Strength of Thrust-Belts and Accretionary Wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Regensburger, P. V.; Moore, G. F.

    2017-12-01

    The pattern of imbricated thrust blocks is a prominent characteristic of the large-scale structure of thrust-belts and accretionary wedges around the world. Mechanical models of these systems have a rich history from laboratory analogs, and more recently from computational simulations, most of which, qualitatively reproduce the regular patterns of imbricated thrusts seen in nature. Despite the prevalence of these patterns in nature and in models, our knowledge of what controls the spacing of the thrusts remains immature at best. We tackle this problem using a finite difference, particle-in-cell method that simulates visco-elastic-plastic deformation with a Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure criterion. The model simulates a horizontal base that moves toward a rigid vertical backstop, carrying with it an overlying layer of crust. The crustal layer has a greater frictional strength than the base, is cohesive, and is initially uniform in thickness. As the layer contracts, a series of thrust blocks immerge sequentially and form a wedge having a mean taper consistent with that predicted by a noncohesive, critical Coulomb wedge. The widths of the thrust blocks (or spacing between adjacent thrusts) are greatest at the front of the wedge, tend to decrease with continued contraction, and then tend toward a pseudo-steady, minimum width. Numerous experiments show that the characteristic spacing of thrusts increases with the brittle strength of the wedge material (cohesion + friction) and decreases with increasing basal friction for low (laws that will illuminate the basic physical processes controlling systems, as well as allow researchers to use observations of thrust spacing as an independent constraint on the brittle strength of wedges as well as their bases.

  9. Heterogeneity in Subducting Slab Influences Fluid Properties, Plate Coupling and Volcanism: Hikurangi Subduction Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Reyners, M.; Bannister, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity distribution and 3-D models of P- and S-attenuation (1/Q) in the Hikurangi subduction zone, in the North Island of New Zealand, show large variation along-arc in the fluid properties of the subducting slab. Volcanism is also non-uniform, with extremely productive rhyolitic volcanism localized to the central Taupo Volcanic zone, and subduction without volcanism in the southern North Island. Plate coupling varies with heterogeneous slip deficit in the northern section, low slip deficit in the central section, and high slip deficit (strong coupling) in the south. Heterogeneous initial hydration and varied dehydration history both are inferred to play roles. The Hikurangi Plateau (large igneous province) has been subducted beneath New Zealand twice - firstly at ca. 105-100 Ma during north-south convergence with Gondwana, and currently during east-west convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates along the Hikurangi subduction zone. It has an uneven downdip edge which has produced spatially and temporally localized stalls in subduction rate. The mantle wedge under the rhyolitic section has a very low Q feature centred at 50-125 km depth, which directly overlies a 150-km long zone of dense seismicity. This seismicity occurs below a sharp transition in the downdip extent of the Hikurangi Plateau, where difficulty subducting the buoyant plateau would have created a zone of increased faulting and hydration that spent a longer time in the outer-rise yielding zone, compared with areas to the north and south. At shallow depths this section has unusually high fracture permeability from the two episodes of bending, but it did not experience dehydration during Gondwana subduction. This central section at plate interface depths less than 50-km has low Q in the slab crust, showing that it is extremely fluid rich, and it exhibits weak plate coupling with both deep and shallow slow-slip events. In contrast in the southern section, where there is a large deficit in

  10. Mantle flow influence on subduction evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, Maria V.; Spakman, Wim; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The impact of remotely forced mantle flow on regional subduction evolution is largely unexplored. Here we investigate this by means of 3D thermo-mechanical numerical modeling using a regional modeling domain. We start with simplified models consisting of a 600 km (or 1400 km) wide subducting plate surrounded by other plates. Mantle inflow of ∼3 cm/yr is prescribed during 25 Myr of slab evolution on a subset of the domain boundaries while the other side boundaries are open. Our experiments show that the influence of imposed mantle flow on subduction evolution is the least for trench-perpendicular mantle inflow from either the back or front of the slab leading to 10-50 km changes in slab morphology and trench position while no strong slab dip changes were observed, as compared to a reference model with no imposed mantle inflow. In experiments with trench-oblique mantle inflow we notice larger effects of slab bending and slab translation of the order of 100-200 km. Lastly, we investigate how subduction in the western Mediterranean region is influenced by remotely excited mantle flow that is computed by back-advection of a temperature and density model scaled from a global seismic tomography model. After 35 Myr of subduction evolution we find 10-50 km changes in slab position and slab morphology and a slight change in overall slab tilt. Our study shows that remotely forced mantle flow leads to secondary effects on slab evolution as compared to slab buoyancy and plate motion. Still these secondary effects occur on scales, 10-50 km, typical for the large-scale deformation of the overlying crust and thus may still be of large importance for understanding geological evolution.

  11. Subduction, Extension, and a Mantle Plume in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones are some of the most important systems that control the dynamics and evolution of the earth. The Cascadia Subduction Zone offers a unique natural laboratory for understanding the subduction process, and how subduction interacts with other large-scale geodynamical phenomena. The small size of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate and the proximity of the system to the Yellowstone Hotspot and the extensional Basin and Range province allow for detailed study of the effects these important systems have on each other. We present both a P-wave and an S-wave tomographic model of the Pacific Northwestern United States using regional seismic arrays, including the amphibious Cascadia Initiative. These models share important features, such as the Yellowstone plume, the subducting JdF slab, a gap in the subducting slab, and a low-velocity feature beneath the shallowest portions of the slab. But subtle differences in these features between the models—the size of the gap in the subducting JdF slab and the shape of the Yellowstone plume shaft above the transition zone, for example—provide physical insight into the interpretation of these models. The physics that we infer from our seismic tomography and other studies of the region will refine our understanding of subduction zones worldwide, and will help to identify targets for future amphibious seismic array studies. The discovery of a pronounced low-velocity feature beneath the JdF slab as it subducts beneath the coastal Pacific Northwest is, thus far, the most surprising result from our imaging work, and implies a heretofore unanticipated regime of dynamical interaction between the sublithospheric oceanic asthenosphere and the subduction process. Such discoveries are made possible, and rendered interpretable, by ever-increasing resolution that the Cascadia Initiative affords seismic tomography models.

  12. Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting in Subduction Zones: Inference from Pseudotachylytes and Ultracataclasites in an Ancient Accretionary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ujiie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fault rocks in ancient accretionary complexes exhumed from seismogenic depths may provide an invaluable opportunity to examine the mechanisms and mechanics of seismic slip in subduction thrusts and splay faults. In order to understand the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones, we analyzed pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites from the Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.21.2007

  13. Migration Imaging of the Java Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Ramin M. H.; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging of tectonically complex regions can greatly benefit from dense network data and resolution enhancement techniques. Conventional methods in the analysis of SS precursors stack the waveforms to obtain an average discontinuity depth, but smearing due to large Fresnel zones can degrade the fine-scale topography on the discontinuity. To provide a partial solution, we introduce a depth migration algorithm based on the common scattering point method while considering nonspecular diffractions from mantle transition zone discontinuities. Our analysis indicates that, beneath the Sunda arc, the depth of the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) is elevated by 30 km and the 660 km discontinuity (the 660) is depressed by 20-40 km; the region of the strongest anticorrelation is correlated with the morphology of the subducting Indo-Australian slab. In eastern Java, a "flat" 410 coincides with a documented slab gap, showing length scales greater than 400 km laterally and 200 km vertically. This observation could be explained by the arrival of a buoyant oceanic plateau at the Java trench at approximately 8 Ma ago, which may have caused a temporary cessation of subduction and formed a tear in the subducting slab. Our results highlight contrasting depths of the 410 and 660 along the shallow-dipping slab below the Banda trench. The 660, however, becomes significantly uplifted beneath the Banda Sea, which is accompanied by enhanced reflection amplitudes. We interpret these observations as evidence for a subslab low-velocity zone, possibly related to the lower mantle upwelling beneath the subducting slab.

  14. a Revision to the Tectonics of the Flores Back-Arc Thrust Zone, Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikku, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Flores and Bali Basins are continental basins in the Flores back-arc thrust zone associated with Eocene subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda plate followed by Miocene to present-day inversion/thrusting. The basins are east of Java and north of the islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the East Java Sea area of Indonesia. The tectonic interpretation of these basins is based on seismic, bathymetry and gravity data and is also supported by present-day GPS measurements that demonstrate subduction is no longer active across the Flores thrust zone. Current thinking about the area is that the Flores Basin (on the east end of the thrust zone) had the most extension in the back-arc thrust and may be a proto-oceanic basin, though the option of a purely continental extensional basin can not be ruled out. The Bali Basin (on the west end of the thrust zone) is thought to be shallower and have experienced less continental thinning and extension than the Flores Basin. Depth to basement estimates from recently collected marine magnetic data indicate the depth of the Bali Basin may be comparable to the depth of the Flores Basin. Analysis of the marine magnetic data and potential implications of relative plate motions will be presented.

  15. Robust control for constant thrust rendezvous under thrust failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yongqiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust constant thrust rendezvous approach under thrust failure is proposed based on the relative motion dynamic model. Firstly, the design problem is cast into a convex optimization problem by introducing a Lyapunov function subject to linear matrix inequalities. Secondly, the robust controllers satisfying the requirements can be designed by solving this optimization problem. Then, a new algorithm of constant thrust fitting is proposed through the impulse compensation and the fuel consumption under the theoretical continuous thrust and the actual constant thrust is calculated and compared by using the method proposed in this paper. Finally, the proposed method having the advantage of saving fuel is proved and the actual constant thrust switch control laws are obtained through the isochronous interpolation method, meanwhile, an illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control design method.

  16. Interaction between two subducting plates under Tokyo and its possible effects on seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis; Okaya, David; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2007-09-01

    Underneath metropolitan Tokyo the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts to the north on top of the westward subducting Pacific plate (PAC). New, relatively high-resolution tomography images the PHS as a well-defined subduction zone under western Kanto Plain. As PAC shoals under eastern Kanto, the PHS lithosphere is being thrusted into an increasingly tighter space of the PAC-Eurasian mantle wedge. As a result, zones of enhanced seismicity appear under eastern Kanto at the top of PHS, internal to PHS and also at its contact with PAC. These zones are located at depths greater than the causative fault of the disastrous 1923 Great Tokyo ``megathrust'' earthquake, in the vicinity of several well-located historical, damaging (M6 and M7) earthquakes. Thus a rather unique interaction between subducting plates under Tokyo may account for additional seismic hazards in metropolitan Tokyo.

  17. Nanonewton thrust measurement of photon pressure propulsion using semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, K.; Akazawa, Taku; Ohtsuka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the thrust produced by photon pressure emitted from a 100 W class continuous-wave semiconductor laser, a torsion-balance precise thrust stand is designed and tested. Photon emission propulsion using semiconductor light sources attract interests as a possible candidate for deep-space propellant-less propulsion and attitude control system. However, the thrust produced by photon emission as large as several ten nanonewtons requires precise thrust stand. A resonant method is adopted to enhance the sensitivity of the biflier torsional-spring thrust stand. The torsional spring constant and the resonant of the stand is 1.245 × 10-3 Nm/rad and 0.118 Hz, respectively. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The thrust efficiency for photon propulsion was also defined. A maximum thrust of 499 nN was produced by the laser with 208 W input power (75 W of optical output) corresponding to a thrust efficiency of 36.7%. The minimum detectable thrust of the stand was estimated to be 2.62 nN under oscillation at a frequency close to resonance.

  18. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  19. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  20. THE MISSING EARTHQUAKES OF HUMBOLDT COUNTY: RECONCILING RECURRENCE INTERVAL ESTIMATES, SOUTHERN CASCADIA SUBDUCTION ZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake and tsunami hazard for northwestern California and southern Oregon is predominately based on estimates of recurrence for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone and upper plate thrust faults, each with unique deformation and recurrence histories. Coastal northern California is uniquely located to enable us to distinguish these different sources of seismic hazard as the accretionary prism extends on land in this region. This region experiences ground deformation from rupture of upper plate thrust faults like the Little Salmon fault. Most of this region is thought to be above the locked zone of the megathrust, so is subject to vertical deformation during the earthquake cycle. Secondary evidence of earthquake history is found here in the form of marsh soils that coseismically subside and commonly are overlain by estuarine mud and rarely tsunami sand. It is not currently known what the source of the subsidence is for this region; it may be due to upper plate rupture, megathrust rupture, or a combination of the two. Given that many earlier investigations utilized bulk peat for 14C age determinations and that these early studies were largely reconnaissance work, these studies need to be reevaluated. Recurrence Interval estimates are inconsistent when comparing terrestrial (~500 years) and marine (~220 years) data sets. This inconsistency may be due to 1) different sources of archival bias in marine and terrestrial data sets and/or 2) different sources of deformation. Factors controlling successful archiving of paleoseismic data are considered as this relates to geologic setting and how that might change through time. We compile, evaluate, and rank existing paleoseismic data in order to prioritize future paleoseismic investigations. 14C ages are recalibrated and quality assessments are made for each age determination. We then evaluate geologic setting and prioritize important research locations and goals based on these existing data. Terrestrial core

  1. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  2. Dynamics of subduction, accretion, exhumation and slab roll-back: Mediterranean scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.; Burov, E. B.; Wortel, M. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2010-12-01

    A dynamic orogen reveals various tectonic processes brought about by subduction: accretion of oceanic and continental crust, exhumation of UHP-HP rocks, and often, back-arc extension. In the Mediterranean, orogeny is strongly affected by slab retreat, as in the Aegean and Tyrrhenian Seas. In order to examine the different dynamic processes in a self-consistent manner, we perform a parametric study using the fully coupled thermo-mechanical numerical code PARAFLAM. The experiments reproduce a subduction zone in a slab pull mode, with accretion of one (the Tyrrhenian case) and two continental blocks (the Aegean case) that undergo, in sequence, thrusting, burial and exhumation. The modeling shows that despite differences in structure between the two cases, the deformation mechanisms are fundamentally similar and can be described as follows. The accretion of a continental block at the trench beneath the suture zone begins with its burial to UHP-HP conditions and thrusting. Then the continental block is delaminated from its subducting lithosphere. During the subduction-accretion process, the angle of the subducting slab increases due to the buoyancy of the continental block. When the oceanic subduction resumes, the angle of the slab decreases to reach a steady-state position. The Aegean and Tyrrhenian scenarios diverge at this stage, due naturally to the differences of their accretion history. When continental accretion is followed by oceanic subduction only, the continental block that has been accreted and detached stays at close to the trench and does not undergo further deformation, despite the continuing rollback. The extensional deformation is located further within the overriding plate, resulting in continental breakup and the development of an oceanic basin, as in the Tyrrhenian domain. When the continental accretion is followed first by oceanic subduction and then by accretion of another continental block, however, the evolution of the subduction zone is

  3. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  4. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  5. Transient analysis of blowdown thrust force under PWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Isozaki, Toshikuni

    1982-10-01

    The analytical results of blowdown characteristics and thrust forces were compared with the experiments, which were performed as pipe whip and jet discharge tests under the PWR LOCA conditions. The blowdown thrust forces obtained by Navier-Stokes momentum equation about a single-phase, homogeneous and separated two-phase flow, assuming critical pressure at the exit if a critical flow condition was satisfied. The following results are obtained. (1) The node-junction method is useful for both the analyses of the blowdown thrust force and of the water hammer phenomena. (2) The Henry-Fauske model for subcooled critical flow is effective for the analysis of the maximum thrust force under the PWR LOCA conditions. The jet thrust parameter of the analysis and experiment is equal to 1.08. (3) The thrust parameter of saturated blowdown has the same one with the value under pressurized condition when the stagnant pressure is chosen as the saturated one. (4) The dominant terms of the blowdown thrust force in the momentum equation are the pressure and momentum terms except that the acceleration term has large contribution only just after the break. (5) The blowdown thrust force in the analysis greatly depends on the selection of the exit pressure. (author)

  6. Micro thrust and heat generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  7. The dynamics of double slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L. H.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-04-01

    We use numerical models to investigate the dynamics of two interacting slabs with parallel trenches. Cases considered are: a single slab reference, outward dipping slabs (out-dip), inward dipping slabs (in-dip) and slabs dipping in the same direction (same-dip). Where trenches converge over time (same-dip and out-dip systems), large positive dynamic pressures in the asthenosphere are generated beneath the middle plate and large trench-normal extensional forces are transmitted through the middle plate. This results in slabs that dip away from the middle plate at depth, independent of trench geometry. The single slab, the front slab in the same-dip case and both out-dip slabs undergo trench retreat and exhibit stable subduction. However, slabs within the other double subduction systems tend to completely overturn at the base of the upper mantle, and exhibit either trench advance (rear slab in same-dip), or near-stationary trenches (in-dip). For all slabs, the net slab-normal dynamic pressure at 330 km depth is nearly equal to the slab-normal force induced by slab buoyancy. For double subduction, the net outward force on the slabs due to dynamic pressure from the asthenosphere is effectively counterbalanced by the net extensional force transmitted through the middle plate. Thus, dynamic pressure at depth, interplate coupling and lithospheric stresses are closely linked and their effects cannot be isolated. Our results provide insights into both the temporal evolution of double slab systems on Earth and, more generally, how the various components of subduction systems, from mantle flow/pressure to interplate coupling, are dynamically linked.

  8. Design, analysis and control of large transports so that control of engine thrust can be used as a back-up of the primary flight controls. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Ackers, Deane E.; Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system has been developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to provide safe, emergency landing capability should the primary flight control system of the aircraft fail. As a result of the successful PCA work being done at NASA Dryden, this project investigated the possibility of incorporating the PCA system as a backup flight control system in the design of a large, ultra-high capacity megatransport in such a way that flight path control using only the engines is not only possible, but meets MIL-Spec Level 1 or Level 2 handling quality requirements. An 800 passenger megatransport aircraft was designed and programmed into the NASA Dryden simulator. Many different analysis methods were used to evaluate the flying qualities of the megatransport while using engine thrust for flight path control, including: (1) Bode and root locus plot analysis to evaluate the frequency and damping ratio response of the megatransport; (2) analysis of actual simulator strip chart recordings to evaluate the time history response of the megatransport; and (3) analysis of Cooper-Harper pilot ratings by two NaSA test pilots.

  9. Detecting Significant Stress Drop Variations in Large Micro-Earthquake Datasets: A Comparison Between a Convergent Step-Over in the San Andreas Fault and the Ventura Thrust Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should

  10. Thermotectonic history of the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt, Peru: Insights into mineralisation in an evolving orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrenberg, Arne F.; Kohn, Barry P.; Holcombe, Rodney J.; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Fold-thrust belts along convergent margins around the world host major ore deposits. The origin of such ore deposits is commonly episodic and so are the temporal and spatial variations in deformation styles in these fold-thrust belts. Here we focus on the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) of the Peruvian Andes, and demonstrate a link between the spatio-temporal distribution of ore deposits and thick-skinned tectonics. We present low-temperature thermochronology results from the MFTB that document the uplift/exhumation history and timing of thick-skinned tectonics and vergence reversal. Our results suggest that the thermal history of the MFTB involved two discrete intervals of opposed-vergence, large-scale crustal deformation since the Late Cretaceous. An early interval, at 80-20 Ma, was associated with folding and east-vergent thin-skinned tectonics, and was followed by west-vergent thick-skinned deformation at 20-0 Ma. Furthermore, our findings suggest that thick-skinned contraction was coincident with increased focusing of mineralising fluids and ore deposition in the MFTB during the early Miocene, and in the mid-Miocene both mineralisation and deformation were enhanced by subduction of the Nazca Ridge underneath the South American Plate.

  11. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  12. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  13. Shaping low-thrust trajectories with thrust-handling feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ehsan; Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Atkins, Ella

    2018-02-01

    Shape-based methods are becoming popular in low-thrust trajectory optimization due to their fast computation speeds. In existing shape-based methods constraints are treated at the acceleration level but not at the thrust level. These two constraint types are not equivalent since spacecraft mass decreases over time as fuel is expended. This paper develops a shape-based method based on a Fourier series approximation that is capable of representing trajectories defined in spherical coordinates and that enforces thrust constraints. An objective function can be incorporated to minimize overall mission cost, i.e., achieve minimum ΔV . A representative mission from Earth to Mars is studied. The proposed Fourier series technique is demonstrated capable of generating feasible and near-optimal trajectories. These attributes can facilitate future low-thrust mission designs where different trajectory alternatives must be rapidly constructed and evaluated.

  14. The fate of carbonates along a subducting slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilhol, P.; Debret, B.; Inglis, E.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon long-term cycling is a subject of recent controversy as new mass balance calculations suggest that most carbon is transferred from the slab to the mantle wedge by fluids during subduction, limiting the efficiency of carbon recycling to the deep mantle. Here, we examine the mobility of carbon at large scale during subduction through field, petrographic and geochemical studies on exhumed portion of the alpine slab that have recorded different metamorphic conditions during subduction. We studied serpentinite samples, metasomatic horizon between serpentinites and sediments, as well as veins hosted in serpentinites. Samples are from the Western Alps (Queyras and Zermatt) and have recorded a prograde metamorphic history from low temperature blueshist to eclogite facies P-T conditions. We show that during subduction there are several stages of carbonate precipitation and dissolution at metasomatic interfaces between metasedimentary and ultramafic rocks in the slab, as well as within the serpentinites. The early stage of subduction sees carbonate precipitation from the sediment derived fluids into the serpentnites. At higher temperature, when the dehydration shift from sediment to serpentinite dominated, the carbonates are dissolved, inducing the release of CO2 rich fluids. This occurs before the eclogite facies is attained, providing strong evidence for the mobility of carbon in fluids during the early stages of subduction. These fluids are a potential metasomatic agent for the fore-arc mantle wedge, corroborating the observation of carbonate bearing veins in sub-arc mantle ultramafic rocks. In eclogite facies conditions, olivine and carbonate veins within the serpentinites witness the mobility of CO2 during serpentinite dehydration, and may provide clues about the large scale recycling of CO2 within the deep mantle, as well as secondary precipitation associated with exhumation. Trace elements, Fe and Zn isotopic composition of the different samples provides

  15. Aircraft Horizontal Thrust Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is designed to support the DoD mission by providing unique air vehicle installed engine performance (thrust output) measurements. This system consists...

  16. Stress rotation across the Cascadia megathrust requires a weak subduction plate boundary at seismogenic depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Liu, Yajing; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2018-01-01

    The Mendocino Triple Junction region is the most seismically active part of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The northward moving Pacific plate collides with the subducting Gorda plate causing intense internal deformation within it. Here we show that the stress field rotates rapidly with depth across the thrust interface from a strike-slip regime within the subducting plate, reflecting the Pacific plate collision, to a thrust regime in the overriding plate. We utilize a dense focal mechanism dataset, including observations from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismograph experiment, to constrain the stress orientations. To quantify the implications of this rotation for the strength of the plate boundary, we designed an inversion that solves for the absolute stress tensors in a three-layer model subject to assumptions about the strength of the subducting mantle. Our results indicate that the shear stress on the plate boundary fault is likely no more than about ∼50 MPa at ∼20 km depth. Regardless of the assumed mantle strength, we infer a relatively weak megathrust fault with an effective friction coefficient of ∼0 to 0.2 at seismogenic depths. Such a low value for the effective friction coefficient requires a combination of high fluid pressures and/or fault-zone minerals with low inherent friction in the region where a great earthquake is expected in Cascadia.

  17. Stress rotation across the Cascadia megathrust requires a weak subduction plate boundary at seismogenic depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Liu, Yajing; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2018-03-01

    The Mendocino Triple Junction region is the most seismically active part of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The northward moving Pacific plate collides with the subducting Gorda plate causing intense internal deformation within it. Here we show that the stress field rotates rapidly with depth across the thrust interface from a strike-slip regime within the subducting plate, reflecting the Pacific plate collision, to a thrust regime in the overriding plate. We utilize a dense focal mechanism dataset, including observations from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismograph experiment, to constrain the stress orientations. To quantify the implications of this rotation for the strength of the plate boundary, we designed an inversion that solves for the absolute stress tensors in a three-layer model subject to assumptions about the strength of the subducting mantle. Our results indicate that the shear stress on the plate boundary fault is likely no more than about ∼50 MPa at ∼20 km depth. Regardless of the assumed mantle strength, we infer a relatively weak megathrust fault with an effective friction coefficient of ∼0 to 0.2 at seismogenic depths. Such a low value for the effective friction coefficient requires a combination of high fluid pressures and/or fault-zone minerals with low inherent friction in the region where a great earthquake is expected in Cascadia.

  18. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  19. Velocities of Subducted Sediments and Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, B. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Abers, G. A.; Seward, G.

    2009-12-01

    The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to unusual observations. For example, although most minerals have VP/ VS ratios around 1.77, ratios 1.8 have been observed. Here we explore the velocities of subducted sediments and continental crust from trench to sub-arc depths using two methods. (1) Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of subducted sediment compositions using Perple_X, and rock velocities were calculated using the methodology of Hacker & Abers [2004]. Calculated slab-top temperatures have 3 distinct depth intervals with different dP/dT gradients that are determined by how coupling between the slab and mantle wedge is modeled. These three depth intervals show concomitant changes in VP and VS: velocities initially increase with depth, then decrease beyond the modeled decoupling depth where induced flow in the wedge causes rapid heating, and increase again at depth. Subducted limestones, composed chiefly of aragonite, show monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.63 to 1.72. Cherts show large jumps in VP/ VS from 1.55-1.65 to 1.75 associated with the quartz-coesite transition. Terrigenous sediments dominated by quartz and mica show similar, but more-subdued, transitions from ~1.67 to 1.78. Pelagic sediments dominated by mica and clinopyroxene show near-monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.74 to 1.80. Subducted continental crust that is too dry to transform to high-pressure minerals has a VP/ VS ratio of 1.68-1.70. (2) Velocity anisotropy calculations were made for the same P-T dependent mineralogies using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations measured via electron-backscatter diffraction for typical constituent phases. The calculated velocity anisotropies range from 5-30%. For quartz-rich rocks, the calculated velocities show a distinct depth dependence because crystal slip systems and CPOs change with temperature. In such rocks, the fast VP direction varies from slab-normal at

  20. Subduction of a buoyant plateau at the Manila Trench: Tomographic evidence and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianke; Zhao, Dapeng; Dong, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    We determined P-wave tomographic images by inverting a large number of arrival-time data from 2749 local earthquakes and 1462 teleseismic events, which are used to depict the three-dimensional morphology of the subducted Eurasian Plate along the northern segment of the Manila Trench. Dramatic changes in the dip angle of the subducted Eurasian Plate are revealed from the north to the south, being consistent with the partial subduction of a buoyant plateau beneath the Luzon Arc. Slab tears may exist along the edges of the buoyant plateau within the subducted plate induced by the plateau subduction, and the subducted lithosphere may be absent at depths greater than 250 km at ˜19°N and ˜21°N. The subducted buoyant plateau is possibly oriented toward NW-SE, and the subducted plate at ˜21°N is slightly steeper than that at ˜19°N. These results may explain why the western and eastern volcanic chains in the Luzon Arc are separated by ˜50 km at ˜18°N, whereas they converge into a single volcanic chain northward, which may be related to the oblique subduction along the Manila Trench caused by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. A low-velocity zone is revealed at depths of 20-200 km beneath the Manila Accretionary Prism at ˜22°N, suggesting that the subduction along the Manila Trench may stop there and the collision develops northward. The Taiwan Orogeny may originate directly from the subduction of the buoyant plateau, because the initial time of the Taiwan Orogeny is coincident with that of the buoyant plateau subduction.

  1. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  2. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  3. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  4. Tomography and Dynamics of Western-Pacific Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    We review the significant recent results of multiscale seismic tomography of the Western-Pacific subduction zones and discuss their implications for seismotectonics, magmatism, and subduction dynamics, with an emphasis on the Japan Islands. Many important new findings are obtained due to technical advances in tomography, such as the handling of complex-shaped velocity discontinuities, the use of various later phases, the joint inversion of local and teleseismic data, tomographic imaging outside a seismic network, and P-wave anisotropy tomography. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) and high-attenuation (low-Q) zones are revealed in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath active arc and back-arc volcanoes and they extend to the deeper portion of the mantle wedge, indicating that the low-V/low-Q zones form the sources of arc magmatism and volcanism, and the arc magmatic system is related to deep processes such as convective circulation in the mantle wedge and dehydration reactions in the subducting slab. Seismic anisotropy seems to exist in all portions of the Northeast Japan subduction zone, including the upper and lower crust, the mantle wedge and the subducting Pacific slab. Multilayer anisotropies with different orientations may have caused the apparently weak shear-wave splitting observed so far, whereas recent results show a greater effect of crustal anisotropy than previously thought. Deep subduction of the Philippine Sea slab and deep dehydration of the Pacific slab are revealed beneath Southwest Japan. Significant structural heterogeneities are imaged in the source areas of large earthquakes in the crust, subducting slab and interplate megathrust zone, which may reflect fluids and/or magma originating from slab dehydration that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. These results suggest that large earthquakes do not strike anywhere, but in only anomalous areas that may be detected with geophysical methods. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under

  5. Some consequences of the subduction of young slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    England, P.; Wortel, R.

    The negative buoyancy force exerted by a subducting oceanic slab depends on its descent velocity, and strongly on its age. For lithosphere close to thermal equilibrium, this force dominates by a large margin the resisting forces arising from friction on the plate boundary and compositional buoyancy.

  6. The structure of the Calabrian subduction system from the fore-arc to the back-arc: new insights from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, M.; Sallares, V.; Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.; Zitellini, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Calabrian arc is a Neogene-Quaternary arcuate orogen result from the subduction of the Ionian Lithosphere under Calabria. The SE migration of this subduction system, triggered by slab rollback, caused the opening of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. The large-scale lithospheric structure of the subduction system is mostly imaged by regional earthquake tomography studies. The limited resolution of these studies, however, hinders the definition of smaller-scale details on the location, nature and transition of different lithospheric domains, which are crucial to study the geodynamic evolution of the system. Here we perform travel-time tomography of offshore and onshore active-source wide-angle seismic data to define the 2D Vp structure of the entire Calabrian subduction system. The data were acquired along a 550 km-long transect that extends from the Tyrrhenian back-arc domain to the fore-arc in the Ionian Sea, across Calabria. From NW to SE, the tomographic model shows abrupt variations of the velocity structure. In the back-arc system, particularly in the Vavilov and Marsili basins, OBS sections lack PmP-like arrivals and the velocity structure shows a continuous and strong vertical velocity gradient of 1 s-1. These results strongly support the presence of a basement made of exhumed mantle rocks. Between the Vavilov and Marsili basins, a relatively thick, low-velocity block is interpreted to be of continental affinity. The transition between Marsili Basin and Calabria is marked by a steep Moho geometry that shallows from SE to NW, revealing a dramatic crustal thinning along the N Calabrian margin. The lower crust of the margin has localized Vp of 7 km/s under the submarine volcanic arc. SE Calabria, the model shows a strong horizontal velocity gradient that is interpreted as the backstop of the subduction. In the Ionian, a 3-5 km thick sedimentary wedge thickens towards the NW. The frontal part of the wedge shows sub-vertical low-velocity anomalies indicating the

  7. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  8. Thrust Measurement of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators: New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis, Frequency Sweeps Methodology, Humidity and Enclosure Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust, or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a grounded large-diameter metal sleeve. Strong dependence on humidity is also shown; the thrust significantly increased with decreasing humidity, e

  9. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here

  10. Imaging subducted slabs using seismic arrays in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale structure of the Earth. Such structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is therefore essential in our understanding of mantle convection and the composition of the Earth’s deep interior. As subduction is the main source of (re)introducing slab material into the Earth, it is of particular interest to track these heterogeneities. Resolving details of the composition and deformation of subducted lithosphere can help provide constraints on the subduction process, the composition of the mantle and mantle convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with western Pacfic subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. Seismic energy arriving prior to the PP arrival was analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska. More than 200 earthquakes were selected with Mw ≥ 6 and with epicentral distances of 90-110deg, giving a good coverage of the PP precursor (P*P) wavefield. Initial findings indicate that the observed P*P arrive out of plane and are likely a result of scattering. These scatterers are linked to the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Philippine Sea in the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones. To enable efficient processing of large datasets, a robust automatic coherent (but unpredicted) arrival detector algorithm has been developed to select suitable precursors. Slowness and backazimuth were calculated for each precursor and were used in conjunction with P*P arrival times to back-raytrace the energy from the array to the scatterer location. Processing of the full dataset will help refine models regarding slab deformation as they descend into the mantle as well as unveiling the depth of their descent.

  11. Geothermics of the Apenninic subduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zito

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The subduction of the Adriatic microplate is analysed from a geothermal point of view. In particular four main geodynamic units are distinguished: foreland, foredeep and slab, accretionary prism, and back-arc basin. Each of them is examined from a geothermal point of view and the related open question are discussed. The most relevant results are the determination of the undisturbed geothermal gradient in the aquifer of the foreland; the discovery of a « hot » accretionary prism; and a new model of instantaneous extension of the back-arc basins. The main conclusion is that geothermal data are consistent with a westward dipping subduction that migrated eastward producing a sequence of several episodes at the surface.

  12. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  14. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Makran Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, C.; Tavakoli, F.; Sobouti, F.; Copley, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Jackson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, along the southern coasts of Iran and Pakistan, hosts the world's largest exposed accretionary prism. In contrast to the circum-Pacific subduction zones, the Makran has not been extensively studied, with seismic data collected in the offshore region presenting only a time-integrated picture of the deformation. We investigate spatio-temporal variations in the deformation of the accretionary prism and the insights these offer into subduction zone driving forces and megathrust rheology. We combine seismology, geodesy and field observations to study the 2013 Mw 6.1 Minab earthquake, which occurred at the western end of the accretionary prism. We find that the earthquake was a left-lateral rupture on an ENE-WSW plane, approximately perpendicular to the previously mapped faults in the region. The causative fault of the Minab earthquake is one of a series of left-lateral faults in the region which accommodate a velocity field equivalent to right-lateral shear on N-S planes by rotating clockwise about vertical axes. Another recent strike-slip event within the Makran accretionary wedge was the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, which occurred on a fault optimally oriented to accommodate the regional compression by thrusting. The dominance of strike-slip faulting within the onshore prism, on faults perpendicular to the regional compression, suggests that the prism may have reached the maximum elevation which the megathrust can support, with the compressional forces which dominated in the early stages of the collision now balanced by gravitational forces. This observation allows us to estimate the mean shear stress on the megathrust interface and its effective coefficient of friction.

  15. How material contrast around subduction faults may control coseismic slip and rupture dynamics: tsunami applications for the case study of Tohoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Murphy, Shane; Romano, Fabrizio; Lorito, Stefano; Festa, Gaetano; Volpe, Manuela; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    Recent megathrust tsunamigenic events, e.g. Maule 2010 (M8.8) and Tohoku 2011 (M9.0), generated huge tsunami waves as a consequence of high slip in the shallow part of the respective subduction zone. Other events, (e.g. the recent Mentawai 2010, M7.8, or the historical Meiji 1896, M8.2), referred to as tsunami earthquakes, produced unexpectedly large tsunami waves, probably due to large slip at shallow depth over longer rupture durations compared to deeper thrust events. Subduction zone earthquakes originate and propagate along bimaterial interfaces separating materials having different elastic properties, e.g. continental and oceanic crust, a stiffer deep mantle wedge, shallow compliant accretionary prism etc. Bimaterial interfaces have been showed, through observations (seismological and laboratory) and theoretical studies, to affect the rupture: introducing a preferred rupture direction as well as asymmetric rupture velocities and shear stress redistributions. Such features are predominantly due to the break of symmetry between the two sides of the interface in turn ascribable to the complex coupling between the frictional interfacial sliding and the slip-induced normal stress perturbations. In order to examine the influence of material contrast on a fault plane on the seismic source and tsunami waves, we modelled a Tohoku-like subduction zone to perform a large number of 2D along-dip rupture dynamics simulations in the framework of linear slip weakening both for homogeneous and bimaterial fault. In this latter model, the rupture acts as the interface between the subducting oceanic crust and the overriding layers (accretionary prism, continental crust and mantle wedge), varying the position of the shear stress asperity acting as nucleation patch. Initial results reveal that ruptures in homogeneous media produce earthquakes with large slip at depth compared to the case where bi-material interface is included. However the opposite occurs for events nucleating at

  16. Modeling the Geometry of Plate Boundary and Seismic Structure in the Southern Ryukyu Trench Subduction Zone, Japan, Using Amphibious Seismic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Arai, R.; Obana, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Miura, S.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present the new model, the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate interface beneath the southern Ryukyu Trench subduction zone, estimated from seismic tomography and focal mechanism estimation by using passive and active data from a temporary amphibious seismic network and permanent land stations. Using relocated low-angle thrust-type earthquakes, repeating earthquakes, and structural information, we constrained the geometry of plate boundary from the trench axis to a 60 km depth with uncertainties of less than 5 km. The estimated plate geometry model exhibited large variation, including a pronounced convex structure that may be evidence of a subducted seamount in the eastern portion of study area, whereas the western part appeared smooth. We also found that the active earthquake region near the plate boundary, defined by the distance from our plate geometry model, was clearly separated from the area dominated by short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). The oceanic crust just beneath the SSE-dominant region, the western part of the study area, showed high Vp/Vs ratios (>1.8), whereas the eastern side showed moderate or low Vp/Vs (<1.75). We interpreted this as an indication that high fluid pressures near the surface of the slab are contributing to the SSE activities. Within the toe of the mantle wedge, P and S wave velocities (<7.5 and <4.2 km/s, respectively) lower than those observed through normal mantle peridotite might suggest that some portions of the mantle may be at least 40% serpentinized.

  17. The link between great earthquakes and the subduction of oceanic fracture zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Müller

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant subduction earthquakes are known to occur in areas not previously identified as prone to high seismic risk. This highlights the need to better identify subduction zone segments potentially dominated by relatively long (up to 1000 yr and more recurrence times of giant earthquakes. We construct a model for the geometry of subduction coupling zones and combine it with global geophysical data sets to demonstrate that the occurrence of great (magnitude ≥ 8 subduction earthquakes is strongly biased towards regions associated with intersections of oceanic fracture zones and subduction zones. We use a computational recommendation technology, a type of information filtering system technique widely used in searching, sorting, classifying, and filtering very large, statistically skewed data sets on the Internet, to demonstrate a robust association and rule out a random effect. Fracture zone–subduction zone intersection regions, representing only 25% of the global subduction coupling zone, are linked with 13 of the 15 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.6 and half of the 50 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes. In contrast, subducting volcanic ridges and chains are only biased towards smaller earthquakes (magnitude < 8. The associations captured by our statistical analysis can be conceptually related to physical differences between subducting fracture zones and volcanic chains/ridges. Fracture zones are characterised by laterally continuous, uplifted ridges that represent normal ocean crust with a high degree of structural integrity, causing strong, persistent coupling in the subduction interface. Smaller volcanic ridges and chains have a relatively fragile heterogeneous internal structure and are separated from the underlying ocean crust by a detachment interface, resulting in weak coupling and relatively small earthquakes, providing a conceptual basis for the observed dichotomy.

  18. Neogene subduction beneath Java, Indonesia: Slab tearing and changes in magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Michael; Hall, Robert; Cross, Lanu; Clements, Benjamin; Spakman, Wim

    2010-05-01

    Java is a Neogene calc-alkaline volcanic island arc formed by the northwards subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. The island has a complex history of volcanism and displays unusual subduction characteristics. These characteristics are consistent with the subduction of a hole in the down going slab that was formed by the arrival of a buoyant oceanic plateau at the trench. Subduction beneath Java began in the Eocene. However, the position and character of the calc-alkaline arc has changed over time. An older Paleogene arc ceased activity in the Early Miocene. Volcanic activity resumed in the Late Miocene producing a younger arc to the north of the older arc, and continues to the present day. An episode of Late Miocene thrusting at about 7 Ma is observed throughout Java and appears to be linked to northward movement of the arc. Arc rocks display typical calc-alkaline characteristics and reflect melting of the mantle wedge and subducted sediments associated with high fluid fluxes. Between West Java and Bali the present arc-trench gap is unusually wide at about 300 km. Seismicity identifies subducted Indian Ocean lithosphere that dips north at about 20° between the trench and the arc and then dips more steeply at about 60-70° from 100 to 600 km depth. In East Java there is gap in seismicity between about 250 and 500 km. Seismic tomography shows that this gap is not an aseismic section of the subduction zone but a hole in the slab. East Java is also unusual in the presence of K-rich volcanoes, now inactive, to the north of the calc-alkaline volcanoes of the active arc. In contrast to the calc-alkaline volcanism of the main arc, these K-rich melts imply lower fluid fluxes and a different mantle source. We suggest that all these observations can be explained by the tearing of the subducting slab when a buoyant oceanic plateau arrived at the trench south of East Java at about 8 Ma. With the slab unable to subduct

  19. A Determinate Model of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N.; Krothapalli, A.; van Dommelen, L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the compressible flow through a constant-area jet-engine ejector in which a primary jet mixes with ambient fluid from a uniform free stream is pursued. The problem is reduced to a determinate mathematical one by prescribing the ratios of stagnation properties between the primary and secondary flows. For some selections of properties and parameters more than one solution is possible and the meaning of these solutions is discussed by means of asymptotic expansions. Our results further show that while under stationary conditions the thrust-augmentation ratio assumes a value of 2 in the large area-ratio limit, for a free-stream Mach number greater than 0.6 very little thrust augmentation is left. Due to the assumptions made, the analysis provides idealized values for the thrust-augmentation ratio and the mass flux entrainment factor.

  20. What role did the Hikurangi subduction zone play in the M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L. M.; Hamling, I. J.; Kaneko, Y.; Fry, B.; Clark, K.; Bannister, S. C.; Ellis, S. M.; Francois-Holden, C.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Mueller, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake ruptured at least a dozen faults in the northern South Island of New Zealand, within the transition from the Hikurangi subduction zone (in the North Island) to the transpressive Alpine Fault (in the central South Island). The role that the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone played (or did not play) in the Kaikoura earthquake remains one of the most controversial aspects of this spectacularly complex earthquake. Investigations using near-field seismological and geodetic data suggest a dominantly crustal faulting source for the event, while studies relying on teleseismic data propose that a large portion of the moment release is due to rupture of the Hikurangi subduction interface beneath the northern South Island. InSAR and GPS data also show that a large amount of afterslip (up to 0.5 m) occurred on the subduction interface beneath the crustal faults that ruptured in the M7.8 earthquake, during the months following the earthquake. Modeling of GPS velocities for the 20 year period prior to the earthquake indicate that interseismic coupling was occurring on the Hikurangi subduction interface beneath the northern South Island, in a similar location to the suggested coseismic and postseismic slip on the subduction interface. We will integrate geodetic, seismological, tsunami, and geological observations in an attempt to balance the seemingly conflicting views from local and teleseismic data regarding the role that the southern Hikurangi subduction zone played in the earthquake. We will also discuss the broader implications of the observed coseismic and postseismic deformation for understanding the kinematics of the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction zone, and its role in the transition from subduction to strike-slip in the central New Zealand region.

  1. Distinguishing thrust sequences in gravity-driven fold and thrust belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Marco, S.

    2018-04-01

    Piggyback or foreland-propagating thrust sequences, where younger thrusts develop in the footwalls of existing thrusts, are generally assumed to be the typical order of thrust development in most orogenic settings. However, overstep or 'break-back' sequences, where later thrusts develop above and in the hangingwalls of earlier thrusts, may potentially form during cessation of movement in gravity-driven mass transport deposits (MTDs). In this study, we provide a detailed outcrop-based analysis of such an overstep thrust sequence developed in an MTD in the southern Dead Sea Basin. Evidence that may be used to discriminate overstep thrusting from piggyback thrust sequences within the gravity-driven fold and thrust belt includes upright folds and forethrusts that are cut by younger overlying thrusts. Backthrusts form ideal markers that are also clearly offset and cut by overlying younger forethrusts. Portions of the basal detachment to the thrust system are folded and locally imbricated in footwall synclines below forethrust ramps, and these geometries also support an overstep sequence. However, new 'short-cut' basal detachments develop below these synclines, indicating that movement continued on the basal detachment rather than it being abandoned as in classic overstep sequences. Further evidence for 'synchronous thrusting', where movement on more than one thrust occurs at the same time, is provided by displacement patterns on sequences of thrust ramp imbricates that systematically increases downslope towards the toe of the MTD. Older thrusts that initiate downslope in the broadly overstep sequence continue to move and therefore accrue greater displacements during synchronous thrusting. Our study provides a template to help distinguish different thrust sequences in both orogenic settings and gravity-driven surficial systems, with displacement patterns potentially being imaged in seismic sections across offshore MTDs.

  2. Subduction and vertical coastal motions in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Copley, Alex; McKenzie, Dan; Nissen, Ed

    2017-10-01

    Convergence in the eastern Mediterranean of oceanic Nubia with Anatolia and the Aegean is complex and poorly understood. Large volumes of sediment obscure the shallow structure of the subduction zone, and since much of the convergence is accommodated aseismically, there are limited earthquake data to constrain its kinematics. We present new source models for recent earthquakes, combining these with field observations, published GPS velocities and reflection-seismic data to investigate faulting in three areas: the Florence Rise, SW Turkey and the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The depths and locations of earthquakes reveal the geometry of the subducting Nubian plate NE of the Florence Rise, a bathymetric high that is probably formed by deformation of sediment at the surface projection of the Anatolia-Nubia subduction interface. In SW Turkey, the presence of a strike-slip shear zone has often been inferred despite an absence of strike-slip earthquakes. We show that the GPS-derived strain-rate field is consistent with extension on the orthogonal systems of normal faults observed in the region and that strike-slip faulting is not required to explain observed GPS velocities. Further SW, the Pliny and Strabo Trenches are also often interpreted as strike-slip shear zones, but almost all nearby earthquakes have either reverse-faulting or normal-faulting focal mechanisms. Oblique convergence across the trenches may be accommodated either by a partitioned system of strike-slip and reverse faults or by oblique slip on the Aegean-Nubia subduction interface. The observed late-Quaternary vertical motions of coastlines close to the subduction zone are influenced by the interplay between: (1) thickening of the material overriding the subduction interface associated with convergence, which promotes coastal uplift; and (2) subsidence due to extension and associated crustal thinning. Long-wavelength gravity data suggest that some of the observed topographic contrasts in the eastern

  3. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  4. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  5. Earthquakes, gravity, and the origin of the Bali Basin: An example of a Nascent Continental Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Robert; Nabelek, John

    1987-01-01

    We infer from the bathymetry and gravity field and from the source mechanisms and depths of the eight largest earthquakes in the Bali region that the Bali Basin is a downwarp in the crust of the Sunda Shelf produced and maintained by thrusting along the Flores back arc thrust zone. Earthquake source mechanisms and focal depths are inferred from the inversion of long-period P and SH waves for all events and short-period P waves for two of the events. Centroidal depths that give the best fit to the seismograms range from 10 to 18 km, but uncertainties in depth allow a range from 7 to 24 km. The P wave nodal planes that dip south at 13° to 35° (±7°) strike roughly parallel to the volcanic arc and are consistent with thrusting of crust of the Bali Basin beneath it. The positions of the earthquakes with respect to crustal features inferred from seismic and gravity data suggest that the earthquakes occur in the basement along the western end of the Flores thrust zone. The slip direction for the back arc thrust zone inferred from the orientation of the earthquake slip vectors indicates that the thrusting in the Bali Basin is probably part of the overall plate convergence, as it roughly coincides with the convergence direction between the Sunda arc and the Indian Ocean plate. Summation of seismic moments of earthquakes between 1960 and 1985 suggests a minimum rate of convergence across the thrust zone of 4 ± 2 mm/a. The presence of back arc thrusting suggests that some coupling between the Indian Ocean plate and the Sunda arc occurs but mechanisms such as continental collision or a shallow subduction of the Indian Ocean plate probably can be ruled out. The present tectonic setting and structure of the Bali Basin is comparable to the early forelands of the Andes or western North America in that a fold-and-thrust belt is forming on the continental side of an arc-trench system at which oceanic lithosphere is being subducted. The Bali Basin is flanked by the Tertiary Java

  6. Thrust augmentation for a small turbojet engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hackaday, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Sophia J450 (nine pounds of thrust) gas turbine engine was used first to examine the thrust augmentation generated using an ejector shroud. Experimental results obtained with and without the ejector were compared with performance predicted using an engine code and a one-dimensional ejector analysis. The engine code was revised to incorporate a radial turbine and the correct compressor map. Thrust augmentation of 3-10% was measured an...

  7. Convergent margin structure and tectonics of the Java subduction zone (105°E-122°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Barckhausen, U.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Hindle, D. A.; Lueschen, E.; Mueller, C.; Planert, L.; Reichert, C. J.; Shulgin, A. A.; Wittwer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Java margin is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our results show a high variability in subduction zone processes along the Java margin, ranging from accretionary subduction to erosive processes to zero-budget mass transfer. These variations are closely linked to changes in character of the incoming plate. Off Western Java (105°E -109°E), near-full accretion of the trench sediment fill is associated with a well-developed accretionary prism fronting a 4 km deep forearc basin. The Central Java segment (109°E -115°E) experiences the collision of an oceanic plateau dotted with numerous seamounts, causing large-scale uplift of the forearc, coupled with erosion of the frontal prism and correlated mass wasting processes. Intense deformation of the forearc basin results from thrusting and compressional forces. In the neighbouring segment farther to the east (115°E-119°E), the lack of significant sediment input to the trench supports the notion that recycling of upper plate material in the forearc sustains the massive outer high observed here adjacent to a mature forearc basin. The incoming oceanic plate of the Argo Abyssal plain is devoid of a sediment drape and the original spreading fabric overprinted by bending-related faulting near the trench shape its morphology. The transition zone from the Java margin to the Banda Arc (119°E-122°E) experiences the early stages of continent-island arc collision associated with the convergence of the

  8. The paradox of vertical σ2 in foreland fold and thrust belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence of aesthetically appealing thrust systems and associated large scale anticlines, in both active and fossil foreland fold and thrust belts, is commonly interpreted as an evidence for Andersonian compressional framework. Indeed, these structures would testify for a roughly vertical σ3. Such a correlation between thrusts occurrence and stress field orientation, however, frequently fails to explain denser observations at a smaller scale. The syn-orogenic deformation meso-structures hosted in exposed km-scale thrust-related folds, in fact, frequently and paradoxically witness for a syn-thrusting strike-slip stress configuration, with a near-vertical σ2 and a sub-horizontal σ3. This apparent widespread inconsistency between syn-orogenic meso-structures and stress field orientation is here named "the σ2 paradox". A possible explanation for such a paradox is provided by inherited extensional deformation structures commonly developed prior to thrusting, in the flexural foreland basins located ahead of fold and thrust belts. Thrust nucleation and propagation is facilitated and driven by the positive inversion of the extensional inheritances, and their subsequent linkage. This process eventually leads to the development of large reverse fault zones and can occur both in compressive and strike-slip stress configurations.

  9. Controls on intrusion of near-trench magmas of the Sanak-Baranof Belt, Alaska, during Paleogene ridge subduction, and consequences for forearc evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Donely, D. Thomas; Rowley, David; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    A belt of Paleogene near-trench plutons known as the Sanak-Baranof belt intruded the southern Alaska convergent margin. A compilation of isotopic ages of these plutons shows that they range in age from 61 Ma in the west to ca. 50 Ma in the east. This migrating pulse of magmatism along the continental margin is consistent with North Pacific plate reconstructions that suggests the plutons were generated by migration of a trench-ridge-trench triple junction along the margin. On the Kenai Peninsula the regional lower greenschist metamorphic grade of the turbiditic host rocks, texture of the plutons, contact-metamorphic assemblage, and isotopic and fluid inclusion studies suggest that the plutons were emplaced at pressures of 1.5–3.0 kbars (5.2–10.5 km) into a part of the accretionary wedge with an ambient temperature of 210–300 °C. The presence of kyanite, garnet, and cordierite megacrysts in the plutons indicates that the melts were generated at a depth greater than 20 km and minimum temperature of 650 °C. These megacrysts are probably xenocrystic remnants of a restitic or contact metamorphic phase entrained by the melt during intrusion. However, it is also possible that they are primary magmatic phases crystallized from the peraluminous melt.Plutons of the Sanak-Baranof belt serve as time and strain markers separating kinematic regimes that predate and postdate ridge subduction. Pre-ridge subduction structures are interpreted to be related to the interaction between the leading oceanic plate and the Chugach terrane. These include regional thrust faults, NE-striking map-scale folds with associated axial planar foliation, type-1 mélanges, and an arrayof faults within the contact aureole indicating shortening largely accommodated by layer-parallel extension. Syn-ridge subduction features include the plutons, dikes, and ductile shear zones within contact aureoles with syn-kinematic metamorphic mineral growth and foliation development. Many of the studied plutons

  10. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro

    2017-02-23

    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario ruptures also account for key features of the national tsunami source model for the Nankai–Tonankai earthquake by the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Government. The source models capture a wide range of realistic slip distributions and kinematic rupture processes, reflecting the current best understanding of what may happen due to a future mega-earthquake in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough, and therefore are useful for conducting probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk analysis. A large suite of scenario rupture models is then used to investigate the variability of tsunami effects in coastal areas, such as offshore tsunami wave heights and onshore inundation depths, due to realistic variations in source characteristics. Such investigations are particularly valuable for tsunami hazard mapping and evacuation planning in municipalities along the Nankai–Tonankai coast.

  11. Recent Mega-Thrust Tsunamigenic Earthquakes and PTHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, S.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of several mega-thrust tsunamigenic earthquakes in the last decade, including but not limited to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2010 Maule, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, has been a dramatic reminder of the limitations in our capability of assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk. However, the increasingly high-quality geophysical observational networks allowed the retrieval of most accurate than ever models of the rupture process of mega-thrust earthquakes, thus paving the way for future improved hazard assessments. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology, in particular, is less mature than its seismic counterpart, PSHA. Worldwide recent research efforts of the tsunami science community allowed to start filling this gap, and to define some best practices that are being progressively employed in PTHA for different regions and coasts at threat. In the first part of my talk, I will briefly review some rupture models of recent mega-thrust earthquakes, and highlight some of their surprising features that likely result in bigger error bars associated to PTHA results. More specifically, recent events of unexpected size at a given location, and with unexpected rupture process features, posed first-order open questions which prevent the definition of an heterogeneous rupture probability along a subduction zone, despite of several recent promising results on the subduction zone seismic cycle. In the second part of the talk, I will dig a bit more into a specific ongoing effort for improving PTHA methods, in particular as regards epistemic and aleatory uncertainties determination, and the computational PTHA feasibility when considering the full assumed source variability. Only logic trees are usually explicated in PTHA studies, accounting for different possible assumptions on the source zone properties and behavior. The selection of the earthquakes to be actually modelled is then in general made on a qualitative basis or remains implicit

  12. Origin of ophiolite complexes related to intra-oceanic subduction initiation: implications of IODP Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin fore arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Carvallo, Claire; Christeson, Gail; Ferré, Eric; Kurz, Walter; Kutterolf, Steffen; Morgan, Sally; Pearce, Julian; Reagan, Mark; Sager, William; Shervais, John; Whattam, Scott; International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc), the Scientific Party of

    2015-04-01

    Ophiolites, representing oceanic crust exposed on land (by whatever means), are central to the interpretation of many orogenic belts (e.g. E Mediterranean). Based mostly on geochemical evidence, ophiolites are widely interpreted, in many but by no means all cases, as having formed within intra-oceanic settings above subduction zones (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). Following land geological, dredging and submersible studies, fore arcs of the SW Pacific region became recognised as likely settings of supra-subduction zone ophiolite genesis. This hypothesis was tested by recent drilling of the Izu-Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that three of the sites are located in fault-controlled sediment ponds that formed in response to dominantly down-to the-west extensional faulting (with hints of preceding top-to-the-east compressional thrusting). The sediments overlying the igneous basement, of maximum Late Eocene to Recent age, document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds. At the two more trenchward sites (U1440 and U1441), mostly tholeiitic basalts were drilled, including massive and pillowed lavas and hyaloclastite. Geochemically, these extrusives are of near mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition (fore arc basalts). Subtle chemical deviation from normal MORB can be explained by weakly fluid-influenced melting during decompression melting in the earliest stages of supra-subduction zone spreading (not as 'trapped' older MORB). The remaining two sites, c. 6 km to the west (U1439 and U1442), penetrated dominantly high-magnesian andesites, known as boninites, largely as fragmental material. Their formation implies the extraction of highly depleted magmas from previously depleted, refractory upper mantle in a supra-subduction zone setting. Following supra-subduction zone spreading, the active

  13. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotoe eSakihara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz and beta (13−25 Hz bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance.

  14. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  15. Analyzing structural variations along strike in a deep-water thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totake, Yukitsugu; Butler, Robert W. H.; Bond, Clare E.; Aziz, Aznan

    2018-03-01

    We characterize a deep-water fold-thrust arrays imaged by a high-resolution 3D seismic dataset in the offshore NW Borneo, Malaysia, to understand the kinematics behind spatial arrangement of structural variations throughout the fold-thrust system. The seismic volume used covers two sub-parallel fold trains associated with a series of fore-thrusts and back-thrusts. We measured fault heave, shortening value, fold geometries (forelimb dip, interlimb angle and crest depth) along strike in individual fold trains. Heave plot on strike projection allows to identify individual thrust segments showing semi-elliptical to triangular to bimodal patterns, and linkages of these segments. The linkage sites are marked by local minima in cumulative heave. These local heave minima are compensated by additional structures, such as small imbricate thrusts and tight folds indicated by large forelimb dip and small interlimb angle. Complementary profiles of the shortening amount for the two fold trains result in smoother gradient of total shortening across the structures. We interpret this reflects kinematic interaction between two fold-thrust trains. This type of along-strike variation analysis provides comprehensive understanding of a fold-thrust system and may provide an interpretative strategy for inferring the presence of complex multiple faults in less well-imaged parts of seismic volumes.

  16. Mantle Noble Gas Contents Controlled by Subduction of Serpentinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material1, well gases2, MORB, and OIBs3 indicate that noble gases are being recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. However, the path taken by these noble gases is unclear. To estimate the distribution and quantity of Ar, Kr, and Xe in subducting slabs, a model consisting of layers of sediments, altered oceanic crust (AOC), and serpentinite (hydrously altered mantle) has been developed. The noble gas contents of sediments and AOC were calculated using the least air-like and most gas-rich analyses from natural systems4,5, while serpentinite was modelled using both data from natural systems1 and experimentally determined solubilities. Layer thicknesses were assessed over a range of values: 1 to 12 km of sediments, 5 to 9 km of AOC, and 1 to 30 km of serpentinite. In all cases, the serpentinite layer contains at least an order of magnitude more Ar and Kr than the other layers. For realistic layer thicknesses (1 km of sediments, 6 km of AOC, and 3 km of serpentinite), Xe is distributed roughly equally between the three layers. By incorporating global subduction rates6, fluxes of the heavy noble gases into the mantle have been calculated as 4 · 1012 mol/Ma for 36Ar, 6 · 1011 mol/Ma for 84Kr, and 8 · 109 mol/Ma for 130Xe. These fluxes are equivalent to the total 84Kr and 130Xe contents of the depleted and bulk mantle over 1 and 10 Ma7. Similarly, the flux of 36Ar is equivalent over 1 and 100 Ma. Since the Kr and Xe have not been completely overprinted by recycling, the large majority of subducted noble gases must escape in the subduction zone. However, even the small amounts that are subducted deeper have affected the mantle as measured in both MORB and OIBs. 1. Kendrick, M.A. et al., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G. and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Parai, R. and Mukhopadhyay, S., G3, 16, 719-735, 2015 4. Matsuda, J. and Nagao, K., Geochemical Journal, 20, 71-80, 1986

  17. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  18. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Building an advanced numerical model of subduction requires choosing values for various geometrical parameters and material properties, among others, the initial lithosphere thicknesses, representative lithological types and their mechanical and thermal properties, rheologies, initial temperature...

  19. Sources of Magmatic Volatiles Discharging from Subduction Zone Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.

    2001-05-01

    5.4 Mmol/a of non-mantle N2). Other subduction zone volcanoes are currently degassing a much more substantial amount of volatiles. Popocatepetl, Mexico, has degassed approximately 14 Mt of SO2 to the atmosphere over the past 6 years (Witter et al. 2000). Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan, has degassed for longer than 800 years and is currently releasing 500-1000 tones/day (Kazahaya et al. 2000). At these volcanoes CO2 and N2 discharges from the magma should also be balanced by the supply from slab and crustal sources. The rate of subduction off Mexico and Japan, however, is similar to the rate at the Kuriles. Therefore, large amounts of slab derived volatiles must be, in some fashion, stored in the "subduction factory" to supply the large amounts degassing passively from these volcanoes. Kazahaya et al. (2000) Seventh Field Workshop on Volcanic Gases, IAVCEI. Witter et al (2000) Seventh Field Workshop on Volcanic Gases, IAVCEI.

  20. Trading Time with Space - Development of subduction zone parameter database for a maximum magnitude correlation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    Subduction zones are generally the sources of the earthquakes with the highest magnitudes. Not only in Japan or Chile, but also in Pakistan, the Solomon Islands or for the Lesser Antilles, subduction zones pose a significant hazard for the people. To understand the behavior of subduction zones, especially to identify their capabilities to produce maximum magnitude earthquakes, various physical models have been developed leading to a large number of various datasets, e.g. from geodesy, geomagnetics, structural geology, etc. There have been various studies to utilize this data for the compilation of a subduction zone parameters database, but mostly concentrating on only the major zones. Here, we compile the largest dataset of subduction zone parameters both in parameter diversity but also in the number of considered subduction zones. In total, more than 70 individual sources have been assessed and the aforementioned parametric data have been combined with seismological data and many more sources have been compiled leading to more than 60 individual parameters. Not all parameters have been resolved for each zone, since the data completeness depends on the data availability and quality for each source. In addition, the 3D down-dip geometry of a majority of the subduction zones has been resolved using historical earthquake hypocenter data and centroid moment tensors where available and additionally compared and verified with results from previous studies. With such a database, a statistical study has been undertaken to identify not only correlations between those parameters to estimate a parametric driven way to identify potentials for maximum possible magnitudes, but also to identify similarities between the sources themselves. This identification of similarities leads to a classification system for subduction zones. Here, it could be expected if two sources share enough common characteristics, other characteristics of interest may be similar as well. This concept

  1. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  2. Alternative model of thrust-fault propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; de Paor, Declan G.

    1987-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the geometry of thrust faults is that initial failures occur on deeply buried planes of weak rock and that thrust faults propagate toward the surface along a staircase trajectory. We propose an alternative model that applies Gretener's beam-failure mechanism to a multilayered sequence. Invoking compatibility conditions, which demand that a thrust propagate both upsection and downsection, we suggest that ramps form first, at shallow levels, and are subsequently connected by flat faults. This hypothesis also explains the formation of many minor structures associated with thrusts, such as backthrusts, wedge structures, pop-ups, and duplexes, and provides a unified conceptual framework in which to evaluate field observations.

  3. Dynamic Imbalance Would Counter Offcenter Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccanna, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance generated by offcenter thrust on rotating body eliminated by shifting some of mass of body to generate opposing dynamic imbalance. Technique proposed originally for spacecraft including massive crew module connected via long, lightweight intermediate structure to massive engine module, such that artificial gravitation in crew module generated by rotating spacecraft around axis parallel to thrust generated by engine. Also applicable to dynamic balancing of rotating terrestrial equipment to which offcenter forces applied.

  4. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  5. Probable Maximum Earthquake Magnitudes for the Cascadia Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Magistrale, H.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of maximum earthquake magnitude (mx) is widely used in seismic hazard and risk analysis. However, absolute mx lacks a precise definition and cannot be determined from a finite earthquake history. The surprising magnitudes of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes showed that most methods for estimating mx underestimate the true maximum if it exists. Thus, we introduced the alternate concept of mp(T), probable maximum magnitude within a time interval T. The mp(T) can be solved using theoretical magnitude-frequency distributions such as Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) distribution. The two TGR parameters, β-value (which equals 2/3 b-value in the GR distribution) and corner magnitude (mc), can be obtained by applying maximum likelihood method to earthquake catalogs with additional constraint from tectonic moment rate. Here, we integrate the paleoseismic data in the Cascadia subduction zone to estimate mp. The Cascadia subduction zone has been seismically quiescent since at least 1900. Fortunately, turbidite studies have unearthed a 10,000 year record of great earthquakes along the subduction zone. We thoroughly investigate the earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution of the region by combining instrumental and paleoseismic data, and using the tectonic moment rate information. To use the paleoseismic data, we first estimate event magnitudes, which we achieve by using the time interval between events, rupture extent of the events, and turbidite thickness. We estimate three sets of TGR parameters: for the first two sets, we consider a geographically large Cascadia region that includes the subduction zone, and the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates; for the third set, we consider a narrow geographic region straddling the subduction zone. In the first set, the β-value is derived using the GCMT catalog. In the second and third sets, the β-value is derived using both the GCMT and paleoseismic data. Next, we calculate the corresponding mc

  6. Subduction initiation, recycling of Alboran lower crust, and intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Westernmost Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    largest outcrop (> 300 km2) of subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotite in westernmost Mediterranean -- occurs at the basal units of the western Alpujarride. Late, intrusive mantle, high-Mg pyroxenite dykes in the Ronda peridotite (Betic Cordillera, S. Spain) show geochemical signature akin to high-pressure (> 1 GPa) segregates of high-Mg andesite and boninite found in island arc terrains and ophiolite, where they usually witness nascent subduction and/or oceanic accretion in a forearc setting. These pyroxenites point to a suprasubduction environment prior to the intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental peridotites drawing some parallels between the crustal emplacement environment of some ophiolites and that of sublithospheric mantle in the westernmost Mediterranean. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic data from a variety of crustal rocks that might account for the crustal components seen in high-Mg Ronda pyroxenites. This data allows the origin of this crustal component to be unveiled, providing fundamentally constraints on the processes involved in the emplacement of large massifs of subcontinental mantle lithosphere in the westernmost Mediterranean. In order to test the hypothesis that the crustal component in Ronda high-Mg pyroxenites was acquired during the Alpine evolution of the Betic-Rif orogen, we selected samples from crustal sections that might have been underthrusted beneath the Alboran lithospheric mantle before the putative Miocene intra-crustal emplacement of peridotites. Samples are from the western Betics and comprise sediments from the Gibraltar Arc Flysch Trough units, which forms a fold-and-thrust belt between the Iberian paleomargin and the allochthonous Alboran domain, and metasedimentary rocks from the Jubrique and Blanca units of the Alpujarride complex, which underlie and overlie the Ronda peridotite and constitute the crustal section of the Alboran lithosphere domain to which the Ronda peridotite pertains. Sr-Nd-Pb systematic of

  7. Beginning the Modern Regime of Subduction Tectonics in Neoproterozoic time: Inferences from Ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.

    2003-04-01

    It is now clear that the motive force for plate tectonics is provided by the sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones. Correspondingly, the modern tectonic regime is more aptly called ``subduction tectonics" than plate tectonics, which only describes the way Earth's thermal boundary layer adjusts to subduction. The absence of subduction tectonics on Mars and Venus implies that special circumstances are required for subduction to occur on a silicate planet. This begs the question: When did Earth's oceanic lithosphere cool sufficiently for subduction to began? This must be inferred from indirect lines of evidence; the focus here is on the temporal distribution of ophiolites. Well-preserved ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) affinities are increasingly regarded as forming when subduction initiates as a result of lithospheric collapse (± a nudge to get it started), and the formation of ophiolitic lithosphere in evolving forearcs favors their emplacement and preservation. The question now is what percentage of ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) chemical signatures formed in forearcs during subduction initiation events? Most of the large, well-preserved ophiolites (e.g., Oman, Cyprus, California, Newfoundland) may have this origin. If so, the distribution in space and time of such ophiolites can be used to identify ``subduction initiation" events, which are important events in the evolution of plate tectonics. Such events first occurred at the end of the Archean (˜2.5Ga) and again in the Paleoproterozoic (˜1.8 Ga), but ophiolites become uncommon after this. Well-preserved ophiolites become abundant in Neoproterozoic time, at about 800±50 Ma. Ophiolites of this age are common and well-preserved in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia. ANS ophiolites mostly contain spinels with high Cr#, indicating SSZ affinities. Limited trace element data on pillowed lavas supports this interpretation

  8. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  9. The cislunar low-thrust trajectories via the libration point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingyu; Xu, Ming; Peng, Kun

    2017-05-01

    The low-thrust propulsion will be one of the most important propulsion in the future due to its large specific impulse. Different from traditional low-thrust trajectories (LTTs) yielded by some optimization algorithms, the gradient-based design methodology is investigated for LTTs in this paper with the help of invariant manifolds of LL1 point and Halo orbit near the LL1 point. Their deformations under solar gravitational perturbation are also presented to design LTTs in the restricted four-body model. The perturbed manifolds of LL1 point and its Halo orbit serve as the free-flight phase to reduce the fuel consumptions as much as possible. An open-loop control law is proposed, which is used to guide the spacecraft escaping from Earth or captured by Moon. By using a two-dimensional search strategy, the ON/OFF time of the low-thrust engine in the Earth-escaping and Moon-captured phases can be obtained. The numerical implementations show that the LTTs achieved in this paper are consistent with the one adopted by the SMART-1 mission.

  10. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  11. Thrust distribution for attitude control in a variable thrust propulsion system with four ACS nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeerang; Lee, Wonsuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Lee, Hosung

    2017-04-01

    A thrust distribution approach is proposed in this paper for a variable thrust solid propulsion system with an attitude control system (ACS) that uses a reduced number of nozzles for a three-axis attitude maneuver. Although a conventional variable thrust solid propulsion system needs six ACS nozzles, this paper proposes a thrust system with four ACS nozzles to reduce the complexity and mass of the system. The performance of the new system was analyzed with numerical simulations, and the results show that the performance of the system with four ACS nozzles was similar to the original system while the mass of the whole system was simultaneously reduced. Moreover, a feasibility analysis was performed to determine whether a thrust system with three ACS nozzles is possible.

  12. Effect of glacial-interglacial sea-level changes on the displacement and stress field in the forearc and along the plate interface of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined seismological, space-geodetic and numerical studies have shown that the seismicity at subduction zones may be modulated by tides and glacier fluctuations on timescales of 1–100 a, because these changes in loads on Earth's surface are able to alter the stress field in the upper plate and along the plate interface. Here we use a two-dimensional finite-element model of a subduction zone to investigate how glacial-interglacial sea-level changes affect the forearc region and the plate interface. The model results show that a sea-level fall by 125 m over 100 ka causes up to 0.7 m of vertical displacement, with the maximum uplift occurring between the trench and the coast. The uplift signal induced by the sea-level fall decreases to zero ~20 km landward of the coastline. A subsequent sea-level rise by 125 m over 20 ka causes subsidence, which is again most pronounced in the submarine part of the forearc. The sea-level changes cause horizontal displacements of up to 0.12 m, which are directed seaward during sea-level fall and landward during sea-level rise. With respect to the stress field, the sea-level changes lead to variations in the vertical stress and the shear stress of up to 1.23 MPa and 0.4 MPa, respectively. The shear stress variations are highest beneath the coast, i.e. in the area where the sea-level changes cause the strongest flexure. The resulting Coulomb stress changes on the plate interface are of the order of 0.2–0.5 MPa and indicate that earthquakes are promoted during sea-level fall and delayed during sea-level rise. Our findings imply that eustatic sea-level changes during glacial-interglacial periods may have induced displacements and stress changes that were large enough to affect the seismic cycle of subduction thrusts.

  13. Interaction of Structure and Physical Properties in Accretionary Wedges: Examples from the Cascadia and Nankai Trough Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Susanna I.

    Subduction zones are capable of producing large, megathrust earthquakes that are sometimes tsunamigenic. Structure and physical properties in the accretionary wedge play a role in how far rupture can propagate and how the wedge deforms coseismically. In this dissertation, I use seismic reflection data and velocity models from the Cascadia subduction zone and logging data from the Nankai Trough, Japan, to interpret structure, link structure to the broader wedge deformation history, and investigate the material properties at depth. I present a full structural interpretation of newly acquired seismic reflection data in the central Cascadia margin, which is characterized by dominantly landward vergent faulting in the outer wedge, a very low wedge taper angle, and a broad, lightly deformed lower slope terrace. Two decollements are active: an upper decollement within the sedimentary section, and a basal decollement at the sediment-basement interface. These interpretations help delineate the spatial extent of decollements and suggest that supra-wedge sedimentation may influence the development of the wedge, including the formation of the lower slope terrace and out of sequence fault activity. I use velocity models from central Cascadia to estimate excess pore fluid pressure and overpressure ratio at depth, which do not exceed 5 MPa and 0.15, respectively. No excess pore pressure is documented in the underthrust sediment section, but modest overpressure is likely present in the incoming sediment section and the footwalls of thrust sheets. The analysis of pore pressure shows that (1) if the base of the wedge is weak, it is due to mechanical properties of the sediments or a relatively thin underthrust layer and (2) the Cascadia wedge is relatively well-drained, and thus potentially strong, which can lead to a low wedge taper angle. In the Nankai Trough, Japan, I reprocessed sonic log data to obtain P-wave and S-wave velocity values and estimate elastic moduli. The logs

  14. Geodetic slip solutions for the Mw=7.4 Champerico (Guatemala) subduction earthquake of November 7 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Andria; DeMets, Charles; Briole, Pierre; Molina, Enrique; Flores, Omar; Rivera, Jeffrey; Lasserre, Cécile; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Lord, Neal

    2014-05-01

    As the first large subduction thrust earthquake off the coast of western Guatemala in the past 50 years, the 7 November 2012 Mw=7.4 earthquake offers the first opportunity for a geodetic study of coseismic and postseismic behavior for a segment of the Middle America trench where frictional coupling makes a transition from weak coupling off the coast of El Salvador to strong coupling in southern Mexico. Processing of continuous GPS measurements at 19 stations in Guatemala, El Salvador, and southern Mexico, and at 7 campaign points in Guatemala defines a highly consistent pattern of coseismic offsets during the earthquake, ranging from 47±5 mm of SW movement just inland from the earthquake epicenter to a few mm at sites located in northern Guatemala. Inversions of these offsets to find their best-fitting fault-slip solution in an elastic half space give a geodetic earthquake moment ranging between 0.75 and 1.1 x 1020 Nm, slightly smaller than the seismic estimates that range between 1.2 and 1.45 x 1020 Nm. Slip inversion using a constant slip model, assuming 293° and 29° for the fault azimuth and dip angle, indicates a nearly reverse slip of 2.8 m (rake 78°) on a fault plane 42 km-long and 20 km-wide, centered at 26 km depth. A variable slip inversion indicates that slip concentrated above depths of 40 km may have extended updip to the trench and reached a maximum of only 0.8 m, less than one-sixth the maximum slip indicated by a recent slip solution (5.3 m) obtained from waveform inversion of seismological data. Detailed model comparisons will be discussed. Transient postseismic displacements have been recorded at the nearby continuous GPS sites with amplitudes reaching 20-25 mm at some stations. The duration of the phenomenon is short: using an exponential-decay model, the estimated decay time is 90 ± 10 days. This postseismic signal is consistent with afterslip along a significantly broader area (+50%) of the subduction interface than ruptured coseismically

  15. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Freeman, J.A.; Stegman, D. R.; Moresi, L.; May, D.

    2007-01-01

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel

  16. Influence of the subducting plate velocity on the geometry of the slab and migration of the subduction hinge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2005-01-01

    Geological observations indicate that along two active continental margins (East Asia and Mediterranean) major phases of overriding plate extension, resulting from subduction hinge-retreat, occurred synchronously with a reduction in subducting plate velocity. In this paper, results of fluid

  17. Eclogitization of the Subducted Oceanic Crust and Its Implications for the Mechanism of Slow Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyang; Zhao, Dapeng; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Li, Jiabiao; Ruan, Aiguo

    2017-12-01

    The generating mechanism and process of slow earthquakes can help us to better understand the seismogenic process and the petrological evolution of the subduction system, but they are still not very clear. In this work we present robust P and S wave tomography and Poisson's ratio images of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Kii peninsula in Southwest Japan. Our results clearly reveal the spatial extent and variation of a low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio layer which is interpreted as the remnant of the subducted oceanic crust. The low-velocity layer disappears at depths >50 km, which is attributed to crustal eclogitization and consumption of fluids. The crustal eclogitization and destruction of the impermeable seal play a key role in the generation of slow earthquakes. The Moho depth of the overlying plate is an important factor affecting the depth range of slow earthquakes in warm subduction zones due to the transition of interface permeability from low to high there. The possible mechanism of the deep slow earthquakes is the dehydrated oceanic crustal rupture and shear slip at the transition zone in response to the crustal eclogitization and the temporal stress/strain field. A potential cause of the slow event gap existing beneath easternmost Shikoku and the Kii channel is the premature rupture of the subducted oceanic crust due to the large tensional force.

  18. Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L

    2015-09-11

    Subduction zone megathrust faults produce most of the world's largest earthquakes. Although the physical properties of these faults are difficult to observe directly, their frictional strength can be estimated indirectly by constraining the orientations of the stresses that act on them. A global investigation of stress orientations in subduction zones finds that the maximum compressive stress axis plunges systematically trenchward, consistently making an angle of 45° to 60° with respect to the subduction megathrust fault. These angles indicate that the megathrust fault is not substantially weaker than its surroundings. Together with several other lines of evidence, this implies that subduction zone megathrusts are weak faults in a low-stress environment. The deforming outer accretionary wedge may decouple the stress state along the megathrust from the constraints of the free surface. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. A comparison of seismicity in world's subduction zones: Implication by the difference of b-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Ide, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since the pioneering study of Uyeda and Kanamori (1979), it has been thought that world's subduction zones can be classified into two types: Chile and Mariana types. Ruff and Kanamori (1980) suggested that the maximum earthquake size within each subduction zone correlates with convergence rate and age of subducting lithosphere. Subduction zones with younger lithosphere and larger convergence rates are associated with great earthquakes (Chile), while subduction zones with older lithosphere and smaller convergence rates have low seismicity (Mariana). However, these correlations are obscured after the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and the 2009 Tohoku earthquake. Furthermore, McCaffrey (2008) pointed out that the history of observation is much shorter than the recurrence times of very large earthquakes, suggesting a possibility that any subduction zone may produce earthquakes larger than magnitude 9. In the present study, we compare world's subduction zones in terms of b-values in the Gutenberg-Richer relation. We divided world's subduction zones into 146 regions, each of which is bordered by a trench section of about 500 km and extends for 200 km from the trench section in the direction of relative plate motion. In each region, earthquakes equal to or larger than M4.5 occurring during 1988-2009 were extracted from ISC catalog. We find a positive correlation between b-values and ages of subducting lithosphere, which is one of the two important variables discussed in Ruff and Kanamori (1980). Subduction zones with younger lithosphere are associated with high b-values and vice versa, while we cannot find a correlation between b-values and convergence rates. We used the ages determined by Müller et al. (2008) and convergence rate calculated using PB2002 (Bird, 2003) for convergence rate. We also found a negative correlation between b-values and the estimates of seismic coupling, which is defined as the ratio of the observed seismic moment release rate to the rate calculated

  20. Axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzle performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Adler, D.; Bar-Yoseph, P.Z

    1998-01-01

    Throat-hinged geometrically variable converging-diverging thrust-vectoring nozzles directly affect the jet flow geometry and rotation angle at the nozzle exit as a function of the nozzle geometry, the nozzle pressure ratio and flight velocity. The consideration of nozzle divergence in the effective-geometric nozzle relation is theoretically considered here for the first time. In this study, an explicit calculation procedure is presented as a function of nozzle geometry at constant nozzle pressure ratio, zero velocity and altitude, and compared with experimental results in a civil thrust-vectoring scenario. This procedure may be used in dynamic thrust-vectoring nozzle design performance predictions or analysis for civil and military nozzles as well as in the definition of initial jet flow conditions in future numerical VSTOL/TV jet performance studies

  1. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  2. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  3. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bay and Hawke's Bay), a prominent flight of Holocene and late Pleistocene marine terraces (OIS 1-7) record outer forearc uplift at 1.0-2.5 m/ky above the upper-plate Lachlan thrust (Berryman, 1993). Five steps of discrete age within the Holocene terrace are interpreted as coseismic uplift events ranging in age from 250 - 4500 ybp. At Cape Kidnappers (south of Hawke's Bay), at least three late Pleistocene marine terraces were observed in this study at 50-120 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands indicates net uplift at 0.8-1.0 m/ky along the Kidnappers anticline. Adjacent Holocene shore deposits overlie a 6 m high uplifted wavecut platform that records coseismic uplift circa 2300 ybp (Hull, 1987). Tectonic uplift along the northern Hikurangi margin is the net result of a complex interaction between megathrust slip at depth and localized upper-plate contraction on steeply-dipping imbricate thrust faults. The segmented uplift pattern may reflect the focused impact of subducting seamounts and consequent variations in subduction erosion and downdip underplating of sediments and eroded debris.

  4. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods is that gradie...

  5. Tasman frontier subduction initiation and paleogene climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Dickens, Gerald R.; Blum, Peter; Agnini, Claudia; Alegret, Laia; Bhattacharya, Joyeeta; Bordenave, Aurelien; Chang, Liao; Collot, Julien; Cramwinckel, Margot J.; Dallanave, Edoardo; Drake, Michelle K.; Etienne, Samuel J.G.; Giorgioni, Martino; Gurnis, Michael; Harper, Dustin T.; Huang, Huai Hsuan May; Keller, Allison L.; Lam, Adriane R.; Li, He; Matsui, Hiroki; Newsam, Cherry; Park, Yu Hyeon; Pascher, Kristina M.; Pekar, Stephen F.; Penman, Donald E.; Saito, Saneatsu; Stratford, Wanda R.; Westerhold, Thomas; Zhou, Xiaoli

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 371 drilled six sites in the Tasman Sea of the southwest Pacific between 27 July and 26 September 2017. The primary goal was to understand Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiation through recovery of Paleogene sediment records. Secondary goals

  6. Activated Very Low Frequency Earthquakes By the Slow Slip Events in the Ryukyu Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sunagawa, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Trench (RT), where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting, has had no known thrust earthquakes with a Mw>8.0 in the last 300 years. However, the rupture source of the 1771 tsunami has been proposed as an Mw > 8.0 earthquake in the south RT. Based on the dating of tsunami boulders, it has been estimated that large tsunamis occur at intervals of 150-400 years in the south Ryukyu arc (RA) (Araoka et al., 2013), although they have not occurred for several thousand years in the central and northern Ryukyu areas (Goto et al., 2014). To address the discrepancy between recent low moment releases by earthquakes and occurrence of paleo-tsunamis in the RT, we focus on the long-term activity of the very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs), which are good indicators of the stress release in the shallow plate interface. VLFEs have been detected along the RT (Ando et al., 2012), which occur on the plate interface or at the accretionary prism. We used broadband data from the F-net of NIED along the RT and from the IRIS network. We applied two filters to all the raw broadband seismograms: a 0.02-0.05 Hz band-pass filter and a 1 Hz high-pass filter. After identification of the low-frequency events from the band-pass-filtered seismograms, the local and teleseismic events were removed. Then we picked the arrival time of the maximum amplitude of the surface wave of the VLFEs and determined the epicenters. VLFEs occurred on the RA side within 100 km from the trench axis along the RT. Distribution of the 6670 VLFEs from 2002 to 2013 could be divided to several clusters. Principal large clusters were located at 27.1°-29.0°N, 25.5°-26.6°N, and 122.1°-122.4°E (YA). We found that the VLFEs of the YA are modulated by repeating slow slip events (SSEs) which occur beneath south RA. The activity of the VLFEs increased to two times of its ordinary rate in 15 days after the onset of the SSEs. Activation of the VLFEs could be generated by low stress change of 0.02-20 kPa increase in

  7. Results from CAT/SCAN, the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Accretion-Collision Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Amato, A.; Guerra, I.; Armbruster, J.; Baccheschi, P.; Diluccio, F.; Gervasi, A.; Harabaglia, P.; Kim, W.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Margheriti, L.; Seeber, L.; Tolstoy, M.; Wilson, C. K.

    2005-12-01

    for the instruments that were not recovered. The experiment is determining the structure of the Calabrian subduction and southern Apennine collision systems and the structure of the transition from oceanic subduction in Calabria to continental collision in the southern Apennines. We have delineated a strong anisotropy with a fast direction following the curved arc, but weaker anisotropy beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea. Receiver function images show variations in crustal thickness throughout the region, consistent with previous conceptual models. We also image a negative polarity interface dipping to the southwest that we interpret as the main thrust ramp in the north transitioning to the subduction interface in the south. The transition from one to the other is marked by a loss of amplitude in the Moho conversion. Local seismicity is consistent with surface structure in showing extension normal and parallel to the Calabrian forearc as well as continuing southeastward motion of Calabria relative to the southern Apennines and Maghrebides.

  8. Thermal structure and geodynamics of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ikuko

    The thermal structure of subduction zones depends on the age-controlled thermal state of the subducting slab and mantle wedge flow. Observations indicate that the shallow part of the forearc mantle wedge is stagnant and the slab-mantle interface is weakened. In this dissertation, the role of the interface strength in controlling mantle wedge flow, thermal structure, and a wide range of subduction zone processes is investigated through two-dimensional finite-element modelling and a global synthesis of geological and geophysical observations. The model reveals that the strong temperature-dependence of the mantle strength always results in full slab-mantle decoupling along the weakened part of the interface and hence complete stagnation of the overlying mantle. The interface immediately downdip of the zone of decoupling is fully coupled, and the overlying mantle is driven to flow at a rate compatible with the subduction rate. The sharpness of the transition from decoupling to coupling depends on the rheology assumed and increases with the nonlinearity of the flow system. This bimodal behaviour of the wedge flow gives rise to a strong thermal contrast between the cold stagnant and hot flowing parts of the mantle wedge. The maximum depth of decoupling (MDD) thus dictates the thermal regime of the forearc. Observed surface heat flow patterns and petrologically and geochemically estimated mantle wedge temperatures beneath the volcanic arc require an MDD of 70--80 km in most, if not all, subduction zones regardless of their thermal regime of the slab. The common MDD of 70--80 km explains the observed systematic variations of the petrologic, seismological, and volcanic processes with the thermal state of the slab and thus explains the rich diversity of subduction zones in a unified fashion. Models for warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai predict shallow dehydration of the slab beneath the cold stagnant part of the mantle wedge, which provides ample fluid

  9. Thermal effects of variable material properties and metamorphic reactions in a three-component subducting slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We explore the effects of variable material properties, phase transformations, and metamorphic devolatilization reactions on the thermal structure of a subducting slab using thermodynamic phase equilibrium calculations combined with a thermal evolution model. The subducting slab is divided...... into three layers consisting of oceanic sediments, altered oceanic crust, and partially serpentinized or anhydrous harzburgite. Solid-fluid equilibria and material properties are computed for each layer individually to illustrate distinct thermal consequences when chemical and mechanical homogenization...... indicate that subducting sediments and oceanic crust warm by 40 and 70°C, respectively, before the effect of wedge convection and heating is encountered at 1.7 GPa. Retention of fluid in the slab pore space plays a negligible role in oceanic crust and serpentinized peridotites. By contrast, the large...

  10. Primary electric propulsion thrust subsystem definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, T. D.; Ward, J. W.; Kami, S.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of the current status of primary propulsion thrust subsystem (TSS) performance, packaging considerations, and certain operational characteristics. Thrust subsystem related work from recent studies by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL), Rockwell and Boeing is discussed. Existing performance for 30-cm thrusters, power processors and TSS is present along with projections for future improvements. Results of analyses to determine (1) magnetic field distributions resulting from an array of thrusters, (2) thruster emitted particle flux distributions from an array of thrusters, and (3) TSS element failure rates are described to indicate the availability of analytical tools for evaluation of TSS designs.

  11. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation : 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Morris, Antony; Plümper, Oliver; Spakman, Wim

    Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to mid-ocean ridges, as in e.g., the Neotethys Ocean during the Jurassic, remains a matter of debate. In

  12. Thermal effects of massive CO2 emissions associated with subduction volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Large volumes of CO₂ are emitted during volcanic activity at convergent plate boundaries, not only from volcanic centers. Their C isotopic signature indicates that this CO₂ is mainly derived from the decarbonation of subducted limestones or carbonated metabasalts, not as often admitted from magma

  13. Revisiting the structure, age, and evolution of the Wharton Basin to better understand subduction under Indonesia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.; Yatheesh, V.

    and marine magnetic anomalies. TheWharton Basin is characterized by a fossil ridge, dated ~36.5Ma, offset by N-S fracture zones.Magnetic anomalies 18 to 34 (38–84 Ma) are identified on both flanks, although a large part of the basin has been subducted. We...

  14. Subduction of the Tethys Oceans reconstructed from plate kinematics and mantle tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkenscheid, Edith

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large-scale history of subduction within the Tethyan region, the Alpine-Himalayan mountain chain that stretches from the Mediterranean to the Indonesian archipelago. We investigate whether we can contribute to a better understanding of the Tethyan evolution by

  15. Subducted bathymetric features linked to variations in earthquake apparent stress along the northern Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, P. A.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean floor bathymetric features such as seamounts and ridges are thought to influence the earthquake rupture process when they enter the subduction zone by causing changes in frictional conditions along the megathrust contact between the subducting and overriding plates. Once subducted, these features have been described as localized areas of heterogeneous plate coupling, with some controversy over whether these features cause an increase or decrease in interplate coupling. Along the northern Japan Trench, a number of bathymetric features, such as horst and graben structures and seamounts, enter the subduction zone where they may vary earthquake behavior. Using seismic coda waves, scattered energy following the direct wave arrivals, we compute apparent stress (a measure of stress drop proportional to radiated seismic energy that has been tied to the strength of the fault interface contact) for 329 intermediate magnitude (3.2 earthquake spectra for path and site effects and compute apparent stress using the seismic moment and corner frequency determined from the spectra. Preliminary results indicate apparent stress values between 0.3 - 22.6 MPa for events over a depth range of 2 - 55 km, similar to those found in other studies of the region although within a different depth range, with variations both along-strike and downdip. Off the Sanriku Coast, horst and graben structures enter the Japan Trench in an area where a large number of earthquakes occur at shallow (< 30 km) depth. These shallow events have a mean apparent stress of 1.2 MPa (range 0.3 - 3.8 MPa) which is approximately 2 times lower then the mean apparent stress for other events along the northern portion of this margin in the same shallow depth range. The relatively low apparent stress for events related to subducting horst and graben structures suggests weak interplate coupling between the subducting and overriding plates due to small, irregular contact zones with these features at depth. This is in

  16. Transition from strike-slip faulting to oblique subduction: active tectonics at the Puysegur Margin, South New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Geoffroy; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2000-01-01

    South of New Zealand the Pacific-Australia (PAC-AUS) plate boundary runs along the intracontinental Alpine Fault, the Puysegur subduction front and the intraoceanic Puysegur Fault. The Puysegur Fault is located along Puysegur Ridge, which terminates at ca. 47°S against the continental Puysegur Bank in a complex zone of deformation called the Snares Zone. At Puysegur Trench, the Australian Plate subducts beneath Puysegur Bank and the Fiordland Massif. East of Fiordland and Puysegur Bank, the Moonlight Fault System (MFS) represents the Eocene strike-slip plate boundary. Interpretation of seafloor morphology and seismic reflection profiles acquired over Puysegur Bank and the Snares Zone allows study of the transition from intraoceanic strike-slip faulting along the Puysegur Ridge to oblique subduction at the Puysegur Trench and to better understand the genetic link between the Puysegur Fault and the MFS. Seafloor morphology is interpreted from a bathymetric dataset compiled from swath bathymetry data acquired during the 1993 Geodynz survey, and single beam echo soundings acquired by the NZ Royal Navy. The Snares Zone is the key transition zone from strike-slip faulting to subduction. It divides into three sectors, namely East, NW and SW sectors. A conspicuous 3600 m-deep trough (the Snares Trough) separates the NW and East sectors. The East sector is characterised by the NE termination of Puysegur Ridge into right-stepping en echelon ridges that accommodate a change of strike from the Puysegur Fault to the MFS. Between 48°S and 47°S, in the NW sector and the Snares Trough, a series of transpressional faults splay northwards from the Puysegur Fault. Between 49°50'S and 48°S, thrusts develop progressively at Puysegur Trench into a decollement. North of 48°S the Snares Trough develops between two splays of the Puysegur Fault, indicating superficial extension associated with the subsidence of Puysegur Ridge. Seismic reflection profiles and bathymetric maps show a

  17. A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 μN with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively.

  18. Kinematics of swimming and thrust production during powerstroking bouts of the swim frenzy in green turtle hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Booth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hatchling sea turtles emerge from nests, crawl down the beach and enter the sea where they typically enter a stereotypical hyperactive swimming frenzy. During this swim the front flippers are moved up and down in a flapping motion and are the primary source of thrust production. I used high-speed video linked with simultaneous measurement of thrust production in tethered hatchlings, along with high-speed video of free swimming hatchlings swimming at different water speeds in a swim flume to investigate the links between kinematics of front flipper movement, thrust production and swimming speed. In particular I tested the hypotheses that (1 increased swimming speed is achieved through an increased stroke rate; (2 force produced per stroke is proportional to stroke amplitude, (3 that forward thrust is produced during both the down and up phases of stroking; and (4 that peak thrust is produced towards the end of the downstroke cycle. Front flipper stroke rate was independent of water speed refuting the hypothesis that swimming speed is increased by increasing stroke rate. Instead differences in swimming speed were caused by a combination of varying flipper amplitude and the proportion of time spent powerstroking. Peak thrust produced per stroke varied within and between bouts of powerstroking, and these peaks in thrust were correlated with both flipper amplitude and flipper angular momentum during the downstroke supporting the hypothesis that stroke force is a function of stroke amplitude. Two distinct thrust production patterns were identified, monophasic in which a single peak in thrust was recorded during the later stages of the downstroke, and biphasic in which a small peak in thrust was recorded at the very end of the upstroke and this followed by a large peak in thrust during the later stages of the downstroke. The biphasic cycle occurs in ∼20% of hatchlings when they first started swimming, but disappeared after one to two hours of

  19. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    -skinned basement inversion with geometrically and kinematically linked thin-skinned thrust structures at shallower levels in the eastern foreland, including well-dated late Miocene growth strata. The mid-Cenozoic hiatus potentially signifies nondeposition during passage of a flexural forebulge or nondeposition during neutral to extensional conditions possibly driven by a transient retreating-slab configuration along the western margin of South America. Similar long-lived stratigraphic gaps are commonly observed in other foreland records of continental convergent margins. It is proposed that Andean orogenesis along the South American convergent margin has long been sensitive to variations in subduction dynamics throughout Mesozoic-Cenozoic time, such that shifts in relative convergence and degree of mechanical coupling along the subduction interface (i.e., transitions between advancing versus retreating modes of subduction) have governed fluctuating contractional, extensional, and neutral conditions. Unclear is whether these various modes affected the entire convergent margin simultaneously due to continental-scale changes (e.g., temporal shifts in plate convergence, absolute motion of upper plate, or mantle wedge circulation) or whether parts of the margin behaved independently due to smaller-scale fluctuations (e.g., spatial variations in the age of the subducted plate, buoyant asperities in the downgoing slab, or asthenospheric anomalies).

  20. The influence of tectonic inheritance on crustal extension style following failed subduction of continental crust: applications to metamorphic core complexes in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Little, T.; Mizera, M.; Wallace, L. M.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The structural, mechanical and geometric evolution of rifted continental crust depends on the lithospheric conditions in the region prior to the onset of extension. In areas where tectonic activity preceded rift initiation, structural and physical properties of the previous tectonic regime may be inherited by the rift and influence its development. Many continental rifts form and exhume metamorphic core complexes (MCCs), coherent exposures of deep crustal rocks which typically surface as arched or domed structures. MCCs are exhumed in regions where the faulted upper crust is displaced laterally from upwelling ductile material along a weak detachment fault. Some MCCs form during extensional inversion of a subduction thrust following failed subduction of continental crust, but the degree to which lithospheric conditions inherited from the preceding subduction phase control the extensional style in these systems remains unclear. For example, the Dayman Dome in Southeastern Papua New Guinea exposes prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies rocks in a smooth 3 km-high dome exhumed with at least 24 km of slip along one main detachment normal fault, the Mai'iu Fault, which dips 21° at the surface. The extension driving this exhumation is associated with the cessation of northward subduction of Australian continental crust beneath the oceanic lithosphere of the Woodlark Plate. We use geodynamic models to explore the effect of pre-existing crustal structures inherited from the preceding subduction phase on the style of rifting. We show that different geometries and strengths of inherited subduction shear zones predict three distinct modes of subsequent rift development: 1) symmetric rifting by newly formed high-angle normal faults; 2) asymmetric rifting along a weak low-angle detachment fault extending from the surface to the brittle-ductile transition; and 3) extension along a rolling-hinge structure which exhumes deep crustal rocks in coherent rounded exposures. We

  1. Two decades of spatiotemporal variations in subduction zone coupling offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-02-01

    the 1994 event until 2011, coseismic-sense slip precedes the Tohoku-oki event, and coupling offshore northern Honshu is reduced after the 2011 earthquake. Despite the occurrence of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, persistent coupling offshore Hokkaido suggests ongoing seismic hazard, possibly similar to past MW ∼ 9-class earthquakes interpreted from coastal paleoseismic records. This time-dependent analysis of interseismic deformation illuminates rich diversity in the distribution of subduction zone coupling, including spatiotemporal stability in coupling, effective reduction in strongly coupled regions due to aseismic thrust-sense slip events, and broad changes in the distribution of coupling following major earthquakes.

  2. Development of an indirect counterbalanced pendulum optical-lever thrust balance for micro- to millinewton thrust measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubišić, A N; Gabriel, S B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indirect hanging pendulum thrust balance using a laser-optical-lever principle to provide micro- to millinewton thrust measurement for the development of electric propulsion systems. The design philosophy allows the selection of the total thrust range in order to maximize resolution through a counterbalanced pendulum principle, as well as passive magnetic damping in order to allow relatively rapid transient thrust measurement. The balance was designed for the purpose of hollow cathode microthruster characterization, but could be applied to other electric propulsion devices in the thrust range of micro- to millinewtons. An initial thrust characterization of the T5 hollow cathode is presented

  3. 15 Years Of Ecuadorian-French Research Along The Ecuadorian Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ecuadorian segment of the Nazca/South America subduction zone is an outstanding laboratory to study the seismic cycle. Central Ecuador where the Carnegie ridge enters the subduction marks a transition between a highly coupled segment that hosted one of the largest seismic sequence during the 20thcentury and a ~1200-km long weakly coupled segment encompassing southern Ecuador and northern Peru. A shallow dipping subduction interface and a short trench-coast line distance ranging from 45 to 80 km, together with La Plata Island located only 33 km from the trench axis, allow to document subduction processes in the near field with an exceptional resolution. Since 2000, a close cooperation between the Institute of Geophysics (Quito), INOCAR (Oceanographic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy) with French groups allowed us to conduct up to 6 marine geophysics cruises to survey the convergent margin and jointly develop dense GPS and seismological networks. This fruitful collaboration now takes place in the framework of an International Joint Laboratory "Earthquakes and Volcanoes in the Northern Andes" (LMI SVAN), which eases coordinating research projects and exchanges of Ecuadorian and French scientists and students. This long-term investigation has already provided a unique view on the structure of the margin, which exhibits a highly variable subduction channel along strike. It allowed us to evidence the contrast between creeping and coupled segments of subduction at various scale, and the existence of large continental slivers whose motion accommodates the obliquity of the Nazca/South America convergence. Finally, we could evidence the first Slow Slip Events (SSE) that oppositely to most SSE documented so far, are accompanied with intense micro-seismicity. The recent support of the French National Research Agency and the Ecuadorian Agency for Sciences and Technology (Senescyt) will enable us to integrate the already obtained results, in an attempt to develop an

  4. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, John; Gordeev, Evgenii; Izbekov, Pavel; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan

    The Kamchatka Peninsula and contiguous North Pacific Rim is among the most active regions in the world. Kamchatka itself contains 29 active volcanoes, 4 now in a state of semi-continuous eruption, and I has experienced 14 magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes since accurate recording began in 1962. At its heart is the uniquely acute subduction cusp where the Kamchatka and Aleutian Arcs and Emperor Seamount Chain meet. Volcanism and Subduction covers coupled magmatism and tectonics in this spectacular region, where the torn North Pacific slab dives into hot mantle. Senior Russian and American authors grapple with the dynamics of the cusp with perspectives from the west and east of it, respectively, while careful tephrostratigraphy yields a remarkably precise record of behavior of storied volcanoes such as Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch. Towards the south, Japanese researchers elucidate subduction earthquake processes with unprecedented geodetic resolution. Looking eastward, new insights on caldera formation, monitoring, and magma ascent are presented for the Aleutians. This is one of the first books of its kind printed in the English language. Students and scientists beginning research in the region will find in this book a useful context and introduction to the region's scientific leaders. Others who wish to apply lessons learned in the North Pacific to their areas of interest will find the volume a valuable reference.

  5. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  6. Carbon Retention and Isotopic Evolution in Deeply Subducted Sediments: Evidence from the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Kollars, J.; Bebout, G. E.; Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.

    2012-12-01

    increasing grade, metapelitic carbonaceous matter shows an increase in δ13CVPDB, ranging from about -25‰ in low-grade Schistes Lustres samples to -16‰ in the highest-grade Cignana samples. Carbonate in the entire suite shows decrease in δ18OSMOW, from marine carbonate values > 25‰ to values of 17-22‰ independent of the carbonate content of the rocks. This shift could possibly be explained by isotopic exchange with silicate phases in the same rocks [Henry et al. (1996), Chem. Geol.]. Metapelitic rocks in this suite experienced moderate amounts of dehydration (20-50%) largely related to breakdown of chlorite and carpholite [Bebout et al. (in press), Chem. Geol. (abstract in this session); Angiboust and Agard (2010), Lithos], conceivably providing a source for infiltrating H2O-rich fluids producing negative shifts in calcite δ18O in interlayered metacarbonates. These results indicate that relatively little decarbonation occurred in carbonate-bearing sediments subducted to depths greater than 100 km, arguing against any model of extensive decarbonation driven by infiltration of the sediments by H2O-rich fluids released from mafic and ultramafic parts of the underlying subducting slab. This study provides field evidence for the efficient retention of C in subducting shale-carbonate sequences through forearc depths, potentially affecting the C budget and isotopic evolution of the deeper mantle.

  7. Seismic imaging along a 600 km transect of the Alaska Subduction zone (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, J. A.; Abers, G. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Rondenay, S.; Christensen, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present earthquake locations, scattered wavefield migration images, and phase velocity maps from preliminary analysis of combined seismic data from the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR) and Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction (MOOS) projects. Together, these PASSCAL broadband arrays sampled a 500+ km transect across a portion of the subduction zone characterized by the Yakutat terrane/Pacific plate boundary in the downgoing plate, and the Denali volcanic gap in the overriding plate. These are the first results from the MOOS experiment, a 34-station array that was deployed from 2006-2008 to fill in the gap between the TACT offshore refraction profile (south and east of the coastline of the Kenai Peninsula), and the BEAAR array (spanning the Alaska Range between Talkeetna and Fairbanks). 2-D images of the upper 150 km of the subduction zone were produced by migrating forward- and back-scattered arrivals in the coda of P waves from large teleseismic earthquakes, highlighting S-velocity perturbations from a smoothly-varying background model. The migration images reveal a shallowly north-dipping low velocity zone that is contiguous near 20 km depth on its updip end with previously obtained images of the subducting plate offshore. The low velocity zone steepens further to the north, and terminates near 120 km beneath the Alaska Range. We interpret this low velocity zone to be the crust of the downgoing plate, and the reduced seismic velocities to be indicative of hydrated gabbroic compositions. Earthquakes located using the temporary arrays and nearby stations of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network correlate spatially with the inferred subducting crust. Cross-sections taken along nearly orthogonal strike lines through the MOOS array reveal that both the dip angle and the thickness of the subducting low velocity zone change abruptly across a roughly NNW-SSE striking line drawn through the eastern Kenai Peninsula, coincident with a

  8. GPS measurements and finite element modeling of the earthquake cycle along the Middle America subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Mora, Francisco

    We model surface deformation recorded by GPS stations along the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America to estimate the magnitude of and variations in frictional locking (coupling) along the subduction interface, toward a better understanding of seismic hazard in these earthquake-prone regions. The first chapter describes my primary analysis technique, namely 3-dimensional finite element modeling to simulate subduction and bounded-variable inversions that optimize the fit to the GPS velocity field. This chapter focuses on and describes interseismic coupling of the Oaxaca segment of the Mexican subduction zone and introduces an analysis of transient slip events that occur in this region. Our results indicate that coupling is strong within the rupture zone of the 1978 Ms=7.8 Oaxaca earthquake, making this region a potential source of a future large earthquake. However, we also find evidence for significant variations in coupling on the subduction interface over distances of only tens of kilometers, decreasing toward the outer edges of the 1978 rupture zone. In the second chapter, we study in more detail some of the slow slip events that have been recorded over a broad area of southern Mexico, with emphasis on their space-time behavior. Our modeling indicates that transient deformation beneath southern Mexico is focused in two distinct slip patches mostly located downdip from seismogenic areas beneath Guerrero and Oaxaca. Contrary to conclusions reached in one previous study, we find no evidence for a spatial or temporal correlation between transient slip that occurs in these two widely separated source regions. Finally, chapter three extends the modeling techniques to new GPS data in Central America, where subduction coupling is weak or zero and the upper plate deformation is much more complex than in Mexico. Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence beneath El Salvador and Nicaragua is accompanied by subduction and trench-parallel motion of the forearc. Our GPS

  9. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn-subduction

  10. MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability

  11. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OSTandI) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OSTandI's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program

  12. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-07-27

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

  13. Low-Thrust Bipropellant Engine Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Non-Destructive Testing OD Outside Diameter xv tr. GLOSSARY (cont.J ODE One Dimensional Equilibrium ODK One Dimensional Kinetics Pc Thrust Chamber...performance (280 sec steady- state, 220 sec pulsing) have not yet been collectively achieved, but should be obtainable with further development activities...even at nozzle area ratios up to 400:1. The influence of nozzle kinetics (i.e., equilibrium versus frozen flow and ODK ) are noted to be a much more

  14. Constraining the hydration of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Northern Chile using subduction zone guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed from earthquakes at 180-280 km depth recorded at stations in the fore-arc of Northern Chile, where the 44 Ma Nazca plate subducts beneath South America. Characteristic P-wave dispersion is observed at several stations in the Chilean fore-arc with high frequency energy (>5 Hz) arriving up to 3 s after low frequency (accounted for if dipping low velocity fault zones are included within the subducting lithospheric mantle. A grid search over possible LVL and faults zone parameters (width, velocity contrast and separation distance) was carried out to constrain the best fitting model parameters. Our results imply that fault zone structures of 0.5-1.0 km thickness, and 5-10 km spacing, consistent with observations at the outer rise are present within the subducted slab at intermediate depths. We propose that these low velocity fault zone structures represent the hydrated structure within the lithospheric mantle. They may be formed initially by normal faults at the outer rise, which act as a pathway for fluids to penetrate the deeper slab due to the bending and unbending stresses within the subducting plate. Our observations suggest that the lithospheric mantle is 5-15% serpentinised, and therefore may transport approximately 13-42 Tg/Myr of water per meter of arc. The guided wave observations also suggest that a thin LVL (∼1 km thick) interpreted as un-eclogitised subducted oceanic crust persists to depths of at least 220 km. Comparison of the inferred seismic velocities with those predicted for various MORB assemblages suggest that this thin LVL may be accounted for by low velocity lawsonite-bearing assemblages, suggesting that some mineral-bound water within the oceanic crust may be transported well beyond the volcanic arc. While older subducting slabs may carry more water per metre of arc, approximately one third of the oceanic material subducted globally is of a similar age to the Nazca plate. This suggests that subducting oceanic

  15. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  16. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  17. Analysis of thrust/torque signature of MOV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Geun; Park, Seong Keun; Kim, Dae Woong

    2001-01-01

    For the evaluation of operability of MOV(Motor Operated Valve), the precision prediction of thrust/torque acting on the valve is important. In this paper, the analytical prediction method of thrust/torque was proposed. The design basis stem thrust calculation typically considers the followings: packing thrust, stem rejection load, design basis differential pressure load. In general, test results show that temperature, pressure, fluid type, and differential pressure, independently and combination, all have an effect on the friction factor. The prediction results of thrust/torque are well agreement with dynamic test results

  18. History and evolution of Subduction in the Precambrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2013-12-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g. Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic subduction is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further subduction history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere starts to delaminate and drip-off. But the subduction style is not only a function of upper-mantle temperature but also strongly depends on the thickness of the subducting plate. If thinner present day oceanic plates are used in the Precambrian models, no shallow underplating is observed but steep subduction can be found up to an upper-mantle temperature of 200 K above present day values. Increasing oceanic plate thickness introduces a transition from steep to flat subduction at lower temperatures of around 150 K. Thicker oceanic plates in the Precambrium also agree with results from earlier studies, e.g. Abbott (1994). References: Abbott, D., Drury, R., Smith, W.H.F., 1994. Flat to steep transition in subduction style. Geology 22, 937-940. Brown, M., 2006. Duality of thermal regimes is the distinctive characteristic of plate tectonics since the

  19. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  20. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  1. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  2. Thrust Control Loop Design for Electric-Powered UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Heejae; Park, Sanghyuk

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a process of designing a thrust control loop for an electric-powered fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a propeller and a motor. In particular, the modeling method of the thrust system for thrust control is described in detail and the propeller thrust and torque force are modeled using blade element theory. A relation between current and torque of the motor is obtained using an experimental setup. Another relation between current, voltage and angular velocity is also obtained. The electric motor and the propeller dynamics are combined to model the thrust dynamics. The associated trim and linearization equations are derived. Then, the thrust dynamics are coupled with the flight dynamics to allow a proper design for the thrust loop in the flight control. The proposed method is validated by an application to a testbed UAV through simulations and flight test.

  3. The ADN project : an integrated seismic monitoring of the northern Ecuadorian subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yepes, Hugo; Vallee, Martin; Mothes, Patricia; Regnier, Marc; Segovia, Monica; Font, Yvonne; Vaca, Sandro; Bethoux, Nicole; Ramos, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America has caused one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequence during the XXth century with three M>7.7 earthquakes that followed the great 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event. Better understanding the processes leading to the occurrence of large subduction earthquakes requires to monitor the ground motion over a large range of frequencies. We present a new network (ADN) developed under a collaboration between the IRD-GeoAzur (Nice, France) and the IG-EPN (Quito, Ecuador). Each station of the ADN network includes a GPS recording at 5 Hz, an accelerometer and a broadband seismometer. CGPS data will quantify the secular deformation induced by elastic locking along the subduction interface, enabling a detailed modelling of the coupling distribution. CGPS will be used to monitor any transient deformation induced by Episodic Slip Event along the subduction, together with broadband seismometers that can detect any tremors or seismic signatures that may accompany them. In case of any significant earthquake, 5 Hz GPS and accelerometer will provide near field data for earthquake source detailed study. Finally, the broadband seismometers will be used for study of the microseismicity and structure of the subduction zone. The network includes 9 stations, operating since 2008 and covering the coastal area from latitude 1.5°S to the Colombian border. In this poster, we will present preliminary assessment of the data, first hypocenters location, magnitude and focal mechanism determination, as well as results about an episodic slip event detected in winter 2008.

  4. DETERMINING SOIL REACTIONS AND THE VALUE OF DEVIATION FROM A LINEAR TRAJECTORY OF ASYMMETRICAL SOIL THRUST WORKING BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kravets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of underground communications in urban conditions is very difficult due to the large number of existing communications. Thus, it is necessary to change the trajectory of the horizontal well during soil thrust boring. An analytical method for determining soil reactions and the deviation of the trajectory of an asymmetric soil thrust working body, which can be used to correct or control the trajectory during puncture, is suggested.

  5. Continental Subduction: Mass Fluxes and Interactions with the Wider Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Substantial parts of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains probably represent subducted passive continental margins (PCM). This contribution reviews and synthesises research on processes operating in such systems and their implication for the wider Earth system. PCM sediments are large repositories of volatiles including hydrates, nitrogen species, carbonates and hydrocarbons. Sediments and upper/ mid-crustal basement are rich in incompatible elements and are fertile for melting. Lower crust may be more mafic and refractory. Juvenile rift-related mafic rocks also have the potential to generate substantial volumes of granitoid melts, especially if they have been hydrated. Exposed UHP terrains demonstrate the return of continental crust from mantle depths, show evidence for substantial fluxes of aqueous fluid, anatexis and, in entrained orogenic peridotites, metasomatism of mantle rocks by crust- derived C-O-H fluids. However, substantial bodies of continental material may never return to the surface as coherent masses of rock, but remain sequestered in the mantle where they melt or become entrained in the deeper mantle circulation. Hence during subduction, PCM's become partitioned by a range of mechanisms. Mechanical partitioning strips away weaker sediment and middle/upper crust, which circulate back up the subduction channel, while denser, stronger transitional pro-crust and lower crust may "stall" near the base of the lithosphere or be irreversibly subducted to join the global mantle circulation. Under certain conditions sediment and upper crustal basement may reach depths for UHPM. Further partitioning takes place by anatexis, which either aids stripping and exhumation of the more melt-prone rock-masses through mechanical softening, or separates melt from residuum so that melt escapes and is accreted to the upper plate leading to "undercrusting", late-orogenic magmatism and further refinement of the crust. Melt that traverses sections of mantle will interact with

  6. Control on frontal thrust progression by the mechanically weak Gondwana horizon in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Das, Animesh

    2018-03-01

    This study integrates field evidence with laboratory experiments to show the mechanical effects of a lithologically contrasting stratigraphic sequence on the development of frontal thrusts: Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Daling Thrust (DT) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH). We carried out field investigations mainly along two river sections in the DSH: Tista-Kalijhora and Mahanadi, covering an orogen-parallel stretch of 20 km. Our field observations suggest that the coal-shale dominated Gondwana sequence (sandwiched between the Daling Group in the north and Siwaliks in the south) has acted as a mechanically weak horizon to localize the MBT and DT. We simulated a similar mechanical setting in scaled model experiments to validate our field interpretation. In experiments, such a weak horizon at a shallow depth perturbs the sequential thrust progression, and causes a thrust to localize in the vicinity of the weak zone, splaying from the basal detachment. We correlate this weak-zone-controlled thrust with the DT, which accommodates a large shortening prior to activation of the weak zone as a new detachment with ongoing horizontal shortening. The entire shortening in the model is then transferred to this shallow detachment to produce a new sequence of thrust splays. Extrapolating this model result to the natural prototype, we show that the mechanically weak Gondwana Sequence has caused localization of the DT and MBT in the mountain front of DSH.

  7. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  8. OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL, NATURAL BARRIERS THRUST OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Bodvarsson; Y. Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The Natural Barriers Thrust supports scientific studies of the natural system at the proposed repository site of Yucca Mountain. It stresses the realistic representation of the natural system with respect to processes and parameters, by means of laboratory, field, and modeling studies. It has the objectives to demonstrate that the natural barriers can make large contributions to repository performance, supporting the multiple-barrier concept for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; and to reduce the overall cost of repository development by elimination of unnecessary engineered components, given the demonstrated natural barriers performance. In this overview we enumerate the research projects within the Natural Barriers Thrust grouped under five elements: (1) Drift Seepage, (2) In-drift Environment, (3) Drift Shadow, (4) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport, and (5) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport. The long-term strategic plan of the Natural Barriers Thrust and some key results are also briefly described

  9. Low-Thrust Orbital Transfers in the Two-Body Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-thrust transfers between given orbits within the two-body problem are considered; the thrust is assumed power limited. A simple method for obtaining the transfer trajectories based on the linearization of the motion near reference orbits is suggested. Required calculation accuracy can be reached by means of use of a proper number of the reference orbits. The method may be used in the case of a large number of the orbits around the attracting center; no averaging is necessary in this case. The suggested method also is applicable to the cases of partly given final orbit and if there are constraints on the thrust direction. The method gives an optimal solution to the linearized problem which is not optimal for the original nonlinear problem; the difference between the optimal solutions to the original and linearized problems is estimated using a numerical example. Also examples illustrating the method capacities are given.

  10. Eastern Mediterranean geothermal resources and subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Sternai, Pietro; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    The Aegean-Anatolian retreating subduction and collision zones have been investigated through 3D numerical geodynamic models involving slab rollback/tearing/breakoff constrained by, for instance, seismic tomography or anisotropy and geochemical proxies. Here, we integrate these investigations by using the well documented geothermal anomalies geothermal anomalies. First, we use 3D high-resolution thermo-mechanical numerical models to quantify the potential contribution of the past Aegean-Anatolian subduction dynamics to such present-day measured thermal anomalies. Results suggest an efficient control of subduction-related asthenospheric return flow on the regional distribution of thermal anomalies. Our quantification shows that the slab-induced shear heating at the base of the crust could partly explain the high heat flow values above the slab tear (i.e. in the Menderes Massif, Western Turkey). Second, the associated thermal signature at the base of the continental crust is used as basal thermal boundary condition for 2D crustal-scale models dedicated to the understanding of heat transfer from the abnormally hot mantle to the shallow geothermal reservoir. These models couple heat transfer and fluid flow equations with appropriate fluid and rock physical properties. Results suggest that permeable low-angle normal faults (detachments) in the back-arc region can control the bulk of the heat transport and fluid circulation patterns. We suggest that detachments can drain crustal and/or mantellic fluids up to several kilometers depths. At the basin-scale, we show that the permeability of detachments may control the reservoirs location. Temperatures at the base of detachments may be subject to protracted increase (due to anomalously high basal heat flow) through time, thereby generating dome-shaped thermal structures. These structures, usually with 20km characteristic wavelength, may reach the Moho involving lateral rheological contrasts and possibly crustal

  11. Thrust evaluation of magneto plasma sail that obtains an electromagnetic thrust from the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, Yoshihiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Usui, Hideyuki; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Magneto Plasma Sail (MPS) is a propulsion system used in space, which generates its force by the interaction between the solar wind and an inflated magnetic field via a plasma injection. The quantitative evaluation of the thrust increment generated by injecting a plasma jet with a β in less than unity was conducted by three-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in an ion inertia scale. The injected plasma β in is 0.02 and the ratio of Larmor radius of injected ion to the representative length of the magnetic field is 0.5 at the injection point. In this situation, the obtained thrust of the MPS is 1.6 mN compared with the 0.2 mN of the thrust obtained by the pure magnetic sail since the induced current region on magnetosphere expanded by the magnetic inflation. (author)

  12. Dynamics of interplate domain in subduction zones: influence of rheological parameters and subducting plate age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arcay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the subduction interplate domain are likely to affect not only the seismogenic potential of the subduction area but also the overall subduction process, as it influences its viability. Numerical simulations are performed to model the long-term equilibrium state of the subduction interplate when the diving lithosphere interacts with both the overriding plate and the surrounding convective mantle. The thermomechanical model combines a non-Newtonian viscous rheology and a pseudo-brittle rheology. Rock strength here depends on depth, temperature and stress, for both oceanic crust and mantle rocks. I study the evolution through time of, on one hand, the brittle-ductile transition (BDT depth, zBDT, and, on the other hand, of the kinematic decoupling depth, zdec, simulated along the subduction interplate. The results show that both a high friction and a low ductile strength at the asthenospheric wedge tip shallow zBDT. The influence of the weak material activation energy is of second order but not negligible. zBDT becomes dependent on the ductile strength increase with depth (activation volume if the BDT occurs at the interplate decoupling depth. Regarding the interplate decoupling depth, it is shallowed (1 significantly if mantle viscosity at asthenospheric wedge tip is low, (2 if the difference in mantle and interplate activation energy is weak, and (3 if the activation volume is increased. Very low friction coefficients and/or low asthenospheric viscosities promote zBDT = zdec. I then present how the subducting lithosphere age affects the brittle-ductile transition depth and the kinematic decoupling depth in this model. Simulations show that a rheological model in which the respective activation energies of mantle and interplate material are too close hinders the mechanical decoupling at the down-dip extent of the interplate

  13. Evidence for ˜80-75 Ma subduction jump during Anatolide-Tauride-Armenian block accretion and ˜48 Ma Arabia-Eurasia collision in Lesser Caucasus-East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yann; Perincek, Dogan; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Sosson, Marc; Barrier, Eric; Avagyan, Ara

    2012-05-01

    Orogens formed by a combination of subduction and accretion are featured by a short-lived collisional history. They preserve crustal geometries acquired prior to the collisional event. These geometries comprise obducted oceanic crust sequences that may propagate somewhat far away from the suture zone, preserved accretionary prism and subduction channel at the interplate boundary. The cessation of deformation is ascribed to rapid jump of the subduction zone at the passive margin rim of the opposite side of the accreted block. Geological investigation and 40Ar/39Ar dating on the main tectonic boundaries of the Anatolide-Tauride-Armenian (ATA) block in Eastern Turkey, Armenia and Georgia provide temporal constraints of subduction and accretion on both sides of this small continental block, and final collisional history of Eurasian and Arabian plates. On the northern side, 40Ar/39Ar ages give insights for the subduction and collage from the Middle to Upper Cretaceous (95-80 Ma). To the south, younger magmatic and metamorphic ages exhibit subduction of Neotethys and accretion of the Bitlis-Pütürge block during the Upper Cretaceous (74-71 Ma). These data are interpreted as a subduction jump from the northern to the southern boundary of the ATA continental block at 80-75 Ma. Similar back-arc type geochemistry of obducted ophiolites in the two subduction-accretion domains point to a similar intra-oceanic evolution prior to accretion, featured by slab steepening and roll-back as for the current Mediterranean domain. Final closure of Neotethys and initiation of collision with Arabian Plate occurred in the Middle-Upper Eocene as featured by the development of a Himalayan-type thrust sheet exhuming amphibolite facies rocks in its hanging-wall at c. 48 Ma.

  14. Length Scales and Types of Heterogeneities Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights From an Exhumed Subduction Complex on Syros Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Tong, X.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The rheology of the deep subduction interface strongly influences the occurrence, recurrence, and migration of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events. To better understand the environment of deep ETS, we characterize the length scales and types of rheological heterogeneities that decorate the deep interface using an exhumed subduction complex. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece, records Eocene subduction to 60 km, partial exhumation along the top of the slab, and final exhumation along Miocene detachment faults. The CBU reached 450-580˚C and 14-16 kbar, PT conditions similar to where ETS occurs in several modern subduction zones. Rheological heterogeneity is preserved in a range of rock types on Syros, with the most prominent type being brittle pods embedded within a viscous matrix. Prograde, blueschist-facies metabasalts show strong deformation fabrics characteristic of viscous flow; cm- to m-scale eclogitic lenses are embedded within them as massive, veined pods, foliated pods rotated with respect to the blueschist fabric, and attenuated, foliation-parallel lenses. Similar relationships are observed in blueschist-facies metasediments interpreted to have deformed during early exhumation. In these rocks, metabasalts form lenses ranging in size from m- to 10s of m and are distributed at the m-scale throughout the metasedimentary matrix. Several of the metamafic lenses, and the matrix rocks immediately adjacent to them, preserve multiple generations of dilational veins and shear fractures filled with quartz and high pressure minerals. These observations suggest that coupled brittle-viscous deformation under high fluid pressures may characterize the subduction interface in the deep tremor source region. To test this further, we modeled the behavior of an elasto-plastic pod in a viscous shear zone under high fluid pressures. Our models show that local stress concentrations around the pod are large enough to generate transient dilational shear at seismic

  15. Pleistocene vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc from subducting topography and a migrating fracture zone triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Silver, Eli A.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the links between subducting slabs and upper-plate deformation is a longstanding goal in the field of tectonics. New 3D seismic sequence stratigraphy, mapped within the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) seismic-reflection volume offshore southern Costa Rica, spatiotemporally constrains several Pleistocene outer forearc processes and provides clearer connections to subducting plate dynamics. Three significant shelf and/or slope erosional events at ca. 2.5–2.3 Ma, 1.95–1.78 Ma, and 1.78–1.19 Ma, each with notable differences in spatial extent, volume removed, and subsequent margin response, caused abrupt shifts in sedimentation patterns and rates. These shifts, coupled with observed deformation, suggest three primary mechanisms for Pleistocene shelf and slope vertical motions: (1) regional subaerial erosion and rapid subsidence linked to the southeastward Panama Fracture Zone triple-junction migration, with associated abrupt bathymetric variations and plate kinematic changes; (2) transient, kilometer-scale uplift and subsidence due to inferred subducting plate topography; and (3) progressive outer wedge shortening accommodated by landward- and seaward-dipping thrust faults and fold development due to the impinging Cocos Ridge. Furthermore, we find that the present-day wedge geometry (to within ∼3 km along strike) has been maintained through the Pleistocene, in contrast to modeled landward margin retreat. We also observe that deformation, i.e., extension and shortening, is decoupled from net margin subsidence. Our findings do not require basal erosion, and they suggest that the vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc are not the result of a particular continuous process, but rather are a summation of plate to plate changes (e.g., passage of a fracture zone triple junction) and episodic events (e.g., subducting plate topography).

  16. Analysis of Fault Spacing in Thrust-Belt Wedges Using Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regensburger, P. V.; Ito, G.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modeling is invaluable in studying the mechanical processes governing the evolution of geologic features such as thrust-belt wedges. The mechanisms controlling thrust fault spacing in wedges is not well understood. Our numerical model treats the thrust belt as a visco-elastic-plastic continuum and uses a finite-difference, marker-in-cell method to solve for conservation of mass and momentum. From these conservation laws, stress is calculated and Byerlee's law is used to determine the shear stress required for a fault to form. Each model consists of a layer of crust, initially 3-km-thick, carried on top of a basal décollement, which moves at a constant speed towards a rigid backstop. A series of models were run with varied material properties, focusing on the angle of basal friction at the décollement, the angle of friction within the crust, and the cohesion of the crust. We investigate how these properties affected the spacing between thrusts that have the most time-integrated history of slip and therefore have the greatest effect on the large-scale undulations in surface topography. The surface position of these faults, which extend through most of the crustal layer, are identifiable as local maxima in positive curvature of surface topography. Tracking the temporal evolution of faults, we find that thrust blocks are widest when they first form at the front of the wedge and then they tend to contract over time as more crustal material is carried to the wedge. Within each model, thrust blocks form with similar initial widths, but individual thrust blocks develop differently and may approach an asymptotic width over time. The median of thrust block widths across the whole wedge tends to decrease with time. Median fault spacing shows a positive correlation with both wedge cohesion and internal friction. In contrast, median fault spacing exhibits a negative correlation at small angles of basal friction (laws that can be used to predict fault spacing in

  17. Earthquake source parameters along the Hellenic subduction zone and numerical simulations of historical tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2012-04-01

    We studied source mechanism parameters and slip distributions of earthquakes with Mw ≥ 5.0 occurred during 2000-2008 along the Hellenic subduction zone by using teleseismic P- and SH-waveform inversion methods. In addition, the major and well-known earthquake-induced Eastern Mediterranean tsunamis (e.g., 365, 1222, 1303, 1481, 1494, 1822 and 1948) were numerically simulated and several hypothetical tsunami scenarios were proposed to demonstrate the characteristics of tsunami waves, propagations and effects of coastal topography. The analogy of current plate boundaries, earthquake source mechanisms, various earthquake moment tensor catalogues and several empirical self-similarity equations, valid for global or local scales, were used to assume conceivable source parameters which constitute the initial and boundary conditions in simulations. Teleseismic inversion results showed that earthquakes along the Hellenic subduction zone can be classified into three major categories: [1] focal mechanisms of the earthquakes exhibiting E-W extension within the overriding Aegean plate; [2] earthquakes related to the African-Aegean convergence; and [3] focal mechanisms of earthquakes lying within the subducting African plate. Normal faulting mechanisms with left-lateral strike slip components were observed at the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone, and we suggest that they were probably concerned with the overriding Aegean plate. However, earthquakes involved in the convergence between the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean lithospheres indicated thrust faulting mechanisms with strike slip components, and they had shallow focal depths (h < 45 km). Deeper earthquakes mainly occurred in the subducting African plate, and they presented dominantly strike slip faulting mechanisms. Slip distributions on fault planes showed both complex and simple rupture propagations with respect to the variation of source mechanism and faulting geometry. We calculated low stress drop

  18. Earthquake nucleation in weak subducted carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawski, Robert M.; Stipp, Michael; Niemeijer, André R.; Spiers, Christopher J.; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2016-09-01

    Ocean-floor carbonate- and clay-rich sediments form major inputs to subduction zones, especially at low-latitude convergent plate margins. Therefore, knowledge of their frictional behaviour is fundamental for understanding plate-boundary earthquakes. Here we report results of mechanical tests performed on simulated fault gouges prepared from ocean-floor carbonates and clays, cored during IODP drilling offshore Costa Rica. Clay-rich gouges show internal friction coefficients (that is, the slope of linearized shear stress versus normal stress data) of μint = 0.44 - 0.56, irrespective of temperature and pore-fluid pressure (Pf). By contrast, μint for the carbonate gouge strongly depends on temperature and pore-fluid pressure, with μint decreasing dramatically from 0.84 at room temperature and Pf = 20 MPa to 0.27 at T = 140 °C and Pf = 120 MPa. This effect provides a fundamental mechanism of shear localization and earthquake generation in subduction zones, and makes carbonates likely nucleation sites for plate-boundary earthquakes. Our results imply that rupture nucleation is prompted by a combination of temperature-controlled frictional instability and temperature- and pore-pressure-dependent weakening of calcareous fault gouges.

  19. The thermochemical, two-phase dynamics of subduction zones: results from new, fully coupled models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees Jones, D. W.; Katz, R. F.; May, D.; Tian, M.; Rudge, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zones are responsible for most of Earth's subaerial volcanism. However, previous geodynamic modelling of subduction zones has largely neglected magmatism. We previously showed that magmatism has a significant thermal impact, by advecting sensible heat into the lithosphere beneath arc volcanos [1]. Inclusion of this effect helps reconcile subduction zone models with petrological and heat flow observations. Many important questions remain, including how magma-mantle dynamics of subduction zones affects the position of arc volcanos and the character of their lavas. In this presentation, we employ a fully coupled, thermochemical, two-phase flow theory to investigate the dynamics of subduction zones. We present the first results from our new software (SubFUSc), which solves the coupled equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species. The presence and migration of partial melts affect permeability and mantle viscosity (both directly and through their thermal impact); these, in turn, feed back on the magma-mantle flow. Thus our fully coupled modelling improves upon previous two-phase models that decoupled the governing equations and fixed the thermal structure [2]. To capture phase change, we use a novel, simplified model of the mantle melting in the presence of volatile species. As in the natural system, volatiles are associated with low-degree melting at temperatures beneath the anhydrous solidus; dehydration reactions in the slab supply volatiles into the wedge, triggering silicic melting. We simulate the migration of melts under buoyancy forces and dynamic pressure gradients. We thereby demonstrate the dynamical controls on the pattern of subduction-zone volcanism (particularly its location, magnitude, and chemical composition). We build on our previous study of the thermal consequences of magma genesis and segregation. We address the question of what controls the location of arc volcanoes themselves [3]. [1] Rees Jones, D. W

  20. Fault plane orientations of deep earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of directivity analysis on 45 deep earthquakes within the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone between 1993 and 2011. The age of the subducting Pacific plate increases from north to south along the trench, from 120 Ma offshore Tokyo to over 150 Ma east of the Mariana Islands. The dip of the deep slab generally increases from north to south, and is steep to overturned beneath the southern Bonin Islands and Marianas. Between 34 and 26 degrees north, a peak in seismicity at 350-450 km depth marks a decrease in dip as the slab approaches the base of the upper mantle. We observe directivity for around 60 percent of the analysed earthquakes, and use the propagation characteristics to find the best fitting rupture vector. In 60-70 percent of cases with well constrained rupture directivity, the best fitting rupture vector allows discrimination of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. The identified fault planes between 100 km and 500 km are predominantly near-horizontal or south-southwest dipping. Rotated into the plane of the slab, the fault plane poles form a single cluster, since the more steeply dipping fault planes are found within more steeply dipping sections of slab. The dominance of near-horizontal fault planes at intermediate depth agrees with results from previous studies of the Tonga and Middle-America subduction zones. However, the presence of a single preferred fault plane orientation for large deep-focus earthquakes has not been previously reported, and contrasts with the situation for deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction system. Ruptures tend to propagate away from the top surface of the slab. We discuss potential causes of preferred fault plane orientations within subducting slabs in the light of existing available data, and the implications for mechanisms of faulting at great depths within the Earth.

  1. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  2. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, Oliver|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37155960X; King, Helen E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261088; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411298119; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P.; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu–Bonin–Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that

  3. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  4. Slab2 - Updated Subduction Zone Geometries and Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.

  5. Why Archaean TTG cannot be generated by MORB melting in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé; Moyen, Jean-François; Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    Until recently it was assumed that the Archaean continental crust (made of TTGs: tonalites, trondhjemites, and granodiorites) was generated through partial melting of MORB-like basalts in hot subduction environments, where the subducted oceanic crust melted at high pressure, leaving a garnet-bearing amphibolitic or eclogitic residue. However, recent geochemical models as well as basalt melting experiments have precluded MORB as a plausible source for TTGs. Rather, geochemical and experimental evidences indicate that formation of TTG required a LILE-enriched source, similar to oceanic plateau basalts. Moreover, subduction is a continuous process, while continental growth is episodic. Several “super-growth events” have been identified at ~ 4.2, ~ 3.8, ~ 3.2, ~ 2.7, ~ 1.8, ~ 1.1, and ~ 0.5 Ga, which is inconsistent with the regular pattern that would be expected from a subduction-driven process. In order to account for this periodicity, it has been proposed that, as subduction proceeds, descending residual slabs accumulate at the 660-km seismic discontinuity. When stored oceanic crust exceeds a certain mass threshold, it rapidly sinks into the mantle as a cold avalanche, which induces the ascent of mantle plumes that in turn produce large amounts of magmas resulting in oceanic plateaus. However, melting at the base of thick oceanic plateaus does not appear to be a realistic process that can account for TTG genesis. Modern oceanic plateaus contain only small volumes (≤ 5%) of felsic magmas generally formed by high degrees of fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas. The composition of these felsic magmas drastically differs from that of TTGs. In Iceland, the interaction between a mantle plume and the mid-Atlantic ridge gives rise to an anomalously (Archaean-like) high geothermal gradient resulting in thick basaltic crust able to melt at shallow depth. Even in this favorable context though, the characteristic Archaean TTG trace element signature is not being

  6. Fate of Subducting Organic Carbon: Evidence from HP/UHP Metasedimentary Suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K.; Bebout, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Community interest in deep-Earth C cycling has focused attention on extents of C release from subducting oceanic lithosphere and sediment and the fate of this released C. Many have suggested that, based on isotopic and other arguments, 20% of the C subducted into the deeper mantle is in reduced form (organic); however, individual margins show large variation in carbonate to organic C ratios. Despite the size of the potentially deeply subducted organic C reservoir, its fate in subducting sections remains largely unexplored, with most attention paid to release of carbonate C. To characterize the forearc behavior of organic C, metamorphosed to P-T as high as that beneath volcanic fronts, we evaluated records of reduced C (RC) contents and isotope compositions in HP/UHP metasediments: 1) Schistes Lustres/Cignana (SLC) suite (Alps; Cook-Kollars et al., 2014, Chem Geol) with abundant carbonate and resembling sediment entering the East Sunda trench; and (2) Franciscan Complex (FC), W. Baja Terrain (WBT), Catalina Schist (CS) metasediments (Sadofsky and Bebout, 2003, G3), largely sandstone-shale sequences containing very little carbonate. In general, more Al-rich samples (shaley) in the terrigenous metasedimentary suites have higher concentrations of RC, which in low-grade units preserves δ13C of its organic protoliths. Carbonate-poor rocks in the SLC suite, and at ODP Site 765, show correlated major element (Al, Mg, Mn, Ti, P) and RC contents (up to 1.2 wt.%) reflecting sandstone-shale mixture. In the FC, WBT, and CS, the more Al-rich samples contain up to 2 wt. % RC. In high-grade Catalina Schist, RC has elevated δ13C due to C loss in CH4 and high-grade Alps rocks show reduced RC wt. % normalized to Al content. We consider processes that could alter contents and isotopic compositions of RC in sediment, e.g., devolatilization, closed-system exchange with carbonate, redox reactions, isotopic exchange with C in externally-derived fluids. It appears that, on modern Earth

  7. Structural Discordance Between Neogene Detachments and Frontal Sevier Thrusts, Central Mormon Mountains, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Brian; Walker, J. Douglas; Beaufait, Mark S.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed geologic mapping in the Mormon Mountains of southern Nevada provides significant insight into processes of extensional tectonics developed within older compressional orogens. A newly discovered, WSW-directed low-angle normal fault, the Mormon Peak detachment, juxtaposes the highest levels of the frontal most part of the east-vergent, Mesozoic Sevier thrust belt with autochthonous crystalline basement. Palinspastic analysis suggests that the detachment initially dipped 20-25° to the west and cut discordantly across thrust faults. Nearly complete lateral removal of the hanging wall from the area has exposed a 5 km thick longitudinal cross-section through the thrust belt in the footwall, while highly attenuated remnants of the hanging wall (nowhere more than a few hundred meters thick) structurally veneer the range. The present arched configuration of the detachment resulted in part from progressive "domino-style" rotation of a few degrees while it was active, but is largely due to rotation on younger, structurally lower, basement-penetrating normal faults that initiated at high-angle. The geometry and kinematics of normal faulting in the Mormon Mountains suggest that pre-existing thrust planes are not required for the initiation of low-angle normal faults, and even where closely overlapped by extensional tectonism, need not function as a primary control of detachment geometry. Caution must thus be exercised in interpreting low-angle normal faults of uncertain tectonic heritage such as those seen in the COCORP west-central Utah and BIRP's MOIST deep-reflection profiles. Although thrust fault reactivation has reasonably been shown to be the origin of a very few low-angle normal faults, our results indicate that it may not be as fundamental a component of orogenic architecture as it is now widely perceived to be. We conclude that while in many instances thrust fault reactivation may be both a plausible and attractive hypothesis, it may never be assumed.

  8. Thrust and torque characteristics based on a new cutter-head load model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqin; Ren, Jiabao; Guo, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full face rock tunnel boring machine(TBM) has been widely used in hard rock tunnels, however, there are few published theory about cutter-head design, and the design criteria of cutter-head under complex geological is not clear yet. To deal with the complex relationship among geological parameters, cutter parameters, and operating parameters during tunneling processes, a cutter-head load model is established by using CSM(Colorado school of mines) prediction model. Force distribution on cutter-head under a certain geology is calculated with the new established load model, and result shows that inner cutters bear more force than outer cutters, combining with disc cutters abrasion; a general principle of disc cutters' layout design is proposed. Within the model, the relationship among rock uniaxial compressive strength(UCS), penetration and thrust on cutter-head are analyzed, and the results shows that with increasing penetration, cutter thrust increases, but the growth rate slows and higher penetration makes lower special energy(SE). Finally, a fitting mathematical model of ZT(ratio of cutter-head torque and thrust) and penetration is established, and verified by TB880E, which can be used to direct how to set thrust and torque on cutter-head. When penetration is small, the cutter-head thrust is the main limiting factor in tunneling; when the penetration is large, cutter-head torque is the major limiting factor in tunneling. Based on the new cutter-head load model, thrust and torque characteristics of TBM further are researched and a new way for cutter-head layout design and TBM tunneling operations is proposed.

  9. Spatial Relationships between Deep-focus Earthquakes and Structural Heterogeneities within the Subducting Slabs of the Western Pacific Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kiser, E.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The nature of deep-focus earthquakes with depths greater than 300 km has long been controversial. Mechanisms that may promote brittle deformation at such depths include dehydration embrittlement, phase transformational faulting, and thermal runaway instabilities. Of these, the most commonly referenced mechanism—phase transformational faulting—involves the breakdown of metastable olivine within the core of a cold subducting slab. Seismic observations of the metastable olivine wedge, as well as its spatial relationship to deep-focus seismicity, are limited. Classical 1-D ray-theory based tomography images indicate that deep-focus hypocenters coincide with the highest wave speed anomalies within the slab, traditionally viewed as the slab's cold core. However, our latest full waveform tomography images of the Kuril, Japan, and Izu-Bonin slabs show systematically deep-focus earthquakes located near the top of high wave speed regions, with hypocentral or centroid locations determined by EHB, global CMT, or JMA. In order to reduce location bias in global CMT solutions due to unmodeled 3-D structure, we relocate tens of deep-focus earthquakes within the new 3-D structural model based on a full wavefield modeling code SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, with seismic waves simulated to the shortest period of 9 seconds. We also determine the centroid locations of high-frequency energy (0.8 Hz-2 Hz) from back-projection results of several large earthquakes to understand how rupture propagates within the slab. The spatial correlations between the 3-D wave speed model and high-precision centroid locations from both long period and high frequency seismic waves further indicate that the deep-focus earthquakes occur and propagate near the top of the subducting slab. We will discuss the constraints that these relationships place on the mechanism of deep-focus earthquakes.

  10. Glacially-derived overpressure in the northeastern Alaskan subduction zone: combined tomographic and morphometric analysis of shallow sediments on the Yakutat shelf and slope, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, W. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Scuderi, L. A.; Daigle, H.; Swartz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Pamplona zone fold and thrust belt is the offshore expression of convergence and shallow subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath North America in the northeastern Alaska subduction zone. The combination of convergent tectonics and glaciomarine sedimentary processes create patterns of deformation and deposition resulting in a shallow sedimentary sequence with varying compaction, fluid pressure, and fault activity. We propose that velocity variations observed in our tomographic analysis represent long-lived fluid overpressure due to loading by ice sheets and sediments. Regions with bathymetric and stratigraphic evidence of recent ice sheets and associated sedimentation should be collocated with evidence of overpressure (seismic low velocity zones) in the shallow sediments. Here, we compare a velocity model with shelf seismic stratigraphic facies and modern seafloor morphology. To document glacially derived morphology we use high resolution bathymetry to identify channel and gully networks on the western Yakutat shelf-slope then analyze cross-channel shape indices across the study area. We use channel shape index measurements as a proxy of recent ice-proximal sedimentation based on previously published results that proposed a close correlation. Profiles taken at many locations were fitted with a power function and assigned a shape - U-shape channels likely formed proximal to recent ice advances. Detailed velocity models were created by a combination of streamer tomography and pre-stack depth migration velocities with seismic data including: a 2008 R/V Langseth dataset from the St. Elias Erosion and Tectonics Project (STEEP); and a 2004 high-resolution R/V Ewing dataset. Velocity-porosity-permeability relationships developed using IODP Expedition 341 drilling data inform interpretation and physical properties analyses of the shallow sediments. Initial results from a 35 km profile extending SE seaward of the Bering glacier and subparallel to the Bering trough

  11. Resolution testing and limitations of geodetic and tsunami datasets for finite fault inversions along subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A.; Newman, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Finite fault inversions utilizing multiple datasets have become commonplace for large earthquakes pending data availability. The mixture of geodetic datasets such as Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) and InSAR, seismic waveforms, and when applicable, tsunami waveforms from Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) gauges, provide slightly different observations that when incorporated together lead to a more robust model of fault slip distribution. The merging of different datasets is of particular importance along subduction zones where direct observations of seafloor deformation over the rupture area are extremely limited. Instead, instrumentation measures related ground motion from tens to hundreds of kilometers away. The distance from the event and dataset type can lead to a variable degree of resolution, affecting the ability to accurately model the spatial distribution of slip. This study analyzes the spatial resolution attained individually from geodetic and tsunami datasets as well as in a combined dataset. We constrain the importance of distance between estimated parameters and observed data and how that varies between land-based and open ocean datasets. Analysis focuses on accurately scaled subduction zone synthetic models as well as analysis of the relationship between slip and data in recent large subduction zone earthquakes. This study shows that seafloor deformation sensitive datasets, like open-ocean tsunami waveforms or seafloor geodetic instrumentation, can provide unique offshore resolution for understanding most large and particularly tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake activity. In most environments, we simply lack the capability to resolve static displacements using land-based geodetic observations.

  12. Dynamic triggering of low magnitude earthquakes in the Middle American Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, C. R.; Velasco, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze global and Middle American Subduction Zone (MASZ) seismicity from 1998 to 2008 to quantify the transient stresses effects at teleseismic distances. We use the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre Catalog (ISCCD) published by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). To identify MASZ seismicity changes due to distant, large (Mw >7) earthquakes, we first identify local earthquakes that occurred before and after the mainshocks. We then group the local earthquakes within a cluster radius between 75 to 200 km. We obtain statistics based on characteristics of both mainshocks and local earthquakes clusters, such as local cluster-mainshock azimuth, mainshock focal mechanism, and local earthquakes clusters within the MASZ. Due to lateral variations of the dip along the subducted oceanic plate, we divide the Mexican subduction zone in four segments. We then apply the Paired Samples Statistical Test (PSST) to the sorted data to identify increment, decrement or either in the local seismicity associated with distant large earthquakes. We identify dynamic triggering for all MASZ segments produced by large earthquakes emerging from specific azimuths, as well as, a decrease for some cases. We find no depend of seismicity changes due to focal mainshock mechanism.

  13. Subduction and volcanism in the Iberia-North Africa collision zone from tomographic images of the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Antonio; Chevrot, Sébastien; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gallart, Josep; Pazos, Antonio; Serrano, Inmaculada; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    New tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean suggest that the evolution of the region experienced two subduction-related episodes. First subduction of oceanic and/or extended continental lithosphere, now located mainly beneath the Betics at depths greater than 400 km, took place on a NW-SE oriented subduction zone. This was followed by a slab-tear process that initiated in the east and propagated to the west, leading to westward slab rollback and possibly lower crustal delamination. The current position of the slab tear is located approximately at 4°W, and to the west of this location the subducted lithosphere is still attached to the surface along the Gibraltar Arc. Our new P-wave velocity model is able to image the attached subducted lithosphere as a narrow high-velocity body extending to shallow depths, coinciding with the region of maximum curvature of the Gibraltar Arc, the occurrence of intermediate-depth earthquakes, and anomalously thick crust. This thick crust has a large influence in the measured teleseismic travel time residuals and therefore in the obtained P-wave tomographic model. We show that removing the effects of the thick crust significantly improves the shallow images of the slab and therefore the interpretations based on the seismic structure.

  14. Source characteristics of moderate size events using empirical Green funclions: an application to some Guerrero (Mexico subduction zone earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Singh

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The records of an aftershock (M ~ 4 of a moderate size event (M = 5.9 which occurred along the subduction zone of Guerrero (Mexico, are used as empirical Green functions (EGF to determine the source characteristics of the mainshock and of its smaller size (M = 5.5 foreshock. The data consist of accelerograms recorded by the Guerrero Accelerograph Array, a high dynamic range strong motion array. The three events appear to be located close to each other at distances much smaller than the source to receiver distances. The fault mechanism of the mainshock is computed by non-linear inversion of P polarity readings and S wave polarizations determined at two near source stations. The foreshock and aftershock fault mechanisms are similar to that of the mainshock as inferred from long period data and shear wave polarization analysis. The maximum likelihood solution is well constrained, indicating a typical shallow dipping thrust fault mechanism, with the P-axis approximately oriented in a SSW direction. The source time functions (STFs of the mainshock and foreshock events are determined using a new method of deconvolution of the EGF records at three strong motion sites. In this method the STF of the large event is approximated by a superposition of pseudo triangular pulses whose parameters are determined by a non-linear inversion in frequency domain. The source time function of the mainshock shows the presence of two separate pulses, which can be related to multiple rupture episodes. The relative location of mainshock sub-events is done by using plots of isochrones computed from measurementes of the time delay between pulses on the STF records at each station. The first sub-event is located no more than 2.5-3 km away from the other along the fault strike. The STF retrieved from foreshock records shows single pulse waveforms. The computed STFs are used to estimate seismic moments, source radii and stress release of the events assuming a circular fault

  15. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 earthquake spectra, with higher corner frequencies and higher mean apparent stress for earthquakes that occur in along the Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in

  16. Dynamics of subduction and continental collision: Influence of the nature of the plate contact. Geologica Ultraiectina (284)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Franco, R.

    2008-01-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, the properties of the actual plate contact are important for the overall dynamics. Convergent plate boundaries both mechanically decouple and link tectonic plates and accommodate large amounts of strain. We investigate two fundamental physical states of the subduction

  17. Tomography of the subducting Pacific slab and the 2015 Bonin deepest earthquake (Mw 7.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Fujisawa, Moeto; Toyokuni, Genti

    2017-03-01

    On 30 May 2015 an isolated deep earthquake (~670 km, Mw 7.9) occurred to the west of the Bonin Islands. To clarify its causal mechanism and its relationship to the subducting Pacific slab, we determined a detailed P-wave tomography of the deep earthquake source zone using a large number of arrival-time data. Our results show that this large deep event occurred within the subducting Pacific slab which is penetrating into the lower mantle. In the Izu-Bonin region, the Pacific slab is split at ~28° north latitude, i.e., slightly north of the 2015 deep event hypocenter. In the north the slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone, whereas in the south the slab is directly penetrating into the lower mantle. This deep earthquake was caused by joint effects of several factors, including the Pacific slab’s fast deep subduction, slab tearing, slab thermal variation, stress changes and phase transformations in the slab, and complex interactions between the slab and the ambient mantle.

  18. Blueschist facies fault tectonites from the western margin of the Siberian Craton: Implications for subduction and exhumation associated with early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Igor I.; Régnier, Jean-Luc; Santosh, M.

    2018-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Siberian Cratonic margins offers important clues for global paleogeographic reconstructions, particularly with regard to the complex geological history of Central Asia. The Yenisey Ridge fold-and-thrust belt at the western margin of the Siberian Craton forms part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and is a key to understand the Precambrian tectonic evolution of the Siberian Craton and crustal growth in the CAOB, the world's largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt. Here we report for the first time, the occurrence of glaucophane schist relics in tectonites within the Yenisey shear zone which provides insights on Chilean-type convergent boundary. We present results from isotope geochronology (SHRIMP zircon analysis and mica 40Ar/39Ar dating), coupled with P-T calculations derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosections in the system NCKFMASH that suggest two superimposed metamorphic events. During the first stage, glaucophane schists formed at around 640-620 Ma at P-T conditions of 8-10 kbar and 400-450 °C. In the second stage, the rocks experienced dynamic metamorphism (c. 600 Ma) at 11-15 kbar/550-640 °C. The differences in P-T parameters between weakly deformed rocks and intensely deformed tectonites and P-T paths suggest distinct tectonic processes. Geochemical features of the mafic tectonites suggest N-MORB and E-MORB affinity, and the zircon U-Pb ages suggest formation of the protoliths at 701.6 ± 8.4. The sequence of spreading, subduction and shear deformation identified in our study correlate with the early stages of development of the Paleo-Asian Ocean at the western margin of the Siberian Craton and supports the spatial proximity of Siberia and Laurentia at 700-600 Ma, as proposed for the Late Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstructions and as robustly constrained from large igneous province (LIP) record.

  19. Thrust tectonics in crystalline domains: The origin of a gneiss dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiling, R. O.

    1997-12-01

    Structural geological field work, microscopic and magnetic fabric studies have been applied in order to assess the structural origin of a gneiss dome, based on a regional example from the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Belt of NE Africa, the Wadi Hafafit Culmination (WHC). The culmination is dominated by a number of major shear zones, which form both the boundaries between the gneissic core and surrounding low grade successions as well as those of minor structural units within the gneisses. These shear zones form a linked fault system, which, based on shear criteria, fault-bend fold and overall geometric interrelationships, can be classified as an antiformal stack. The relative age sequence of the shear zones/thrusts with the highest thrust oldest and the lowermost youngest points to a forward-propagating thrust system. This, together with the shear criteria, exclude an origin of the WHC as a metamorphic core complex, where the highest shear zone should be youngest. The geometry of the WHC antiformal stack is documented by maps and sections as well as section balancing and restoration. Microscopic work showed brittle deformation in feldspar and dynamic recrystallization in quartz ribbons. The asymmetry of the fabric confirmed the macroscopically determined shear sense. However, there is one example of an earlier, perhaps extensional shear movement. Mylonitic foliation and transport-parallel lineation have also been determined by magnetic fabric studies. The observations suggest that thrusts may cut across both previously folded crystalline rocks as well as homogeneous granitoid plutonic bodies. According to the regional tectonic picture the large-scale structure of the gneiss dome originated after a phase of (late-orogenic) extensional collapse. It is speculated that during late-orogenic cooling the upper part of the lithosphere was sufficiently strong to allow brittle thrusting whilst the lithosphere as a whole was still weak enough to allow large-scale compressional

  20. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J.; Van Der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence

  1. Three-dimensional dynamic laboratory models of subduction with an overriding plate and variable interplate rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Subduction zones are complex 3-D features in which one tectonic plate sinks underneath another into the deep mantle. During subduction the overriding plate (OP) remains in physical contact with the subducting plate and stresses generated at the subduction zone interface and by mantle flowforce the

  2. Influence of lateral slab edge distance on plate velocity, trench velocity, and subduction partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.

    2011-01-01

    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through both trenchward subducting plate motion and trench retreat. We investigate how subducting plate velocity, trench velocity and the partitioning of these two velocity components vary for individual subduction zone segments as a function of proximity to

  3. Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Slow Slip Phenomena at the Subduction Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C.; Gerya, T.; Madonna, C.; van Dinther, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones experience a spectrum of slip phenomena, ranging from large devastating megathrust earthquakes to aseismic slow slip events. Slow slip events, lasting hours to years and being perceptible only by instruments, are believed to have the capability to induce large earthquakes. It is also repeatedly proposed that such slow events are controlled by fluid-rock interactions along the subduction interface, thus calling for development of fully coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical modeling approaches to identify their physics and controlling parameters. We present a newly developed finite difference visco-elasto-plastic numerical code with marker-in-cell technique, which fully couples mechanical deformation and fluid flow. We use this to investigate how the presence of fluids in the pore space of a (de)compacting rock matrix affects elastic stress accumulation and release along a fluid-bearing subduction interface. The model simulates the spontaneous occurrence of quasi-periodic slow slip phenomena along self-consistently forming highly localized shearbands, which accommodate shear displacement between two plates. The produced elastic rebound events show a slip velocity on the order of cm/yr, which is in good agreement with measured data. The governing gradual strength decrease along the slowly propagating shear bands is related to a drop in total pressure caused by shear localization at nearly constant (slightly decreasing) fluid pressure. Gradual reduction of the difference between the total and fluid pressure decreases brittle/plastic strength of fluid-bearing rocks along the shear bands, thus providing a dynamic feedback mechanism for the accumulated elastic stress release at the subduction interface.

  4. Dynamic Model for Thrust Generation of Marine Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Lindegaard, Karl-Petter; Fossen, Thor I.

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of propeller thrust and torque are traditionally based on steady state thrust and torque characteristics obtained in model basin or cavitation tunnel tests. Experimental results showed that these quasi steady state models do not accurately describe the transient phenomena in a...

  5. Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Area report FY'84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichino, C.; Phelps, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Areas for FY'84: diagnostics and microelectronic engineering; signal and control engineering; microwave and pulsed power engineering; computer-aided engineering; engineering modeling and simulation; and systems engineering. For each Thrust Area, an overview and a description of the goals and achievements of each project is provided

  6. Experimental test of static and dynamic characteristics of tilting-pad thrust bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annan Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The axial vibration in turbine machine has attracted more and more interest. Tilting-pad thrust bearings are widely used in turbine machines to support the axial load. The dynamic properties generated by oil film of the thrust pad have important effects on the axial vibration of the rotor-bearing system. It is necessary to develop the method to test the dynamic characteristics of thrust bearings. A new rig has been developed. The facility allows a complete set of bearing operating parameters to be measured. Parameters measured include oil temperatures, oil-film thickness, and pressure. The static load and dynamic load can be added on the thrust bearing in the vertical direction at the same time. The relative and absolute displacement vibrations of the test experimental bearing with the changes of dynamic force are measured, and the dynamic characteristics of the test bearing are obtained. The experimental results show clearly that the operating conditions influence largely on the pad static and dynamic characteristics.

  7. The complete two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in soft-collinear effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteuffel, Andreas von; Schabinger, Robert M.; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e + e − annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that in many cases one can straightforwardly predict potentially large logarithmic contributions to the integrated jet thrust distribution at L loops by making use of analogous contributions to the simpler integrated hemisphere soft function

  8. Finding the last 200Ma of subducted lithosphere in tomography and incorporating it into plate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppe, J.; Wu, J.; Chen, Y. W.

    2016-12-01

    Precise plate-tectonic reconstruction of the Earth has been constrained largely by the seafloor magnetic-anomaly record of the present oceans formed during the dispersal of the last supercontinent since 200Ma. The corresponding world that was lost to subduction has been only sketchily known. We have developed methodologies to map in 3D these subducted slabs of lithosphere in seismic tomography and unfold them to the Earth surface, constraining their initial size, shapes and locations. Slab edges are commonly formed at times of plate reorganization (for example bottom edges typically record initiation of subduction) such that unfolded slabs fit together at times of reorganization, as we illustrate for the Nazca slab at 80Ma and the western Pacific slabs between Kamchatka and New Zealand at 50Ma. Mapping to date suggests that a relatively complete and decipherable record of lithosphere subducted over the last 200Ma may exist in the mantle today, providing a storehouse for new discoveries. We briefly illustrate our procedure for obtaining slab-constrained plate-tectonic models from tomography with our recent study of the Philippine Sea plate, whose motions and tectonic history have been the least known of the major plates because it has been isolated from the global plate and hotspot circuit by trenches. We mapped and unfolded 28 subducted slabs in the mantle under East Asia and Australia/Oceania to depths of 1200km, with a subducted area of 25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere, and incorporated them as constraints into a new globally-consistent plate reconstruction of the Philippine Sea and surrounding East Asia, leading to a number of new insights, including: [1] discovery of a major (8000 km x 2500 km) set of vanished oceans that we call the East Asia Sea that existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, now represented by flat slabs in the lower mantle under present-day Philippine Sea, eastern Sundaland and northern Australia and [2] the Philippine Sea

  9. Volatile (Li, B, F and Cl) mobility during amphibole breakdown in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, Baptiste; Koga, Kenneth T.; Cattani, Fanny; Nicollet, Christian; Van den Bleeken, Greg; Schwartz, Stephane

    2016-02-01

    Amphiboles are ubiquitous minerals in the altered oceanic crust. During subduction, their breakdown is governed by continuous reactions up to eclogitic facies conditions. Amphiboles thus contribute to slab-derived fluid throughout prograde metamorphism and continuously record information about volatile exchanges occurring between the slab and the mantle wedge. However, the fate of volatile elements and especially halogens, such as F and Cl, in amphibole during subduction is poorly constrained. We studied metagabbros from three different localities in the Western Alps: the Chenaillet ophiolite, the Queyras Schistes Lustrés and the Monviso meta-ophiolitic complexes. These samples record different metamorphic conditions, from greenschist to eclogite facies, and have interacted with different lithologies (e.g. sedimentary rocks, serpentinites) from their formation at mid-oceanic ridge, up to their devolatilization during subduction. In the oceanic crust, the initial halogen budget is mostly stored in magmatic amphibole (F = 300-7000 ppm; Cl = 20-1200 ppm) or in amphibole corona (F = 100-7000 ppm; Cl = 80-2000 ppm) and titanite (F = 200-1500 ppm; Cl govern the halogen fluxes between the crust and the overlying mantle and/or the plate interface in subduction zones. Li and B are poorly stored in the oceanic crust (< 5 ppm). In subduction zones, prograde metamorphism of metagabbros is first marked by the crystallization of glaucophane at the expense of magmatic and amphibole coronas. This episode is accompanied with a decrease of halogen concentrations in amphiboles (< 200 ppm of F and Cl) suggesting that these elements can be transferred to the mantle wedge by fluids. In the Queyras Schistes Lustrés complex, the intense deformation and the abundant devolatilization of metasedimentary rocks produce large fluid flows that promote rock chemical hybridization (metasomatic mixing with hybrid composition between metasedimentary rock and metagabbro) at the metasedimentary rock

  10. Coupling intensity and isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate control trench motions and tectonics of the overriding plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Trench motions not only reflect tectonic regimes on the overriding plate but also shed light on the competition between subducting slab and overriding plate, however, major controls over trench advance or retreat and their consequences are still illusive. We use 2D thermo-mechanical experiments to study the problem. We find that the coupling intensity particularly in the uppermost 200 km and the isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate largely determine trench motion and tectonics of in the overriding plate. Coupling intensity is the result of many contributing factors, including frictional coefficient of brittle part of the subducting interface and the viscosity of the ductile part, thermal regime and rheology of the overriding plate, and water contents and magmatic activity in the subducting slab and overriding plate. In this study, we are not concerned with the dynamic evolution of individual controlling parameter but simply use effective media. For instance, we impose simple model parameters such as frictional coefficient and vary the temperature and strain-rate dependent viscosity of the weak layer between the subducting slab and overriding plate. In the coupled end-member case, strong coupling leads to strong corner flow, depth-dependent compression/extension, and mantle return flow on the overriding plate side. It results in fast trench retreat, broad overriding plate extension, and even slab breakoff. In the decoupled end-member case, weak coupling causes much weaker response on the overriding plate side compared with the coupled end-member case, and the subducting slab can be largely viewed as a conveyer belt. We find that the isostatic competition between the subducting slab and overriding plate also has a major control over trench motion, and may better be viewed in 3D models. This is consistent with the findings in previous 3D studies that trench motion is most pronounced close to the slab edge. Here we propose that the

  11. Dehydration-driven topotaxy in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    Mineral replacement reactions play a fundamental role in the chemistry and the strength of the lithosphere. When externally or internally derived fluids are present, interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation is the driving mechanism for such reactions [1]. One of the microstructural features of this process is a 3D arrangement of crystallographic axes across internal interfaces (topotaxy) between reactant and product phases. Dehydration reactions are a special case of mineral replacement reaction that generates a transient fluid-filled porosity. Among others, the dehydration serpentinite is of special relevance in subduction zones because of the amount of fluids involved (potentially up to 13 wt.%). Two topotatic relationships between olivine and antigorite (the serpentine mineral stable at high temperature and pressure) have been reported in partially hydrated mantle wedge xenoliths [2]. Therefore, if precursor antigorite serpentine has a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) its dehydration might result in prograde peridotite with a strong inherited CPO. However for predicting the importance of topotactic reactions for seismic anisotropy of subduction zones we also need to consider the crystallization orthopyroxene + chlorite in the prograde reaction and, more importantly, the fact that this dehydration reaction produces a transient porosity of ca. 20 % vol. that results in local fluctuations of strain during compaction and fluid migration. We address this issue by a microstructural comparison between the CPO developed in olivine, orthopyroxene and chlorite during high-pressure antigorite dehydration in piston cylinder experiments (at 750ºC and 20 kbar and 1000ºC and 30 kbar, 168 h) and that recorded in natural samples (Cerro del Almirez, Betic Cordillera, Spain). Experimentally developed CPOs are strong. Prograde minerals show a significant inheritance of the former antigorite foliation. Topotactic relations are dominated by (001)atg//(100)ol

  12. Structure and tectonics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and associated faults from recent earthquake and seismic imaging studies using the NAMASTE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, M. S.; Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision zone presents a significant earthquake hazard, as demonstrated by the recent, devastating April 25, 2015 M=7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the following May 12, 2015 M=7.3 earthquake. Important questions remain, including distinguishing possible geometries of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the role of other regional faults, the crustal composition and role of fluids in faulting, and the details of the rupture process, including structural causes and locations of rupture segmentation both along-strike and down-dip. These recent earthquakes and their aftershocks provide a unique opportunity to learn more about this collision zone. In June 2015, funded by NSF, we deployed the Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake (NAMASTE) array of 46 seismic stations distributed across eastern and central Nepal, spanning the region with most of the aftershocks. This array remained in place for 11 months from June 2015 to May 2016. We combine new results from this aftershock network in Nepal with previous geophysical and geological studies across the Himalaya to derive a new understanding of the tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet in Nepal and surrounding countries. We focus on structure and composition of the Main Himalayan Thrust and compare this continent-continent subduction megathrust with megathrusts in other subduction zones.

  13. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  14. Amphibious Shear Velocity Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, H. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Abers, G. A.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The amphibious Cascadia Initiative crosses the coastline of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) deploying seismometers from the Juan de Fuca ridge offshore to beyond the volcanic arc onshore. This allows unprecedented seismic imaging of the CSZ, enabling examination of both the evolution of the Juan de Fuca plate prior to and during subduction as well as the along strike variability of the subduction system. Here we present new results from an amphibious shear velocity model for the crust and upper mantle across the Cascadia subduction zone. The primary data used in this inversion are surface-wave phase velocities derived from ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave data in the 10 - 20 s period band, and teleseismic earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the 20 - 160 s period band. Phase velocity maps from these data reflect major tectonic structures including the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, Juan de Fuca lithosphere that is faster than observations in the Pacific for oceanic crust of its age, slow velocities associated with the accretionary prism, the front of the fast subducting slab, and the Cascades volcanic arc which is associated with slower velocities in the south than in the north. Crustal structures are constrained by receiver functions in the offshore forearc and onshore regions, and by active source constraints on the Juan de Fuca plate prior to subduction. The shear-wave velocities are interpreted in their relationships to temperature, presence of melt or hydrous alteration, and compositional variation of the CSZ.

  15. Structure of the subducted Cocos Plate from locations of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.; Rodríguez-Padilla, L. D.; Castaños, H.

    2013-05-01

    Locations of 3,000 earthquakes of 40 to 300 km depth are used to define the 3-D structure of the subducted Cocos Plate under central and southern Mexico. Discrepancies between deep-seated lineaments and surface tectonics are described. Features of particular interest include: (1) a belt of moderate activity at 40 to 80 km depth that parallels the southern boundary of the Mexican Volcanic Plateau; (2) an offset of 150 km across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where all seismic activity is displaced toward the northeast; (3) three nests of frequent, deep-seated events (80 to 300 km depth) under southern Veracruz, Chiapas and the coast of Mexico-Guatemala. The active subduction process is sharply delimited along a NW-SE lineament from the Yucatan Peninsula, of insignificant earthquake activity. The focal distribution of intermediate-depth earthquakes in south-central Mexico provides evidence of stepwise deepening of the subduction angle along the Trench, starting at 15 degrees under Michoacan-Guerrero to 45 degrees under NW Guatemala. Historical evidence suggests that the hazard to Mexico City from large intermediate-depth earthquakes may have been underestimated.

  16. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  17. Interactions between strike-slip earthquakes and the subduction interface near the Mendocino Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianhua; McGuire, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    The interactions between the North American, Pacific, and Gorda plates at the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ) create one of the most seismically active regions in North America. The earthquakes rupture all three plate boundaries but also include considerable intraplate seismicity reflecting the strong internal deformation of the Gorda plate. Understanding the stress levels that drive these ruptures and estimating the locking state of the subduction interface are especially important topics for regional earthquake hazard assessment. However owing to the lack of offshore seismic and geodetic instruments, the rupture process of only a few large earthquakes near the MTJ have been studied in detail and the locking state of the subduction interface is not well constrained. In this paper, first, we use the second moments inversion method to study the rupture process of the January 28, 2015 Mw 5.7 earthquake on the Mendocino transform fault that was unusually well recorded by both onshore and offshore strong motion instruments. We estimate the rupture dimension to be approximately 6 km by 3 km corresponding to a stress drop of ∼4 MPa for a crack model. Next we investigate the frictional state of the subduction interface by simulating the afterslip that would be expected there as a result of the stress changes from the 2015 earthquake and a 2010 Mw 6.5 intraplate earthquake within the subducted Gorda plate. We simulate afterslip scenarios for a range of depths of the downdip end of the locked zone defined as the transition to velocity strengthening friction and calculate the corresponding surface deformation expected at onshore GPS monuments. We can rule out a very shallow downdip limit owing to the lack of a detectable signal at onshore GPS stations following the 2010 earthquake. Our simulations indicate that the locking depth on the slab surface is at least 14 km, which suggests that the next M8 earthquake rupture will likely reach the coastline and strong shaking

  18. Global patterns in Earth's dynamic topography since the Jurassic: the role of subducted slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of Earth's long-wavelength surface dynamic topography since the Jurassic using a series of high-resolution global mantle convection models. These models are Earth-like in terms of convective vigour, thermal structure, surface heat-flux and the geographic distribution of heterogeneity. The models generate a degree-2-dominated spectrum of dynamic topography with negative amplitudes above subducted slabs (i.e. circum-Pacific regions and southern Eurasia and positive amplitudes elsewhere (i.e. Africa, north-western Eurasia and the central Pacific. Model predictions are compared with published observations and subsidence patterns from well data, both globally and for the Australian and southern African regions. We find that our models reproduce the long-wavelength component of these observations, although observed smaller-scale variations are not reproduced. We subsequently define geodynamic rules for how different surface tectonic settings are affected by mantle processes: (i locations in the vicinity of a subduction zone show large negative dynamic topography amplitudes; (ii regions far away from convergent margins feature long-term positive dynamic topography; and (iii rapid variations in dynamic support occur along the margins of overriding plates (e.g. the western US and at points located on a plate that rapidly approaches a subduction zone (e.g. India and the Arabia Peninsula. Our models provide a predictive quantitative framework linking mantle convection with plate tectonics and sedimentary basin evolution, thus improving our understanding of how subduction and mantle convection affect the spatio-temporal evolution of basin architecture.

  19. Electrical conductivity imaging in the western Pacific subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic plate subduction is an important process for the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior, as it is regarded as a typical downward flow of the mantle convection that transports materials from the near surface to the deep mantle. Recent seismological study showed evidence suggesting the transportation of a certain amount of water by subduction of old oceanic plate such as the Pacific plate down to 150-200 km depth into the back arc mantle. However it is not well clarified how deep into the mantle the water can be transported. The electromagnetic induction method to image electrical conductivity distribution is a possible tool to answer this question as it is known to be sensitive to the presence of water. Here we show recent result of observational study from the western Pacific subduction zone to examine the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper mantle and in the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which will provide implications how water distributes in the mantle. We take two kinds of approach for imaging the mantle conductivity, (a) semi-global and (b) regional induction approaches. Result may be summarized as follows: (a) Long (5-30 years) time series records from 8 submarine cables and 13 geomagnetic observatories in the north Pacific region were analyzed and long period magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses were estimated in the period range from 1.7 to 35 days. These frequency dependent response functions were inverted to 3-dimensional conductivity distribution in the depth range between 350 and 850 km. Three major features are suggested in the MTZ depth such as, (1) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Philippine Sea, (2) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Hawaiian Islands, and (3) a low conductivity anomaly beneath and in the vicinity of northern Japan. (b) A three-year long deployment of ocean bottom electro-magnetometers (OBEM's) was conducted in the Philippine Sea and west Pacific Ocean from 2005

  20. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  1. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

  2. Rapid Convergence and Subduction at the Intersections of Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    An array of 300 surface drifters drogued to follow the top 0.6m of the ocean were deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico near the Deep Water Horizon spill site in January of 2016. As expected, the array spread from its initial 15x15km scale with the second moment increasing at a rate roughly consistent with historical dispersion curves. More surprisingly, a large fraction of the drifters accumulated within a km-scale submesoscale eddy and grouped into clusters often only a few meters apart. This occurred due to surface convergence, as opposed to purely confluence, with convergence rates of many f feeding downward-going subduction zones with vertical velocities of a few centimeters per second. These convergences preferentially occurred at density fronts and in particular at junctions of density fronts on the periphery of submesoscale eddies. These observations complement the traditional view of lateral dispersion of surface particles by mesoscale eddies with a competing submesocale convergence and provide direct observations of the strong vertical exchanges associated with submesoscale eddies and fronts.

  3. Propeller thrust analysis using Prandtl's lifting line theory, a comparison between the experimental thrust and the thrust predicted by Prandtl's lifting line theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Steven R.

    The lifting line theory was first developed by Prandtl and was used primarily on analysis of airplane wings. Though the theory is about one hundred years old, it is still used in the initial calculations to find the lift of a wing. The question that guided this thesis was, "How close does Prandtl's lifting line theory predict the thrust of a propeller?" In order to answer this question, an experiment was designed that measured the thrust of a propeller for different speeds. The measured thrust was compared to what the theory predicted. In order to do this experiment and analysis, a propeller needed to be used. A walnut wood ultralight propeller was chosen that had a 1.30 meter (51 inches) length from tip to tip. In this thesis, Prandtl's lifting line theory was modified to account for the different incoming velocity depending on the radial position of the airfoil. A modified equation was used to reflect these differences. A working code was developed based on this modified equation. A testing rig was built that allowed the propeller to be rotated at high speeds while measuring the thrust. During testing, the rotational speed of the propeller ranged from 13-43 rotations per second. The thrust from the propeller was measured at different speeds and ranged from 16-33 Newton's. The test data were then compared to the theoretical results obtained from the lifting line code. A plot in Chapter 5 (the results section) shows the theoretical vs. actual thrust for different rotational speeds. The theory over predicted the actual thrust of the propeller. Depending on the rotational speed, the error was: at low speeds 36%, at low to moderate speeds 84%, and at high speeds the error increased to 195%. Different reasons for these errors are discussed.

  4. Alpine Serpentinite Geochemistry As Key To Define Timing Of Oceanic Lithosphere Accretion To The Subduction Plate Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, M.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Godard, M.; Pettke, D. T.; Angiboust, S.

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic (Pb, Sr and B) and trace element (B, Be, As, Sb, U, Th) signatures of serpentinites are useful geochemical tools to assess element exchange and fluid-rock interactions in subduction zone settings. They help to unravel geological history and tectonic evolution of subduction serpentinites and associated meta-oceanic crust. Sedimentary-derived fluid influx within HP plate interface environments strongly enriches serpentinites in As, Sb, B, U and Th and resets their B, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. This HP metasomatic signature is preserved during exhumation and/or released at higher PT through de-serpentinization, fueling partial melting in the sub-arc mantle and recycling such fingerprint into arc magmas. This study focuses on the subduction recrystallization, geochemical diversity and fluid-rock interaction recorded by high- to ultra-high pressure (HP, UHP) Alpine serpentinites from the subducted oceanic plate (Cignana Unit, Zermatt-Saas Complex, Monviso and Lanzo Ultramafic Massifs). The As and Sb compositions of the HP-UHP Alpine ophiolitic rocks reveal the interaction between serpentinite and crust-derived fluids during their emplacement along the plate interface. This enables to define a hypothetical architecture of the Alpine subduction interface, considering large ultramafic slices. In this scenario, the Lanzo peridotite and serpentinite retain an As-Sb composition comparable to DM and PM: i.e. they experienced little exchange with sediment-derived fluids. Lanzo thus belonged to sections of the subducting plate, afar from the plate interface. Serpentinites from the Lago di Cignana Unit and Monviso and Voltri are richer in As and Sb, showing moderate to strong interaction with sediment- and crust-derived fluids during subduction (i.e. they behaved as open systems). These serpentinite slices accreted at the plate interface and exchanged with slab-derived fluids at different depths during Alpine subduction: Voltri accreted at shallower conditions (50

  5. Teleseismic P and S wave attenuation constraints on temperature and melt of the upper mantle in the Alaska Subduction Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Castaneda, R. A.; Abers, G. A.; Eilon, Z.; Christensen, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent broadband deployments in Alaska provide an excellent opportunity to advance our understanding of the Alaska-Aleutians subduction system, with implications for subduction processes worldwide. Seismic attenuation, measured from teleseismic body waves, provides a strong constraint on thermal structure as well as an indirect indication of ground shaking expected from large intermediate-depth earthquakes. We measure P and S wave attenuation from pairwise amplitude and phase spectral ratios for teleseisms recorded at 204 Transportable Array, Alaska Regional, and Alaska Volcano Observatory, SALMON (Southern Alaska Lithosphere & Mantle Observation Network) and WVLF (Wrangell Volcanics & subducting Lithosphere Fate) stations in central Alaska. The spectral ratios are inverted in a least squares sense for differential t* (path-averaged attenuation operator) and travel time anomalies at every station. Our preliminary results indicate a zone of low attenuation across the forearc and strong attenuation beneath arc and backarc in the Cook Inlet-Kenai region where the Aleutian-Yakutat slab subducts, similar to other subduction zones. This attenuation differential is observed in both the volcanic Cook Inlet segment and amagmatic Denali segments of the Aleutian subduction zone. By comparison, preliminary results for the Wrangell-St. Elias region past the eastern edge of the Aleutian slab show strong attenuation beneath the Wrangell Volcanic Field, as well as much further south than in the Cook Inlet-Kenai region. This pattern of attenuation seems to indicate a short slab fragment in the east of the subduction zone, though the picture is complex. Results also suggest the slab may focus or transmit energy with minimal attenuation, adding to the complexity. To image the critical transition between the Alaska-Aleutian slab and the region to its east, we plan to incorporate new broadband data from the WVLF array, an ongoing deployment of 37 PASSCAL instruments installed in 2016

  6. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  7. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  8. Deep mantle seismic heterogeneities in Western Pacific subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mantle convection and especially mantle mixing. As subduction is the main source of introducing crustal material into the Earth's mantle, it is of particular interest to track the transport of subducted crust through the mantle to resolve details of composition and deformation of the crust during the subduction process. Improved knowledge of subduction can help provide constraints on the mechanical mixing process of crustal material into the ambient mantle, as well as constraining mantle composition and convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with Western Pacific subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. We use seismic energy arriving prior to PP, a P-wave underside reflection off the Earth's surface halfway between source and receiver, to probe the mantle for small-scale heterogeneities. PP precursors were analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska using the recently developed Toolkit for Out-of-Plane Coherent Arrival Tracking (TOPCAT) algorithm. The approach combines the calculated optimal beampower and an independent semblance (coherency) measure, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of coherent arrivals. 94 earthquakes with sufficient coherent precursory energy were selected and directivity information of the arrivals (i.e. slowness and backazimuth) was extracted from the data. The scattering locations for 311 out-of-plane precursors were determined by ray-tracing and minimising the slowness, backazimuth and differential travel time misfit. Initial analyses show that deep scattering (>1000 km) occurs beneath the Izu-Bonin subduction zone, suggesting that subducted crust does continue into the lower mantle in this location. Other

  9. Electromagnetic calibration system for sub-micronewton torsional thrust stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, J. K.; Koay, S. C.; Cheah, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is critical for a micropropulsion system to be evaluated. Thrust stands are widely recognised as the instrument to complete such tasks. This paper presents the development of an alternative electromagnetic calibration technique for thrust stands. Utilising the commercially made voice coils and permanent magnets, the proposed system is able to generate repeatable and also consistent steady-state calibration forces at over four orders of magnitude (30 - 23000 μN). The system is then used to calibrate a custom-designed torsional thrust stand, where its inherent ability in ease of setup is well demonstrated.

  10. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  11. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  12. Linkages between orogenic plateau build-up, fold-thrust shortening, and foreland basin evolution in the Zagros (NW Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau (IP) is a thickened, low-relief morphotectonic province of diffuse deformation that formed due to Arabia-Eurasia collision and may serve as a younger analogue for the Tibetan Plateau. Despite detailed geophysical characterization of the IP, its deformation history and relationship to the Zagros fold-thrust belt and its foreland basin evolution remains unresolved. Low-temperature thermochronometry and provenance data from a transect across the internal and external Zagros track growth of the IP and delineate multiphase interaction between upper- and lower-plate processes during closure of the Neotethys and Arabia-Eurasia suturing. Inversion of zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track data from plutonic and metamorphic basement rocks in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) of the IP reveals an initial stage of low-rate exhumation from 36-25 Ma, simultaneous with the onset of tectonic subsidence and marine incursion in the Zagros foreland basin. Overlapping apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He ages indicate sharp acceleration in SSZ exhumation rates between 20-15 Ma, coincident with rejuvenation of foreland basin subsidence and an influx of Eurasian-derived sediments into the Zagros foreland deposited above an Oligocene unconformity. The mid-Miocene marks a transition in focused exhumation from the SSZ to Arabian lower-plate. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages suggest in-sequence fold-thrust propagation from the High Zagros to simply folded belt from 10 Ma to recent, which is reflected in the foreland by a shift in provenance to dominantly recycled Arabian-derived detritus and clastic facies progradation. Integrated thermochronometric and provenance data document a two-phase outward expansion of the Iranian Plateau and Zagros fold-thrust belt, tightly coupled to distinct phases of basin evolution and provenance shifts in the Zagros foreland. We associate multiple deformation and basin episodes with protracted collisional processes, from subduction of attenuated Arabian

  13. Mechanical study of the Chartreuse Fold-and-Thrust Belt: relationships between fluids overpressure and decollement within the Toarcian source-rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Josselin; Sassi, William; Burov, Evgueni

    2016-04-01

    Many source-rocks are shale and constitute potential detachment levels in Fold-and-Thrust Belts (FTB): the toarcian Schistes-Cartons in the French Chartreuse FTB for example. Their mechanical properties can change during their burial and thermal maturation, as for example when large amount of hydrocarbon fluids are generated. A structural reconstruction of the Chartreuse FTB geo-history places the Toarcian Formation as the major decollement horizon. In this work, a mechanical analysis integrating the fluids overpressuring development is proposed to discuss on the validity of the structural interpretation. At first, an analogue of the Chartreuse Toarcian Fm, the albanian Posidonia Schist, is documented as it can provide insights on its initial properties and composition of its kerogen content. Laboratory characterisation documents the vertical evolution of the mineralogical, geochemical and mechanical parameters of this potential decollement layer. These physical parameters (i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), porosity/permeability relationship, friction coefficient) are used to address overpressure buildup in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB with TEMISFlow Arctem Basin modelling approach (Faille et al, 2014) and the structural emplacement of the Chartreuse thrust units using the FLAMAR thermo-mechanical model (Burov et al, 2014). The hydro-mechanical modeling results highlight the calendar, distribution and magnitude of the overpressure that developed within the source-rock in the footwall of a simple fault-bend fold structure localized in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB. Several key geological conditions are required to create an overpressure able to fracture the shale-rocks and induce a significant change in the rheological behaviour: high TOC, low permeability, favourable structural evolution. These models highlight the importance of modeling the impact of a diffuse natural hydraulic fracturing to explain fluids propagation toward the foreland within

  14. Peak thrust operation of linear induction machines from parameter identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Various control strategies are being used to achieve high performance operation of linear drives. To maintain minimum volume and weight of the power supply unit on board the transportation vehicle, peak thrust per unit current operation is a desirable objective. True peak thrust per unit current through slip control is difficult to achieve because the parameters of linear induction machines vary during normal operation. This paper first develops a peak thrust per unit current control law based on the per-phase equivalent circuit for linear induction machines. The algorithm for identification of the variable parameters in induction machines is then presented. Application to an operational linear induction machine (LIM) demonstrates the utility of this algorithm. The control strategy is then simulated, based on an operational transit LIM, to show the capability of achieving true peak thrust operation for linear induction machines.

  15. Optimal Thrust Vectoring for an Annular Aerospike Nozzle, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent success of an annular aerospike flight test by NASA Dryden has prompted keen interest in providing thrust vector capability to the annular aerospike nozzle...

  16. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1990-01-01

    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  17. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-05-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain.

  18. A double pendulum plasma thrust balance and thrust measurement at a tandem mirror exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Liu, P.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Lander, H.; Childs, R.A.; Becker, H.D.; Fairfax, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of measuring the plasma momentum flux in a plasma system, a highly sensitive and precision balance has been developed. It can measure a force, an impulse, or thrust as low as 0.1 mN free of mechanical noise, electrical and magnetic pickups. The double pendulum system consists of two parallel conducting plates. One or both of the plates can be suspended by needles. The needle suspended plate (or plates) can swing freely with negligible friction because of the sharp points of the needles. When one of the plates is impacted by an impulse it will swing relatively to the fixed plate or other movable plate. The capacitance between the plates changes as a result of such a motion. The change of capacitance as a function of time is recorded as an oscillating voltage signal. The amplitude of such a voltage signal is proportional to the impacting force or impulse. The proportional factor can be calibrated. The forces can thus be read out from the recorded value of the voltage. The equation of motion for the pendulum system has been solved analytically. The circuit equation for the electronic measurement system has been formulated and solved numerically. Using this balance the thrust at the exhaust of a Tandem Mirror plasma thruster has been measured. The analytical solution of the overall characteristics agrees greatly with the measurement. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Dynamic Simulation of the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake with Geometric Complexity on a Rate- and State-dependent Subduction Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Duan, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku megathrust earthquake on 11 March 2011 is a great surprise to the scientific community due to its unexpected occurrence on the subduction zone of Japan Trench where earthquakes of magnitude ~7 to 8 are expected based on historical records. Slip distribution and kinematic slip history inverted from seismic data, GPS and tsunami recordings reveal two major aspects of this big event: a strong asperity near the hypocenter and large slip near the trench. To investigate physical conditions of these two aspects, we perform dynamic rupture simulations on a shallow-dipping rate- and state-dependent subduction plane with topographic relief. Although existence of a subducted seamount just up-dip of the hypocenter is still an open question, high Vp anomalies [Zhao et al., 2011] and low Vp/Vs anomalies [Yamamoto et al., 2014] there strongly suggest some kind of topographic relief exists there. We explicitly incorporate a subducted seamount on the subduction surface into our models. Our preliminary results show that the subducted seamount play a significant role in dynamic rupture propagation due to the alteration of the stress state around it. We find that a subducted seamount can act as a strong barrier to many earthquakes, but its ultimate failure after some earthquake cycles results in giant earthquakes. Its failure gives rise to large stress drop, resulting in a strong asperity in slip distribution as revealed in kinematic inversions. Our preliminary results also suggest that the rate- and state- friction law plays an important role in rupture propagation of geometrically complex faults. Although rate-strengthening behavior near the trench impedes rupture propagation, an energetic rupture can break such a barrier and manage to reach the trench, resulting in significant uplift at seafloor and hence devastating tsunami to human society.

  20. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  1. Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; White, Harold G.; March, Paul; Lawrence, James T.; Davies, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the eight-day August 2013 test campaign designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasmadynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not

  2. Orbital and angular motion construction for low thrust interplanetary flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelnikov, R. V.; Mashtakov, Y. V.; Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Tkachev, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    Low thrust interplanetary flight is considered. Firstly, the fuel-optimal control is found. Then the angular motion is synthesized. This motion provides the thruster tracking of the required by optimal control direction. And, finally, reaction wheel control law for tracking this angular motion is proposed and implemented. The numerical example is given and total operation time for thrusters is found. Disturbances from solar pressure, thrust eccentricity, inaccuracy of reaction wheels installation and errors of inertia tensor are taken into account.

  3. Quadcopter Attitude and Thrust Simulation Based on Simulink Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrowednes Kuantama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of quadcopter axes relative to reference line direction of motion will result in attitude and every movement is controlled regulated by each rotor’s thrust. Mathematical equation based on Euler formula and 3D simulation using Matlab/Simulink software platform are used to model quadcopter movement. Change of attitude, position and thrust of each rotor can be seen through this simulation movement.

  4. Geochemistry of serpentinites in subduction zones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Fabien; Godard, Marguerite; Guillot, Stéphane; Hattori, Kéiko

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decades, numerous studies have emphasized the role of serpentinites in the subduction zones geodynamics. Their presence and effective role in this environment is acknowledged notably by geophysical, geochemical and field observations of (paleo-) subduction zones. In this context, with the increasing amount of studies concerning serpentinites in subduction environments, a huge geochemical database was created. Here, we present a review of the geochemistry of serpentinites, based on the compilation of ~ 900 geochemical analyses of abyssal, mantle wedge and subducted serpentinites. The aim was to better understand the geochemical evolution of these rocks during their subduction history as well as their impact in the global geochemical cycle. When studying serpentinites, it is often a challenge to determine the nature of the protolith and their geological history before serpentinisation. The present-day (increasing) geochemical database for serpentinites indicates little to no mobility of incompatible elements at the scale of the hand-sample in most serpentinized peridotites. Thus, Rare Earth Elements (REE) distribution can be used to identify the initial protolith for abyssal and mantle wedge serpentinites, as well as magmatic processes such as melt/rock interactions taking place before serpentinisation. In the case of subducted serpentinites, the interpretation of trace element data is more difficult due to secondary enrichments independent of the nature of the protolith, notably in (L)REE. We propose that these enrichments reflect complex interactions probably not related to serpentinisation itself, but mostly to fluid/rock or sediment/rock interactions within the subduction channel, as well as intrinsic feature of the mantle protolith which could derive from the continental lithosphere exhumed at the ocean-continent transition. Additionally, during the last ten years, numerous studies have been carried out, notably using in situ approaches, to better

  5. Barium isotope geochemistry of subduction-zone magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Nan, X.; Huang, J.; Wörner, G.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zones are crucial tectonic setting to study material exchange between crust and mantle, mantle partial melting with fluid addition, and formation of ore-deposits1-3. The geochemical characteristics of arc lavas from subduction zones are different from magmas erupted at mid-ocean ridges4, because there are addition of fluids/melts from subducted AOC and its overlying sediments into their source regions in the sub-arc mantle4. Ba is highly incompatible during mantle melting5, and it is enriched in crust (456 ppm)6 relative to the mantle (7.0 ppm)7. The subducted sediments are also enriched in Ba (776 ppm of GLOSS)8. Moreover, because Ba is fluid soluble during subduction, it has been used to track contributions of subduction-related fluids to arc magmas9 or recycled sediments to the mantle10-11. To study the Ba isotope fractionation behavior during subduction process, we analyzed well-characterized, chemically-diverse arc lavas from Central American, Kamchatka, Central-Eastern Aleutian, and Southern Lesser Antilles. The δ137/134Ba of Central American arc lavas range from -0.13 to 0.24‰, and have larger variation than the arc samples from other locations. Except one sample from Central-Eastern Aleutian arc with obviously heavy δ137/134Ba values (0.27‰), all other samples from Kamchatka, Central-Eastern Aleutian, Southern Lesser Antilles arcs are within the range of OIB. The δ137/134Ba is not correlated with the distance to trench, partial melting degrees (Mg#), or subducting slab-derived components. The samples enriched with heavy Ba isotopes have low Ba contents, indicating that Ba isotopes can be fractionated at the beginning of dehydration process with small amount of Ba releasing to the mantle wedge. With the dehydration degree increasing, more Ba of the subducted slab can be added to the source of arc lavas, likely homogenizing the Ba isotope signatures. 1. Rudnick, R., 1995 Nature; 2. Tatsumi, Y. & Kogiso, T., 2003; 3. Sun, W., et al., 2015 Ore

  6. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  7. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Liberi, Francesca; Caldarella, Martina; Nurminen, Fiia-Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike-slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9). Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding). For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r) and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ) were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ˜ 2150 m on the footwall and ˜ 3100 m on the hanging wall). Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( > ˜ 50 % at distances guidelines). In the absence of such a very detailed study (basic SM, i.e. Level 1 SM of Italian guidelines) a width of ˜ 840 m (90 % probability from "simple thrust" database of distributed ruptures, excluding B-M, F-S and Sy fault ruptures) is suggested to be sufficiently precautionary. For more detailed SM, where the fault is carefully mapped, one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, ˜ 60 m in width, that should be considered as a fault avoidance zone (more than one-third of the distributed ruptures are expected to occur within this zone). The fault rupture hazard zones should be asymmetric compared to the trace

  8. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation of the Main Boundary Thrust: Evidence from the seismites in southeastern Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Srivastava, Deepak C.; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-05-01

    Tectonic history of the Himalaya is punctuated by successive development of the faults that run along the boundaries between different lithotectonic terrains. The Main Boundary Fault, defining the southern limit of the Lesser Himalayan terrain, is tectonically most active. A review of published literature reveals that the nature and age of reactivation events on the Main Boundary Fault is one of the poorly understood aspects of the Himalayan orogen. By systematic outcrop mapping of the seismites, this study identifies a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation on the Main Boundary Thrust in southeast Kumaun Himalaya. Relatively friable and cohesionless Neogene sedimentary sequences host abundant soft-sediment deformation structures in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust. Among a large variety of structures, deformed cross-beds, liquefaction pockets, slump folds, convolute laminations, sand dykes, mushroom structures, fluid escape structures, flame and load structures and synsedimentary faults are common. The morphological attributes, the structural association and the distribution pattern of the soft-sediment deformation structures with respect to the Main Boundary Fault strongly suggest their development by seismically triggered liquefaction and fluidization. Available magnetostratigraphic age data imply that the seismites were developed during a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene slip on the Main Boundary Thrust. The hypocenter of the main seismic event may lie on the Main Boundary Thrust or to the north of the study area on an unknown fault or the Basal Detachment Thrust.

  9. Highly oxidising fluids generated during serpentinite breakdown in subduction zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, B; Sverjensky, D A

    2017-09-04

    Subduction zones facilitate chemical exchanges between Earth's deep interior and volcanism that affects habitability of the surface environment. Lavas erupted at subduction zones are oxidized and release volatile species. These features may reflect a modification of the oxidation state of the sub-arc mantle by hydrous, oxidizing sulfate and/or carbonate-bearing fluids derived from subducting slabs. But the reason that the fluids are oxidizing has been unclear. Here we use theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations to predict the redox state of fluids generated during serpentinite dehydration. Specifically, the breakdown of antigorite to olivine, enstatite, and chlorite generates fluids with high oxygen fugacities, close to the hematite-magnetite buffer, that can contain significant amounts of sulfate. The migration of these fluids from the slab to the mantle wedge could therefore provide the oxidized source for the genesis of primary arc magmas that release gases to the atmosphere during volcanism. Our results also show that the evolution of oxygen fugacity in serpentinite during subduction is sensitive to the amount of sulfides and potentially metal alloys in bulk rock, possibly producing redox heterogeneities in subducting slabs.

  10. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Trevor [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Polzin, Kurt A. [NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  11. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  12. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  13. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  14. Testing the effects of basic numerical implementations of water migration on models of subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinquis, M. E. T.; Buiter, S. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    feeds back to the dynamics of the system by the associated weakening. This finding underlines the importance of using dynamic time evolution models to investigate the effects of (de)hydration. We also show that hydrated material can be transported down to the base of the upper mantle at 670 km. Although (de)hydration processes influence subduction dynamics, we find that the exact numerical implementation of free water migration is not important in the basic schemes we investigated. A simple implementation of water migration could be sufficient for a first-order impression of the effects of water for studies that focus on large-scale features of subduction dynamics.

  15. Structural control of the upper plate on the down-dip segmentation of subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Barbot, S.; Karato, S. I.; Shibazaki, B.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tapponnier, P.

    2017-12-01

    The geodetic and seismic discoveries of slow earthquakes in subduction zones have provided the observational evidence for the existence of the transition between megathrust earthquakes and the creeping behaviors. However, the mechanics behind slow earthquakes, and the period differential motion between the subducting slab and the overlying plate below the seismogenic zone, remain controversial. In Nankai subduction zone, the very-low-frequency earthquakes (VLFE), megathrust earthquakes, long-term slow earthquakes (duration of months or years) and the episodic tremor and slip zone (ETS) are located within the accretionary prism, the continental upper crust, the continental lower crust and the upmost mantle of the overriding plate, respectively. We use the rate-and-state friction law to simulate the periodic occurrence of VLFEs, megathrust earthquakes and the tremors in the ETS zone because of relatively high rock strength within these depth ranges. However, it is not feasible to use frictional instabilities to explain the long-term slow earthquakes in the lower crust where the ductile rock physics plays a significant role in the large-scale deformation. Here, our numerical simulations show that slow earthquakes at the depth of the lower crust may be the results of plastic instabilities in a finite volume of ductile material accompanying by the grain-size evolution. As the thickness of the fault zone increases with depth, deformation becomes distributed and the dynamic equilibrium of grain size, as a competition between thermally activated grain growth and damage-related grain size reduction, results in cycles of strain acceleration and strain deficit. In addition, we took into account the elevated pore pressure in the accretinary prism which is associated with small stress drop and low-frequency content of VLFEs and may contribute to the occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Hence, in our numerical simulations for the plate boundary system in Nankai, the down

  16. Subduction to the lower mantle – a comparison between geodynamic and tomographic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Becker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that subduction of lithospheric slabs is a major contribution to thermal heterogeneity in Earth's entire mantle and provides a main driving force for mantle flow. Mantle structure can, on the one hand, be inferred from plate tectonic models of subduction history and geodynamic models of mantle flow. On the other hand, seismic tomography models provide important information on mantle heterogeneity. Yet, the two kinds of models are only similar on the largest (1000 s of km scales and are quite different in their detailed structure. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment how good a fit can be currently achieved with a simple viscous flow geodynamic model. The discrepancy between geodynamic and tomography models can indicate where further model refinement could possibly yield an improved fit. Our geodynamical model is based on 300 Myr of subduction history inferred from a global plate reconstruction. Density anomalies are inserted into the upper mantle beneath subduction zones, and flow and advection of these anomalies is calculated with a spherical harmonic code for a radial viscosity structure constrained by mineral physics and surface observations. Model viscosities in the upper mantle beneath the lithosphere are ~1020 Pas, and viscosity increases to ~1023 Pas in the lower mantle above D". Comparison with tomography models is assessed in terms of correlation, both overall and as a function of depth and spherical harmonic degree. We find that, compared to previous geodynamic and tomography models, correlation is improved, presumably because of advances in both plate reconstructions and mantle flow computations. However, high correlation is still limited to lowest spherical harmonic degrees. An important ingredient to achieve high correlation – in particular at spherical harmonic degree two – is a basal chemical layer. Subduction shapes this layer into two rather stable hot but chemically dense "piles

  17. Size Constraints on Late Miocene to Pliocene Submarine Slope Failures along the Colombian Caribbean Subduction Margin as a Basis for Assessing Circum-Caribbean Impact of Future Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, S.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Colombian Caribbean margin provides an ideal setting for the formation of large mass transport deposits (MTDs): 1) the Caribbean Plate is slowly subducting at rates of 20 mm/yr with infrequent large thrust earthquakes and a complete lack of subduction events in the 400-year-long historical record; 2) the margin is a broad zone of active faults including a ~50 km-wide accretionary prism and strike-slip faults landward of the prism; 3) the active margin is draped by the Magdalena delta and submarine fan fed by the Magdalena River, the 26th largest in the world; and 4) the margin is over-steepened to slopes of up to 7° from the combination of tectonic activity and rapid rates of deltaic progradation. Using seismic data we have identified three late Miocene-Pliocene MTDs, the largest of which is between 4500 and 6000 km3, comparable in size to the well-studied Storegga slide of Norway. The tsunamigenic potential of future, analog MTD events are modeled using GeoWave tsunami modeling software. The largest and youngest of these MTDs, the Santa Marta slide, is used as an analog to infer the location and input parameters for the tsunami model. The event is modeled as a translational slide ~46 km long and ~37 km wide with the center of the slide located ~57 km W/NW from the mouth of the present day Magdalena River in water depths of 1500 m. The volume for the initial failure is conservatively estimated at ~680 km3 of material. The resulting tsunami wave from such an event has an initial maximum trough amplitude of -65.8 m and a peak amplitude of 19.2 m. The impact of such a tsunami would include: 1) Kingston, Jamaica (population 938K), tsunami height 7.5 m, peak arrival at 60 min.; 2) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (population 965K, height 6 m, peak arrival at 80 min.); and 3) Cartagena, Colombia (population 845K, height 21 m, peak arrival at 34 min.). A number of parameters to the model are varied to analyze sensitivity of modeling results to changes in slide depth

  18. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  19. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  20. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  1. Sensitivity Analysis and Mitigation with Applications to Ballistic and Low-thrust Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Iman

    The ever increasing desire to expand space mission capabilities within the limited budgets of space industries requires new approaches to the old problem of spacecraft trajectory design. For example, recent initiatives for space exploration involve developing new tools to design low-cost, fail-safe trajectories to visit several potential destinations beyond our celestial neighborhood such as Jupiter's moons, asteroids, etc. Designing and navigating spacecraft trajectories to reach these destinations safely are complex and challenging. In particular, fundamental questions of orbital stability imposed by planetary protection requirements are not easily taken into account by standard optimal control schemes. The event of temporary engine loss or an unexpected missed thrust can indeed quickly lead to impact with planetary bodies or other unrecoverable trajectories. While electric propulsion technology provides superior efficiency compared to chemical engines, the very low-control authority and engine performance degradation can impose higher risk to the mission in strongly perturbed orbital environments. The risk is due to the complex gravitational field and its associated chaotic dynamics which causes large navigation dispersions in a short time if left un-controlled. Moreover, in these situations it can be outside the low-thrust propulsion system capability to correct the spacecraft trajectory in a reasonable time frame. These concerns can lead to complete or partial mission failure or even an infeasible mission concept at the early design stage. The goal of this research is to assess and increase orbital stability of ballistic and low-thrust transfer trajectories in multi-body systems. In particular, novel techniques are presented to characterize sensitivity and improve recovery characteristics of ballistic and low-thrust trajectories in unstable orbital environments. The techniques developed are based on perturbation analysis around ballistic trajectories to

  2. Tracing halogen and B cycling in subduction zones based on obducted, subducted and forearc serpentinites of the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Lilianne; Hattori, Keiko

    2017-12-19

    Serpentinites are important reservoirs of fluid-mobile elements in subduction zones, contributing to volatiles in arc magmas and their transport into the Earth's mantle. This paper reports halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and B abundances of serpentinites from the Dominican Republic, including obducted and subducted abyssal serpentinites and forearc mantle serpentinites. Abyssal serpentinite compositions indicate the incorporation of these elements from seawater and sediments during serpentinization on the seafloor and at slab bending. During their subduction and subsequent lizardite-antigorite transition, F and B are retained in serpentinites, whilst Cl, Br and I are expelled. Forearc mantle serpentinite compositions suggest their hydration by fluids released from subducting altered oceanic crust and abyssal serpentinites, with only minor sediment contribution. This finding is consistent with the minimal subduction of sediments in the Dominican Republic. Forearc mantle serpentinites have F/Cl and B/Cl ratios similar to arc magmas, suggesting the importance of serpentinite dehydration in the generation of arc magmatism in the mantle wedge.

  3. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  4. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a... crew to increase thrust or power. I25.2Definitions. (a) Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust...

  5. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  6. Fluid inclusions in jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from serpentinite mélanges in northern Hispaniola: Trapped ambient fluids in a cold subduction channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Hertwig, Andreas; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.

    2018-05-01

    Freezing-point depression was measured in aqueous fluid inclusions to determine salinities in six samples of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic. The mélange represents a fossil subduction-zone channel from a cold, mature subduction zone with a geothermal gradient of 6 °C/km. One hundred and twenty-five determinations of salinity in primary inclusions hosted in jadeite, quartz, apatite and lawsonite range between extremes of 1.2 and 8.7, but yield a well-defined mean of 4.5 ± 1.1 wt% (±1 s.d.) NaCl equiv, slightly higher than mean seawater (3.5 wt%). In one sample, eight additional fluid inclusions in quartz aligned along grain boundaries yield slightly lower values of 2.7 ± 1.3 wt% NaCl equiv. Homogenization temperatures were also measured for 47 fluid inclusions in two samples, but primary entrapment densities are not preserved. It is significant that the suite includes two types of samples: those precipitated directly from an aqueous fluid as well as examples of metasomatic replacement of a pre-existing magmatic rock. Nevertheless, the results indicate identical salinity for both types and suggest a much stronger genetic link between the two types of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock than has previously been assumed. Based on the results of conductivity measurements in modern subduction zones, we envision a pervasive fluid in the subduction channel that evolved from salinity levels lower than those in sea-water up to the measured values due to on-going but largely completed serpentinization in the subduction channel. The present data represent a reference marker for the subduction channel of the Rio San Juan intra-oceanic subduction zone at 30-50 km depth and after 50-60 Myr of operation.

  7. Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Kento [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Sustainable Humanosphere; Muranaka, Takanobu [Chukyo Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.

  8. Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Kento; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Muranaka, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.

  9. Subduction in the Subtropical Gyre: Seasoar Cruises Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Julie Pallant , Frank Bahr, Terrence Joyce, Jerome Dean, James R. Luyten & Performing Organization Rept No. WHOI-95- 13 IL Performing Organization Name...AD-A28 6 861 WHOI-95-13 Woods Hole x Oceanc grapbic Ifliotitutionf de Subduction in the Subtropical Gyre: Seasoar Cruises Data Report by Julie S. •P...unlimiled. =Tfl QUALuTr =S) ij Ai Si 4 ;•IIII.. " - II •r * 9 9 * 11S 0 WIHOI-95-13 Subduction in the Subtropical Gyre: Seasoar Cruises Data Report by 0 Julie

  10. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  11. Thrusting and back-thrusting as post-emplacement kinematics of the Almora klippe: Insights from Low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. C.; Singh, Paramjeet; Lal, Nand

    2015-06-01

    Crystalline klippen over the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya, are the representative of southern portion of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) hanging wall. These were tectonically transported over the juxtaposed thrust sheets (Berinag, Tons and Ramgarh) of the LHS zone along the MCT. These klippen comprise of NW-SE trending synformal folded thrust sheet bounded by thrusts in the south and north. In the present study, the exhumation histories of two well-known klippen namely Almora and Baijnath, and the Ramgarh thrust sheet, in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions vis-a-vis Himalayan orogeny have been investigated using Apatite Fission Track (AFT) ages. Along a ~ 60 km long orogen perpendicular transect across the Almora klippe and the Ramgarh thrust sheet, 16 AFT cooling ages from the Almora klippe and 2 from the Ramgarh thrust sheet have been found to range from 3.7 ± 0.8 to 13.2 ± 2.7 Ma, and 6.3 ± 0.8 to 7.2 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. From LHS meta-sedimentary rocks only a single AFT age of 3.6 ± 0.8 Ma could be obtained. Three AFT ages from the Baijnath klippe range between 4.7 ± 0.5 and 6.6 ± 0.8 Ma. AFT ages and exhumation rates of different klippen show a dynamic coupling between tectonic and erosion processes in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya. However, the tectonic processes play a dominant role in controlling the exhumation. Thrusting and back thrusting within the Almora klippe and Ramgarh thrust sheet are the post-emplacement kinematics that controlled the exhumation of the Almora klippe. Combining these results with the already published AFT ages from the crystalline klippen and the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC), the kinematics of emplacement of the klippen over the LHS and exhumation pattern across the MCT in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya have been investigated.

  12. Present coupling along the Peruvian subduction asperity that devastated Lima while breaking during the 1746 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, O.; Chlieh, M.; Villegas Lanza, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zone are particularly prone to generating large earthquakes due to its wide lateral extension. In order to understand where, and possibly when, large earthquakes will occur, interseismic deformation observation is a key information because it allows to map asperities that accumulate stress on the plate interface. South American subduction is one of the longest worldwide, running all along the west coast of the continent. Combined with the relatively fast convergence rate between the Nazca plate and the South American continent, Chile and Peru experience regularly M>7.5 earthquakes. In this study, we focused on the Peruvian subduction margin and more precisely on the Central segment containing Lima where the seismic risk is the highest in the country due the large population that lives in the Peruvian capital. On the Central segment (10°S and 15°S), we used over 50 GPS interseismic measurements from campaign and continuous sites, as well as InSAR data to map coupling along the subduction interface. GPS data come from the Peruvian GPS network and InSAR data are from the Envisat satellite. We selected two tracks covering the central segment (including Lima) and with enough SAR image acquisitions between 2003 and 2010 to get a robust deformation estimation. GPS and InSAR data show a consistent tectonic signal with a maximum of surface displacement by the coast: the maximum horizontal velocities from GPS is about 20 mm and InSAR finds 12-13 mm in the LOS component. In addition, InSAR reveals lateral variations along the coast: the maximum motion is measured around Lima (11°S) and fades on either side. By inverting the geodetic data, we were able to map the coupling along the segment. It results in a main asperity where interseismic stress is loading. However, compared the previous published models based on GPS only, the coupling in the central segment seems more heterogeneous. Finally, we compared the deficit of seismic moment accumulating in the

  13. Thrust performance, propellant ionization, and thruster erosion of an external discharge plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Burak; Cho, Shinatora; Funaki, Ikkoh

    2018-04-01

    It is quite a challenge to design low power Hall thrusters with a long lifetime and high efficiency because of the large surface area to volume ratio and physical limits to the magnetic circuit miniaturization. As a potential solution to this problem, we experimentally investigated the external discharge plasma thruster (XPT). The XPT produces and sustains a plasma discharge completely in the open space outside of the thruster structure through a magnetic mirror configuration. It eliminates the very fundamental component of Hall thrusters, discharge channel side walls, and its magnetic circuit consists solely of a pair of hollow cylindrical permanent magnets. Thrust, low frequency discharge current oscillation, ion beam current, and plasma property measurements were conducted to characterize the manufactured prototype thruster for the proof of concept. The thrust performance, propellant ionization, and thruster erosion were discussed. Thrust generated by the XPT was on par with conventional Hall thrusters [stationary plasma thruster (SPT) or thruster with anode layer] at the same power level (˜11 mN at 250 W with 25% anode efficiency without any optimization), and discharge current had SPT-level stability (Δ design and provide a successful proof of concept experiment of the XPT.

  14. Development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing of the hydraulic turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K; Deguchi, K; Okude, K; Fujimoto, R

    2012-01-01

    In hydropower plant, a large quantities of turbine oil is used as machine control pressure oil and lubricating oil. If the oil leak out from hydropower plant, it flows into a river. And such oil spill has an adverse effect on natural environment because the oil does not degrade easily. Therefore the KANSAI and Hitachi Mitsubishi Hydro developed the water-lubricated thrust bearing for vertical type hydraulic turbine generator. The water-lubricated bearing has advantages in risk avoidance of river pollution because it does not need oil. For proceeding the development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing, we studied following items. The first is the examination of the trial products of water lubricating liquid. The second is the study of bearing structure which can satisfy bearing performance such as temperature characteristic and so on. The third is the mock-up testing for actual application in the future. As a result, it was found that the water-lubricated thrust bearing was technically applicable to actual equipments.

  15. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Keith R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis.

  16. Frictional properties of the Nankai frontal thrust explain recurring shallow slow slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Roesner, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations provide evidence for shallow slip reaching to the trench on subduction megathrusts, both in earthquakes and slow slip events (SSE). This is at odds with existing friction studies, which report primarily velocity-strengthening behavior (friction increases with slip velocity) for subduction fault material and synthetic analogs, which leads only to stable sliding. We report on direct shearing experiments on fault rocks from IODP Site C0007, which sampled the frontal thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. This fault has been implicated in both coseimic slip and recurring SSE. We focus on material from 437.2 meters below seafloor, immediately above a localized shear zone near the base of the fault. In our experiments, a 25 mm diameter cylindrical specimen is loaded in an assembly of two steel plates. After application of normal stress (3, 10, or 17 MPa) and subsequent equilibration, the lower plate is driven at a constant velocity while the upper plate remains stationary; this configuration forces shear to localize between the two plates. After reaching a steady state residual friction coefficient (µss), we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b), defined as the change in friction for a change in velocity: (a-b) = Δuss/ln(V/Vo), over a range of velocities from 0.1-100 µm s-1. We find that µss ranges from 0.26 to 0.32 and exhibits a slight decrease with normal stress. We observe velocity-weakening behavior at low normal stresses (3-10 MPa) and for low sliding velocities (30 µm s-1. At higher normal stress (17 MPa), we observe dominantly velocity-strengthening, consistent with previously reported measurements for 25 MPa normal stress. Our observation of rate weakening at slip rates matching those of SSE in the outer Nankai forearc provide a potential explanation for periodic strain accumulation and subsequent release during SSE near the trench. The observation of rate weakening behavior only at low normal

  17. Lateral Vibration of Hydroelectric Generating Set with Different Supporting Condition of Thrust Pad

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Xiaohui; Lu, Wenxiu; Chu, Fulei

    2011-01-01

    The variations of the supporting condition, which change the stiffness of tilting pad thrust bearing, may alter the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. The effects of supporting condition of thrust pad on the lateral vibration of a hydroelectric generating set are investigated in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as moments acting on the thrust collar, and the tilting stiffness coefficients of thrust bearing are calculated. A model based on typical beam finite element ...

  18. Topographic and sedimentary features in the Yap subduction zone and their implications for the Caroline Ridge subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Bai, Yongliang; Fan, Jianke; Zhang, Guangxu

    2018-01-01

    The Yap subduction zone in the western Pacific presents some unique features compared to normal intra-oceanic subduction zones such as the subduction of an oceanic plateau. However, due to the relative paucity of geophysical data, the detailed structure remains unknown in this area. In this study, we present the latest high-quality swath bathymetry and multi-channel seismic data acquired synchronously in 2015 across the Yap subduction zone. The topographic and sedimentary features are intensively investigated and a modified evolutionary model of the Yap subduction zone is proposed. The two-stage evolution of the Parece Vela Basin (PVB) produced fabrics that are N-S trending and NW-SE trending. Our seismic data clearly reveal landslide deposits at the upper slope break of the forearc, to the north of the Yap Island, which was identified as the fault notch denoting a lithological boundary in previous work. The swath bathymetry and seismic profile reveal detailed horst and graben structures, including a crescent-shaped fault zone near the contact between the Yap Trench and the Caroline Ridge. A simple geometric model is proposed to explain the structure formation, indicating that the higher topography of the Caroline Ridge resulted in enhanced bending-related extension. A seismic angular unconformity (named R1) is identified in the Sorol Trough, marking the onset of rifting in the trough. Based on the sequence thickness and deposition rate by Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), it is deduced that the Sorol Trough formed at 10 Ma or even earlier. A modified model for the Yap subduction zone evolution is proposed, incorporating three major tectonic events: the proto-Yap Arc rupture in the Oligocene, the collision of the Caroline Ridge and the Yap Trench in the late Oligocene or middle Miocene, and the onset of the Sorol Trough rifting in the late Miocene.

  19. Flapping tail membrane in bats produces potentially important thrust during horizontal takeoffs and very slow flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A Adams

    Full Text Available Historically, studies concerning bat flight have focused primarily on the wings. By analyzing high-speed video taken on 48 individuals of five species of vespertilionid bats, we show that the capacity to flap the tail-membrane (uropatagium in order to generate thrust and lift during takeoffs and minimal-speed flight (<1 m (s-1 was largely underestimated. Indeed, bats flapped the tail-membrane by extensive dorso-ventral fanning motions covering as much as 135 degrees of arc consistent with thrust generation by air displacement. The degree of dorsal extension of the tail-membrane, and thus the potential amount of thrust generated during platform launches, was significantly correlated with body mass (P = 0.02. Adduction of the hind limbs during upstrokes collapsed the tail-membrane thereby reducing its surface area and minimizing negative lift forces. Abduction of the hind limbs during the downstroke fully expanded the tail-membrane as it was swept ventrally. The flapping kinematics of the tail-membrane is thus consistent with expectations for an airfoil. Timing offsets between the wings and tail-membrane during downstrokes was as much as 50%, suggesting that the tail-membrane was providing thrust and perhaps lift when the wings were retracting through the upstoke phase of the wing-beat cycle. The extent to which the tail-membrane was used during takeoffs differed significantly among four vespertilionid species (P = 0.01 and aligned with predictions derived from bat ecomorphology. The extensive fanning motion of the tail membrane by vespertilionid bats has not been reported for other flying vertebrates.

  20. Improved High Resolution Models of Subduction Dynamics: Use of transversely isotropic viscosity with a free-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gurnis, M.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic topography, or uncompensated topography, is controlled by internal dynamics, and provide constraints on the buoyancy structure and rheological parameters in the mantle. Compared with other surface manifestations such as the geoid, dynamic topography is very sensitive to shallower and more regional mantle structure. For example, the significant dynamic topography above the subduction zone potentially provides a rich mine for inferring the rheological and mechanical properties such as plate coupling, flow, and lateral viscosity variations, all critical in plate tectonics. However, employing subduction zone topography in the inversion study requires that we have a better understanding of the topography from forward models, especially the influence of the viscosity formulation, numerical resolution, and other factors. One common approach to formulating a fault between the subducted slab and the overriding plates in viscous flow models assumes a thin weak zone. However, due to the large lateral variation in viscosity, topography from free-slip numerical models typically has artificially large magnitude as well as high-frequency undulations over subduction zone, which adds to the difficulty in making comparisons between model results and observations. In this study, we formulate a weak zone with the transversely isotropic viscosity (TI) where the tangential viscosity is much smaller than the viscosity in the normal direction. Similar with isotropic weak zone models, TI models effectively decouple subducted slabs from the overriding plates. However, we find that the topography in TI models is largely reduced compared with that in weak zone models assuming an isotropic viscosity. Moreover, the artificial `tooth paste' squeezing effect observed in isotropic weak zone models vanishes in TI models, although the difference becomes less significant when the dip angle is small. We also implement a free-surface condition in our numerical models, which has a smoothing

  1. Comparative Roughness Characteristics of the Subducting Seafloor and Statistical Relationships with Seismogenic Potential, with Special Emphasis on Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Peyret, M.; van Rijsingen, E.; Arcay, D.

    2017-12-01

    Do some topographic features or morphological characteristics promote earthquake nucleation, large coseismic slip or creep ? To answer this question, we have developed a new database called "SubRough" which provides few roughness parameters at selected spatial wavelengths. Since the currently subducting topography is generally unknown, we assume that the bathymetry of the oceanic plates, a few hundreds of km seaward of the trench, is a reasonable proxy for determining the roughness of the subduction interface. Given the selected wavelengths in our roughness study (detailed below), we do not expect major changes when entering the subduction zone, even though the presence of a subduction channel or significant sediment offscrapping may alter it. Morphological objects characterized by high spatial frequencies (isolated seamounts or fracture zones) are likely to play a role in large events initiation or termination. Similarly, wide "smooth" areas may likely favor rupture propagation and thus large events, while ridges or plateaus may also play a specific role in seismic behavior. Consequently, we only retain the roughness components Rsw and Rlw that are comprised respectively within 2 wavelength bands: [12-20 km] and [80-100 km]. The choice of these wavelengths is constrained by the resolution of the bathymetry, the size of the studied area and the characteristic wavelengths of the seafloor topography. This new morphological information is then statistically analyzed to better understand how topographic features are modeled by roughness data. From a worldwide statistical point of view, fracture zones show similar amplitudes as mean seafloor at both wavelengths, which indicates that it is not possible to distinguish them from the background signal. Conversely, seamounts show roughness amplitudes about two times larger than the averaged ones at both wavelengths. Ridges and plateaus show Rlw amplitudes similar to seamounts but lower Rsw than seamounts. Finally, the

  2. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  3. Engineering research, development and technology: Thrust area report FY 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence, Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) conduct high quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. The thrust area leader is also responsible for carrying out the work that follows from the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program so that the results can be applied as early as possible to the needs of LLNL programs. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year, 1991. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results

  4. Hydrodynamic aspects of thrust generation in gymnotiform swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Curet, Oscar M.; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Maciver, Malcolm A.

    2008-11-01

    The primary propulsor in gymnotiform swimmers is a fin running along most of the ventral midline of the fish. The fish propagates traveling waves along this ribbon fin to generate thrust. This unique mode of thrust generation gives these weakly electric fish great maneuverability cluttered spaces. To understand the mechanical basis of gymnotiform propulsion, we investigated the hydrodynamics of a model ribbon-fin of an adult black ghost knifefish using high-resolution numerical experiments. We found that the principal mechanism of thrust generation is a central jet imparting momentum to the fluid with associated vortex rings near the free edge of the fin. The high-fidelity simulations also reveal secondary vortex rings potentially useful in rapid sideways maneuvers. We obtained the scaling of thrust with respect to the traveling wave kinematic parameters. Using a fin-plate model for a fish, we also discuss improvements to Lighthill's inviscid theory for gymnotiform and balistiform modes in terms of thrust magnitude, viscous drag on the body, and momentum enhancement.

  5. Seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling of subduction zone seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinther van, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The catastrophic occurrence of the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquakes illustrated the disastrous impact of megathrust earthquakes on society. They also emphasized our limited understanding of where and when these 'big ones' may strike. The necessary improvement of long-term seismic hazard assessment requires a better physical understanding of the seismic cycle at these seismically active subduction zones. Models have the potential to overcome the restricted, direct observations in space and time. Currently, however, no model exists to explore the relation between long-term subduction dynamics and relating deformation and short-term seismogenesis. The development, validation and initial application of such a physically consistent seismo-thermo-mechanical numerical model is the main objective of this thesis. First, I present a novel analog modeling tool that simulates cycling of megathrust earthquakes in a visco-elastic gelatin wedge. A comparison with natural observations shows interseismic and coseismic physics are captured in a robust, albeit simplified, way. This tool is used to validate that a continuum-mechanics based, visco-elasto-plastic numerical approach, typically used for large-scale geodynamic problems, can be extended to study the short-term seismogenesis of megathrust earthquakes. To generate frictional instabilities and match laboratory source parameters, a local invariant implementation of a strongly slip rate-dependent friction formulation is required. The resulting continuum approach captures several interesting dynamic features, including inter-, co- and postseismic deformation that agrees qualitatively with GPS measurements and dynamic rupture features, including cracks, self-healing pulses and fault re-rupturing. To facilitate a comparison to natural settings, I consider a more realistic setup of the Southern Chilean margin in terms of geometry and physical processes. Results agree with seismological, geodetic and

  6. Seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling of subduction zone seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinther van, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The catastrophic occurrence of the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquakes illustrated the disastrous impact of megathrust earthquakes on society. They also emphasized our limited understanding of where and when these 'big ones' may strike. The necessary improvement of long-term seismic hazard assessment requires a better physical understanding of the seismic cycle at these seismically active subduction zones. Models have the potential to overcome the restricted, direct observations in space and time. Currently, however, no model exists to explore the relation between long-term subduction dynamics and relating deformation and short-term seismogenesis. The development, validation and initial application of such a physically consistent seismo-thermo-mechanical numerical model is the main objective of this thesis. First, I present a novel analog modeling tool that simulates cycling of megathrust earthquakes in a visco-elastic gelatin wedge. A comparison with natural observations shows interseismic and coseismic physics are captured in a robust, albeit simplified, way. This tool is used to validate that a continuum-mechanics based, visco-elasto-plastic numerical approach, typically used for large-scale geodynamic problems, can be extended to study the short-term seismogenesis of megathrust earthquakes. To generate frictional instabilities and match laboratory source parameters, a local invariant implementation of a strongly slip rate-dependent friction formulation is required. The resulting continuum approach captures several interesting dynamic features, including inter-, co- and postseismic deformation that agrees qualitatively with GPS measurements and dynamic rupture features, including cracks, self-healing pulses and fault re-rupturing. To facilitate a comparison to natural settings, I consider a more realistic setup of the Southern Chilean margin in terms of geometry and physical processes. Results agree with seismological, geodetic and geological

  7. Nonlinear viscoplasticity in ASPECT: benchmarking and applications to subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Fraters, Menno; Blom, Constantijn; Spakman, Wim

    2018-03-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a massively parallel finite element code originally designed for modeling thermal convection in the mantle with a Newtonian rheology. The code is characterized by modern numerical methods, high-performance parallelism and extensibility. This last characteristic is illustrated in this work: we have extended the use of ASPECT from global thermal convection modeling to upper-mantle-scale applications of subduction.Subduction modeling generally requires the tracking of multiple materials with different properties and with nonlinear viscous and viscoplastic rheologies. To this end, we implemented a frictional plasticity criterion that is combined with a viscous diffusion and dislocation creep rheology. Because ASPECT uses compositional fields to represent different materials, all material parameters are made dependent on a user-specified number of fields.The goal of this paper is primarily to describe and verify our implementations of complex, multi-material rheology by reproducing the results of four well-known two-dimensional benchmarks: the indentor benchmark, the brick experiment, the sandbox experiment and the slab detachment benchmark. Furthermore, we aim to provide hands-on examples for prospective users by demonstrating the use of multi-material viscoplasticity with three-dimensional, thermomechanical models of oceanic subduction, putting ASPECT on the map as a community code for high-resolution, nonlinear rheology subduction modeling.

  8. Tensor-guided fitting of subduction slab depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad; Hayes, Gavin P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophysical measurements are often acquired at scattered locations in space. Therefore, interpolating or fitting the sparsely sampled data as a uniform function of space (a procedure commonly known as gridding) is a ubiquitous problem in geophysics. Most gridding methods require a model of spatial correlation for data. This spatial correlation model can often be inferred from some sort of secondary information, which may also be sparsely sampled in space. In this paper, we present a new method to model the geometry of a subducting slab in which we use a data‐fitting approach to address the problem. Earthquakes and active‐source seismic surveys provide estimates of depths of subducting slabs but only at scattered locations. In addition to estimates of depths from earthquake locations, focal mechanisms of subduction zone earthquakes also provide estimates of the strikes of the subducting slab on which they occur. We use these spatially sparse strike samples and the Earth’s curved surface geometry to infer a model for spatial correlation that guides a blended neighbor interpolation of slab depths. We then modify the interpolation method to account for the uncertainties associated with the depth estimates.

  9. Evolution of passive continental margins and initiation of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    1982-01-01

    The initiation of subduction is a key element in plate tectonic schemes for the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere. Nevertheless, up to present, the underlying mechanism has not been very well understood (e.g. Dickinson and Seely, 1979; Hager, 1980; Kanamori, 1980). The insight into the initiation

  10. Evolution of passive continental margins and initiation of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initiation of subduction is a key element in plate tectonic schemes for the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere. Nevertheless, up to present, the underlying mechanism has not been very well understood (e.g. Dickinson and Seely, 1979; Hager, 1980; Kanamori, 1980). The insight into the

  11. Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wasilczuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data.

  12. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  13. Thrust and jet directional control using the Coanda effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru DUMITRACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Coandă effect to the directional control of a jet or thrust is presented. Deviation of the thrust force by direct flow can be achieved by using the Coandă effect to change the angle of the primary jet engine exhaust nozzle. Major interest in the study of this phenomenon is caused by the possibility of using this effect for aircrafts with short take-off and landing, for thrust vectoring. The numerical investigations are performed using a RANS solver with an adequate turbulence model, showing a change of the jet direction. Thus, the conditions and the limits within which one can benefit from the advantages of Coandă-type flows are determined.

  14. Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour.

  15. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  16. Frictional behavior of carbonate-rich sediments in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, H. S.; Savage, H. M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation in rocks and sediments is controlled by multiple mechanisms, each governed by its own pressure- (P), temperature- (T), and slip velocity- (v) dependent kinetics. Frictional behavior depends on which of these mechanisms are dominant, and, thus, varies with P, T, and v. Carbonates are a useful material with which to interrogate the PTv controls on friction due to the fact that a wide range of mechanisms can be easily accessed in the lab at geologically relevant conditions. In addition, carbonate-rich layers make up a significant component of subducting sediments around the world and may impact the frictional behavior of shallow subduction zones. In order to investigate the effect of carbonate subduction and the evolution of friction at subduction zone conditions, we conducted deformation experiments on input sediments for two subduction zones, the Hikurangi trench, New Zealand (ODP Site 1124) and the Peru trench (DSDP Site 321), which have carbonate/clay contents of 40/60 wt% and 80/20 wt%, respectively. Samples were saturated with distilled water mixed with 35g/l sea salt and deformed at room temperature. Experiments were conducted at σeff = 1-100 MPa and T = 20-100 °C with sliding velocities of 1-300 μm/s and hold times of 1-1000 s. We test the changes in velocity dependence and healing over these PT conditions to elucidate the frictional behavior of carbonates in subduction zone settings. The mechanical results are complemented by microstructural analysis. In lower stress experiments, there is no obvious shear localization; however, by 25 MPa, pervasive boundary-parallel shears become dominant, particularly in the Peru samples. Optical observations of these shear zones under cross-polarized light show evidence of plastic deformation (CPO development) while SEM-EDS observations indicate phase segregation in the boundary shears. Degree of microstructural localization appears to correspond with the trends observed in velocity-dependence. Our

  17. Hafnium at subduction zones: isotopic budget of input and output fluxes; L'hafnium dans les zones de subduction: bilan isotopique des flux entrant et sortant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.Ch

    2004-05-15

    Subduction zones are the primary regions of mass exchanges between continental crust and mantle of Earth through sediment subduction toward the earth's mantle and by supply of mantellic magmas to volcanic arcs. We analyze these mass exchanges using Hafnium and Neodymium isotopes. At the Izu-Mariana subduction zone, subducting sediments have Hf and Nd isotopes equivalent to Pacific seawater. Altered oceanic crust has Hf and Nd isotopic compositions equivalent to the isotopic budget of unaltered Pacific oceanic crust. At Luzon and Java subduction zones, arc lavas present Hf isotopic ratios highly radiogenic in comparison to their Nd isotopic ratios. Such compositions of the Luzon and Java arc lavas are controlled by a contamination of their sources by the subducted oceanic sediments. (author)

  18. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  19. New seismic observation on the lithosphere and slab subduction beneath the Indo-Myanmar block: Implications for continent oblique subduction and transition to oceanic slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; He, Y.; Zheng, T.; Mon, C. T.; Thant, M.; Hou, G.; Ai, Y.; Chen, Q. F.; Sein, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Myanmar block locates to the southern and southeastern of the Eastern Himalayan Syntax (EHS) and marks a torsional boundary of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. There are two fundamental questions concerned on the tectonics of Indo-Myanmar block since the Cenozoic time. One is whether and how the oblique subduction is active in the deep; the other is where and how the transition from oceanic subduction and continental subduction operates. However, the two problems are still under heated debate mainly because the image of deep structure beneath this region is still blurring. Since June, 2016, we have executed the China-Myanmar Geophysical Survey in the Myanmar Orogen (CMGSMO) and deployed the first portable seismic array in Myanmar in cooperation with Myanmar Geosciences Society (MGS). This array contains 70 stations with a dense-deployed main profile across the Indo-Myanmar Range, Central Basin and Shan State Plateau along latitude of 22° and a 2-D network covering the Indo-Myanmar Range and the western part of the Central Basin. Based on the seismic data collected by the new array, we conducted the studies on the lithospheric structure using the routine surface wave tomography and receiver function CCP stacking. The preliminary results of surface wave tomography displayed a remarkable high seismic velocity fabric in the uppermost of mantle beneath the Indo-Myanmar Range and Central Basin, which was interpreted as the subducted slab eastward. Particularly, we found a low velocity bulk within the high-velocity slab, which was likely to be a slab window due to the slab tearing. The preliminary results of receiver function CCP stacking showed the obvious variations of the lithospheric structures from the Indo-Myanmar Range to the Central Basin and Shan State Plateau. The lithospheric structure beneath the Indo-Myanmar Range is more complex than that beneath the Central Basin and Shan State Plateau. Our resultant high-resolution images

  20. Thermal-Chemical Model Of Subduction: Results And Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Gerya, T. V.; Connolly, J. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Rudolph, M.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic structures with strong positive and negative velocity anomalies in the mantle wedge above subduction zones have been interpreted as thermally and/or chemically induced phenomena. We have developed a thermal-chemical model of subduction, which constrains the dynamics of seismic velocity structure beneath volcanic arcs. Our simulations have been calculated over a finite-difference grid with (201×101) to (201×401) regularly spaced Eulerian points, using 0.5 million to 10 billion markers. The model couples numerical thermo-mechanical solution with Gibbs energy minimization to investigate the dynamic behavior of partially molten upwellings from slabs (cold plumes) and structures associated with their development. The model demonstrates two chemically distinct types of plumes (mixed and unmixed), and various rigid body rotation phenomena in the wedge (subduction wheel, fore-arc spin, wedge pin-ball). These thermal-chemical features strongly perturb seismic structure. Their occurrence is dependent on the age of subducting slab and the rate of subduction.The model has been validated through a series of test cases and its results are consistent with a variety of geological and geophysical data. In contrast to models that attribute a purely thermal origin for mantle wedge seismic anomalies, the thermal-chemical model is able to simulate the strong variations of seismic velocity existing beneath volcanic arcs which are associated with development of cold plumes. In particular, molten regions that form beneath volcanic arcs as a consequence of vigorous cold wet plumes are manifest by > 20% variations in the local Poisson ratio, as compared to variations of ~ 2% expected as a consequence of temperature variation within the mantle wedge.

  1. Subducted slabs and lateral viscosity variations: effects on the long-wavelength geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Nicola; Čadek, Ondřej; Martinec, Zdeněk

    2009-11-01

    The characteristic broad local maxima exhibited by the long-wavelength geoid over subduction zones are investigated with a numerical model of mantle flow. In a spherical axisymmetric geometry, a synthetic model of buoyancy driven subduction is used to test the effects on the geoid caused by the depth of penetration of the lithosphere into the mantle, by the viscosity stratification and by lateral viscosity variations (LVV) in the lithosphere, upper and lower mantle. The presence of anomalous slab density in the lower mantle guarantees geoid amplitudes comparable with the observations, favouring the picture of slabs that penetrate the transition zone and sink into the deep mantle. The viscosity of the lower mantle controls the long-wavelength geoid to the first order, ensuring a clear positive signal when it is at least 30-times greater than the upper-mantle viscosity. The presence of LVV in the lithosphere, in the form of weak plate margins, helps to increase the contribution of the surface topography, causing a pronounced reduction of the geoid. Localized LVV associated with the cold slab play a secondary role if they are in the upper mantle. On the other hand, highly viscous slabs in the lower mantle exert a large influence on the geoid. They cause its amplitude to increase dramatically, way beyond the values typically observed over subduction zones. Long-wavelength flow becomes less vigorous as the slab viscosity increases. Deformation in the upper mantle becomes more localized and power is transferred to short wavelengths, causing the long-wavelength surface topography to diminish and the total geoid to increase. Slabs may be then weakened in the lower mantle or retain their high viscosity while other mechanisms act to lower the geoid. It is shown that a phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite above the core-mantle boundary can cause the geoid to reduce significantly, thereby helping to reconcile models and observations.

  2. Composition of Sediment Inputs to the Hikurangi Subduction Margin: A Prelude to IODP Expedition 375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, M.

    2017-12-01

    Expedition 375 of the International Ocean Discovery Program is scheduled to begin drilling offshore New Zealand in March 2018. Two sites will be cored seaward of the Hikurangi subduction front (subduction inputs), plus one site at the toe of the accretionary prism, and one site in the forearc above a zone of well-documented slow-slip events. One of the challenges during planning for Expedition 375 has been the total absence of pre-existing compositional data from the region; that lack of basic information impacts such tasks as mixing and analysis of appropriate standards for X-ray diffraction, error analysis, computation of accurate normalization factors, and QA/QC. To help overcome those deficiencies, I analyzed a total of 152 samples from ODP Sites 1123 (Quaternary to Eocene), 1124 (Quaternary to Cretaceous), and 1125 (Quaternary to Miocene), plus piston/gravity-core samples from the repositories at Lamont-Doherty, Oregon State, and NIWA. The results reveal an unusually large range of compositions for the bulk sediments. The relative abundance of total clay minerals ranges from 3 to 64 wt%. Quartz ranges from 0 to 39 wt%. Feldspar ranges from 0 to 40 wt%, and calcite ranges from 0 to 93 wt%. Samples from the Hikurangi Plateau and Chatham Rise are carbonate-rich, with many bordering on almost-pure nannofossil chalk. Hemipelagic muds from the floor of Hikurangi Trough, Ruatoria slide, and the landward slope of the trench are fairly uniform, with averages of 36 wt% total clay minerals, 27 wt% quartz, 24 wt% feldspar, and 13 wt% calcite. Unlike many other subduction zones, this diversity of lithologies will save shipboard scientists from repetitive, mind-numbing descriptions and analyses, and shorebased experiments for frictional properties, permeability, and consolidation will need to pay close attention to the compositional attributes of the specimens. In addition, results from the four IODP boreholes can be interpreted within a broader, regional-scale framework of

  3. Radial loads and axial thrusts on centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the IMechE are presented in this text. Complete contents: Review of parameters influencing hydraulic forces on centrifugal impellers; The effect of fluid forces at various operation conditions on the vibrations of vertical turbine pumps; A review of the pump rotor axial equilibrium problem - some case studies; Dynamic hydraulic loading on a centrifugal pump impeller; Experimental research on axial thrust loads of double suction centrifugal pumps; A comparison of pressure distribution and radial loads on centrifugal pumps; A theoretical and experimental investigation of axial thrusts within a multi-stage centrifugal pump

  4. Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Palmisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.

  5. Automatic control of a primary electric thrust subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macie, T. W.; Macmedan, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    A concept for automatic control of the thrust subsystem has been developed by JPL and participating NASA Centers. This paper reports on progress in implementing the concept at JPL. Control of the Thrust Subsystem (TSS) is performed by the spacecraft computer command subsystem, and telemetry data is extracted by the spacecraft flight data subsystem. The Data and Control Interface Unit, an element of the TSS, provides the interface with the individual elements of the TSS. The control philosophy and implementation guidelines are presented. Control requirements are listed, and the control mechanism, including the serial digital data intercommunication system, is outlined. The paper summarizes progress to Fall 1974.

  6. Beryllium satellite thrust cone design, manufacture and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiter, H.; Chandler, D.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-formed beryllium sheet material has been used in the design, manufacturing and test of a satellite thrust cone structure. Adhesive bonding was used for attachment of aluminium flanges and conical segment lap strips. Difficulties in beryllium structure design such as incompatibilities with aluminium and handling problems are discussed. Testing to optimize beryllium-beryllium and beryllium-aluminium adhesive bonds is described. The completed thrust cone assembly has been subjected to static load testing and the results are presented. A summary of the relative merits of the use of beryllium in satellite structures is given with recommendations for future users. (author)

  7. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: Implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2016-09-01

    Active volcanoes at oceanic subduction zone have long been regard as important pathways for deep carbon degassed from Earth's interior, whereas those at continental subduction zone remain poorly constrained. Large-scale active volcanoes, together with significant modern hydrothermal activities, are widely distributed in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF) on convergent boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. They provide an important opportunity for studying deep carbon cycle at the ongoing intra-continent subduction zone. Soil microseepage survey based on accumulation chamber method reveals an average soil CO2 flux of ca. 280 g m-2 d-1 in wet season for the Rehai geothermal park (RGP). Combined with average soil CO2 flux in dry season (ca. 875 g m-2 d-1), total soil CO2 output of the RGP and adjacent region (ca. 3 km2) would be about 6.30 × 105 t a-1. Additionally, we conclude that total flux of outgassing CO2 from the TVF would range in (4.48-7.05) × 106 t a-1, if CO2 fluxes from hot springs and soil in literature are taken into account. Both hot spring and soil gases from the TVF exhibit enrichment in CO2 (>85%) and remarkable contribution from mantle components, as indicated by their elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.85-5.30 RA) and δ13C-CO2 values (-9.00‰ to -2.07‰). He-C isotope coupling model suggests involvement of recycled organic metasediments and limestones from subducted Indian continental lithosphere in formation of the enriched mantle wedge (EMW), which has been recognized as source region of the TVF parental magmas. Contamination by crustal limestone is the first-order control on variations in He-CO2 systematics of volatiles released by the EMW-derived melts. Depleted mantle and recycled crustal materials from subducted Indian continental lithosphere contribute about 45-85% of the total carbon inventory, while the rest carbon (about 15-55%) is accounted by limestones in continental crust. As indicated by origin and evolution of the TVF

  8. "Virtual shear box" experiments of stress and slip cycling within a subduction interface mélange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sam; Ellis, Susan; Fagereng, Åke

    2018-04-01

    What role does the progressive geometric evolution of subduction-related mélange shear zones play in the development of strain transients? We use a "virtual shear box" experiment, based on outcrop-scale observations from an ancient exhumed subduction interface - the Chrystalls Beach Complex (CBC), New Zealand - to constrain numerical models of slip processes within a meters-thick shear zone. The CBC is dominated by large, competent clasts surrounded by interconnected weak matrix. Under constant slip velocity boundary conditions, models of the CBC produce stress cycling behavior, accompanied by mixed brittle-viscous deformation. This occurs as a consequence of the reorganization of competent clasts, and the progressive development and breakdown of stress bridges as clasts mutually obstruct one another. Under constant shear stress boundary conditions, the models show periods of relative inactivity punctuated by aseismic episodic slip at rapid rates (meters per year). Such a process may contribute to the development of strain transients such as slow slip.

  9. New Insights on the Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone from Amphibious Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Helen Anne

    . This new offshore result indicates that the structure may persist updip indicating the plate interface may be weak. To focus more broadly on the entire subduction system, I calculate phase velocities from teleseismic Rayleigh waves from 20-100 s period across the entire onshore-offshore array. The shear-wave velocity model calculated from these data can provide constrains on the thermal structure of the lithosphere both prior to and during subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. Using OBS data in this period band requires removal of tilt and compliance noise, two types of water-induced noise that affect long period data. To facilitate these corrections on large seismic arrays such as the CI, an automated quality control routine was developed for selecting noise windows for the calculation of the required transfer functions. These corrections typically involve either averaging out transient signals, which requires the assumption of stationarity of the noise over the long periods of time, or laborious hand selection of noise segments. This new method calculates transfer functions based on daily time series that exclude transient signals, but allows for the investigation of long-term variation over the course of an instrument's deployment. I interpret these new shoreline-crossing phase velocity maps in terms of the tectonics associated with the Cascadia subduction system. Major findings include that oceanic plate cooling models do not explain the velocities observed beneath the Juan de Fuca plate, that slow velocities in the forearc appear to be more prevalent in areas modeled to have experienced high slip in past Cascadia megathrust earthquakes, and along strike variations in phase velocity reflect variations in arc structure and backarc tectonics.

  10. Imaging b-value depth variations within the Cocos and Rivera plates at the Mexican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Zuñiga, F. Ramón

    2018-06-01

    By a systematic mapping of the b-value along profiles perpendicular to the Mexican Wadati-Benioff zone, we obtained important characteristics pertaining the stress state and faulting style related to the subduction process. To this purpose, we used data from the earthquake catalog reported by the Servicio Sismologico Nacional (1988-2016). We investigate depth variations of the b-value for the Cocos and Rivera under North American plates interface, by a detailed analysis of 15 cross-sections. The obtained b-value profiles vary from 0.50 to 2.50, which nevertheless appear related to the faulting style and stress state. By comparing the locations and focal mechanism of the largest events with the b-values of the surrounding regions, our analysis corroborates the dependence of the b-value on the faulting style. Thrust events occur in regions of low and high b-value at depths 30 km), in agreement with global studies. These results support the hypothesis that differential stress processes may be behind the occurrence of the different faulting style. On the contrary, by analyzing the mean b-values for both types of faulting mechanism at each of the cross-sections, we found a significantly lower mean b-value related to normal faulting for those regions where the 8 (Mw 8.2) and 19 (Mw 7.1) September 2017 earthquakes occur. These results lead us to conclude that those regions experienced an increased stress state prone to the occurrence of normal-intraplate events. We also compare the b-value distribution with Vp and Q tomography studies obtaining a good correlation between them. We found evidence to relate b-value variations with subduction processes such as stress state due to tectonic and flexural conditions, and to a lesser extent to material heterogeneity and fluid dehydration.

  11. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely represents the northwestern edge of a broader swath of plate boundary deformation between the Montague-Hinchinbrook Island region and the Kayak Island

  12. Fore-arc Deformation in the Paola Basin Segment (Offshore Western Calabria) of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, F.; Corradino, M.; Nicolich, R.; Barreca, G.; Bertotti, G.; Ferranti, L.; Monaco, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stratigraphic architecture and Late Neogene to Recent tectonic evolution of the Paola Basin (offshore western Calabria), a segment in the fore-arc of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian subduction system, is reconstructed by using a grid of high-penetration reflection seismics. Oligocene to Messinian deposits are interpreted all along the profile. They tend to fossilize preexisting topography and reach the largest thicknesses between (fault controlled) basement highs. Plio-Quaternary deposits are found over the entire area and display variations in thickness and tectonic style. They are thicken up to 4.5 km in the depocenter of the basin, and decrease both in the east and west termination of the lines. The Paola Basin can be partitioned into two sectors with different tectonic deformation, separated by a NNW-SSE elongated area that coincides with the basin depocenter. Tectonic features associated with strike-slip restraining and releasing bends are widely spread over the western sector of the basin. Overall, they form an approximately NS-trending and geomorphically prominent ridge separating the Paola Basin from the Marsili abyssal plain. A high-angle, NNE-trending, normal fault system develops on the south-west tip of the basin, where the faults offset the Messinian horizon of ca. 500 m. Data suggest that limited vertical slip occurs along reverse faults detected at the border and inside the sedimentary infilling of the Paola Basin, reaching thickness of more than 3.8s two way travel time. The reflection sequence pattern can be interpreted as a result of the infilling of the thrust-top basin related to a prograding system, located between a growth ramp-anticline to the west and a culmination of basement-thrust sheets to the East. We propose that the Paola Basin developed near the northern edge of the Ionian slab where tearing of the lithosphere is expected. Also, the strike-slip fault system is a kinematic consequence of obliquely convergent subduction settings, where

  13. Investigation on Thrust and Moment Coefficients of a Centrifugal Turbomachine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig was designed at the University of Duisburg-Essen and described in this paper. Based on both the experimental and numerical results, correlations are determined to predict the impacts of the centrifugal through-flow on the core swirl ratio, the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient. Two correlations respectively are determined to associate the core swirl ratio with the local through-flow coefficient for both Batchelor type flow and Stewartson type flow. The correlations describing the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient in a rotor-stator cavity with centripetal through-flow (Hu et al., 2017 are modified for the case of centrifugal through-flow. The Daily and Nece diagram distinguishing between different flow regimes in rotor-stator cavities is extended with a through-flow coordinate into 3D. The achieved results provide a comprehensive data base which is intended to support the calculation of axial thrust and moment coefficients during the design process of radial pumps and turbines in a more accurate manner.

  14. Structures and morphotectonic evolution of the frontal fold–thrust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    MBT) at N. 57 ... The Indian lithospheric plate flexed and subsided presumably by in-. 81 ... Kimin Formation that are parts of hanging wall flat of the HFT, and (ii) MBT and Tipi Thrust: at ... least 6 km of crustal layer (Lang and Huntington 2014).

  15. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Amar Agarwal, K K Agarwal, R Bali, Chandra Prakash and Gaurav Joshi. Supplementary data. Table S1. AMS data, representing mean of values from cores (N) collected from each site ...

  16. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  17. Duplex geometry: an example from the Moine Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, S.

    1987-04-01

    The geometry and microstructure of a small duplex formed in one bed from the Moine Thrust Belt of northwest Scotland is reported. The structure is seen in oblique section, within the Cambrian Pipe-rock, in an area of low strain. A range of movement direction indicators are present in the structure. An early grain shape fabric developed close to the roof thrust is taken as the best estimate of the overall movement direction towards 287°. Slickensides in the gouge developed on movement planes within the duplex show varied orientations on a given plane, and are not considered useful indicators of thrust transport direction. Branch lines exposed converge and diverge, suggesting little lateral continuity of the exposed structure. The microstructures present within the structure indicate an increase in localised deformation, and in cataclastic behavior as the duplex evolved. Early layer parallel shear is ubiquitous, giving rise to an elongate grain shape fabric close to bedding surfaces. In early formed horses, a layer-parallel, oblate grain shape fabric, which shows localised slip zones, is overprinted by gouge formation. Later formed horses show only fracturing and gouge development. This sequence is attributed to stick-slip behavior in the propagation or displacement of the original fault, now the floor thrust.

  18. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds number range ...

  19. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Neveln, Izaak D.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Maciver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-12-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal-istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation framework helps to predict the observed height of the ribbon fin of electric knifefish, a diverse group of neotropical fish which are an important model system in sensory neurobiology. We also show how drag-thrust separation leads to models that can predict the swimming velocity of an organism or a robotic vehicle.

  20. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  1. Technology Thrust for Future Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  2. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Continental basalts, erupted in either flood or rift mode, usually show oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like geochemical compositions. Although their depletion in Sr-Nd isotope compositions is normally ascribed to contributions from the asthenospheric mantle, their enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) is generally associated with variable enrichments in the Sr-Nd isotope compositions. This indicates significant contributions from crustal components such as igneous oceanic crust, lower continental crust and seafloor sediment. Nevertheless, these crustal components were not incorporated into the mantle sources of continental basalts in the form of solidus rocks. Instead they were processed into metasomatic agents through low-degree partial melting in order to have the geochemical fractionation of the largest extent to achieve the enrichment of LILE and LREE in the metasomatic agents. Therefore, the mantle sources of continental basalts were generated by metasomatic reaction of the depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) mantle with hydrous felsic melts. Nevertheless, mass balance considerations indicate differential contributions from the mantle and crustal components to the basalts. While the depleted MORB mantle predominates the budget of major elements, the crustal components predominate the budget of melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. These considerations are verified by model calculations that are composed of four steps in an ancient oceanic subduction channel: (1) dehydration of the subducting crustal rocks at subarc depths, (2) anataxis of the dehydrated rocks at postarc depths, (3) metasomatic reaction of the depleted MORB mantle peridotite with the felsic melts to generate ultramafic metasomatites in the lower part of the mantle wedge, and (4) partial melting of the metasomatites for basaltic magmatism. The composition of metasomatites is quantitatively dictated by

  3. Reconciling the shadow of a subduction signature with rift geochemistry and tectonic environment in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasurier, Wesley E.; Choi, Sung Hi; Hart, Stanley R.; Mukasa, Sam; Rogers, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Basalt-trachyte volcanoes in the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) Cenozoic province lie along the Amundsen Sea coast on the north flank of the West Antarctic rift. Basalts here are characterized by OIB-like geochemistry, restricted ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.702535-0.703284) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512839-0.513008) and a wide range of 206Pb/204Pb (19.357-20.934). Basalts at three MBL volcanoes display two anomalies compared with the above and with all other basalts in West Antarctica. They include 143Nd/144Nd (0.512778-0.512789) values at Mt. Takahe and Mt. Siple that are 2σ lower than other West Antarctic basalts, and Ba/Nb, Ba/La, and Ba/Th values at Mt. Murphy and Mt. Takahe that are 3-8 times higher than normal OIB. Isotope and trace element data do not support crustal and lithospheric mantle contamination, or the presence of residual mantle amphibole or phlogopite as explanations of these anomalies. The apparent coincidence of these anomalies with the site of a pre-Cenozoic convergence zone along the Gondwanaland margin suggests a subduction influence. Major episodes of subduction and granitic plutonism took place in MBL during the Devonian, Permian, and Late Cretaceous. Relicts in the source region, of components from these subducted slabs, provide a credible explanation for the uncoupling of Ba from other large ion lithophile elements (LILE), for its erratic distribution, and for the anomalously low 143Nd/144Nd at Mt. Takahe. The last episode of subduction ended 85 Ma, and was followed by continental break-up, rifting and lithospheric attenuation that produced the West Antarctic rift as we know it today. Thus, the enigmatic geochemical signatures in these three volcanoes seem to have been preserved roughly 61-85 m.y. after subduction ended. New calculations of source melting depth and a new determination of lithospheric thickness suggest that the source of the anomalies resides in a fossil mélange diapir that rose from the Cretaceous subducting slab, became attached to the

  4. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Why style matters - uncertainty and structural interpretation in thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare; Watkins, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Structural complexity together with challenging seismic imaging make for significant uncertainty in developing geometric interpretations of fold and thrust belts. Here we examine these issues and develop more realistic approaches to building interpretations. At all scales, the best tests of the internal consistency of individual interpretations come from structural restoration (section balancing), provided allowance is made for heterogeneity in stratigraphy and strain. However, many existing balancing approaches give misleading perceptions of interpretational risk - both on the scale of individual fold-thrust (trap) structures and in regional cross-sections. At the trap-scale, idealised models are widely cited - fault-bend-fold, fault-propagation folding and trishear. These make entirely arbitrary choices for fault localisation and layer-by-layer deformation: precise relationships between faults and fold geometry are generally invalidated by real-world conditions of stratigraphic variation and distributed strain. Furthermore, subsurface predictions made using these idealisations for hydrocarbon exploration commonly fail the test of drilling. Rarely acknowledged, the geometric reliability of seismic images depends on the assigned seismic velocity model, which in turn relies on geological interpretation. Thus iterative approaches are required between geology and geophysics. The portfolio of commonly cited outcrop analogues is strongly biased to examples that simply conform to idealised models - apparently abnormal structures are rarely described - or even photographed! Insight can come from gravity-driven deep-water fold-belts where part of the spectrum of fold-thrust complexity is resolved through seismic imaging. This imagery shows deformation complexity in fold forelimbs and backlimbs. However, the applicability of these, weakly lithified systems to well-lithified successions (e.g. carbonates) of many foreland thrust belts remains conjectural. Examples of

  6. A 10 nN resolution thrust-stand for micro-propulsion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Courtney, Daniel G.; Shea, Herbert, E-mail: herbert.shea@epfl.ch [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory (LMTS), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    We report on the development of a nano-Newton thrust-stand that can measure up to 100 μN thrust from different types of microthrusters with 10 nN resolution. The compact thrust-stand measures the impingement force of the particles emitted from a microthruster onto a suspended plate of size 45 mm × 45 mm and with a natural frequency over 50 Hz. Using a homodyne (lock-in) readout provides strong immunity to facility vibrations, which historically has been a major challenge for nano-Newton thrust-stands. A cold-gas thruster generating up to 50 μN thrust in air was first used to validate the thrust-stand. Better than 10 nN resolution and a minimum detectable thrust of 10 nN were achieved. Thrust from a miniature electrospray propulsion system generating up to 3 μN of thrust was measured with our thrust-stand in vacuum, and the thrust was compared with that computed from beam diagnostics, obtaining agreement within 50 nN to 150 nN. The 10 nN resolution obtained from this thrust-stand matches that from state-of-the-art nano-Newton thrust-stands, which measure thrust directly from the thruster by mounting it on a moving arm (but whose natural frequency is well below 1 Hz). The thrust-stand is the first of its kind to demonstrate less than 3 μN resolution by measuring the impingement force, making it capable of measuring thrust from different types of microthrusters, with the potential of easy upscaling for thrust measurement at much higher levels, simply by replacing the force sensor with other force sensors.

  7. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. The fate of fluids released from subducting slab in northern Cascadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramachandran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of water carried down in subduction zones are driven upward into the overlying forearc upper mantle and crust as increasing temperatures and pressure dehydrate the subducting crust. Through seismic tomography velocities we show (a the overlying forearc mantle in northern Cascadia is hydrated to serpentinite, and (b there is low Poisson's ratio at the base of the forearc lower crust that may represent silica deposited from the rising fluids. From the velocities observed in the forearc mantle, the volume of serpentinite estimated is ∼30 %. This mechanically weak hydrated forearc region has important consequences in limits to great earthquakes and to collision tectonics. An approximately 10 km thick lower crustal layer of low Poisson's ratio (σ = 0.22 in the forearc is estimated to represent a maximum addition of ∼14 % by volume of quartz (σ = 0.09. If this quartz is removed from rising silica-saturated fluids over long times, it represents a significant addition of silica to the continental crust and an important contributor to its average composition.

  9. Multielement suppressor nozzles for thrust augmentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. L.; O'Keefe, J. V.; Tate, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    The noise reduction and nozzle performance characteristics of large-scale, high-aspect-ratio multielement nozzle arrays operated at low velocities were determined by test. The nozzles are selected for application to high-aspect-ratio augmentor suppressors to be used for augmentor wing airplanes. Significant improvements in noise characteristics for multielement nozzles over those of round or high-aspect-ratio slot nozzles are obtained. Elliptical noise patterns typical of slot nozzles are presented for high-aspect-ratio multielement nozzle arrays. Additional advantages are available in OASPL noise reduction from the element size and spacing. Augmentor-suppressor systems can be designed for maximum beam pattern directivity and frequency spectrum shaping advantages. Measurements of the nozzle wakes show a correlation with noise level data and frequency spectrum peaks. The noise and jet wake results are compared with existing prediction procedures based on empirical jet flow equations, Lighthill relationships, Strouhal number, and empirical shock-induced screech noise effects.

  10. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  11. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic contact separating continental and oceanic units is preserved at outcrop in many locations within the Western Alps. The contact has experienced prolonged and progressive deformation during Oligocene collision and subsequent 'extrusive' contraction which is approximately westerly-directed (Dumont et al., 2012). Despite variable metamorphic grade, this tectonic contact displays a relative consistency of tectonostratigraphic and structural characteristics. Removal of the Oligocene and younger deformation is a critical requirement to allow assessment of the kinematic evolution during the Eocene continental subduction phase. The best preserved relationships are observed near the base of the Helminthoid Flysch nappes, in the footwall of the Penninic thrust, or in the external part of the Briançonnais zone. Here, the oceanic units are composed of detached Cretaceous sediments, but they are underlain locally by an olistostrome containing basaltic clasts. Further to the east, the internal boundary of the Briançonnais zone s.l. (including the 'Prepiedmont units'), is frequently marked by breccia or megabreccia, but is strongly affected by blueschist-facies metamorphism and by approximately easterly directed backfolding and backthrusting. At one locality, there is compelling evidence that the oceanic and continental units were already tectonically stacked and metamorphosed (together) 32Ma ago. Some megabreccias of mixed continental/oceanic provenance can be interpreted as a metamorphic equivalent of the external olistostrome, products of the initial pulses of tectonic stacking. The overlying units are composed dominantly of metasediments, containing distributed ophiolitic megaboudins (Tricart & Schwartz, 2006). Further east again, the tectonic contact separates the Dora-Maira continental basement from the Mt. Viso units which are predominantly composed of oceanic lithosphere. Both the Dora-Maira and Mt. Viso units are eclogitic, but the HP peak is apparently

  12. Plateau subduction, intraslab seismicity, and the Denali (Alaska) volcanic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Bostock, Michael; Wech, Aaron; Plourde, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Tectonic tremors in Alaska (USA) are associated with subduction of the Yakutat plateau, but their origins are unclear due to lack of depth constraints. We have processed tremor recordings to extract low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs), and generated a set of six LFE waveform templates via iterative network matched filtering and stacking. The timing of impulsive P (compressional) wave and S (shear) wave arrivals on template waveforms places LFEs at 40–58 km depth, near the upper envelope of intraslab seismicity and immediately updip of increased levels of intraslab seismicity. S waves at near-epicentral distances display polarities consistent with shear slip on the plate boundary. We compare characteristics of LFEs, seismicity, and tectonic structures in central Alaska with those in warm subduction zones, and propose a new model for the region’s unusual intraslab seismicity and the enigmatic Denali volcanic gap (i.e., an area of no volcanism where expected). We argue that fluids in the Yakutat plate are confined to its upper crust, and that shallow subduction leads to hydromechanical conditions at the slab interface in central Alaska akin to those in warm subduction zones where similar LFEs and tremor occur. These conditions lead to fluid expulsion at shallow depths, explaining strike-parallel alignment of tremor occurrence with the Denali volcanic gap. Moreover, the lack of double seismic zone and restriction of deep intraslab seismicity to a persistent low-velocity zone are simple consequences of anhydrous conditions prevailing in the lower crust and upper mantle of the Yakutat plate.

  13. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  14. What controls intermediate depth seismicity in subduction zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, M. A.; Prieto, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate depth earthquakes seem to cluster in two distinct planes of seismicity along the subducting slab, known as Double Seismic Zones (DSZ). Precise double difference relocations in Tohoku, Japan and northern Chile confirm this pattern with striking accuracy. Furthermore, past studies have used statistical tests on the EHB global seismicity catalog to suggest that DSZs might be a dominant global feature. However, typical uncertainties associated with hypocentral depth prevent us from drawing meaningful conclusions about the detailed structure of intermediate depth seismicity and its relationship to the physical and chemical environment of most subduction zones. We have recently proposed a relative earthquake relocation algorithm based on the precise picking of the P and pP phase arrivals using array processing techniques [Florez and Prieto, 2017]. We use it to relocate seismicity in 24 carefully constructed slab segments that sample every subduction zone in the world. In all of the segments we are able to precisely delineate the structure of the double seismic zone. Our results indicate that whenever the lower plane of seismicity is active enough the width of the DSZ decreases in the down dip direction; the two planes merge at depths between 140 km and 300 km. We develop a method to unambiguously pick the depth of this merging point, the end of the DSZ, which appears to be correlated with the slab thermal parameter. We also confirm that the width of the DSZ increases with plate age. Finally, we estimate b-values for the upper and lower planes of seismicity and explore their relationships to the physical parameters that control slab subduction.

  15. Tomographic imaging of subducted lithosphere below northwest Pacific island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hilst, R.; Engdahl, R.; Spakman, W.; Nolet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The seismic tomography problem does not have a unique solution, and published tomographic images have been equivocal with regard to the deep structure of subducting slabs. An improved tomographic method, using a more realistic background Earth model and surf ace-reflected as well as direct seismic phases, shows that slabs beneath the Japan and Izu Bonin island arcs are deflected at the boundary between upper and lower mantle, whereas those beneath the northern Kuril and Mariana arcs sink into the lower mantle.

  16. Controls on Earthquake Rupture and Triggering Mechanisms in Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Honduras, the Tech Catholic Community, the MIT Warehouse Music Program, and the MIT Women’s Chorale. I’m extraordinarily grateful for my friends up in... Campos , 1995; Lay and Bilek, 2007]. Understanding this variation in earthquake occurrence in circum-Pacific subduction zones has been the subject of...Pacheco et al., 1993; Scholz and Campos , 1995; Abercrombie et al., 2001]. However, wide variability in seismogenic behavior exists not only between

  17. Fluid content along the subduction plate interface: how it impacts the long- (and short-) term rheology and exhumation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, Philippe; Angiboust, Samuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Burov, Evgueni

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, many studies based on field, petrological and geophysical evidence have emphasized the link between mineral reactions, fluid release and seismogenesis, either along the whole plate interface (eg., Hacker et al., 2003) or at specific depths (e.g., ~30 km: Audet et al., 2009; ~70-80 km: Angiboust et al., 2012). Although they argue for a crucial influence of fluids on subduction processes, large uncertainties remain when assessing their impact on the rheology of the plate interface across space and time. Kilometer-scale accreted terranes/units in both ancient and present-day subduction zones potentially allow to track changes in mechanical coupling along the plate interface. Despite some potential biases (exhumation is limited and episodic, lasting no more than a few My if any, from prefered depths -- mainly 30-40 and 70-80 km, and there are so far only few examples precisely located with respect to the plate interface) their record of changes in fluid regime and strain localisation is extremely valuable. One striking example of the role of fluids on plate interface rheology during nascent subduction is provided by metamorphic soles (i.e., ~500 m thick tectonic slices welded to the base of ophiolites). We show that their accretion to the ophiolite indeed only happens across a transient, optimal time-T-P window (after Hacker et al., Journal of Geophysical Research 2003; Audet et al., Nature, 2009; Angiboust et al., Geology 2012

  18. Intermediate-Depth Subduction Earthquakes Recorded by Pseudotachylyte in Dry Eclogite-Facies Oceanic Lithosphere from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pennacchioni, G.; Gilio, M.; Bestmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    While geophysical studies and laboratory experiments provide much information on subduction earthquakes, field studies identifying the rock types for earthquake development and the deep seismogenic environments are still scarce. To date, fluid overpressure and volume decrease during hydrous mineral breakdown the widely favoured trigger of subduction earthquakes in serpentinized lithospheric mantle and hydrated low-velocity layers atop slabs. Here we document up to 40 cm-thick pseudotachylyte (PST) in Alpine oceanic gabbro and peridotite (2-2.5 GPa-550-620°C), the analogue of a modern cold subducting oceanic lithosphere. These rocks mostly remained unaltered dry systems; only very minor domains (<1%) record partial hydration and static eclogitic metamorphism. Meta-peridotite shows high-pressure olivine + antigorite (garnet + zoisite + chlorite after mantle plagioclase); meta-gabbro develops omphacite + zoisite + talc + chloritoid + garnet. Abundant syn-eclogitic pseudotachylyte cut the dry gabbro-peridotite and the eclogitized domains. In meta-peridotite, PST shows olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel microliths and clasts of high-pressure olivine + antigorite and garnet + zoisite + chlorite aggregates. In metagabbro, microfaults in damage zones near PST cut brecciated igneous pyroxene cemented by omphacite. In unaltered gabbro, glassy PST contains micron-scale garnet replacing plagioclase microliths during, or soon after, PST cooling. In the host rock, garnet coronas between igneous olivine and plagioclase only occur near PST and between closely spaced PST veins. Absence of garnet away from PST indicates that garnet growth was triggered by mineral seeds and by heat released by PST. The above evidence shows that pseudotachylyte formed at eclogite-facies conditions. In such setting, strong, dry, metastable gabbro-peridotite concentrate stress to generate large intermediate depth subduction earthquakes without much involvement of free fluid.

  19. A mechanism of thrust enhancement on a heaving plate due to flexibility at moderately low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Tzeng, Yau-Ting; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the force mechanisms for a 3D heaving flexible plate from the perspective of a diagnostic force element analysis (Chang 1992). The problem is relevant to a simplified flapping fish-tail with the front edge held fixed in space. The flow is assumed to be laminar with the Reynolds numbers fixed at Re =200 or 500, and the Strouhal number St ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and the flexure amplitude of the plate a0 for 0.1 to 0.25 (dimensionless). It is shown that heaving, whilst increasing thrust generation, also reduces the frictional drag, yet the flexibility promotes thrust generation at the expense of accruing more frictional drag. In the literature, the thrust exerted on the tail-mimicking plate is largely credited to the vortices in the wake. However, this study performs a regional force analysis to show that the vorticity in the wake region supplies approximately 20-30% of the total thrust, especially in the cases of strong thrust generation. Comparable contributions come also from the regions direct above and below the heaving plate (mainly including the attached vortices) as well as from the two side regions (mainly including the tip vortices) next to the flapping plate. In addition, the potential motion associated with the unsteady flapping and the contribution from the surface vorticity are non-negligible constituent force components. MOST, TAIWAN under Contacts NO. 105-2221-E-002-097-MY3 and NO. 105-2221-E-002 -105 -MY3.

  20. Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray; Burken, John J.; Burcham, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center have received a patent on an emergency flight-control method implemented by a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system. Utilizing the preexisting auto-throttle and engine-pressure-ratio trim controls of the airplane, the PCA system provides pitch and roll control for landing an airplane safely without using aerodynamic control surfaces that have ceased to function because of a primary-flight-control-system failure. The installation of the PCA does not entail any changes in pre-existing engine hardware or software. [Aspects of the method and system at previous stages of development were reported in Thrust-Control System for Emergency Control of an Airplane (DRC-96-07), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (March 2001), page 68 and Emergency Landing Using Thrust Control and Shift of Weight (DRC-96-55), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 58.]. Aircraft flight-control systems are designed with extensive redundancy to ensure low probabilities of failure. During recent years, however, several airplanes have exhibited major flight-control-system failures, leaving engine thrust as the last mode of flight control. In some of these emergency situations, engine thrusts were successfully modulated by the pilots to maintain flight paths or pitch angles, but in other situations, lateral control was also needed. In the majority of such control-system failures, crashes resulted and over 1,200 people died. The challenge lay in creating a means of sufficient degree of thrust-modulation control to safely fly and land a stricken airplane. A thrust-modulation control system designed for this purpose was flight-tested in a PCA an MD-11 airplane. The results of the flight test showed that without any operational control surfaces, a pilot can land a crippled airplane (U.S. Patent 5,330,131). The installation of the original PCA system entailed modifications not only of the flight-control computer (FCC) of the airplane but

  1. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s) when...

  2. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of this...

  3. A calibration mechanism based on the principles of the Michelson interferometer micro-thrust test device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Biao; Wang, Hai; Yang, Chunlai; Wen, Li

    2017-08-01

    A micro-thrust test system based on Michelson interferometer was proposed and tested. The relationship between thrust and output voltage of the calibration component in the system was calculated and verified with numerical modeling. The fitting function of the calibration component was obtained, which will be tested during future thrust test experiments.

  4. Global Optimization of Low-Thrust Interplanetary Trajectories Subject to Operational Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob Aldo; Vavrina, Matthew; Hinckley, David

    2016-01-01

    Low-thrust electric propulsion provides many advantages for mission to difficult targets-Comets and asteroids-Mercury-Outer planets (with sufficient power supply)Low-thrust electric propulsion is characterized by high power requirements but also very high specific impulse (Isp), leading to very good mass fractions. Low-thrust trajectory design is a very different process from chemical trajectory.

  5. a New Animation of Subduction Processes for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Lieu, W. K.; Mantey, A.; Ward, A.; Todd, F.; Farrar, E.; Sean, M.; Windler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath convergent plate margins is a fundamental plate tectonic concept and an important Earth process. It is responsible for some of Earth's most dangerous natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanic eruptions but also produced the continental crust and important mineral deposits. A range of geoscientific efforts including NSF MARGINS and GeoPRISMS initiatives have advanced our understanding of subduction zone processes. In spite the importance of subduction zones and our advancing understanding of how these function, there are few animations that clearly explain the subduction process to non-expert audiences. This deficiency reflects the disparate expertises between geoscientists who know the science but have weak animation skills and digital artists and animators who have strong skills in showing objects in motion but are not experts in natural processes like plate tectonics. This transdisciplinary gap can and should be bridged. With a small grant from NSF (DUE-1444954) we set about to generate a realistic subduction zone animation aimed at the university undergraduate audience by first working within our university to rough out a draft animation and then contract a professional to use this to construct the final version. UTD Geosciences faculty (Stern) and graduate student (Lieu) teamed up with faculty from UTD School of Arts, Technology, and Emerging Communication (ATEC)(Farrar, Fechter, and McComber) to identify and recruit talented ATEC undergraduate students (Mantey, Ward) to work on the project. Geoscientists assembled a storyboard and met weekly with ATEC undergraduates to generate a first draft of the animation, which guided development of an accompanying narrative. The draft animation with voice-over was then handed off to professional animator Windler (Archistration CG) to generate the final animation. We plan to show both the student-generated draft version and the final animation during our presentation

  6. Geodynamic Modeling of the Subduction Zone around the Japanese Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this review, which focuses on our research, we describe the development of the thermomechanical modeling of subduction zones, paying special attention to those around the Japanese Islands. Without a sufficient amount of data and observations, models tended to be conceptual and general. However, the increasing power of computational tools has resulted in simple analytical and numerical models becoming more realistic, by incorporating the mantle flow around the subducting slab. The accumulation of observations and data has made it possible to construct regional models to understand the detail of the subduction processes. Recent advancements in the study of the seismic tomography and geology around the Japanese Islands has enabled new aspects of modeling the mantle processes. A good correlation between the seismic velocity anomalies and the finger-like distribution of volcanoes in northeast Japan has been recognized and small-scale convection (SSC) in the mantle wedge has been proposed to explain such a feature. The spatial and temporal evolution of the distribution of past volcanoes may reflect the characteristics of the flow in the mantle wedge, and points to the possibility of the flip-flopping of the finger-like pattern of the volcano distribution and the migration of volcanic activity from the back-arc side to the trench side. These observations are found to be qualitatively consistent with the results of the SSC model. We have also investigated the expected seismic anisotropy in the presence of SSC. The fast direction of the P-wave anisotropy generally shows the trench-normal direction with a reduced magnitude compared to the case without SSC. An analysis of full 3D seismic anisotropy is necessary to confirm the existence and nature of SSC. The 3D mantle flow around the subduction zone of plate-size scale has been modeled. It was found that the trench-parallel flow in the sub-slab mantle around the northern edge of the Pacific plate at the junction between

  7. Dating of movements along thrusts and faults in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiometric dating of movements along the MCT (Vaikrita Thrust), two local but deep seated thrust and the Sumdoh Fault Zone bordering the Kinnar Kailas Granite in the Baspa and Satluj valleys, NE Himachal Himalaya, has been attempted for the first time by fission track method. Garnet and apatite fission track ages suggest the age of the latest phase of movements around 14 and 7 m.y. respectively along the MCT and Sumdoh Fault. The vertical uplift rates along them were 1.1mm/year from 14 to 7 m.y. and 0.6 mm/year from 7 m.y. to recent geologic past respectively, as against the value 0.036 mm/year during the period from 210 to 17 m.y. in the undisturbed area. (author)

  8. Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.

  9. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  10. Optimization of Low-Thrust Spiral Trajectories by Collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John W.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA examines potential missions in the post space shuttle era, there has been a renewed interest in low-thrust electric propulsion for both crewed and uncrewed missions. While much progress has been made in the field of software for the optimization of low-thrust trajectories, many of the tools utilize higher-fidelity methods which, while excellent, result in extremely high run-times and poor convergence when dealing with planetocentric spiraling trajectories deep within a gravity well. Conversely, faster tools like SEPSPOT provide a reasonable solution but typically fail to account for other forces such as third-body gravitation, aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure. SEPSPOT is further constrained by its solution method, which may require a very good guess to yield a converged optimal solution. Here the authors have developed an approach using collocation intended to provide solution times comparable to those given by SEPSPOT while allowing for greater robustness and extensible force models.

  11. Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J Bruce H

    2014-11-21

    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issues in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show via a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ~0.1-20 mm yr(-1), as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ~0.1-10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to trigger shallow seismicity or promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface.

  12. Structural optimization of the Halbach array PM rim thrust motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Weihu

    2018-05-01

    The Rim-driven Thruster (RDT) integrates the thrust motor and the propeller, which can effectively reduce the space occupied by the propulsion system, improve the propulsion efficiency, and thus has important research value and broad market prospects. The Halbach Permanent Magnet Rim Thrust Motor (HPMRTM) can improve the torque density of the propulsion motor by utilizing the unilateral magnetic field of the Halbach array. In this paper, the numerical method is used to study the electromagnetic performance of the motor under different Halbach array parameters. The relationship between motor parameters such as air-gap flux density, electromagnetic torque and Halbach array parameters is obtained, and then the motor structure is optimized. By comparing with Common Permanent Magnet RTM, the advantages of HPMRTM are verified.

  13. Hafnium at subduction zones: isotopic budget of input and output fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.Ch.

    2004-05-01

    Subduction zones are the primary regions of mass exchanges between continental crust and mantle of Earth through sediment subduction toward the earth's mantle and by supply of mantellic magmas to volcanic arcs. We analyze these mass exchanges using Hafnium and Neodymium isotopes. At the Izu-Mariana subduction zone, subducting sediments have Hf and Nd isotopes equivalent to Pacific seawater. Altered oceanic crust has Hf and Nd isotopic compositions equivalent to the isotopic budget of unaltered Pacific oceanic crust. At Luzon and Java subduction zones, arc lavas present Hf isotopic ratios highly radiogenic in comparison to their Nd isotopic ratios. Such compositions of the Luzon and Java arc lavas are controlled by a contamination of their sources by the subducted oceanic sediments. (author)

  14. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  15. Automated low-thrust guidance for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard E.; Schmeichel, Harry; Shortwell, Charles P.; Werner, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the highly autonomous OMV Guidance Navigation and Control system. Emphasis is placed on a key feature of the design, the low thrust guidance algorithm. The two guidance modes, orbit change guidance and rendezvous guidance, are discussed in detail. It is shown how OMV will automatically transfer from its initial orbit to an arbitrary target orbit and reach a specified rendezvous position relative to the target vehicle.

  16. On the Design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    Pockets are often machined in the surfaces of tilting-pad thrust bearings to allow for hydrostatic jacking in the start-up phase. Pockets and other recesses in the surfaces of bearing pads influence the pressure distribution and thereby the position of the pivot resulting in the most advantageous pad convergence ratio. In this thesis, a theoretical approach is applied in the attempt to quantify the influence of recesses in the pad surfaces. The recesses may be relatively deep and enclosed as ...

  17. Condition monitoring of thrust ball bearings using continuous AE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlada, Milan; Nohal, L.; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A14-A14 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : continuous acoustic emission * rolling contact fatigue * thrust ball bearing * histogram of counting periods * wavelet analysis Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s

  18. Energy from sea wave thrust and flow of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The area adjacent to the tidal rivers, irrigational canal, drain and also the seashore may be energized harnessing the energy from the flow/wave thrust by simply converting it into unidirectional rotating force to drive the generator for power generation. The existing plants are big in size and also fixed in place. A plant which will be a small/portable type is described. 7 refs., figs

  19. Pliocene episodic exhumation and the significance of the Munsiari thrust in the northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Grujic, Djordje; Dunkl, István; Thiede, Rasmus; Eugster, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The Himalayan thrust belt comprises three in-sequence foreland-propagating orogen-scale faults, the Main Central thrust, the Main Boundary thrust, and the Main Frontal thrust. Recently, the Munsiari-Ramgarh-Shumar thrust system has been recognized as an additional, potentially orogen-scale shear zone in the proximal footwall of the Main Central thrust. The timing of the Munsiari, Ramgarh, and Shumar thrusts and their role in Himalayan tectonics are disputed. We present 31 new zircon (U-Th)/He ages from a profile across the central Himachal Himalaya in the Beas River area. Within a ∼40 km wide belt northeast of the Kullu-Larji-Rampur window, ages ranging from 2.4 ± 0.4 Ma to 5.4 ± 0.9 Ma constrain a distinct episode of rapid Pliocene to Present exhumation; north and south of this belt, zircon (U-Th)/He ages are older (7.0 ± 0.7 Ma to 42.2 ± 2.1 Ma). We attribute the Pliocene rapid exhumation episode to basal accretion to the Himalayan thrust belt and duplex formation in the Lesser Himalayan sequence including initiation of the Munsiari thrust. Pecube thermokinematic modelling suggests exhumation rates of ∼2-3 mm/yr from 4-7 to 0 Ma above the duplex contrasting with lower (middle-late Miocene exhumation rates. The Munsiari thrust terminates laterally in central Himachal Pradesh. In the NW Indian Himalaya, the Main Central thrust zone comprises the sheared basal sections of the Greater Himalayan sequence and the mylonitic 'Bajaura nappe' of Lesser Himalayan affinity. We correlate the Bajaura unit with the Ramgarh thrust sheet in Nepal based on similar lithologies and the middle Miocene age of deformation. The Munsiari thrust in the central Himachal Himalaya is several Myr younger than deformation in the Bajaura and Ramgarh thrust sheets. Our results illustrate the complex and segmented nature of the Munsiari-Ramgarh-Shumar thrust system.

  20. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  1. Amplitude Effects on Thrust Production for Undulatory Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Brittany; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems offer novel and efficient solutions to many engineering applications, including marine propulsion. It is of interest to determine how fish interact with the water around them, and how best to utilize the potential their methods offer. A stingray-like fin was chosen for analysis due to the maneuverability and versatility of stingrays. The stingray fin was modeled in 2D as a sinusoidal wave with an amplitude increasing from zero at the leading edge to a maximum at the trailing edge. Using this model, a parametric study was performed to examine the effects of the fin on surrounding water in CFD simulations. The results were analyzed both qualitatively, in terms of the pressure contours on the fin and vorticity in the trailing wake, and quantitatively, in terms of the resultant forces on the fin. The amplitude was found to have no effect on the average thrust during steady swimming, when the wave speed on the fin was approximately equal to the swimming speed. However, amplitude was shown to have a significant effect on thrust production when the fin was accelerating. This finding suggests that for undulatory swimmers, amplitude is less useful for controlling swimming speed, but can be used to great effect for augmenting thrust during acceleration.

  2. Long-term perspectives on giant earthquakes and tsunamis at subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.; Atwater, B.F.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Histories of earthquakes and tsunamis, inferred from geological evidence, aid in anticipating future catastrophes. This natural warning system now influences building codes and tsunami planning in the United States, Canada, and Japan, particularly where geology demonstrates the past occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those known from written and instrumental records. Under favorable circumstances, paleoseismology can thus provide long-term advisories of unusually large tsunamis. The extraordinary Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 resulted from a fault rupture more than 1000 km in length that included and dwarfed fault patches that had broken historically during lesser shocks. Such variation in rupture mode, known from written history at a few subduction zones, is also characteristic of earthquake histories inferred from geology on the Pacific Rim. Copyright ?? 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismoturbidite record as preserved at core sites at the Cascadia and Sumatra–Andaman subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Patton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbidite deposition along slope and trench settings is evaluated for the Cascadia and Sumatra–Andaman subduction zones. Source proximity, basin effects, turbidity current flow path, temporal and spatial earthquake rupture, hydrodynamics, and topography all likely play roles in the deposition of the turbidites as evidenced by the vertical structure of the final deposits. Channel systems tend to promote low-frequency components of the content of the current over longer distances, while more proximal slope basins and base-of-slope apron fan settings result in a turbidite structure that is likely influenced by local physiography and other factors. Cascadia's margin is dominated by glacial cycle constructed pathways which promote turbidity current flows for large distances. Sumatra margin pathways do not inherit these antecedent sedimentary systems, so turbidity currents are more localized.

  4. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boncio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  5. Investigating the 3-D Subduction Initiation Processes at Transform Faults and Passive Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Leng, W.

    2017-12-01

    Studying the processes of subduction initiation is a key for understanding the Wilson cycle and improving the theory of plate tectonics. Previous studies investigated subduction initiation with geological synthesis and geodynamic modeling methods, discovering that subduction intends to initiate at the transform faults close to oceanic arcs, and that its evolutionary processes and surface volcanic expressions are controlled by plate strength. However, these studies are mainly conducted with 2-D models, which cannot deal with lateral heterogeneities of crustal thickness and strength along the plate interfaces. Here we extend the 2-D model to a 3-D parallel subduction model with high computational efficiency. With the new model, we study the dynamic controlling factors, morphology evolutionary processes and surface expressions for subduction initiation with lateral heterogeneities of material properties along transform faults and passive margins. We find that lateral lithospheric heterogeneities control the starting point of the subduction initiation along the newly formed trenches and the propagation speed for the trench formation. New subduction tends to firstly initiate at the property changing point along the transform faults or passive margins. Such finds may be applied to explain the formation process of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone in the western Pacific and the Scotia subduction zone at the south end of the South America. Our results enhance our understanding for the formation of new trenches and help to provide geodynamic modeling explanations for the observed remnant slabs in the upper mantle and the surface volcanic expressions.

  6. Kinematics and Seismotectonics of the Montello Thrust Fault (Southeastern Alps, Italy) Revealed by Local GPS and Seismic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, E.; Anderlini, L.; Cavaliere, A.; Danesi, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Danecek, P.; Massa, M.; Lovati, S.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Alps fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) in northern Italy is a tectonically active area accommodating large part of the ~N-S Adria-Eurasia plate convergence, that in the southeastern Alps ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 mm/yr, as constrained by a geodetically defined rotation pole. Because of the high seismic hazard of northeastern Italy, the area is well monitored at a regional scale by seismic and GPS networks. However, more localized seismotectonic and kinematic features, at the scale of the fault segments, are not yet resolved, limiting our knowledge about the seismic potential of the different fault segments belonging to the southeastern Alps FTB. Here we present the results obtained from the analysis of data collected during local seismic and geodetic experiments conducted installing denser geophysical networks across the Montello-Bassano-Belluno system, a segment of the FTB that is presently characterized by a lower sismicity rate with respect to the surrounding domains. The Montello anticline, which is the southernmost tectonic features of the southeastern Alps FTB (located ~15 km south of the mountain front), is a nice example of growing anticline associated with a blind thrust fault. However, how the Adria-Alps convergence is partitioned across the FTB and the seismic potential of the Montello thrust (the area has been struck by a Mw~6.5 in 1695 but the causative fault is still largely debated) remained still unresolved. The new, denser, GPS data show that this area is undergoing among the highest geodetic deformation rates of the entire south Alpine chain, with a steep velocity gradient across the Montello anticline. The earthquakes recorded during the experiment, precisely relocated with double difference methods, and the new earthquake focal mechanisms well correlate with available information about sub-surface geological structures and highlight the seismotectonic activity of the Montello thrust fault. We model the GPS velocities using elastic

  7. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  8. Lateral Vibration of Hydroelectric Generating Set with Different Supporting Condition of Thrust Pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Si

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the supporting condition, which change the stiffness of tilting pad thrust bearing, may alter the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. The effects of supporting condition of thrust pad on the lateral vibration of a hydroelectric generating set are investigated in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as moments acting on the thrust collar, and the tilting stiffness coefficients of thrust bearing are calculated. A model based on typical beam finite element method is established to calculate the dynamic response, and the effects of supporting conditions such as elastic oil tank support, different heights of the thrust pads with rigid support are discussed. The results reveal that the influence of thrust bearing is small when the elastic oil tanks work normally. When the supporting conditions turn to be rigid due to the oil leakage, the differences of thrust pad heights have evident influence on the load distribution of the thrust pads; while the effects on the tilting stiffness of the thrust bearing and the amplitude of the lateral shaft vibration is small when the maximum load on thrust pads is smaller than the allowable value.

  9. Measurement of Impulsive Thrust from a Closed Radio Frequency Cavity in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Lawrence, James; Vera, Jerry; Sylvester, Andre; Brady, David; Bailey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A vacuum test campaign evaluating the impulsive thrust performance of a tapered RF test article excited in the TM212 mode at 1,937 megahertz (MHz) has been completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust phase and reverse thrust phase at less than 8 x 10(exp -6) Torr vacuum with power scans at 40 watts, 60 watts, and 80 watts. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort to identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust, however none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggests that the system is consistently performing with a thrust to power ratio of 1.2 +/- 0.1 mN/kW.

  10. Combined high and low-thrust geostationary orbit insertion with radiation constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Malcolm; Owens, Steven Robert

    2018-01-01

    The sequential use of an electric propulsion system is considered in combination with a high-thrust propulsion system for application to the propellant-optimal Geostationary Orbit insertion problem, whilst considering both temporal and radiation flux constraints. Such usage is found to offer a combined propellant mass saving when compared with an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. This propellant mass saving is seen to increase as the allowable transfer duration is increased, and as the thrust from the low-thrust system is increased, assuming constant specific impulse. It was found that the required plane change maneuver is most propellant-efficiently performed by the high-thrust system. The propellant optimal trajectory incurs a significantly increased electron flux when compared to an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. However, the electron flux can be reduced to a similar order of magnitude by increasing the high-thrust propellant consumption, whilst still delivering an improved mass fraction.

  11. Kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. Insights from experimental modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Physical experiments were performed to gain a better understanding on the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. The present study focuses on deformation of sedimentary cover caused by thrust and reverse movements along the basement fault. Our physical models comprise dry quartz sand representing brittle sedimentary rock and viscous silicone polymer representing overpressured mudstone. Computerized X-ray tomography was applied to the experiments to analyze the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. In the sand models, the width of deformation zone above thrust was wider than that above reverse fault, because back thrust developed on the hanging wall of reverse fault. Within the physical models composed of dry sand and silicone polymer, minor folds and thrusts with minor displacement developed on the footwall of the major monoclinal flexure. These results compare well with the geometry and kinematic evolution of the fold and thrust belts in Japan. (author)

  12. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    The last 30 years materials engineers have been under continual pressure to develop materials with a greater temperature potential or to produce configurations that can be effectively cooled or otherwise protected at elevated temperature conditions. Turbines and thrust chambers produce some of the harshest service conditions for materials which lead to the challenges engineers face in order to increase the efficiencies of current technologies due to the energy crisis that the world is facing. The key tasks for the future of gas turbines are to increase overall efficiencies to meet energy demands of a growing world population and reduce the harmful emissions to protect the environment. Airfoils or blades tend to be the limiting factor when it comes to the performance of the turbine because of their complex design making them difficult to cool as well as limitations of their thermal properties. Key tasks for space transportation it to lower costs while increasing operational efficiency and reliability of our space launchers. The important factor to take into consideration is the rocket nozzle design. The design of the rocket nozzle or thrust chamber has to take into account many constraints including external loads, heat transfer, transients, and the fluid dynamics of expanded hot gases. Turbine engines can have increased efficiencies if the inlet temperature for combustion is higher, increased compressor capacity and lighter weight materials. In order to push for higher temperatures, engineers need to come up with a way to compensate for increased temperatures because material systems that are being used are either at or near their useful properties limit. Before thermal barrier coatings were applied to hot-section components, material alloy systems were able to withstand the service conditions necessary. But, with the increased demand for performance, higher temperatures and pressures have become too much for those alloy systems. Controlled chemistry of hot

  13. Reliability and validity of a tool to measure the severity of tongue thrust in children: the Tongue Thrust Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, S; Demir, N; Karaduman, A A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale called Tongue Thrust Rating Scale (TTRS), which categorised tongue thrust in children in terms of its severity during swallowing, and to investigate its validity and reliability. The study describes the developmental phase of the TTRS and presented its content and criterion-based validity and interobserver and intra-observer reliability. For content validation, seven experts assessed the steps in the scale over two Delphi rounds. Two physical therapists evaluated videos of 50 children with cerebral palsy (mean age, 57·9 ± 16·8 months), using the TTRS to test criterion-based validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability. The Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS) and Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS) were used for criterion-based validity. All the TTRS steps were deemed necessary. The content validity index was 0·857. A very strong positive correlation was found between two examinations by one physical therapist, which indicated intra-observer reliability (r = 0·938, P reliability (r = 0·892, P validity of the TTRS. The TTRS is a valid, reliable and clinically easy-to-use functional instrument to document the severity of tongue thrust in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Crustal Gravitational Potential Energy Change and Subduction Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. P.

    2017-05-01

    Crustal gravitational potential energy (GPE) change induced by earthquakes is an important subject in geophysics and seismology. For the past forty years the research on this subject stayed in the stage of qualitative estimate. In recent few years the 3D dynamic faulting theory provided a quantitative solution of this subject. The theory deduced a quantitative calculating formula for the crustal GPE change using the mathematic method of tensor analysis under the principal stresses system. This formula contains only the vertical principal stress, rupture area, slip, dip, and rake; it does not include the horizontal principal stresses. It is just involved in simple mathematical operations and does not hold complicated surface or volume integrals. Moreover, the hanging wall vertical moving (up or down) height has a very simple expression containing only slip, dip, and rake. The above results are significant to investigate crustal GPE change. Commonly, the vertical principal stress is related to the gravitational field, substituting the relationship between the vertical principal stress and gravitational force into the above formula yields an alternative formula of crustal GPE change. The alternative formula indicates that even with lack of in situ borehole measured stress data, scientists can still quantitatively calculate crustal GPE change. The 3D dynamic faulting theory can be used for research on continental fault earthquakes; it also can be applied to investigate subduction earthquakes between oceanic and continental plates. Subduction earthquakes hold three types: (a) crust only on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (b) crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (c) crust only on the vertical up side of the partial rupture area, and crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the remaining rupture area. For each type we provide its quantitative formula of the crustal GPE change. We also establish a simplified model (called

  15. The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: Insights in gravitational salt tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krezsek, Csaba [SNGN ROMGAZ, 4 Unirii 551025 Medias (Romania); Bally, Albert W. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Rice, 6100 South Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Interpretation of regional seismic profiles, stratigraphic and sedimentologic data improved insights in the evolution of the Transylvanian Basin. The basin evolution was coeval with the post-Mid-Cretaceous to recent deformation of the Carpathian Mts. Four tectonostratigraphic megasequences are differentiated: Upper Cretaceous (rift), Paleogene (sag), Lower Miocene (flexural basin) and Middle to Upper Miocene (backarc sequence dominated by gravitational tectonics). The Mid-Miocene continental collision in the Eastern Carpathians is associated with the rising Carpathians. This uplift enhanced the differential load, which, together with the high heat flow induced by Late Miocene to Pliocene arc volcanism, triggered large-scale Mio-Pliocene gravity spreading of the salt overburden. This 'mega-slide' comprises three structural domains, as follows: extensional weld (upslope), contractional folds (central) and contractional toe thrust (downslope). The diapirs in the east indicate a pre-shortening reactive/passive growth stage. The central folds are mostly the result of late shortening. Basement involved thrusting uplifted the toe thrust domain by the Late Pliocene. The Late Neogene to recent Carpathians uplift, backarc volcanism and gravity spreading are largely coeval. (author)

  16. Study on a high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor used in gantry-type five-axis machining center is designed and its performance was tested in this article. This motor is the subproject of Chinese National Science and Technology Major Project named as “development of domestic large thrust linear motor used in high-speed gantry-type five-axis machining center project” jointly participated by enterprises and universities. According to the requirement of the application environment and motor performance parameters, the linear motor’s basic dimensions, form of windings, and magnet arrangement are preliminarily specified through theoretical analysis and calculation. To verify the correctness of the result of the calculation, the finite element model of the motor is established. The static and dynamic characteristics of the motor are studied and analyzed through the finite element method, and the initial scheme is revised. The prototype of the motor is manufactured based on the final revised structure parameters, and the performance of the motor is fully tested using the evaluation platform for direct-drive motor component. Experimental test results meet the design requirements and show the effectiveness of design method and process.

  17. Thrusting maneuver control of a small spacecraft via only gimbaled-thruster scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabganian, Mansour; Kouhi, Hamed; Shahravi, Morteza; Fani Saberi, Farhad

    2018-05-01

    The thrust vector control (TVC) scheme is a powerful method in spacecraft attitude control. Since the control of a small spacecraft is being studied here, a solid rocket motor (SRM) should be used instead of a liquid propellant motor. Among the TVC methods, gimbaled-TVC as an efficient method is employed in this paper. The spacecraft structure is composed of a body and a gimbaled-SRM where common attitude control systems such as reaction control system (RCS) and spin-stabilization are not presented. A nonlinear two-body model is considered for the characterization of the gimbaled-thruster spacecraft where, the only control input is provided by a gimbal actuator. The attitude of the spacecraft is affected by a large exogenous disturbance torque which is generated by a thrust vector misalignment from the center of mass (C.M). A linear control law is designed to stabilize the spacecraft attitude while rejecting the mentioned disturbance torque. A semi-analytical formulation of the region of attraction (RoA) is developed to ensure the local stability and fast convergence of the nonlinear closed-loop system. Simulation results of the 3D maneuvers are included to show the applicability of this method for use in a small spacecraft.

  18. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings: Part I – Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    This is Part I of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. A numerical model based on the Reynolds equation is developed extending the three dimensional thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic (TEHD......) analysis of tilting-pad thrust bearings to include the effects of high pressure injection and recesses in the bearing pad. The model is applied to the analysis of an existing bearing of large dimensions and the influence of the pocket is analyzed. It is shown that a shallow pocket positively influences...... the performance of the bearing as it has characteristics similar to those of a parallel step bearing....

  19. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings - Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar; Fuerst, Axel

    2007-01-01

    This is Part I of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high-pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. In Part I a numerical model based on the Reynolds equation is developed extending the threedimensional thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD......) analysis of tilting-pad thrust bearings to include the effects of high-pressure injection and recesses in the bearing pads. The model is applied to the analysis of an existing bearing of large dimensions and the influence of the pocket is analyzed. In the analysis, the high-pressure oil injection used...... for hydrostatic jacking is turned off (i.e., only the effect of the pocket is studied). It is shown that a shallow pocket positively influences the performance of the bearing because it has characteristics similar to those of a Rayleigh-step bearing. In Part II of the paper (Heinrichson, N., Fuerst, A...

  20. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; King, Helen E.; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P.; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni-Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides. Although an abiotic or subduction slab-derived fluid origin cannot be excluded, the similarities between the molecular signatures identified in the clasts and those of bacteria-derived biopolymers from other serpentinizing systems hint at the possibility of deep microbial life within the forearc. To test this hypothesis, we coupled the currently known temperature limit for life, 122 °C, with a heat conduction model that predicts a potential depth limit for life within the forearc at ˜10,000 m below the seafloor. This is deeper than the 122 °C isotherm in known oceanic serpentinizing regions and an order of magnitude deeper than the downhole temperature at the serpentinized Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We suggest that the organic-rich serpentinites may be indicators for microbial life deep within or below the mud volcano. Thus, the hydrated forearc mantle may represent one of Earth’s largest hidden microbial ecosystems. These types of protected ecosystems may have allowed the deep biosphere to thrive, despite violent phases during Earth’s history such as the late heavy bombardment and global mass extinctions.

  1. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; King, Helen E; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-04-25

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni-Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides. Although an abiotic or subduction slab-derived fluid origin cannot be excluded, the similarities between the molecular signatures identified in the clasts and those of bacteria-derived biopolymers from other serpentinizing systems hint at the possibility of deep microbial life within the forearc. To test this hypothesis, we coupled the currently known temperature limit for life, 122 °C, with a heat conduction model that predicts a potential depth limit for life within the forearc at ∼10,000 m below the seafloor. This is deeper than the 122 °C isotherm in known oceanic serpentinizing regions and an order of magnitude deeper than the downhole temperature at the serpentinized Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We suggest that the organic-rich serpentinites may be indicators for microbial life deep within or below the mud volcano. Thus, the hydrated forearc mantle may represent one of Earth's largest hidden microbial ecosystems. These types of protected ecosystems may have allowed the deep biosphere to thrive, despite violent phases during Earth's history such as the late heavy bombardment and global mass extinctions.

  2. Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marie C.; Plank, Terry

    2000-12-01

    Geochemical tracers demonstrate that elements are cycled from subducted sediments into the arc melting regime at subduction zones, although the transfer mechanism is poorly understood. Are key elements (Th, Be, Rb) lost during sediment dehydration or is sediment melting required? To investigate this question, we conducted phase equilibria and trace element partitioning experiments on a pelagic red clay for conditions appropriate to the slab beneath arc volcanoes (2-4 GPa, 600°-1000°C). Using both piston cylinders and multianvils, we determined the solidus, phase stabilities, and major element compositions of coexisting phases. The solidus (H2O + Cl fluid-saturated) was located at 775 ± 25°C at 2 GPa, 810 ± 15°C at 3 GPa, and 1025 ± 25°C at 4 GPa with noevidence for complete miscibility between melt and fluid. This sediment composition produces a profusion of phases both above and below the solidus: garnet, jadeitic pyroxene, alkali-rich amphibole, phengite, biotite, magnetite, coesite, kyanite, apatite, zircon, Cl-rich fluids, and peraluminous to peralkaline granitic melts. At 2 GPa the phengite dehydration solidus is at 800°-825°C, while biotite breaks down between 850° and 900°C. To explore trace element partitioning across the solidus at 2 GPa, we used diamonds to trap fluids and melts. Both the bulk sediment residues and diamond traps were analyzed postexperiment by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 40 elements for which we calculated bulk partition coefficients (D = Csolid/Cfluid). Below the solidus, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb showed the greatest mobility (D ˜ 0.5-1.0), while at the solidus, Th and Be became notably partitioned into the melt (D values changing from >2.0 to oceanic crust dehydration) may provide new constraints on the next generation of thermal/geodynamical models of subduction zones.

  3. Modelling Subduction Zone Magmatism Due to Hydraulic Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Davies, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this project is to test the hypothesis that subduction zone magmatism involves hydraulic fractures propagating from the oceanic crust to the mantle wedge source region (Davies, 1999). We aim to test this hypothesis by developing a numerical model of the process, and then comparing model outputs with observations. The hypothesis proposes that the water interconnects in the slab following an earthquake. If sufficient pressure develops a hydrofracture occurs. The hydrofracture will expand in the direction of the least compressive stress and propagate in the direction of the most compressive stress, which is out into the wedge. Therefore we can calculate the hydrofracture path and end-point, given the start location on the slab and the propagation distance. We can therefore predict where water is added to the mantle wedge. To take this further we have developed a thermal model of a subduction zone. The model uses a finite difference, marker-in-cell method to solve the heat equation (Gerya, 2010). The velocity field was prescribed using the analytical expression of cornerflow (Batchelor, 1967). The markers contained within the fixed grid are used to track the different compositions and their properties. The subduction zone thermal model was benchmarked (Van Keken, 2008). We used the hydrous melting parameterization of Katz et.al., (2003) to calculate the degree of melting caused by the addition of water to the wedge. We investigate models where the hydrofractures, with properties constrained by estimated water fluxes, have random end points. The model predicts degree of melting, magma productivity, temperature of the melt and water content in the melt for different initial water fluxes. Future models will also include the buoyancy effect of the melt and residue. Batchelor, Cambridge UP, 1967. Davies, Nature, 398: 142-145, 1999. Gerya, Cambridge UP, 2010. Katz, Geochem. Geophys. Geosy, 4(9), 2003 Van Keken et.al. Phys. Earth. Planet. In., 171:187-197, 2008.

  4. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  5. Phase equilibria constraints on models of subduction zone magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James D.; Johnston, Dana A.

    Petrologic models of subduction zone magmatism can be grouped into three broad classes: (1) predominantly slab-derived, (2) mainly mantle-derived, and (3) multi-source. Slab-derived models assume high-alumina basalt (HAB) approximates primary magma and is derived by partial fusion of the subducting slab. Such melts must, therefore, be saturated with some combination of eclogite phases, e.g. cpx, garnet, qtz, at the pressures, temperatures and water contents of magma generation. In contrast, mantle-dominated models suggest partial melting of the mantle wedge produces primary high-magnesia basalts (HMB) which fractionate to yield derivative HAB magmas. In this context, HMB melts should be saturated with a combination of peridotite phases, i.e. ol, cpx and opx, and have liquid-lines-of-descent that produce high-alumina basalts. HAB generated in this manner must be saturated with a mafic phase assemblage at the intensive conditions of fractionation. Multi-source models combine slab and mantle components in varying proportions to generate the four main lava types (HMB, HAB, high-magnesia andesites (HMA) and evolved lavas) characteristic of subduction zones. The mechanism of mass transfer from slab to wedge as well as the nature and fate of primary magmas vary considerably among these models. Because of their complexity, these models imply a wide range of phase equilibria. Although the experiments conducted on calc-alkaline lavas are limited, they place the following limitations on arc petrologic models: (1) HAB cannot be derived from HMB by crystal fractionation at the intensive conditions thus far investigated, (2) HAB could be produced by anhydrous partial fusion of eclogite at high pressure, (3) HMB liquids can be produced by peridotite partial fusion 50-60 km above the slab-mantle interface, (4) HMA cannot be primary magmas derived by partial melting of the subducted slab, but could have formed by slab melt-peridotite interaction, and (5) many evolved calc

  6. Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion relations for earthquakes that occur in subduction zones are an important input to seismic-hazard analyses in many parts of the world. In the Cascadia region (Washington, Oregon, northern California, and British Columbia), for example, there is a significant hazard from megathrust earthquakes along the subduction interface and from large events within the subducting slab. These hazards are in addition to the hazard from shallow earthquakes in the overlying crust. We have compiled a response spectra database from thousands of strong-motion recordings from events of moment magnitude (M) 5-8.3 occurring in subduction zones around the world, including both interface and in-slab events. The 2001 M 6.8 Nisqually and 1999 M 5.9 Satsop earthquakes are included in the database, as are many records from subduction zones in Japan (Kyoshin-Net data), Mexico (Guerrero data), and Central America. The size of the database is four times larger than that available for previous empirical regressions to determine ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes. The large dataset enables improved determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling, for both interface and in-slab events. Soil response parameters are also better determined by the data. We use the database to develop global ground-motion relations for interface and in-slab earthquakes, using a maximum likelihood regression method. We analyze regional variability of ground-motion amplitudes across the global database and find that there are significant regional differences. In particular, amplitudes in Cascadia differ by more than a factor of 2 from those in Japan for the same magnitude, distance, event type, and National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil class. This is believed to be due to regional differences in the depth of the soil profile, which are not captured by the NEHRP site classification scheme. Regional correction factors to account for these differences are

  7. Double subduction of continental lithosphere, a key to form wide plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replumaz, Anne; Funiciello, Francesca; Reitano, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Balon, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the creation of the high and wide topography, like the Tibetan Plateau, are still controversial. In particular, the behaviour of the indian and asian lower continental lithosphere during the collision is a matter of debate, either thickening, densifying and delaminating, or keeping its rigidity and subducting. But since several decades seismicity, seismic profiles and global tomography highlight the lithospheric structure of the Tibetan Plateau, and make the hypotheses sustaining the models more precise. In particular, in the western syntaxis, it is now clear that the indian lithosphere subducts northward beneath the Hindu Kush down to the transition zone, while the asian one subducts southward beneath Pamir (e.g. Negredo et al., 2007; Kufner et al., 2015). Such double subduction of continental lithospheres with opposite vergence has also been inferred in the early collision time. Cenozoic volcanic rocks between 50 and 30 Ma in the Qiangtang block have been interpreted as related to an asian subduction beneath Qiangtang at that time (De Celles et al., 2011; Guillot and Replumaz, 2013). We present here analogue experiments silicone/honey to explore the subduction of continental lithosphere, using a piston as analogue of far field forces. We explore the parameters that control the subductions dynamics of the 2 continental lithospheres and the thickening of the plates at the surface, and compare with the Tibetan Plateau evolution. We show that a continental lithosphere is able to subduct in a collision context, even lighter than the mantle, if the plate is rigid enough. In that case the horizontal force due to the collision context, modelled by the piston push transmitted by the indenter, is the driving force, not the slab pull which is negative. It is not a subduction driving by the weight of the slab, but a subduction induced by the collision, that we could call "collisional subduction".

  8. Exploring Low-Amplitude, Long-Duration Deformational Transients on the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyen, C.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The absence of long-term slow slip events (SSEs) in Cascadia is enigmatic on account of the diverse group of subduction zone systems that do experience long-term SSEs. In particular, southwest Japan, Alaska, New Zealand and Mexico have observed long-term SSEs, with some of the larger events exhibiting centimeter-scale surface displacements over the course of multiple years. The conditions that encourage long-term slow slip are not well established due to the variability in thermal parameter and plate dip amongst subduction zones that host long-term events. The Cascadia Subduction Zone likely has the capacity to host long-term SSEs, and the lack of such events motivates further exploration of the observational data. In order to search for the existence of long-duration transients in surface displacements, we examine Cascadia GPS time series from PANGA and PBO to determine whether or not Cascadia has hosted a long-term slow slip event in the past 20 years. A careful review of the time series does not reveal any large-scale multi-year transients. In order to more clearly recognize possible small amplitude long-term SSEs in Cascadia, the GPS time series are reduced with two separate methods. The first method involves manually removing (1) continental water loading terms, (2) transient displacements of known short-term SSEs, and (3) common mode signals that span the network. The second method utilizes a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL) to extract a long-term trend from the GPS time-series. Manual inspection of both of these products reveals intriguing long-term changes in the longitudinal component of several GPS stations in central Cascadia. To determine whether these shifts could be due to long-term slow slip, we invert the reduced surface displacement time series for fault slip using a principle component analysis-based inversion method. We also utilize forward fault models of various synthetic long-term SSEs to better understand how these events may

  9. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  10. Plans for a Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Wang, K.; Davis, E.; Chadwell, C. D.; Nissen, E.; Moran, K.; Scherwath, M.

    2017-12-01

    To accurately assess earthquake and tsunami hazards posed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone, it is critically important to know which area of the plate interface is locked and whether or not part of the energy is being released aseismically by slow creep on the fault. Deeper locking that extends further to the coast produces stronger shaking in population centers. Shallow locking, on the other hand, leads to bigger tsunamis. We will report on and discuss plans for a new amphibious Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone Observatory (NCSZO) that will leverage the existing NEPTUNE cabled seafloor observatory, which is operated by Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), and the onshore network of geodetic stations, which is operated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). To create a NCSZO we plan to (1) add a network of seven GPS-Acoustic (GPS-A) sites offshore Vancouver Island, (2) establish a Deformation Front Observatory, and (3) improve the existing onshore geodetic network (see Figure below). The GPS-A stations will provide the undisturbed motion of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) Plate (1), deformation of the JdF plate (2), deformation of the overriding plate (3-7) and a cabled laboratory to study the potential for continuous GPS-A measurements (6). The Deformation Front Observatory will be used to study possible transient slip events using seafloor pressure and tilt instruments and fluid flux meters.

  11. S-wave tomography of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present an S-wave tomographic model of the Pacific Northwestern United States using regional seismic arrays, including the amphibious Cascadia Initiative. Offshore, our model shows a rapid transition from slow velocities beneath the ridge to fast velocities under the central Juan de Fuca plate, as seen in previous studies of the region (c.f., Bell et al., 2016; Byrnes et al., 2017). Our model also shows an elongated low-velocity feature beneath the hinge of the Juan de Fuca slab, similar to that observed in a P-wave study (Hawley et al., 2016). The addition of offshore data also allows us to investigate along-strike variations in the structure of the subducting slab. Of particular note is a `gap' in the high velocity slab between 44N and 46N, beginning around 100km depth. There exist a number of explanations for this section of lower velocities, ranging from a change in minerology along strike, to a true tear in the subducting slab.

  12. IODP Expedition 334: An Investigation of the Sedimentary Record, Fluid Flow and State of Stress on Top of the Seismogenic Zone of an Erosive Subduction Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vannucchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP is an experiment to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Integrated Ocean Drililng Program (IODP Expedition 334 by R/V JOIDES Resolution is the first step toward deep drilling through the aseismic and seismicplate boundary at the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore the Osa Peninsula where the Cocos Ridge is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate. Drilling operations included logging while drilling (LWD at two slope sites (Sites U1378 and U1379 and coring at three slope sites (Sites U1378–1380and at one site on the Cocos plate (Site U1381. For the first time the lithology, stratigraphy, and age of the slope and incoming sediments as well as the petrology of the subducting Cocos Ridge have been characterized at this margin.The slope sites recorded a high sediment accumulation rate of 160–1035m m.y.-1 possibly caused by on-land uplift triggered by the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The geochemical data as well as the in situ temperature data obtained at the slope sites suggest that fluids are transported from greater depths. The geochemical profiles at Site U1381 reflect diffusional communication of a fluid with seawater-likechemistry and the igneous basement of the Cocos plate (Solomon et al., 2011; Vannucchi et al., 2012a. The present-day in situ stress orientation determined by borehole breakouts at Site U1378 in the middle slope and Site U1379 in the upper slope shows a marked change in stress state within ~12 km along the CRISP transect; that maycorrespond to a change from compression (middle slope to extension (upper slope.

  13. Trajectory control with continuous thrust applied to a rendezvous maneuver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W G; Rocco, E M

    2013-01-01

    A rendezvous mission can be divided into the following phases: launch, phasing, far range rendezvous, close range rendezvous and mating (docking or berthing). This paper aims to present a close range rendezvous with closed loop controlled straight line trajectory. The approaching is executed on V-bar axis. A PID controller and continuous thrust are used to eliminate the residual errors in the trajectory. A comparative study about the linear and nonlinear dynamics is performed and the results showed that the linear equations become inaccurate insofar as the chaser moves away from the target

  14. Computer Tomography Analysis of Fastrac Composite Thrust Chamber Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection has been integrated into the production process for NASA's Fastrac composite thrust chamber assemblies (TCAs). CT has been proven to be uniquely qualified to detect the known critical flaw for these nozzles, liner cracks that are adjacent to debonds between the liner and overwrap. CT is also being used as a process monitoring tool through analysis of low density indications in the nozzle overwraps. 3d reconstruction of CT images to produce models of flawed areas is being used to give program engineers better insight into the location and nature of nozzle flaws.

  15. Emergency Flight Control Using Computer-Controlled Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Stewart, James F.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) systems are digital electronic control systems undergoing development to provide limited maneuvering ability through variations of individual engine thrusts in multiple-engine airplanes. Provide landing capability when control surfaces inoperable. Incorporated on existing and future airplanes that include digital engine controls, digital flight controls, and digital data buses, adding no weight for additional hardware to airplane. Possible to handle total failure of hydraulic system, depending on how surfaces respond to loss of hydraulic pressure, and broken control cables or linkages. Future airplanes incorporate data from Global Positioning System for guidance to any suitable emergency runway in world.

  16. Using open sidewalls for modelling self-consistent lithosphere subduction dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chertova, M.V.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A.; Spakman, W.

    2012-01-01

    Subduction modelling in regional model domains, in 2-D or 3-D, is commonly performed using closed (impermeable) vertical boundaries. Here we investigate the merits of using open boundaries for 2-D modelling of lithosphere subduction. Our experiments are focused on using open and closed (free

  17. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J., III; van der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-09-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence of dense lithosphere along faults adjacent to buoyant lithosphere, would result in extension and magmatism. The rock record of subduction initiation is typically obscured by younger deposits, so evaluating these possibilities has proved elusive. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of igneous basement rocks and overlying sediments, sampled from the Amami Sankaku Basin in the northwest Philippine Sea. The uppermost basement rocks are areally widespread and supplied via dykes. They are similar in composition and age--as constrained by the biostratigraphy of the overlying sediments--to the 52-48-million-year-old basalts in the adjacent Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc. The geochemical characteristics of the basement lavas indicate that a component of subducted lithosphere was involved in their genesis, and the lavas were derived from mantle source rocks that were more melt-depleted than those tapped at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that the basement lavas formed during the inception of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction in a mode consistent with the spontaneous initiation of subduction.

  18. Rapid fore-arc extension and detachment-mode spreading following subduction initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark W.; Omer, Ahmed; Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Most ophiolites have geochemical signatures that indicate formation by suprasubduction seafloor spreading above newly initiated subduction zones, and hence they record fore-arc processes operating following subduction initiation. They are frequently underlain by a metamorphic sole formed at the top

  19. Geochemical evidence for the melting of subducting oceanic lithosphere at plate edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Lees, J. M.; Churikova, T. G.; Dorendorf, F.; Wöerner, G.; Volynets, O. N.

    2001-01-01

    Most island-arc magmatism appears to result from the lowering of the melting point of peridotite within the wedge of mantle above subducting slabs owing to the introduction of fluids from the dehydration of subducting oceanic crust. Volcanic rocks interpreted to contain a component of melt (not just a fluid) from the subducting slab itself are uncommon, but possible examples have been recognized in the Aleutian islands, Baja California, Patagonia and elsewhere. The geochemically distinctive rocks from these areas, termed `adakites', are often associated with subducting plates that are young and warm, and therefore thought to be more prone to melting. But the subducting lithosphere in some adakite locations (such as the Aleutian islands) appears to be too old and hence too cold to melt. This implies either that our interpretation of adakite geochemistry is incorrect, or that our understanding of the tectonic context of adakites is incomplete. Here we present geochemical data from the Kamchatka peninsula and the Aleutian islands that reaffirms the slab-melt interpretation of adakites, but in the tectonic context of the exposure to mantle flow around the edge of a torn subducting plate. We conclude that adakites are likely to form whenever the edge of a subducting plate is warmed or ablated by mantle flow. The use of adakites as tracers for such plate geometry may improve our understanding of magma genesis and thermal structure in a variety of subduction-zone environments.

  20. Subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco block as imaged by magnetotelluric data

    OpenAIRE

    Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Arzate-Flores, Jorge Arturo; Álvarez-Béjar, Román; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Yutsis, Vsevolod

    2013-01-01

    Two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles perpendicular to the trench provide information on the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block (JB). The geometry of the subducting slab is inferred by the anomalous conductor on the top of the profile in the central part of the JB. High conductivity zones (

  1. Implications of loading/unloading a subduction zone with a heterogeneously coupled interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M. W.; Furlong, K. P.; Govers, R. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical models of subduction zones with appropriate physical properties may help understand deformation throughout great earthquake cycles, as well as associated observations such as the distribution of smaller magnitude megathrust earthquakes and surface displacements. Of particular interest are displacements near the trench, where tsunamis are generated. The patterns of co-seismic strain release in great megathrust earthquakes depend on the frictional coupling of the plate interface prior to the event. Geodetic observations during the inter-seismic stage suggest that the plates are fully locked at asperities surrounded by zones of apparent partial coupling. We simulate the accumulation (and release) of elastic strain in the subduction system using a finite element model with a relatively simple geometry and material properties. We demonstrate that inter-seismic apparent partial coupling can be dominantly explained by a distribution of completely locked asperities and zero friction elsewhere. In these models, the interface up-dip of the locked zone (displacements with little internal strain, potentially leading to large co-seismic block displacements (low displacement gradients) of the near-trench seafloor like those observed following the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. This is also consistent with anomalously low co-seismic frictional heating of the shallow megathrust indicated by borehole heat flow measurements after the Tohoku event. Our models also yield insights into slip partitioning throughout multiple earthquake cycles. In smaller ruptures, fault slip is inhibited by nearby locked zones; in subsequent multi-segment ruptures, the rest of this slip deficit may be released, producing significantly larger slip than might be expected based on historical earthquake magnitudes. Finally, because low-friction areas around asperities accumulate some slip deficit but may not rupture co-seismically, these regions may be the primary locations of afterslip following

  2. Multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the subduction zone parameters favoring the occurrence of giant megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; Sandri, L.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Piromallo, C.; Heuret, A.

    2018-03-01

    The observed maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes is highly variable worldwide. One key question is which conditions, if any, favor the occurrence of giant earthquakes (Mw ≥ 8.5). Here we carry out a multivariate statistical study in order to investigate the factors affecting the maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes. We find that the trench-parallel extent of subduction zones and the thickness of trench sediments provide the largest discriminating capability between subduction zones that have experienced giant earthquakes and those having significantly lower maximum magnitude. Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed spatial distribution of giant earthquakes cannot be explained by pure chance to a statistically significant level. We suggest that the combination of a long subduction zone with thick trench sediments likely promotes a great lateral rupture propagation, characteristic of almost all giant earthquakes.

  3. Tearing, segmentation, and backstepping of subduction in the Aegean: New insights from seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, G. M.; Brüstle, A.; Becker, D.; Meier, T.; van Keken, P. E.; Ruscic, M.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Rische, M.; Friederich, W.

    2018-06-01

    This study revisits subduction processes at the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) including tearing, segmentation, and backstepping, by refining the geometry of the Nubian slab down to 150-180 km depth using well-located hypocentres from global and local seismicity catalogues. At the western termination of the HSZ, the Kefalonia Transform Fault marks the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere subducting to the south and to the north of it, respectively. A discontinuity is suggested to exist between the two slabs at shallow depths. The Kefalonia Transform Fault is interpreted as an active Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator-fault formed as consequence of faster trench retreat induced by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere to the south of it. A model reconstructing the evolution of the subduction system in the area of Peloponnese since 34 Ma, involving the backstepping of the subduction to the back-side of Adria, provides seismological evidence that supports the single-slab model for the HSZ and suggests the correlation between the downdip limit of the seismicity to the amount of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the area of Rhodes, earthquake hypocentres indicate the presence of a NW dipping subducting slab that rules out the presence of a NE-SW striking Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator-fault in the Pliny-Strabo trenches region. Earthquake hypocentres also allow refining the slab tear beneath southwestern Anatolia down to 150-180 km depth. Furthermore, the distribution of microseismicity shows a first-order slab segmentation in the region between Crete and Karpathos, with a less steep and laterally wider slab segment to the west and a steeper and narrower slab segment to the east. Thermal models indicate the presence of a colder slab beneath the southeastern Aegean that leads to deepening of the intermediate-depth seismicity. Slab segmentation affects the upper plate deformation that is stronger above the eastern slab segment and the seismicity

  4. The role of frictional strength on plate coupling at the subduction interface

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Eh

    2012-10-01

    At a subduction zone the amount of friction between the incoming plate and the forearc is an important factor in controlling the dip angle of subduction and the structure of the forearc. In this paper, we investigate the role of the frictional strength of sediments and of the serpentinized peridotite on the evolution of convergent margins. In numerical models, we vary thickness of a serpentinized layer in the mantle wedge (15 to 25km) and the frictional strength of both the sediments and serpentinized mantle (friction angle 1 to 15, or static friction coefficient 0.017 to 0.27) to control the amount of frictional coupling between the plates. With plastic strain weakening in the lithosphere, our numerical models can attain stable subduction geometry over millions of years. We find that the frictional strength of the sediments and serpentinized peridotite exerts the largest control on the dip angle of the subduction interface at seismogenic depths. In the case of low sediment and serpentinite friction, the subduction interface has a shallow dip, while the subduction zone develops an accretionary prism, a broad forearc high, a deep forearc basin, and a shallow trench. In the high friction case, the subduction interface is steep, the trench is deeper, and the accretionary prism, forearc high and basin are all absent. The resultant free-air gravity and topographic signature of these subduction zone models are consistent with observations. We believe that the low-friction model produces a geometry and forearc structure similar to that of accretionary margins. Conversely, models with high friction angles in sediments and serpentinite develop characteristics of an erosional convergent margin. We find that the strength of the subduction interface is critical in controlling the amount of coupling at the seismogenic zone and perhaps ultimately the size of the largest earthquakes at subduction zones. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Features and uranium mineralization of Malou thrust nappe structure in Rencha basin of northeast Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shizhu; Zhao Wei; Zheng Mingliang; Chen Zhuhai

    2010-01-01

    Rencha basin was a Cenozoic volcanic fault basin (K 2 -E). Due to strong and frequent tectonic-magmatic activities, especially the late volcanic activities in the region, the acidic volcanic rock was formed which is the host rocks of uranium-molybdenum polymetallic deposit. Malou structural belt is a east-west trending and a long-term tectonic-magmatic activities belt, and is also a linear structure of volcanic eruption. Through recent exploration and study, Malou structure (F 1 )was found to be a thrust nappe structure. In the early stage of evolution, the structure controled the formation of Rencha basin and rock distribution, in the later, it controled the formation of uranium mineralization. Because farely rich orebody has been discovered in some deep part of the structure, large and richer orebody can be predicted in the depth of 500-1500 m. (authors)

  6. A systematic investigation into b values prior to coming large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, K.; Yoshida, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter law for frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes is now well established in seismology. The b value, the slope of the distribution, is supposed to reflect heterogeneity of seismogenic region (e.g. Mogi 1962) and development of interplate coupling in subduction zone (e.g. Nanjo et al., 2012; Tormann et al. 2015). In the laboratory as well as in the Earth's crust, the b value is known to be inversely dependent on differential stresses (Scholz 1968, 2015). In this context, the b value could serve as a stress meter to help locate asperities, the highly-stressed patches, in fault planes where large rupture energy is released (e.g. Schorlemmer & Wiemer 2005). However, it still remains uncertain whether the b values of events prior to coming large earthquakes are always low significantly. To clarify this issue, we conducted a systematic investigation into b values prior to large earthquakes in the Japanese Mainland. Since no physical definition of mainshock, foreshock, and aftershock is known, we simply investigated b values of the events with magnitudes larger than the lower-cutoff magnitude, Mc, prior to earthquakes equal to or larger than a threshold magnitude, Mth, where Mth>Mc. Schorlemmer et al. (2005) showed that the b value for different fault types differs significantly, which is supposed to reflect the feature that the fracture stress depends on fault types. Therefore, we classified fault motions into normal, strike-slip, and thrust types based on the mechanism solution of earthquakes, and computed b values of events associated with each fault motion separately. We found that the target events (M≥Mth) and the events that occurred prior to the target events both show a common systematic change in b: normal faulting events have the highest b values, thrust events the lowest and strike-slip events intermediate values. Moreover, we found that the b values for the prior events (M≥Mc) are significantly lower than the b values for the

  7. Shock unsteadiness in a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. B.

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the nature of shock unsteadiness, in an overexpanded thrust optimized parabolic nozzle, prevalent in various flow separation modes experienced during start up {(δ P0 /δ t > 0)} and shut down {(δ P0/δ t The results are based on simultaneously acquired data from real-time wall pressure measurements using Kulite pressure transducers, high-speed schlieren (2 kHz) of the exhaust flow-field and from strain-gauges installed on the nozzle bending tube. Shock unsteadiness in the separation region is seen to increase significantly just before the onset of each flow transition, even during steady nozzle operation. The intensity of this measure ( rms level) is seen to be strongly influenced by relative locations of normal and overexpansion shock, the decrease in radial size of re-circulation zone in the back-flow region, and finally, the local nozzle wall contour. During restricted shock separation, the pressure fluctuations in separation region exhibit periodic characteristics rather than the usually observed characteristics of intermittent separation. The possible physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of flow unsteadiness in various separation modes are discussed. The results are from an experimental study conducted in P6.2 cold-gas subscale test facility using a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle of area-ratio 30.

  8. Inverse Analysis and Modeling for Tunneling Thrust on Shield Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of sensor and detection technologies, measured data analysis plays an increasingly important role in the design and control of heavy engineering equipment. The paper proposed a method for inverse analysis and modeling based on mass on-site measured data, in which dimensional analysis and data mining techniques were combined. The method was applied to the modeling of the tunneling thrust on shield machines and an explicit expression for thrust prediction was established. Combined with on-site data from a tunneling project in China, the inverse identification of model coefficients was carried out using the multiple regression method. The model residual was analyzed by statistical methods. By comparing the on-site data and the model predicted results in the other two projects with different tunneling conditions, the feasibility of the model was discussed. The work may provide a scientific basis for the rational design and control of shield tunneling machines and also a new way for mass on-site data analysis of complex engineering systems with nonlinear, multivariable, time-varying characteristics.

  9. Subduction recycling of continental sediments and the origin of geochemically enriched reservoirs in the deep mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.P.; Irifune, T.; Shimizu, N.; Nishiyama, N.; Norman, M.D.; Inoue, T. (Ehime U); (WHOI); (UC); (ANU)

    2008-10-08

    the product of melting of deeply recycled (subducted) Archean-age metasediments in the mantle transition zone [Murphy, D.T., Collerson, K.D., Kamber, B.S., 2002. Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antartica: possible transition zone melts of Archaean subducted sediments. J. Petrol. 43, 981-1001]. Here we report the results of phase equilibria experiments on two different natural sedimentary compositions (a high-grade metapelite with < 1 wt.% H{sub 2}O, and a marine 'mud' with 8 wt.% H{sub O}) at 16-23 GPa. In both materials, the high-pressure mineral assemblages contain {approx} 15-30 wt.% K-hollandite (KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}), in addition to stishovite, garnet, an Al-silicate phase (kyanite or phase egg), and a Fe-Ti spinel (corundum). Ion microprobe analyses of K-hollandite for a range of trace elements reveal that this phase controls a significant proportion of the whole-rock budget of incompatible, large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Ba, Sr, K, Pb, La, Ce and Th). Comparisons between the abundances and ratios of these elements in K-hollandite with those in EM-I type ocean-island basalts from Pitcairn Island and related seamounts, and with the Gaussberg lamproites, indicate the presence of deeply recycled, continent-derived sediments in these lavas sources. Our results suggest that the incompatible trace-element signature of EM-I OIB reservoirs in general and of the Gaussberg lamproites in particular can be attributed to recycling of K-hollandite-bearing continental sediments to transition zone depths.

  10. Fe and S redox states during serpentinite dehydration in subduction settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, Margarita; Munoz, Manuel; Vidal, Olivier; Brunet, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinite rocks formed by hydrothermal alteration of oceanic peridotites compose ~70% of the oceanic crust (Hacker et al., 2003), which later sinks into subduction zone and experiences metamorphic reactions. Serpentinites carry ~12 wt.% H2O and thereby introduces large amount of water in the upper mantle during dehydration in subduction (Ulmer and Trommsdorff, 1995). In addition, serpentinites are known to contain such minerals as magnetite Fe3O4 and pyrite FeS2 in the amounts of ~5 wt.% (Debret et al., 2014) and 1.5 wt.% (Alt et al., 2013), respectively. During metamorphic reactions speciations of Fe and S are tended to change and affect oxygen fugacity. In turn, oxygen fugacity influences the mobility of fluid mobile elements and metals (Pokrovski and Dubrovinsky 2011). We characterized Fe and S speciation and amount of released water during serpentinite dehydration at different temperature and pressure intervals along a subduction zone. We performed three sets of experiments using piston-cylinder apparatus. Three different starting materials composed of powdered mineral mixtures were used: Fe(III)-antigorite (atg), atg + magnetite, atg + pyrite. Experimental runs were performed at 2 GPa, between 400 and 900°C. Experimental products were first characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe. Speciation of Fe and S were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) at iron and sulfur K-edges. In addition, thermodynamic modeling was applied in this work with constrained thermodynamical data for Fe-bearing antigorite. The results demonstrate the continuous dehydration of serpentinites with the main water releasing domain between 670 and 700°C, which is happening due to breakdown of antigorite. Fe K-edge XANES measurements show that the amount of ferric iron dramatically decreases between 550-650°C, leading to a release of free oxygen in the system. As a result, we show that the first fluids released from the slab dehydration most likely

  11. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting,