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Sample records for large strain nonlinear

  1. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  2. Interpretation of large-strain geophysical crosshole tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drnevich, V.P.; Salgado, R.; Ashmawy, A.; Grant, W.P.; Vallenas, P.

    1995-10-01

    At sites in earthquake-prone areas, the nonlinear dynamic stress-strain behavior of soil with depth is essential for earthquake response analyses. A seismic crosshole test has been developed where large dynamic forces are applied in a borehole. These forces generate shear strains in the surrounding soil that are well into the nonlinear range. The shear strain amplitudes decrease with distance from the source. Velocity sensors located in three additional holes at various distances from the source hole measure the particle velocity and the travel time of the shear wave from the source. This paper provides an improved, systematic interpretation scheme for the data from these large-strain geophysical crosshole tests. Use is made of both the measured velocities at each sensor and the travel times. The measured velocity at each sensor location is shown to be a good measure of the soil particle velocity at that location. Travel times to specific features on the velocity time history, such as first crossover, are used to generate travel time curves for the waves which are nonlinear. At some distance the amplitudes reduce to where the stress-strain behavior is essentially linear and independent of strain amplitude. This fact is used together with the measurements at the three sensor locations in a rational approach for fitting curves of shear wave velocity versus distance from the source hole that allow the determination of the shear wave velocity and the shear strain amplitude at each of the sensor locations as well as the shear wave velocity associated with small-strain (linear) behavior. The method is automated using off-the-shelf PC-based software. The method is applied to large-strain crosshole tests performed as part of the studies for the design and construction of the proposed Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility planned for Hanford Site

  3. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  4. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  5. Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305 METHODS FOR LARGE-SCALE NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION by Philip E. Gill, Waiter Murray, I Michael A. Saunden, and Masgaret H. Wright...typical iteration can be partitioned so that where B is an m X m basise matrix. This partition effectively divides the vari- ables into three classes... attention is given to the standard of the coding or the documentation. A much better way of obtaining mathematical software is from a software library

  6. A sheet metal necking formability diagram for nonlinear strain paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye; Winther, Grethe

    2017-01-01

    A new procedure for drawing forming limit curves is suggested. The theoretical basis for computing the forming limit curve due to diffuse necking, for nonlinear strain paths, is derived. The theoretically determined forming limit curve is compared with experimentally determined forming limits...

  7. Nonlinear wave forces on large ocean structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Erick T.

    1993-04-01

    This study explores the significance of second-order wave excitations on a large pontoon and tests the feasibility of reducing a nonlinear free surface problem by perturbation expansions. A simulation model has been developed based on the perturbation expansion technique to estimate the wave forces. The model uses a versatile finite element procedure for the solution of the reduced linear boundary value problems. This procedure achieves a fair compromise between computation costs and physical details by using a combination of 2D and 3D elements. A simple hydraulic model test was conducted to observe the wave forces imposed on a rectangle box by Cnoidal waves in shallow water. The test measurements are consistent with the numerical predictions by the simulation model. This result shows favorable support to the perturbation approach for estimating the nonlinear wave forces on shallow draft vessels. However, more sophisticated model tests are required for a full justification. Both theoretical and experimental results show profound second-order forces that could substantially impact the design of ocean facilities.

  8. Bayesian nonlinear regression for large small problems

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Sounak; Ghosh, Malay; Mallick, Bani K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical modeling and inference problems with sample sizes substantially smaller than the number of available covariates are challenging. This is known as large p small n problem. Furthermore, the problem is more complicated when we have multiple correlated responses. We develop multivariate nonlinear regression models in this setup for accurate prediction. In this paper, we introduce a full Bayesian support vector regression model with Vapnik's ε-insensitive loss function, based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) under the multivariate correlated response setup. This provides a full probabilistic description of support vector machine (SVM) rather than an algorithm for fitting purposes. We have also introduced a multivariate version of the relevance vector machine (RVM). Instead of the original treatment of the RVM relying on the use of type II maximum likelihood estimates of the hyper-parameters, we put a prior on the hyper-parameters and use Markov chain Monte Carlo technique for computation. We have also proposed an empirical Bayes method for our RVM and SVM. Our methods are illustrated with a prediction problem in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A simulation study is also undertaken to check the prediction accuracy of our models. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bayesian nonlinear regression for large small problems

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Sounak

    2012-07-01

    Statistical modeling and inference problems with sample sizes substantially smaller than the number of available covariates are challenging. This is known as large p small n problem. Furthermore, the problem is more complicated when we have multiple correlated responses. We develop multivariate nonlinear regression models in this setup for accurate prediction. In this paper, we introduce a full Bayesian support vector regression model with Vapnik\\'s ε-insensitive loss function, based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) under the multivariate correlated response setup. This provides a full probabilistic description of support vector machine (SVM) rather than an algorithm for fitting purposes. We have also introduced a multivariate version of the relevance vector machine (RVM). Instead of the original treatment of the RVM relying on the use of type II maximum likelihood estimates of the hyper-parameters, we put a prior on the hyper-parameters and use Markov chain Monte Carlo technique for computation. We have also proposed an empirical Bayes method for our RVM and SVM. Our methods are illustrated with a prediction problem in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A simulation study is also undertaken to check the prediction accuracy of our models. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  10. A mathematical formulation for large strain analysis of geologic continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, A.B.; Vakili, J.E.; Hume, H.R.

    1987-12-01

    A solution method is presented for finite-deformation analysis of geologic materials. The principle of virtual work is used to state the equations of equilibrium in a weak form. These equations are linearized about the last-established equilibrium configuration. A material constitutive relationship between the Green-Naghdi stress rate and the rate-of-deformation tensor is used to obtain the current stresses. The finite-element governing equations are expressed in a form suitable for an iterative solution strategy. The obtained gradient matrix contains the effects of both material and geometric nonlinearities. The primary application area of this formulation is the analysis of long-term deformation response of the region adjoining the mining shafts and the waste emplacement rooms within a nuclear waste repository. In this region, the strains are expected to be large, and the infinitesimal strain analysis would introduce inaccuracies in the solution. 19 refs., 6 figs

  11. Fabric strain sensor integrated with CNPECs for repeated large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weijing

    Flexible and soft strain sensors that can be used in smart textiles for wearable applications are much desired. They should meet the requirements of low modulus, large working range and good fatigue resistance as well as good sensing performances. However, there were no commercial products available and the objective of the thesis is to investigate fabric strain sensors based on carbon nanoparticle (CNP) filled elastomer composites (CNPECs) for potential wearing applications. Conductive CNPECs were fabricated and investigated. The introduction of silicone oil (SO) significantly decreased modulus of the composites to less than 1 MPa without affecting their deformability and they showed good stability after heat treatment. With increase of CNP concentration, a percolation appeared in electrical resistivity and the composites can be divided into three ranges. I-V curves and impedance spectra together with electro-mechanical studies demonstrated a balance between sensitivity and working range for the composites with CNP concentrations in post percolation range, and were preferred for sensing applications only if the fatigue life was improved. Due to the good elasticity and failure resist property of knitted fabric under repeated extension, it was adopted as substrate to increase the fatigue life of the conductive composites. After optimization of processing parameters, the conductive fabric with CNP concentration of 9.0CNP showed linear I-V curves when voltage is in the range of -1 V/mm and 1 V/mm and negligible capacitive behavior when frequency below 103 Hz even with strain of 60%. It showed higher sensitivity due to the combination of nonlinear resistance-strain behavior of the CNPECs and non-even strain distribution of knitted fabric under extension. The fatigue life of the conductive fabric was greatly improved. Extended on the studies of CNPECs and the coated conductive fabrics, a fabric strain sensor was designed, fabricated and packaged. The Young's modulus of

  12. A new nonlinear parameter in the developed strain-to-applied strain of the soft tissues and its application in ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping; Tripathy, Sakya; Rubin, Jonathan M; Stidham, Ryan W; Johnson, Laura A; Higgins, Peter D R; Kim, Kang

    2012-03-01

    Strain developed under quasi-static deformation has been mostly used in ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to determine the stiffness change of tissues. However, the strain measure in UEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of stiffness. This is particularly true for Crohn's disease where we have applied strain imaging to the differentiation of acutely inflamed bowel from chronically fibrotic bowel. In this study, a new nonlinear elastic parameter of the soft tissues is proposed to overcome this limit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the newly proposed method and demonstrate its feasibility in the UEI. A nonlinear characteristic of soft tissues over a relatively large dynamic range of strain was investigated. A simplified tissue model based on a finite element (FE) analysis was integrated with a laboratory developed ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signal synthesis program. Two-dimensional speckle tracking was applied to this model to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the strain developed in a target inclusion over the applied average strain to the surrounding tissues. A nonlinear empirical equation was formulated and optimized to best match the developed strain-to-applied strain relation obtained from the FE simulation. The proposed nonlinear equation was applied to in vivo measurements and nonlinear parameters were further empirically optimized. For an animal model, acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease was induced in Lewis rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol treatments. After UEI, histopathology and direct mechanical measurements were performed on the excised tissues. The extracted nonlinear parameter from the developed strain-to-applied strain relation differentiated the three different tissue types with 1.96 ± 0.12 for normal, 1.50 ± 0.09 for the acutely inflamed and 1.03 ± 0.08 for the chronically fibrotic tissue. T-tests determined that the nonlinear parameters between normal, acutely inflamed and fibrotic tissue

  13. Bulk nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bar with nanosize inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gula, Igor A.; Samsonov (†), Alexander M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model for propagation of the long nonlinearly elastic longitudinal strain waves in a bar, which contains nanoscale structural inclusions. The model is governed by a nonlinear doubly dispersive equation (DDE) with respect to the one unknown longitudinal strain function. We...

  14. Nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor based on four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Frosz, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor, which uses the shifts of four-wave mixing Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks caused by the strain-induced changes in the structure and refractive index of a microstructured optical fiber. The sensor thus uses the inherent nonlinearity of the fiber a...

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Under Large Electrostatic Force

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2015-06-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems undergoing large motion, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler-Bernoulli beam model to study for the first time the dynamic behavior of CNTs when excited by large electrostatic force. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. Several results are generated demonstrating softening and hardening behavior of the CNTs near their primary and secondary resonances. The effects of the DC and AC voltage loads on the behavior have been studied. The impacts of the initial slack level and CNT diameter are also demonstrated.

  16. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER LARGE ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2015-06-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems undergoing large motion, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler-Bernoulli beam model to study for the first time the dynamic behavior of CNTs when excited by large electrostatic force. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. Several results are generated demonstrating softening and hardening behavior of the CNTs near their primary and secondary resonances. The effects of the DC and AC voltage loads on the behavior have been studied. The impacts of the initial slack level and CNT diameter are also demonstrated.

  17. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a large sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The bearings and seismic bumpers used in a large sodium pump of a typical breeder reactor plant may need to be characterized by nonlinear springs and gaps. Then, nonlinear seismic analysis utilizing the time-history method is an effective way to predict the pump behaviors during seismic events - especially at those bearing and seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized time histories were developed based on specified seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic analysis was then conducted and results were compared with those obtained by linear seismic analysis using the response spectrum method. In contrast to some previous nonlinear analysis trends, the bearing impact forces predicted by nonlinear analysis were higher than those obtained by the response spectrum method. This might be due to the larger gaps and stiffer bearing supports used in this specific pump. However, at locations distant from the impact source, the nonlinear seismic analysis has predicted slightly less responses than those obtained by linear seismic analysis. The seismically induced bearing impact forces were used to study the friction induced thermal stresses on the hydrostatic bearing and to predict the coastdown time of the pump. Results and discussions are presented

  18. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a large sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The bearings and seismic bumpers used in a large sodium pump of a typical breeder reactor plant may need to be characterized by nonlinear springs and gaps. Then, nonlinear seismic analysis utilizing the time-history method is an effective way to predict the pump behaviors during seismic events, especially at those bearing and seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized time histories were developed based on specified seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic analysis was then conducted and results were compared with those obtained by linear seismic analysis using the response spectrum method. In contrast to some previous nonlinear analysis trends, the bearing impact forces predicted by nonlinear analysis were higher than those obtained by the response spectrum method. This might be due to the larger gaps and stiffer bearing supports used in this specific pump. However, at locations distant from the impact source, the nonlinear seismic analysis has predicted slightly less responses than those obtained by linear seismic analysis. The seismically induced bearing impact forces were used to study the friction induced thermal stresses on the hydrostatic bearing and to predict the coastdown time of the pump. Results and discussions are presented

  19. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  20. Effect of initial strain and material nonlinearity on the nonlinear static and dynamic response of graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Patel, B. P.

    2018-06-01

    Computationally efficient multiscale modelling based on Cauchy-Born rule in conjunction with finite element method is employed to study static and dynamic characteristics of graphene sheets, with/without considering initial strain, involving Green-Lagrange geometric and material nonlinearities. The strain energy density function at continuum level is established by coupling the deformation at continuum level to that at atomic level through Cauchy-Born rule. The atomic interactions between carbon atoms are modelled through Tersoff-Brenner potential. The governing equation of motion obtained using Hamilton's principle is solved through standard Newton-Raphson method for nonlinear static response and Newmark's time integration technique to obtain nonlinear transient response characteristics. Effect of initial strain on the linear free vibration frequencies, nonlinear static and dynamic response characteristics is investigated in detail. The present multiscale modelling based results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained through molecular mechanics simulation. Two different types of boundary constraints generally used in MM simulation are explored in detail and few interesting findings are brought out. The effect of initial strain is found to be greater in linear response when compared to that in nonlinear response.

  1. Microstructure and nonlinear signatures of yielding in a heterogeneous colloidal gel under large amplitude oscillatory shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juntae; Helgeson, Matthew E., E-mail: helgeson@engineering.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Merger, Dimitri; Wilhelm, Manfred [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We investigate yielding in a colloidal gel that forms a heterogeneous structure, consisting of a two-phase bicontinuous network of colloid-rich domains of fractal clusters and colloid-poor domains. Combining large amplitude oscillatory shear measurements with simultaneous small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS/USANS), we characterize both the nonlinear mechanical processes and strain amplitude-dependent microstructure underlying yielding. We observe a broad, three-stage yielding process that evolves over an order of magnitude in strain amplitude between the onset of nonlinearity and flow. Analyzing the intracycle response as a sequence of physical processes reveals a transition from elastic straining to elastoplastic thinning (which dominates in region I) and eventually yielding (which evolves through region II) and flow (which saturates in region III), and allows quantification of instantaneous nonlinear parameters associated with yielding. These measures exhibit significant strain rate amplitude dependence above a characteristic frequency, which we argue is governed by poroelastic effects. Correlating these results with time-averaged rheo-USANS measurements reveals that the material passes through a cascade of structural breakdown from large to progressively smaller length scales. In region I, compression of the fractal domains leads to the formation of large voids. In regions II and III, cluster-cluster correlations become increasingly homogeneous, suggesting breakage and eventually depercolation of intercluster bonds at the yield point. All significant structural changes occur on the micron-scale, suggesting that large-scale rearrangements of hundreds or thousands of particles, rather than the homogeneous rearrangement of particle-particle bonds, dominate the initial yielding of heterogeneous colloidal gels.

  2. Benchmarking multi-dimensional large strain consolidation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestley, D.; Fredlund, M.D.; Van Zyl, D.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the consolidation of tailings slurries and dredged fills requires a more extensive formulation than is used for common (small strain) consolidation problems. Large strain consolidation theories have traditionally been limited to 1-D formulations. SoilVision Systems has developed the capacity to analyze large strain consolidation problems in 2 and 3-D. The benchmarking of such formulations is not a trivial task. This paper presents several examples of modeling large strain consolidation in the beta versions of the new software. These examples were taken from the literature and were used to benchmark the large strain formulation used by the new software. The benchmarks reported here are: a comparison to the consolidation software application CONDES0, Townsend's Scenario B and a multi-dimensional analysis of long-term column tests performed on oil sands tailings. All three of these benchmarks were attained using the SVOffice suite. (author)

  3. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank's structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model

  4. Jump phenomena. [large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers jump phenomena composed of large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems caused by small amplitude disturbances. Physical problems where large jumps in the solution amplitude are important features of the response are described, including snap buckling of elastic shells, chemical reactions leading to combustion and explosion, and long-term climatic changes of the earth's atmosphere. A new method of rational functions was then developed which consists of representing the solutions of the jump problems as rational functions of the small disturbance parameter; this method can solve jump problems explicitly.

  5. A model of nonlinear strain and damage accumulation in polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ruslantsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to predict a nonlinear strain of the carbon laminate; the model is based on the relations between the theory of laminated plates and the non-linear approximation of deformation curve of unidirectional layer at the shear in the layer plane. The explicit expressions of stiffness and compliance matrices were obtained via multiplying the matrices that correspond to the elastic characteristics by the matrices, considering the non-linear properties of the laminate. The paper suggests an approximation option for the non-linear properties of the layer at the shear using an exponential function. Some considerations on damage accumulation in carbon laminates were made.

  6. Implicit solvers for large-scale nonlinear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, David E; Reynolds, Daniel R; Woodward, Carol S

    2006-01-01

    Computational scientists are grappling with increasingly complex, multi-rate applications that couple such physical phenomena as fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, radiation transport, chemical and nuclear reactions, and wave and material propagation in inhomogeneous media. Parallel computers with large storage capacities are paving the way for high-resolution simulations of coupled problems; however, hardware improvements alone will not prove enough to enable simulations based on brute-force algorithmic approaches. To accurately capture nonlinear couplings between dynamically relevant phenomena, often while stepping over rapid adjustments to quasi-equilibria, simulation scientists are increasingly turning to implicit formulations that require a discrete nonlinear system to be solved for each time step or steady state solution. Recent advances in iterative methods have made fully implicit formulations a viable option for solution of these large-scale problems. In this paper, we overview one of the most effective iterative methods, Newton-Krylov, for nonlinear systems and point to software packages with its implementation. We illustrate the method with an example from magnetically confined plasma fusion and briefly survey other areas in which implicit methods have bestowed important advantages, such as allowing high-order temporal integration and providing a pathway to sensitivity analyses and optimization. Lastly, we overview algorithm extensions under development motivated by current SciDAC applications

  7. Compatible-strain mixed finite element methods for incompressible nonlinear elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghih Shojaei, Mostafa; Yavari, Arash

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new family of mixed finite elements for incompressible nonlinear elasticity - compatible-strain mixed finite element methods (CSFEMs). Based on a Hu-Washizu-type functional, we write a four-field mixed formulation with the displacement, the displacement gradient, the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and a pressure-like field as the four independent unknowns. Using the Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity, which describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion, we identify the solution spaces of the independent unknown fields. In particular, we define the displacement in H1, the displacement gradient in H (curl), the stress in H (div), and the pressure field in L2. The test spaces of the mixed formulations are chosen to be the same as the corresponding solution spaces. Next, in a conforming setting, we approximate the solution and the test spaces with some piecewise polynomial subspaces of them. Among these approximation spaces are the tensorial analogues of the Nédélec and Raviart-Thomas finite element spaces of vector fields. This approach results in compatible-strain mixed finite element methods that satisfy both the Hadamard compatibility condition and the continuity of traction at the discrete level independently of the refinement level of the mesh. By considering several numerical examples, we demonstrate that CSFEMs have a good performance for bending problems and for bodies with complex geometries. CSFEMs are capable of capturing very large strains and accurately approximating stress and pressure fields. Using CSFEMs, we do not observe any numerical artifacts, e.g., checkerboarding of pressure, hourglass instability, or locking in our numerical examples. Moreover, CSFEMs provide an efficient framework for modeling heterogeneous solids.

  8. Large-Strain Transparent Magnetoactive Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses polymer nano - composite superparamagnetic actuators that were prepared by the addition of organically modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite films exhibited large deformations under a magnetostatic field with a low loading level of 0.1 wt% in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) matrix. The maximum actuation deformation of the nanocomposite films increased exponentially with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cyclic deformation actuation of a high-loading magnetic nanocomposite film was examined in a low magnetic field, and it exhibited excellent reproducibility and controllability. Low-loading TPU nanocomposite films (0.1-2 wt%) were transparent to semitransparent in the visible wavelength range, owing to good dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetoactuation phenomena were also demonstrated in a high-modulus, high-temperature polyimide resin with less mechanical deformation.

  9. Nonlinear behavior of stimulated scatter in large underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1979-01-01

    Several nonlinear effects which limit Brillouin and Raman scatter of intense light in large underdense plasmas are examined. After briefly considering ion trapping and harmonic generation, we focus on the self-consistent ion heating which occurs as an integral part of the Brillouin scattering process. In the long-term nonlinear state, the ion wave amplitude is determined by damping on the heated ion tail which self-consistently forms. A simple model of the scatter is presented and compared with particle simulations. A similar model is also applied to Raman scatter and compared with simulations. Our calculations emphasize that modest tails on the electron distribution function can significantly limit instabilities involving electron plasma waves

  10. Bonus algorithm for large scale stochastic nonlinear programming problems

    CERN Document Server

    Diwekar, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the details of the BONUS algorithm and its real world applications in areas like sensor placement in large scale drinking water networks, sensor placement in advanced power systems, water management in power systems, and capacity expansion of energy systems. A generalized method for stochastic nonlinear programming based on a sampling based approach for uncertainty analysis and statistical reweighting to obtain probability information is demonstrated in this book. Stochastic optimization problems are difficult to solve since they involve dealing with optimization and uncertainty loops. There are two fundamental approaches used to solve such problems. The first being the decomposition techniques and the second method identifies problem specific structures and transforms the problem into a deterministic nonlinear programming problem. These techniques have significant limitations on either the objective function type or the underlying distributions for the uncertain variables. Moreover, these ...

  11. Nonlinear Stress-Strain Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří; Kroupa, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 251-262 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * Young’s modulus * nonlinear behavior * microcracks Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  12. Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, T.C.; Boogaard, A.H. van den

    2015-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steel will transform to martensite when subjected to mechanical working. In this research an austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured. From the in situ magnetic induction measurements an estimate of the stress partitioning among the phases is determined. When the strain path reversal is applied at low strains, a classical Bauschinger effect is observed. When the strain reversal is applied at higher strains, a higher flow stress is measured after the reversal compared to the flow stress before reversal. Also a stagnation of the transformation is observed, meaning that a higher strain as well as a higher stress than before the strain path change is required to restart the transformation after reversal. The observed behavior can be explained by a model in which for the martensitic transformation a stress induced transformation model is used. The constitutive behavior of both the austenite phase and the martensite is described by a Chaboche model to account for the Bauschinger effect. Mean-field homogenization of the material behavior of the individual phases is employed to obtain a constitutive behavior of the two-phase composite. The overall applied stress, the stress in the martensite phase and the observed transformation behavior during cyclic shear are very well reproduced by the model simulations

  13. Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geijselaers, H.J.M., E-mail: h.j.m.geijselaers@utwente.nl; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, T.C.; Boogaard, A.H. van den

    2015-04-17

    Metastable austenitic stainless steel will transform to martensite when subjected to mechanical working. In this research an austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured. From the in situ magnetic induction measurements an estimate of the stress partitioning among the phases is determined. When the strain path reversal is applied at low strains, a classical Bauschinger effect is observed. When the strain reversal is applied at higher strains, a higher flow stress is measured after the reversal compared to the flow stress before reversal. Also a stagnation of the transformation is observed, meaning that a higher strain as well as a higher stress than before the strain path change is required to restart the transformation after reversal. The observed behavior can be explained by a model in which for the martensitic transformation a stress induced transformation model is used. The constitutive behavior of both the austenite phase and the martensite is described by a Chaboche model to account for the Bauschinger effect. Mean-field homogenization of the material behavior of the individual phases is employed to obtain a constitutive behavior of the two-phase composite. The overall applied stress, the stress in the martensite phase and the observed transformation behavior during cyclic shear are very well reproduced by the model simulations.

  14. Electronic properties of polycrystalline graphene under large local strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning; Duan, Junxi; Mei, Fuhong; Meng, Hu; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun

    2014-01-01

    To explore the transport properties of polycrystalline graphene under large tensile strain, a strain device has been fabricated using piezocrystal to load local strain onto graphene, up to 22.5%. Ionic liquid gate whose capability of tuning carrier density being much higher than that of a solid gate is used to survey the transfer characteristics of the deformed graphene. The conductance of the Dirac point and field effect mobility of electrons and holes is found to decrease with increasing strain, which is attributed to the scattering of the graphene grain boundaries, the strain induced change of band structure, and defects. However, the transport gap is still not opened. Our study is helpful to evaluate the application of graphene in stretchable electronics.

  15. Thermal conductance of suspended nanoribbons: interplay between strain and interatomic potential nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Roberto; Florencia Carusela, M.; Monastra, Alejandro G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the role that nonlinearity in the interatomic potential has on the thermal conductance of a suspended nanoribbon when it is subjected to a longitudinal strain. To focus on the first cubic and quartic nonlinear terms of a general potential, we propose an atomic system based on an α-β Fermi-Pasta-Ulam nearest neighbor interaction. We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the contribution of longitudinal, transversal and flexural modes to the thermal conductance as a function of the α-β parameters and the applied strain. We compare the cases where atoms are allowed to vibrate only in plane (2D) with the case of vibrations in and out of plane (3D). We find that the dependence of conductance on α and β relies on a crossover phenomenon between linear/nonlinear delocalized/localized flexural and transversal modes, driven by an on/off switch of the strain.

  16. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  17. Nonlinear Model of Pseudoelastic Shape Memory Alloy Damper Considering Residual Martensite Strain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Parulekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increasing interest in using superelastic shape memory alloys for applications in seismic resistant-design. Shape memory alloys (SMAs have a unique property by which they can recover their original shape after experiencing large strains up to 8% either by heating (shape memory effect or removing stress (pseudoelastic effect. Many simplified shape memory alloy models are suggested in the past literature for capturing the pseudoelastic response of SMAs in passive vibration control of structures. Most of these models do not consider the cyclic effects of SMA's and resulting residual martensite deformation. Therefore, a suitable constitutive model of shape memory alloy damper which represents the nonlinear hysterical dynamic system appropriately is essential. In this paper a multilinear hysteretic model incorporating residual martensite strain effect of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy damper is developed and experimentally validated using SMA wire, based damper device. A sensitivity analysis is done using the proposed model along with three other simplified SMA models. The models are implemented on a steel frame representing an SDOF system and the comparison of seismic response of structure with all the models is made in the numerical study.

  18. Mechanism of large optical nonlinearity in gold nanoparticle films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I; McCloskey, D; Blau, W J; Lunney, J G

    2018-04-01

    The Z-scan technique, using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 1480 nm laser pulses, was used to measure the nonlinear optical properties of gold (Au) nanoparticle (NP) films made by both nanosecond (ns) and fs pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum. At irradiance levels of 1×10 12   Wm -2 , the ns-PLD films displayed induced absorption with β=4×10 -5   mW -1 , and a negative lensing effect with n 2 =-4.7×10 -11   m 2  W -1 with somewhat smaller values for the fs-PLD films. These values of n 2 imply an unphysically large change in the real part of the refractive index, demonstrating the need to take account of nonlinear changes of the Fresnel coefficients and multiple beam interference in Z-scan measurements on nanoscale films. Following this approach, the Z-scan observations were analyzed to determine the effective complex refractive index of the NP film at high irradiance. It appears that at high irradiance the NP film behaves as a metal, while at low irradiance it behaves as a low-loss dielectric. Thus, it is conjectured that, for high irradiance near the waist of the Z-scan laser beam, laser driven electron tunneling between NPs gives rise to metal-like optical behavior.

  19. Large strain deformation behavior of polymeric gels in shear- and cavitation rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Polymeric gels are used in many applications including in biomedical and in food industries. Investigation of mechanical responses of swollen polymer gels and linking that to the polymer chain dynamics are of significant interest. Here, large strain deformation behavior of two different gel systems and with different network architecture will be presented. We consider biologically relevant polysaccharide hydrogels, formed through ionic and covalent crosslinking, and physically associating triblock copolymer gels in a midblock selective solvent. Gels with similar low-strain shear modulus display distinctly different non-linear rheological behavior in large strain shear deformation. Both these gels display strain-stiffening behavior in shear-deformation prior to macroscopic fracture of the network, however, only the alginate gels display negative normal stress. The cavitation rheology data show that the critical pressure for cavitation is higher for alginate gels than that observed for triblock gels. These distinctly different large-strain deformation behavior has been related to the gel network structure, as alginate chains are much stiffer than the triblock polymer chains.

  20. Hierarchical optimal control of large-scale nonlinear chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Sadati, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for optimal control of large-scale chemical processes. In this approach, the chemical process is decomposed into smaller sub-systems at the first level, and a coordinator at the second level, for which a two-level hierarchical control strategy is designed. For this purpose, each sub-system in the first level can be solved separately, by using any conventional optimization algorithm. In the second level, the solutions obtained from the first level are coordinated using a new gradient-type strategy, which is updated by the error of the coordination vector. The proposed algorithm is used to solve the optimal control problem of a complex nonlinear chemical stirred tank reactor (CSTR), where its solution is also compared with the ones obtained using the centralized approach. The simulation results show the efficiency and the capability of the proposed hierarchical approach, in finding the optimal solution, over the centralized method.

  1. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any

  2. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. Novel Approach for Prediction of Localized Necking in Case of Nonlinear Strain Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotleff, K.; Liewald, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rising customer expectations regarding design complexity and weight reduction of sheet metal components alongside with further reduced time to market implicate increased demand for process validation using numerical forming simulation. Formability prediction though often is still based on the forming limit diagram first presented in the 1960s. Despite many drawbacks in case of nonlinear strain paths and major advances in research in the recent years, the forming limit curve (FLC) is still one of the most commonly used criteria for assessing formability of sheet metal materials. Especially when forming complex part geometries nonlinear strain paths may occur, which cannot be predicted using the conventional FLC-Concept. In this paper a novel approach for calculation of FLCs for nonlinear strain paths is presented. Combining an interesting approach for prediction of FLC using tensile test data and IFU-FLC-Criterion a model for prediction of localized necking for nonlinear strain paths can be derived. Presented model is purely based on experimental tensile test data making it easy to calibrate for any given material. Resulting prediction of localized necking is validated using an experimental deep drawing specimen made of AA6014 material having a sheet thickness of 1.04 mm. The results are compared to IFU-FLC-Criterion based on data of pre-stretched Nakajima specimen.

  4. Large Strain Transparent Magneto-Active Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra (Inventor); Meador, Michael A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A large strain polymer nanocomposite actuator is provided that upon subjected to an external stimulus, such as a magnetic field (static or electromagnetic field), an electric field, thermal energy, light, etc., will deform to thereby enable mechanical manipulations of structural components in a remote and wireless manner.

  5. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems

  6. Material-Point Analysis of Large-Strain Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren

    The aim of this thesis is to apply and improve the material-point method for modelling of geotechnical problems. One of the geotechnical phenomena that is a subject of active research is the study of landslides. A large amount of research is focused on determining when slopes become unstable. Hence......, it is possible to predict if a certain slope is stable using commercial finite element or finite difference software such as PLAXIS, ABAQUS or FLAC. However, the dynamics during a landslide are less explored. The material-point method (MPM) is a novel numerical method aimed at analysing problems involving...... materials subjected to large strains in a dynamical time–space domain. This thesis explores the material-point method with the specific aim of improving the performance for geotechnical problems. Large-strain geotechnical problems such as landslides pose a major challenge to model numerically. Employing...

  7. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  8. Metallic nanomaterials formed by exerting large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, M; Richert, J.; Zasadzinski, J.; Hawrylkiewicz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations included pure Al and Cu single crystals, AlMg5 alloy and AlCuZr alloy have been presented. The materials were deformed by the cyclic extrusion compression method (CEC) within the range of true strains φ = 0.4-59.8 (1 to 67 deformation cycles by the CEC method). In all examined materials a strong tendency to form banded was observed. Within the range of very large plastic strains there was observed intensive rebuilding of the banded microstructure into subgrains, at first of rhombic shape, and next into equiaxial subgrains. A characteristic feature of the newly formed subgrains, not encountered in the range of conventional deformations, was the occurrence of large misorientation angles between the newly formed subgrains. The proportion of large misorientation angles in the microstructure varied, and it increased with increasing deformation. Reduction of the recovery process in AlMg5 and AlCuZr alloys preserved the growth of the newly formed nanograins, favoring the retaining of the nanomeric dimensions. This results show that there is the effective possibility of production of metallic nanomaterials by exerting of very large nonconventional plastic strains. (author)

  9. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r 0 = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(Ωh) -1 (H 0 = 100h km s -1 Mpc -1 ). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Lyα absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with Ω<1

  10. Dynamics of Large Systems of Nonlinearly Evolving Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhixin

    The dynamics of large systems of many nonlinearly evolving units is a general research area that has great importance for many areas in science and technology, including biology, computation by artificial neural networks, statistical mechanics, flocking in animal groups, the dynamics of coupled neurons in the brain, and many others. While universal principles and techniques are largely lacking in this broad area of research, there is still one particular phenomenon that seems to be broadly applicable. In particular, this is the idea of emergence, by which is meant macroscopic behaviors that "emerge" from a large system of many "smaller or simpler entities such that...large entities" [i.e., macroscopic behaviors] arise which "exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit." In this thesis we investigate mechanisms and manifestations of emergence in four dynamical systems consisting many nonlinearly evolving units. These four systems are as follows. (a) We first study the motion of a large ensemble of many noninteracting particles in a slowly changing Hamiltonian system that undergoes a separatrix crossing. In such systems, we find that separatrix-crossing induces a counterintuitive effect. Specifically, numerical simulation of two sets of densely sprinkled initial conditions on two energy curves appears to suggest that the two energy curves, one originally enclosing the other, seemingly interchange their positions. This, however, is topologically forbidden. We resolve this paradox by introducing a numerical simulation method we call "robust" and study its consequences. (b) We next study the collective dynamics of oscillatory pacemaker neurons in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN), which, through synchrony, govern the circadian rhythm of mammals. We start from a high-dimensional description of the many coupled oscillatory neuronal units within the SCN. This description is based on a forced Kuramoto model. We then reduce the system dimensionality by using

  11. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Under Large Electrostatic Force

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction

  13. The behavior of intermetallic compounds at large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.T.; Embury, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of a broad study of intermetallics which includes the following materials, Ni 3 Al, Ti-48Al-1V, Ti-24Al-11Nb, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and Ti-24.5 Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo. Much effort has been devoted to the study of ordered materials at modes plastic strains and the problem of premature failure. However by utilizing stress states other than simple tension it is possible to study the deformation of intermetallic compounds up to large plastic strains and to consider the behavior of these materials in the regime where stresses approach the theoretical stress. The current work outlines studies of the work hardening rate of a number of titanium and nickel-based intermetallic compounds deformed in compression. Attention is given to the structural basis of the sustained work hardening. The large strain plasticity of these materials is summarized in a series of diagrams. Fracture in these materials in compression occurs via catastrophic shear at stresses of the order of E/80 (where E is the elastic modulus)

  14. Nonequilibrium and Nonlinear Dynamics in Geomaterials I : The Low Strain Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualini, Donatella; Heitmann, Katrin; TenCate, James A.; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Johnson, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Members of a wide class of geomaterials are known to display complex and fascinating nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamical behaviors over a wide range of bulk strains, down to surprisingly low values, e.g., 10^{-7}. In this paper we investigate two sandstones, Berea and Fontainebleau, and characterize their behavior under the influence of very small external forces via carefully controlled resonant bar experiments. By reducing environmental effects due to temperature and humidity variations,...

  15. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  16. Shear banding in large strain plasticity - Influence of specimen dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Marzena; Wcisło, Balbina; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical analysis of shear banding which occurs in an elongated rectangular plate for a large strain elastic-plastic material model. It is focused on the influence of plate size proportions and finite element mesh density on numerical results. The discussion is limited to isothermal conditions and ideal plasticity. First a plain strain case is computed for different lengths of the plate, then simulations are repeated for plane stress for which different thicknesses of the plate are considered. Most of the computations are performed for three finite element meshes to verify discretization sensitivity of the results. The simulations are performed using AceGen and AceFEM packages for Wolfram Mathematica.

  17. Soft network materials with isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Zhang, Yihui

    2018-01-31

    Auxetic materials with negative Poisson's ratios have important applications across a broad range of engineering areas, such as biomedical devices, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering. A variety of design strategies have been developed to achieve artificial auxetic materials with controllable responses in the Poisson's ratio. The development of designs that can offer isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains can open up new opportunities in emerging biomedical applications, which, however, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce deterministic routes to soft architected materials that can be tailored precisely to yield the values of Poisson's ratio in the range from -1 to 1, in an isotropic manner, with a tunable strain range from 0% to ∼90%. The designs rely on a network construction in a periodic lattice topology, which incorporates zigzag microstructures as building blocks to connect lattice nodes. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on broad classes of network topologies illustrate the wide-ranging utility of these concepts. Quantitative mechanics modeling under both infinitesimal and finite deformations allows the development of a rigorous design algorithm that determines the necessary network geometries to yield target Poisson ratios over desired strain ranges. Demonstrative examples in artificial skin with both the negative Poisson's ratio and the nonlinear stress-strain curve precisely matching those of the cat's skin and in unusual cylindrical structures with engineered Poisson effect and shape memory effect suggest potential applications of these network materials.

  18. Effect of nonlinear stress-strain relationship on bending strength of isotropic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Taketoshi; Oku, Tatsuo

    1978-05-01

    Four-point bending tests were made on rectangular isotropic 7477PT graphite specimens of different sizes to observe the relation between load and outermost fiber strain. Analytical methods, allowing for nonlinear stress-strain relationships different between tension and compression, were developed for calculating the fiber stress distribution in a beam and the failure probability based on the Weibull statistical theory for bending fracture. With increase of the stress, the stress-strain curves for tension deviate from the linearity and also from those for compression. The true bending strengths of the rectangular bars are 10 -- 20 percent lower than elastic bending strengths. Revised Weibull theory gives failure probability distributions agreeing with measured ones, compared with the theory based on elastic behavior. (auth.)

  19. Accelerating Inexact Newton Schemes for Large Systems of Nonlinear Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    Classical iteration methods for linear systems, such as Jacobi iteration, can be accelerated considerably by Krylov subspace methods like GMRES. In this paper, we describe how inexact Newton methods for nonlinear problems can be accelerated in a similar way and how this leads to a general

  20. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional...

  1. Interior Point Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4-5 (2005), s. 569-582 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * interior point methods * KKT systems * indefinite preconditioners * filter methods * algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005

  2. The demonstration of nonlinear analytic model for the strain field induced by thermal copper filled TSVs (through silicon via

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/ °C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/ °C when the structure is exposed to a thermal ramp budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to introduce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to have large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and the analysis of the Mohr's circle. The characteristics of stress are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique with nanometer level space resolution. The change of the electron mobility with the consideration of this nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs is ∼2–6% smaller in comparison with those from the consideration of the linear stress superposition principle only.

  3. Superposition of elliptic functions as solutions for a large number of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    For a large number of nonlinear equations, both discrete and continuum, we demonstrate a kind of linear superposition. We show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits solutions in terms of both Jacobi elliptic functions cn(x, m) and dn(x, m) with modulus m, then it also admits solutions in terms of their sum as well as difference. We have checked this in the case of several nonlinear equations such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, MKdV, a mixed KdV-MKdV system, a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Ablowitz-Ladik equation, the saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation, λϕ 4 , the discrete MKdV as well as for several coupled field equations. Further, for a large number of nonlinear equations, we show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits a periodic solution in terms of dn 2 (x, m), it also admits solutions in terms of dn 2 (x,m)±√(m) cn (x,m) dn (x,m), even though cn(x, m)dn(x, m) is not a solution of these nonlinear equations. Finally, we also obtain superposed solutions of various forms for several coupled nonlinear equations

  4. Coupled modeling and simulation of electro-elastic materials at large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possart, Gunnar; Steinmann, Paul; Vu, Duc-Khoi

    2006-03-01

    In the recent years various novel materials have been developed that respond to the application of electrical loading by large strains. An example is the class of so-called electro-active polymers (EAP). Certainly these materials are technologically very interesting, e.g. for the design of actuators in mechatronics or in the area of artificial tissues. This work focuses on the phenomenological modeling of such materials within the setting of continuum-electro-dynamics specialized to the case of electro-hyperelastostatics and the corresponding computational setting. Thereby a highly nonlinear coupled problem for the deformation and the electric potential has to be considered. The finite element method is applied to solve the underlying equations numerically and some exemplary applications are presented.

  5. The Strain Energy, Seismic Moment and Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaru, G.

    2004-12-01

    The strain energy Est, as potential energy, released by an earthquake and the seismic moment Mo are two fundamental physical earthquake parameters. The earthquake rupture process ``represents'' the release of the accumulated Est. The moment Mo, first obtained in 1966 by Aki, revolutioned the quantification of earthquake size and led to the elimination of the limitations of the conventional magnitudes (originally ML, Richter, 1930) mb, Ms, m, MGR. Both Mo and Est, not in a 1-to-1 correspondence, are uniform measures of the size, although Est is presently less accurate than Mo. Est is partitioned in seismic- (Es), fracture- (Eg) and frictional-energy Ef, and Ef is lost as frictional heat energy. The available Est = Es + Eg (Aki and Richards (1980), Kostrov and Das, (1988) for fundamentals on Mo and Est). Related to Mo, Est and Es, several modern magnitudes were defined under various assumptions: the moment magnitude Mw (Kanamori, 1977), strain energy magnitude ME (Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), tsunami magnitude Mt (Abe, 1979), mantle magnitude Mm (Okal and Talandier, 1987), seismic energy magnitude Me (Choy and Boatright, 1995, Yanovskaya et al, 1996), body-wave magnitude Mpw (Tsuboi et al, 1998). The available Est = (1/2μ )Δ σ Mo, Δ σ ~=~average stress drop, and ME is % \\[M_E = 2/3(\\log M_o + \\log(\\Delta\\sigma/\\mu)-12.1) ,\\] % and log Est = 11.8 + 1.5 ME. The estimation of Est was modified to include Mo, Δ and μ of predominant high slip zones (asperities) to account for multiple events (Purcaru, 1997): % \\[E_{st} = \\frac{1}{2} \\sum_i {\\frac{1}{\\mu_i} M_{o,i} \\Delta\\sigma_i} , \\sum_i M_{o,i} = M_o \\] % We derived the energy balance of Est, Es and Eg as: % \\[ E_{st}/M_o = (1+e(g,s)) E_s/M_o , e(g,s) = E_g/E_s \\] % We analyzed a set of about 90 large earthquakes and found that, depending on the goal these magnitudes quantify differently the rupture process, thus providing complementary means of earthquake characterization. Results for some

  6. Relativistic effects on large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in a two-fluid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejoh, Yasunori

    1994-07-01

    Large amplitude relativistic nonlinear Langmuir waves are analyzed by the pseudo-potential method. The existence conditions for nonlinear Langmuir waves are confirmed by considering relativistic high-speed electrons in a two-fluid plasma. The significant feature of this investigation is that the propagation of nonlinear Langmuir waves depends on the ratio of the electron streaming velocity to the velocity of light, the normalized potential and the ion mass to electron mass ratio. The constant energy is determined by the specific range of the relativistic effect. In the non-relativistic limit, large amplitude relativistic Langmuir waves do not exist. The present investigation predicts new findings of large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in space plasma phenomena in which relativistic electrons are important. (author)

  7. Solving Large Scale Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problem in Next-Generation Accelerator Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ben-Shan; Bai, Zhaojun; /UC, Davis; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    A number of numerical methods, including inverse iteration, method of successive linear problem and nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm, are studied in this paper to solve a large scale nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising from finite element analysis of resonant frequencies and external Q{sub e} values of a waveguide loaded cavity in the next-generation accelerator design. They present a nonlinear Rayleigh-Ritz iterative projection algorithm, NRRIT in short and demonstrate that it is the most promising approach for a model scale cavity design. The NRRIT algorithm is an extension of the nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm due to Voss. Computational challenges of solving such a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for a full scale cavity design are outlined.

  8. Large time asymptotics of solutions to the anharmonic oscillator model from nonlinear optics

    OpenAIRE

    Jochmann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The anharmonic oscillator model describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in an exterior domain containing a nonlinear dielectric medium is investigated. The system under consideration consists of a generally nonlinear second order differential equation for the dielectrical polarization coupled with Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. Local decay of the electromagnetic field for t to infinity in the charge free case is shown for a large class of potentials. (This pape...

  9. Nonlinear δf Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T perpendicularb >> T parallelb ). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ = 0

  10. Cyclic loading of simulated fault gouge to large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    1980-04-01

    As part of a study of the mechanics of simulated fault gouge, deformation of Kayenta Sandstone (24% initial porosity) was observed in triaxial stress tests through several stress cycles. Between 50- and 300-MPa effective pressure the specimens deformed stably without stress drops and with deformation occurring throughout the sample. At 400-MPa effective pressure the specimens underwent strain softening with the deformation occurring along one plane. However, the difference in behavior seems to be due to the density variation at different pressures rather than to the difference in pressure. After peak stress was reached in each cycle, the samples dilated such that the volumetric strain and the linear strain maintained a constant ratio (approximately 0.1) at all pressures. The behavior was independent of the number of stress cycles to linear strains up to 90% and was in general agreement with laws of soil behavior derived from experiments conducted at low pressure (below 5 MPa).

  11. Large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear Sobolev-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaikina, Elena I; Naumkin, Pavel I; Shishmarev, Il'ya A

    2009-01-01

    The large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the Cauchy problem is investigated for a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with dissipation. For small initial data the approach taken is based on a detailed analysis of the Green's function of the linear problem and the use of the contraction mapping method. The case of large initial data is also closely considered. In the supercritical case the asymptotic formulae are quasi-linear. The asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with a critical non-linearity of the non-convective kind differs by a logarithmic correction term from the behaviour of solutions of the corresponding linear equation. For a critical convective non-linearity, as well as for a subcritical non-convective non-linearity it is proved that the leading term of the asymptotic expression for large times is a self-similar solution. For Sobolev equations with convective non-linearity the asymptotic behaviour of solutions in the subcritical case is the product of a rarefaction wave and a shock wave. Bibliography: 84 titles.

  12. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  13. A wireless sensor network design and evaluation for large structural strain field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zixue; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang

    2011-01-01

    Structural strain changes under external environmental or mechanical loads are the main monitoring parameters in structural health monitoring or mechanical property tests. This paper presents a wireless sensor network designed for monitoring large structural strain field variation. First of all, a precision strain sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and wireless monitoring. In order to establish a synchronous strain data acquisition network, the cluster-star network synchronization method is designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless network for strain field monitoring capability, a multi-point network evaluation system is developed for an experimental aluminum plate structure for load variation monitoring. Based on the precision wireless strain nodes, the wireless data acquisition network is deployed to synchronously gather, process and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under concentrated loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network for large structural strain field monitoring

  14. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeh, Obinna, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  15. Elucidating and tuning the strain-induced non-linear behavior of polymer nanocomposites: a detailed molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxiang; Liu, Jun; Gao, Yangyang; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-07-28

    By setting up a coarse-grained model of polymer nanocomposites, we monitored the change in the elastic modulus as a function of the strain, derived from the stress-strain behavior by determining uniaxial tension and simple shear of two typical spatial distribution states (aggregation and dispersion) of nanoparticles (NPs). In both these cases, we observed that the elastic modulus decreases non-linearly with the increase of strain and reaches a low plateau at larger strains. This phenomenon is similar to the so-called "Payne effect" for elastomer nanocomposites. Particularly, the modulus of the aggregation case is more sensitive to the imposed strain. By examining the structural parameters, such as the number of neighboring NPs, coordination number of NPs, root-mean-squared average force exerted on the NPs, local strain, chain conformations (bridge, dangle, loop, interface bead and connection bead), and the total interaction energy of NP-polymer and NP-NP, we inferred that the underlying mechanism of the aggregation case is the disintegration of the NP network or clusters formed through direct contact; however, for the dispersion case, the non-linear behavior is attributed to the destruction of the NP network or clusters formed through the bridging of adsorbed polymer segments among the NPs. The former physical network is influenced by NP-NP interaction and NP volume fraction, while the latter is influenced by NP-polymer interaction and NP volume fraction. Lastly, we found that for the dispersion case, further increasing the inter-particle distance or grafting NPs with polymer chains can effectively reduce the non-linear behavior due to the decrease of the physical network density. In general, this simulation work, for the first time, establishes the correlation between the micro-structural evolution and the strain-induced non-linear behavior of polymer nanocomposites, and sheds some light on how to reduce the "Payne effect".

  16. Approximations for Large Deflection of a Cantilever Beam under a Terminal Follower Force and Nonlinear Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vázquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In theoretical mechanics field, solution methods for nonlinear differential equations are very important because many problems are modelled using such equations. In particular, large deflection of a cantilever beam under a terminal follower force and nonlinear pendulum problem can be described by the same nonlinear differential equation. Therefore, in this work, we propose some approximate solutions for both problems using nonlinearities distribution homotopy perturbation method, homotopy perturbation method, and combinations with Laplace-Padé posttreatment. We will show the high accuracy of the proposed cantilever solutions, which are in good agreement with other reported solutions. Finally, for the pendulum case, the proposed approximation was useful to predict, accurately, the period for an angle up to 179.99999999∘ yielding a relative error of 0.01222747.

  17. Self-adapted and tunable graphene strain sensors for detecting both subtle and large human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Liu, Ying; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-22

    Conventional strain sensors rarely have both a high gauge factor and a large strain range simultaneously, so they can only be used in specific situations where only a high sensitivity or a large strain range is required. However, for detecting human motions that include both subtle and large motions, these strain sensors can't meet the diverse demands simultaneously. Here, we come up with laser patterned graphene strain sensors with self-adapted and tunable performance for the first time. A series of strain sensors with either an ultrahigh gauge factor or a preferable strain range can be fabricated simultaneously via one-step laser patterning, and are suitable for detecting all human motions. The strain sensors have a GF of up to 457 with a strain range of 35%, or have a strain range of up to 100% with a GF of 268. Most importantly, the performance of the strain sensors can be easily tuned by adjusting the patterns of the graphene, so that the sensors can meet diverse demands in both subtle and large motion situations. The graphene strain sensors show significant potential in applications such as wearable electronics, health monitoring and intelligent robots. Furthermore, the facile, fast and low-cost fabrication method will make them possible and practical to be used for commercial applications in the future.

  18. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  19. Non-linear finite element analyses applicable for the design of large reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, M; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In order to make non-linear finite element analyses applicable during assessments of the ultimate load capacity or the structural reliability of large reinforced concrete structures, there is need for an efficient solution strategy with a low modelling uncertainty. A solution strategy comprises

  20. Material model for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, Morten; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik; Beushausen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A fully triaxial material model for concrete was implemented in a commercial finite element code. The only required input parameter was the cylinder compressive strength. The material model was suitable for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures. The importance of including

  1. Nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials incorporating nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of biological applications such as drug delivery, biosensors and hemodialysis can be provided by nanoporous biomaterials due to their uniform pore size as well as considerable pore density. In the current study, the size dependency in the nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials is anticipated. To accomplish this end, a refined truncated cube is introduced to model the lattice structure of nanoporous biomaterial. Accordingly, analytical expressions for the mechanical properties of material are derived as functions of pore size. After that, based upon a nonlocal strain gradient beam model, the size-dependent nonlinear Duffing type equation of motion is constructed. The Galerkin technique together with the multiple time-scales method is employed to obtain the nonlocal strain gradient frequency-response and amplitude-response related to the nonlinear primary resonance of a micro/nano-beam made of the nanoporous biomaterial with different pore sizes. It is indicated that the nonlocality causes to decrease the response amplitudes associated with the both bifurcation points of the jump phenomenon, while the strain gradient size dependency causes to increase them. Also, it is found that increasing the pore size leads to enhance the nonlinearity, so the maximum deflection of response occurs at higher excitation frequency.

  2. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  3. A model for recovery kinetics of aluminum after large strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A model is suggested to analyze recovery kinetics of heavily deformed aluminum. The model is based on the hardness of isothermal annealed samples before recrystallization takes place, and it can be extrapolated to longer annealing times to factor out the recrystallization component of the hardness...... for conditions where recovery and recrystallization overlap. The model is applied to the isothermal recovery at temperatures between 140 and 220°C of commercial purity aluminum deformed to true strain 5.5. EBSD measurements have been carried out to detect the onset of discontinuous recrystallization. Furthermore...

  4. Actin and microtubule networks contribute differently to cell response for small and large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschke, H.; Schnauss, J.; Nnetu, K. D.; Warmt, E.; Stange, R.; Kaes, J.

    2017-09-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments provide cells with mechanical stability and organization. The main key players are actin filaments and microtubules governing a cell’s response to mechanical stimuli. We investigated the specific influences of these crucial components by deforming MCF-7 epithelial cells at small (≤5% deformation) and large strains (>5% deformation). To understand specific contributions of actin filaments and microtubules, we systematically studied cellular responses after treatment with cytoskeleton influencing drugs. Quantification with the microfluidic optical stretcher allowed capturing the relative deformation and relaxation of cells under different conditions. We separated distinctive deformational and relaxational contributions to cell mechanics for actin and microtubule networks for two orders of magnitude of drug dosages. Disrupting actin filaments via latrunculin A, for instance, revealed a strain-independent softening. Stabilizing these filaments by treatment with jasplakinolide yielded cell softening for small strains but showed no significant change at large strains. In contrast, cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt microtubules displayed a softening at large strains but remained unchanged at small strains. Stabilizing microtubules within the cells via paclitaxel revealed no significant changes for deformations at small strains, but concentration-dependent impact at large strains. This suggests that for suspended cells, the actin cortex is probed at small strains, while at larger strains; the whole cell is probed with a significant contribution from the microtubules.

  5. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  6. Nonlinear elastic longitudinal strain-wave propagation in a plate with nonequilibrium laser-generated point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzade, Fikret Kh.

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of longitudinal strain wave in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity of elastic continuum was studied in the context of a model that takes into account the joint dynamics of elastic displacements in the medium and the concentration of the nonequilibrium laser-induced point defects. The input equations of the problem are reformulated in terms of only the total displacements of the medium points. In this case, the presence of structural defects manifests itself in the emergence of a delayed response of the system to the propagation of the strain-related perturbations, which is characteristic of media with relaxation or memory. The model equations describing the nonlinear displacement wave were derived with allowance made for the values of the relaxation parameter. The influence of the generation and relaxation of lattice defects on the propagation of this wave was analyzed. It is shown that, for short relaxation times of defects, the strain can propagate in the form of shock fronts. In the case of longer relaxation times, shock waves do not form and the strain wave propagates only in the form of solitary waves or a train of solitons. The contributions of the finiteness of the defect-recombination rate to linear and nonlinear elastic modulus, and spatial dispersion are determined

  7. Structure and properties of copper after large strain deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, Kinga; Molak, Rafal M.; Pakiela, Zbigniew

    2010-05-15

    Structure and properties of Cu in dependence on strain (from {epsilon}{proportional_to} 0.9 to {epsilon}{proportional_to} 15) during multi-axial compression processing at room temperature was investigated. The evolution of dislocation structure, misorientation distribution and crystallite size were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The mechanical properties of yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and uniform elongation was performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). The structure-flow stress relationship of multi-axial compression processing material at strains {epsilon}{proportional_to} 3.5 and {epsilon}{proportional_to} 5.5 is discussed. It is found that processing does not produce any drastic changes in deformation structure and the microstructural refinement is slow. These results indicate that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role during multi-axial compression process in this range of deformation (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. A method for exponential propagation of large systems of stiff nonlinear differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesner, Richard A.; Tuckerman, Laurette S.; Dornblaser, Bright C.; Russo, Thomas V.

    1989-01-01

    A new time integrator for large, stiff systems of linear and nonlinear coupled differential equations is described. For linear systems, the method consists of forming a small (5-15-term) Krylov space using the Jacobian of the system and carrying out exact exponential propagation within this space. Nonlinear corrections are incorporated via a convolution integral formalism; the integral is evaluated via approximate Krylov methods as well. Gains in efficiency ranging from factors of 2 to 30 are demonstrated for several test problems as compared to a forward Euler scheme and to the integration package LSODE.

  9. Finite element model for nonlinear shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear material shipping containers have shells of revolution as basic structural components. Analytically modeling the response of these containers to severe accident impact conditions requires a nonlinear shell-of-revolution model that accounts for both geometric and material nonlinearities. Existing models are limited to large displacements, small rotations, and nonlinear materials. The paper presents a finite element model for a nonlinear shell of revolution that will account for large displacements, large strains, large rotations, and nonlinear materials

  10. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  11. Nonlinear Vibration Signal Tracking of Large Offshore Bridge Stayed Cable Based on Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Qingwei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stayed cables are key stress components of large offshore bridge. The fault detection of stayed cable is very important for safe of large offshore bridge. A particle filter model and algorithm of nonlinear vibration signal are used in this paper. Firstly, the particle filter model of stayed cable of large offshore bridge is created. Nonlinear dynamic model of the stayed-cable and beam coupling system is dispersed in temporal dimension by using the finite difference method. The discrete nonlinear vibration equations of any cable element are worked out. Secondly, a state equation of particle filter is fitted by least square algorithm from the discrete nonlinear vibration equations. So the particle filter algorithm can use the accurate state equations. Finally, the particle filter algorithm is used to filter the vibration signal of bridge stayed cable. According to the particle filter, the de-noised vibration signal can be tracked and be predicted for a short time accurately. Many experiments are done at some actual bridges. The simulation experiments and the actual experiments on the bridge stayed cables are all indicating that the particle filter algorithm in this paper has good performance and works stably.

  12. Generation of weakly nonlinear nonhydrostatic internal tides over large topography: a multi-modal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maugé

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of evolution equations is derived for the modal coefficients in a weakly nonlinear nonhydrostatic internal-tide generation problem. The equations allow for the presence of large-amplitude topography, e.g. a continental slope, which is formally assumed to have a length scale much larger than that of the internal tide. However, comparison with results from more sophisticated numerical models show that this restriction can in practice be relaxed. It is shown that a topographically induced coupling between modes occurs that is distinct from nonlinear coupling. Nonlinear effects include the generation of higher harmonics by reflection from boundaries, i.e. steeper tidal beams at frequencies that are multiples of the basic tidal frequency. With a seasonal thermocline included, the model is capable of reproducing the phenomenon of local generation of internal solitary waves by a tidal beam impinging on the seasonal thermocline.

  13. THREE-POINT PHASE CORRELATIONS: A NEW MEASURE OF NONLINEAR LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Bonvin, Camille [Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Obreschkow, Danail [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-10

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F{sub 2}, which governs the nonlinear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a 1σ agreement for separations r ≳ 30 h{sup −1} Mpc. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the nonlinear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly nonlinear regime, where we find a 1σ agreement with the simulations for r ≳ 2 h{sup −1} Mpc. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the bias, in the regime where the bias is local and linear. Furthermore, the variance of the line correlation is independent of the Gaussian variance on the modulus of the density field. This suggests that the line correlation can probe more precisely the nonlinear regime of gravity, with less contamination from the power spectrum variance.

  14. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria...... of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates...... as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10...

  15. Tensor-GMRES method for large sparse systems of nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a tensor-Krylov method, the tensor-GMRES method, for large sparse systems of nonlinear equations. This method is a coupling of tensor model formation and solution techniques for nonlinear equations with Krylov subspace projection techniques for unsymmetric systems of linear equations. Traditional tensor methods for nonlinear equations are based on a quadratic model of the nonlinear function, a standard linear model augmented by a simple second order term. These methods are shown to be significantly more efficient than standard methods both on nonsingular problems and on problems where the Jacobian matrix at the solution is singular. A major disadvantage of the traditional tensor methods is that the solution of the tensor model requires the factorization of the Jacobian matrix, which may not be suitable for problems where the Jacobian matrix is large and has a 'bad' sparsity structure for an efficient factorization. We overcome this difficulty by forming and solving the tensor model using an extension of a Newton-GMRES scheme. Like traditional tensor methods, we show that the new tensor method has significant computational advantages over the analogous Newton counterpart. Consistent with Krylov subspace based methods, the new tensor method does not depend on the factorization of the Jacobian matrix. As a matter of fact, the Jacobian matrix is never needed explicitly.

  16. Modal analysis of graphene-based structures for large deformations, contact and material nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Reza; Sauer, Roger A.

    2018-06-01

    The nonlinear frequencies of pre-stressed graphene-based structures, such as flat graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes, are calculated. These structures are modeled with a nonlinear hyperelastic shell model. The model is calibrated with quantum mechanics data and is valid for high strains. Analytical solutions of the natural frequencies of various plates are obtained for the Canham bending model by assuming infinitesimal strains. These solutions are used for the verification of the numerical results. The performance of the model is illustrated by means of several examples. Modal analysis is performed for square plates under pure dilatation or uniaxial stretch, circular plates under pure dilatation or under the effects of an adhesive substrate, and carbon nanotubes under uniaxial compression or stretch. The adhesive substrate is modeled with van der Waals interaction (based on the Lennard-Jones potential) and a coarse grained contact model. It is shown that the analytical natural frequencies underestimate the real ones, and this should be considered in the design of devices based on graphene structures.

  17. Microstructure and micro-texture evolution during large strain deformation of Inconel alloy IN718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayan, Niraj [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India); Gurao, N.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Narayana Murty, S.V.S., E-mail: susarla.murty@gmail.com [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India); Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M. [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The hot deformation behaviour of Inconel alloy IN718 was studied in the temperature range of 950–1100 °C and at strain rates of 0.01 and 1 s{sup −1} with a view to understand the microstructural evolution as a function of strain rate and temperature. For this purpose, a single hit, hot isothermal plane strain compression (PSC) technique was used. The flow curves obtained during PSC exhibited weak flow softening at higher temperatures. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis (EBSD) of the PSC tested samples at the location of maximum strain revealed dynamic recrystallisation occurring at higher temperatures. Based on detailed microstructure and microtexture analyses, it was concluded that single step, large strain deformation has a distinct advantage in the thermo-mechanical processing of Inconel alloy IN718. - Highlights: • Plane strain compression (PSC) on IN718 was conducted. • Evolution of microstructure during large strain deformation was studied. • Flow curves exhibited weak softening at higher temperatures and dipping of the flow curve at a strain rate of 1 s{sup −1}. • Optimization of microstructure and process parameter for hot rolling possible by plane strain compression testing • Dynamic recrystallisation occurs in specimens deformed at higher temperatures and lower strain rates.

  18. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  19. A family of conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexiang Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we present a family of conjugate gradient projection methods for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. At each iteration, it needs low storage and the subproblem can be easily solved. Compared with the existing solution methods for solving the problem, its global convergence is established without the restriction of the Lipschitz continuity on the underlying mapping. Preliminary numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. A family of conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dexiang; Sun, Min; Wang, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a family of conjugate gradient projection methods for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. At each iteration, it needs low storage and the subproblem can be easily solved. Compared with the existing solution methods for solving the problem, its global convergence is established without the restriction of the Lipschitz continuity on the underlying mapping. Preliminary numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  2. Three-point phase correlations: A new measure of non-linear large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Obreschkow, Danail

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the non-linear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F_2, which governs the non-linear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a very good agreement for separations r>20 Mpc/h. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the non-linear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly non-linear regime. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the linear bias. Furtherm...

  3. Microstructure-grain orientation relationship in coarse grain nickel cold-rolled to large strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.S.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, N.; Xie, J.X.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between crystallographic orientation and the deformation microstructure formed during cold-rolling to high strains (up to ε vM = 4.5) has been investigated. The starting material was Ni (99.96% purity) with a coarse initial average grain size (approximately 500 μm). Microstructural characterization was carried out using a combination of electron channeling contrast imaging and electron back-scatter diffraction orientation mapping. An orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure was observed even at the highest strain examined. A large increase in the average boundary misorientation is found at strains above ε vM = 1.8 for regions with the {1 1 2} and {1 2 3} orientations. This increase accompanies the structural transition from a medium strain microstructure to a high strain lamellar microstructure. In contrast, the average misorientation in regions of {1 1 0} orientation increases only slowly even up to the highest strain examined

  4. Microstructure and micro-texture evolution during large strain deformation of aluminium alloy AA 2219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, S.V.S. Narayana [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum-695 022 (India); Sarkar, Aditya [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar-382 424 (India); Narayanan, P. Ramesh; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum-695 022 (India); Mukhopadhyay, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar-382 424 (India)

    2016-11-20

    Aluminium alloy AA2219 is widely used in the fabrication of propellant tanks of cryogenic stages of satellite launch vehicles. These propellant tanks are welded structures and a fine grained microstructure is usually preferred for sheets/plates and ring rolled rings used in their fabrication. In order to study the effect of large strain deformation on the microstructural evolution, hot isothermal plane strain compression (PSC) tests were conducted on AA 2219 in the temperature range of 250 °C–400 °C and at strain rates of 0.01 s{sup −1} and 1 s{sup −1}. Flow curves obtained at different temperatures and strain rates exhibited two types of behavior; one with a clear stress peak followed by softening, occurring below Z=2.5E+15 and steady state flow behavior above it. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the PSC tested samples at the location of maximum strain revealed the presence of lamellar microstructures with very low fraction of transverse high angle boundaries (HABs). The loss of HABs during large strain deformation is attributed to the occurrence of dynamic recovery (DRV) as the ratio of calculated to measured lamellar boundary width is less than unity. Based on detailed microstructure and micro texture analysis, it was concluded that it is very difficult to obtain large fraction of HABs through uniaxial large strain deformation. Therefore, to obtain fine grain microstructure in thermo-mechanically processed AA2219 products, multi-axial deformation is essential.

  5. Parallel supercomputing: Advanced methods, algorithms, and software for large-scale linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.F.; Young, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    The program outlined here is directed to research on methods, algorithms, and software for distributed parallel supercomputers. Of particular interest are finite element methods and finite difference methods together with sparse iterative solution schemes for scientific and engineering computations of very large-scale systems. Both linear and nonlinear problems will be investigated. In the nonlinear case, applications with bifurcation to multiple solutions will be considered using continuation strategies. The parallelizable numerical methods of particular interest are a family of partitioning schemes embracing domain decomposition, element-by-element strategies, and multi-level techniques. The methods will be further developed incorporating parallel iterative solution algorithms with associated preconditioners in parallel computer software. The schemes will be implemented on distributed memory parallel architectures such as the CRAY MPP, Intel Paragon, the NCUBE3, and the Connection Machine. We will also consider other new architectures such as the Kendall-Square (KSQ) and proposed machines such as the TERA. The applications will focus on large-scale three-dimensional nonlinear flow and reservoir problems with strong convective transport contributions. These are legitimate grand challenge class computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of significant practical interest to DOE. The methods developed and algorithms will, however, be of wider interest.

  6. Nonlinear model and attitude dynamics of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper is focused on the nonlinearly modelling and attitude dynamics of spacecraft coupled with large amplitude liquid sloshing dynamics and flexible appendage vibration. The large amplitude fuel slosh dynamics is included by using an improved moving pulsating ball model. The moving pulsating ball model is an equivalent mechanical model that is capable of imitating the whole liquid reorientation process. A modification is introduced in the capillary force computation in order to more precisely estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam and the assumed modal method is employed to derive the nonlinear mechanical model for the overall coupled system of liquid filled spacecraft with appendage. The attitude maneuver is implemented by the momentum transfer technique, and a feedback controller is designed. The simulation results show that the liquid sloshing can always result in nutation behavior, but the effect of flexible deformation of appendage depends on the amplitude and direction of attitude maneuver performed by spacecraft. Moreover, it is found that the liquid sloshing and the vibration of flexible appendage are coupled with each other, and the coupling becomes more significant with more rapid motion of spacecraft. This study reveals that the appendage's flexibility has influence on the liquid's location and settling time in microgravity. The presented nonlinear system model can provide an important reference for the overall design of the modern spacecraft composed of rigid platform, liquid filled tank and flexible appendage.

  7. Seismic evaluation of a large nuclear pump bearing using non-linear dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, K.A.; Hugins, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic bearings of a large vertical pump using sodium as the lubricant were critically examined to determine their ability to withstand seismic loads. Initial linear dynamics analyses predicted journal displacements to exceed bearing clearance by a ratio of 3:1. Equivalent time-history excitations were then developed from the response spectra to determine the number, magnitude, and duration of the bearing impact loads. Predicted loads were further reduced by 50% by modeling non-linear bearing characteristics normally present but not generally included in conventional linear analyses. Results are presented of the comprehensive design evaluation performed, based on these non-linear predictions, that assess stress, wear, and fatigue to demonstrate hydrostatic bearing integrity

  8. Analysis of Large-Strain Extrusion Machining with Different Chip Compression Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-Strain Extrusion Machining (LSEM is a novel-introduced process for deforming materials to very high plastic strains to produce ultra-fine nanostructured materials. Before the technique can be exploited, it is important to understand the deformation behavior of the workpiece and its relationship to the machining parameters and friction conditions. This paper reports finite-element method (FEM analysis of the LSEM process to understand the evolution of temperature field, effective strain, and strain rate under different chip compression ratios. The cutting and thrust forces are also analyzed with respect to time. The results show that LSEM can produce very high strains by changing in the value of chip compression ratio, thereby enabling the production of nanostructured materials. The shape of the chip produced by LSEM can also be geometrically well constrained.

  9. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  10. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber sensors for large strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying

    2007-04-01

    Silica-based optical fiber sensors are widely used in structural health monitoring systems for strain and deflection measurement. One drawback of silica-based optical fiber sensors is their low strain toughness. In general, silica-based optical fiber sensors can only reliably measure strains up to 2%. Recently, polymer optical fiber sensors have been employed to measure large strain and deflection. Due to their high optical losses, the length of the polymer optical fibers is limited to 100 meters. In this paper, we present a novel economical technique to fabricate hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensors for large strain measurement. First, stress analysis of a surface-mounted optical fiber sensor is performed to understand the load distribution between the host structure and the optical fiber in relation to their mechanical properties. Next, the procedure of fabricating a polymer sensing element between two optical fibers is explained. The experimental set-up and the components used in the fabrication process are described in details. Mechanical testing results of the fabricated silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensor are presented.

  12. Application of large strain analysis for estimation of behavior and stability of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Mitsuo; Jiang, Yujing; Esaki, Tetsuro.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to simulate a large deformation phenomena with plastic flow after failure by using a general numerical approach, such as the FEM (finite element method), based on the infinitesimal strain theory. In order to investigate the behavior of tunnels excavated in soft rock mass, a new simulation technique which can represent large strain accurately is desired, and the code FLAC (Fast Lagragian Analysis of Continua) adopted in this study is being thought a best mean for this propose. In this paper, the basic principles and the application of the large strain analysis method to stability analysis and prediction of the deformational behavior of tunnels in soft rock are presented. First, the features of the large strain theory and some different points from the infinitesimal strain theory are made up. Next, as the examples, the reproduction of uniaxial compression test for soft rock material and the stability analysis of tunnel in soft rock are tried so as to determine the capability of presenting the large deformational behavior. (author)

  13. Four-plate piezoelectric actuator driving a large-diameter special optical fiber for nonlinear optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhi; Liang, Xiaobao; Fu, Ling

    2016-08-22

    In nonlinear optical microendoscope (NOME), a fiber with excellent optical characteristics and a miniature scanning mechanism at the distal end are two key components. Double-clad fibers (DCFs) and double-clad photonic crystal fibers (DCPCFs) have shown great optical characteristics but limited vibration amplitude due to large diameter. Besides reducing the damping of fiber cantilever, optimizing the structural of the actuator for lower energy dissipation also contributes to better driving capability. This paper presented an optimized actuator for driving a particular fiber cantilever in the view point of energy. Firstly, deformation energy of a bending fiber cantilever operating in resonant mode is investigated. Secondly, strain and stress analyses revealed that the four-plate actuator achieved lower energy dissipation. Then, finite-element simulations showed that the large-diameter fiber yielded an adequate vibration amplitude driven by a four-plate actuator, which was confirmed by experiments of our home-made four-plate actuator prototypes. Additionally, a NOME based on a DCPCF with a diameter of 350 μm driven by four-plate piezoelectric actuator has been developed. The NOME can excite and collect intrinsic second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence signals with the excitation power of 10-30 mW and an adequate field of view of 200 μm, which suggest great potential applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnoses.

  14. Dye molecules as single-photon sources and large optical nonlinearities on a chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J; Hinds, E A

    2011-01-01

    We point out that individual organic dye molecules, deposited close to optical waveguides on a photonic chip, can act as single-photon sources. A thin silicon nitride strip waveguide is expected to collect 28% of the photons from a single dibenzoterrylene molecule. These molecules can also provide large, localized optical nonlinearities, which are enough to discriminate between one photon or two through a differential phase shift of 2 0 per photon. This new atom-photon interface may be used as a resource for processing quantum information.

  15. Self-consistent modelling of electrochemical strain microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Nonlinear and dynamic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenyk, O. V.; Silibin, M. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.

  16. Self-consistent modelling of electrochemical strain microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Nonlinear and dynamic regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varenyk, O. V.; Morozovska, A. N., E-mail: sergei2@ornl.gov, E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46, pr. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Silibin, M. V. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET,” 124498 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kiselev, D. A. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 119049 Moscow, Leninskiy pr. 4 (Russian Federation); Eliseev, E. A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science, NAS of Ukraine, Krjijanovskogo 3, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kalinin, S. V., E-mail: sergei2@ornl.gov, E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com [The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.

  17. A 2D nonlinear multiring model for blood flow in large elastic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, Arthur R.; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional nonlinear ;multiring; model to compute blood flow in axisymmetric elastic arteries. This model is designed to overcome the numerical difficulties of three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction simulations of blood flow without using the over-simplifications necessary to obtain one-dimensional blood flow models. This multiring model is derived by integrating over concentric rings of fluid the simplified long-wave Navier-Stokes equations coupled to an elastic model of the arterial wall. The resulting system of balance laws provides a unified framework in which both the motion of the fluid and the displacement of the wall are dealt with simultaneously. The mathematical structure of the multiring model allows us to use a finite volume method that guarantees the conservation of mass and the positivity of the numerical solution and can deal with nonlinear flows and large deformations of the arterial wall. We show that the finite volume numerical solution of the multiring model provides at a reasonable computational cost an asymptotically valid description of blood flow velocity profiles and other averaged quantities (wall shear stress, flow rate, ...) in large elastic and quasi-rigid arteries. In particular, we validate the multiring model against well-known solutions such as the Womersley or the Poiseuille solutions as well as against steady boundary layer solutions in quasi-rigid constricted and expanded tubes.

  18. A quasi-Newton algorithm for large-scale nonlinear equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the algorithm for large-scale nonlinear equations is designed by the following steps: (i a conjugate gradient (CG algorithm is designed as a sub-algorithm to obtain the initial points of the main algorithm, where the sub-algorithm’s initial point does not have any restrictions; (ii a quasi-Newton algorithm with the initial points given by sub-algorithm is defined as main algorithm, where a new nonmonotone line search technique is presented to get the step length α k $\\alpha_{k}$ . The given nonmonotone line search technique can avoid computing the Jacobian matrix. The global convergence and the 1 + q $1+q$ -order convergent rate of the main algorithm are established under suitable conditions. Numerical results show that the proposed method is competitive with a similar method for large-scale problems.

  19. Large Top-Quark Mass and Nonlinear Representation of Flavor Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Mannel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We consider an effective theory (ET) approach to flavor-violating processes beyond the standard model, where the breaking of flavor symmetry is described by spurion fields whose low-energy vacuum expectation values are identified with the standard model Yukawa couplings. Insisting on canonical mass dimensions for the spurion fields, the large top-quark Yukawa coupling also implies a large expectation value for the associated spurion, which breaks part of the flavor symmetry already at the UV scale Λ of the ET. Below that scale, flavor symmetry in the ET is represented in a nonlinear way by introducing Goldstone modes for the partly broken flavor symmetry and spurion fields transforming under the residual symmetry. As a result, the dominance of certain flavor structures in rare quark decays can be understood in terms of the 1/Λ expansion in the ET

  20. Nonlinear Model-Based Predictive Control applied to Large Scale Cryogenic Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; de Prada Moraga, Cesar

    2001-01-01

    The thesis addresses the study, analysis, development, and finally the real implementation of an advanced control system for the 1.8 K Cooling Loop of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerator. The LHC is the next accelerator being built at CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research), it will use superconducting magnets operating below a temperature of 1.9 K along a circumference of 27 kilometers. The temperature of these magnets is a control parameter with strict operating constraints. The first control implementations applied a procedure that included linear identification, modelling and regulation using a linear predictive controller. It did improve largely the overall performance of the plant with respect to a classical PID regulator, but the nature of the cryogenic processes pointed out the need of a more adequate technique, such as a nonlinear methodology. This thesis is a first step to develop a global regulation strategy for the overall control of the LHC cells when they will operate simultaneously....

  1. An inertia-free filter line-search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Nai-Yuan; Zavala, Victor M.

    2016-02-15

    We present a filter line-search algorithm that does not require inertia information of the linear system. This feature enables the use of a wide range of linear algebra strategies and libraries, which is essential to tackle large-scale problems on modern computing architectures. The proposed approach performs curvature tests along the search step to detect negative curvature and to trigger convexification. We prove that the approach is globally convergent and we implement the approach within a parallel interior-point framework to solve large-scale and highly nonlinear problems. Our numerical tests demonstrate that the inertia-free approach is as efficient as inertia detection via symmetric indefinite factorizations. We also demonstrate that the inertia-free approach can lead to reductions in solution time because it reduces the amount of convexification needed.

  2. Flat-Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Large Strain Amplitude Fatigue Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a flat-cladding fiber Bragg grating sensor for large cyclic strain amplitude tests of up to ±8,000 με. The increased contact area between the flat-cladding fiber and substrate, together with the application of a new bonding process, has significantly increased the bonding strength. In the push-pull fatigue tests of an aluminum alloy, the plastic strain amplitudes measured by three optical fiber sensors differ only by 0.43% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±7,000 με and 1.9% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±8,000 με. We also applied the sensor on an extruded magnesium alloy for evaluating the peculiar asymmetric hysteresis loops. The results obtained were in good agreement with those measured from the extensometer, a further validation of the sensor.

  3. Microwave interrogated large core fused silica fiber Michelson interferometer for strain sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liwei; Song, Yang; Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Li, Yanjun; Xiao, Hai

    2015-08-20

    A Michelson-type large core optical fiber sensor has been developed, which is designed based on the optical carrier-based microwave interferometry technique, and fabricated by using two pieces of 200-μm diameter fused silica core fiber as two arms of the Michelson interferometer. The interference fringe pattern caused by the optical path difference of the two arms is interrogated in the microwave domain, where the fringe visibility of 40 dB has easily been obtained. The strain sensing at both room temperature and high temperatures has been demonstrated by using such a sensor. Experimental results show that this sensor has a linear response to the applied strain, and also has relatively low temperature-strain cross talk. The dopant-free quality of the fused silica fiber provides high possibility for the sensor to have promising strain sensing performance in a high temperature environment.

  4. Total synthesis and related studies of large, strained, and bioactive natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMA, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins. PMID:27725470

  5. Numerical simulation of elasto-plastic electro-osmosis consolidation at large strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.; Hicks, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    n this paper, a numerical solution for the electro-osmosis consolidation of clay in multi-dimensional domains at large strains is presented, with the coupling of the soil mechanical behaviour, pore water transport and electrical fields being considered. In particular, the Modified Cam Clay model is

  6. Large Banks of Negative Differential Resistance Nonlinear Loads: A Hidden Threat to Power System Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM (Demand Side Management is a short term and comparatively low cost solution for energy starved countries. Replacement of IB (Incandescent Bulbs with CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps has proved its success throughout the world. The same solution, at larger scale, was proposed to Pakistan to mitigate power shortage on short term basis. Accordingly in year 2008, ADB (Asian Development Bank conducted a study and it was found that replacement of conventional IB with 30 million CFL will result into series of benefits for the stake holders and above all the Environment. The study, unfortunately didn’t take enough consideration of effect of CFLs on the power system being nonlinear device and so the power quality issues remained a secondary consideration. The focus of this paper remains on the effect of such non-linear load on consumers, it also envisages the erratic behaviour of such large penetration of CFLs on direct single phase, three phase, digital as well as electromechanical energy meters, under different loading conditions e.g. resistive load, SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply, half and full-wave rectifiers. It also reflects harmonic pollution caused by CFLs, their effect on power system quality and the registration ability of electromechanical as well as digital energy meters. To this end Harmonic spectrum was recorded up to the 31st harmonic.

  7. Experimental validation of finite element analysis of human vertebral collapse under large compressive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Clouthier, Allison L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures represent a major health problem in elderly populations. Such fractures can often only be diagnosed after a substantial deformation history of the vertebral body. Therefore, it remains a challenge for clinicians to distinguish between stable and progressive potentially harmful fractures. Accordingly, novel criteria for selection of the appropriate conservative or surgical treatment are urgently needed. Computer tomography-based finite element analysis is an increasingly accepted method to predict the quasi-static vertebral strength and to follow up this small strain property longitudinally in time. A recent development in constitutive modeling allows us to simulate strain localization and densification in trabecular bone under large compressive strains without mesh dependence. The aim of this work was to validate this recently developed constitutive model of trabecular bone for the prediction of strain localization and densification in the human vertebral body subjected to large compressive deformation. A custom-made stepwise loading device mounted in a high resolution peripheral computer tomography system was used to describe the progressive collapse of 13 human vertebrae under axial compression. Continuum finite element analyses of the 13 compression tests were realized and the zones of high volumetric strain were compared with the experiments. A fair qualitative correspondence of the strain localization zone between the experiment and finite element analysis was achieved in 9 out of 13 tests and significant correlations of the volumetric strains were obtained throughout the range of applied axial compression. Interestingly, the stepwise propagating localization zones in trabecular bone converged to the buckling locations in the cortical shell. While the adopted continuum finite element approach still suffers from several limitations, these encouraging preliminary results towards the prediction of extended vertebral

  8. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lower, Mark D. [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects

  9. Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.

  10. Calculations on nonlinear optical properties for large systems the elongation method

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng Long; Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    For design purposes one needs to relate the structure of proposed materials to their NLO (nonlinear optical) and other properties, which is a situation where theoretical approaches can be very helpful in providing suggestions for candidate systems that subsequently can be synthesized and studied experimentally. This brief describes the quantum-mechanical treatment of the response to one or more external oscillating electric fields for molecular and macroscopic, crystalline systems. To calculate NLO properties of large systems, a linear scaling generalized elongation method for the efficient and accurate calculation is introduced. The reader should be aware that this treatment is particularly feasible for complicated three-dimensional and/or delocalized systems that are intractable when applied to conventional or other linear scaling methods.

  11. Flexible non-linear predictive models for large-scale wind turbine diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Andersen, Martin; Rømer-Odgaard, Bo; Winther, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate how flexible non-linear models can provide accurate and robust predictions on turbine component temperature sensor data using data-driven principles and only a minimum of system modeling. The merits of different model architectures are evaluated using data from a large set...... of turbines operating under diverse conditions. We then go on to test the predictive models in a diagnostic setting, where the output of the models are used to detect mechanical faults in rotor bearings. Using retrospective data from 22 actual rotor bearing failures, the fault detection performance...... of the models are quantified using a structured framework that provides the metrics required for evaluating the performance in a fleet wide monitoring setup. It is demonstrated that faults are identified with high accuracy up to 45 days before a warning from the hard-threshold warning system....

  12. Nonlinear adaptive synchronization rule for identification of a large amount of parameters in dynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huanfei; Lin Wei

    2009-01-01

    The existing adaptive synchronization technique based on the stability theory and invariance principle of dynamical systems, though theoretically proved to be valid for parameters identification in specific models, is always showing slow convergence rate and even failed in practice when the number of parameters becomes large. Here, for parameters update, a novel nonlinear adaptive rule is proposed to accelerate the rate. Its feasibility is validated by analytical arguments as well as by specific parameters identification in the Lotka-Volterra model with multiple species. Two adjustable factors in this rule influence the identification accuracy, which means that a proper choice of these factors leads to an optimal performance of this rule. In addition, a feasible method for avoiding the occurrence of the approximate linear dependence among terms with parameters on the synchronized manifold is also proposed.

  13. Final report LDRD project 105816 : model reduction of large dynamic systems with localized nonlinearities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Dohrmann, Clark R.

    2009-10-01

    Advanced computing hardware and software written to exploit massively parallel architectures greatly facilitate the computation of extremely large problems. On the other hand, these tools, though enabling higher fidelity models, have often resulted in much longer run-times and turn-around-times in providing answers to engineering problems. The impediments include smaller elements and consequently smaller time steps, much larger systems of equations to solve, and the inclusion of nonlinearities that had been ignored in days when lower fidelity models were the norm. The research effort reported focuses on the accelerating the analysis process for structural dynamics though combinations of model reduction and mitigation of some factors that lead to over-meshing.

  14. Large isosymmetric reorientation of oxygen octahedra rotation axes in epitaxially strained perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, James M; Coh, Sinisa

    2011-06-10

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we discover an anomalously large biaxial strain-induced octahedral rotation axis reorientation in orthorhombic perovskites with tendency towards rhombohedral symmetry. The transition between crystallographically equivalent (isosymmetric) structures with different octahedral rotation magnitudes originates from strong strain-octahedral rotation coupling available to perovskites and the energetic hierarchy among competing octahedral tilt patterns. By elucidating these criteria, we suggest many functional perovskites would exhibit the transition in thin film form, thus offering a new landscape in which to tailor highly anisotropic electronic responses.

  15. Geometrically Nonlinear Field Fracture Mechanics and Crack Nucleation, Application to Strain Localization Fields in Al-Cu-Li Aerospace Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyapriya Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation statement for the crack opening displacement provides a framework for disconnection dynamics in the form of transport laws. A similar methodology applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement due to dislocations results in the concurrent involvement of dislocation densities in the analysis. Non-linearity of the geometrical setting is assumed for defining the elastic distortion incompatibility in the presence of both dislocations and disconnections, as well as for their transport. Crack nucleation in the presence of thermally-activated fluctuations of the atomic order is shown to derive from this nonlinearity in elastic brittle materials, without any algorithmic rule or ad hoc material parameter. Digital image correlation techniques applied to the analysis of tensile tests on ductile Al-Cu-Li samples further demonstrate the ability of the disconnection density concept to capture crack nucleation and relate strain localization bands to consistent disconnection fields and to the eventual occurrence of complex and combined crack modes in these alloys.

  16. Quasi real-time estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki (off the Pacific coast of Tohoku) earthquake, of moment magnitude 9.0, was accompanied by large static strain changes (10-7), as measured by borehole strainmeters operated by the Geological Survey of Japan in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula, and Shikoku regions. A fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, based on these borehole strainmeter data, yielded a moment magnitude of 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Such geodetic moment magnitudes, derived from static strain changes, can be estimated almost as rapidly as determinations using seismic waves. I have to verify the validity of this method in some cases. In the case of this earthquake's largest aftershock, which occurred 29 minutes after the mainshock. The prompt report issued by JMA assigned this aftershock a magnitude of 7.3, whereas the moment magnitude derived from borehole strain data is 7.6, which is much closer to the actual moment magnitude of 7.7. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using static strain changes is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of large earthquakes, and useful to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning.

  17. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-09-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  18. Expectation propagation for large scale Bayesian inference of non-linear molecular networks from perturbation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, Zahra; Beigy, Hamid; Ahmad, Ashar; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Fröhlich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Inferring the structure of molecular networks from time series protein or gene expression data provides valuable information about the complex biological processes of the cell. Causal network structure inference has been approached using different methods in the past. Most causal network inference techniques, such as Dynamic Bayesian Networks and ordinary differential equations, are limited by their computational complexity and thus make large scale inference infeasible. This is specifically true if a Bayesian framework is applied in order to deal with the unavoidable uncertainty about the correct model. We devise a novel Bayesian network reverse engineering approach using ordinary differential equations with the ability to include non-linearity. Besides modeling arbitrary, possibly combinatorial and time dependent perturbations with unknown targets, one of our main contributions is the use of Expectation Propagation, an algorithm for approximate Bayesian inference over large scale network structures in short computation time. We further explore the possibility of integrating prior knowledge into network inference. We evaluate the proposed model on DREAM4 and DREAM8 data and find it competitive against several state-of-the-art existing network inference methods.

  19. HIV populations are large and accumulate high genetic diversity in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2013-09-01

    HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.

  20. A large-strain radial consolidation theory for soft clays improved by vertical drains

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, X; Yu, H-S

    2017-01-01

    A system of vertical drains with combined vacuum and surcharge preloading is an effective solution for promoting radial flow, accelerating consolidation. However, when a mixture of soil and water is deposited at a low initial density, a significant amount of deformation or surface settlement occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce large-strain theory, which has been widely used to manage dredged disposal sites in one-dimensional theory, into radial consolidation theory. A governing eq...

  1. A large strain radial consolidation theory for soft clays improved by vertical drains\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xueyu; Yu, Hai-sui

    2017-01-01

    A system of vertical drains with combined vacuum and surcharge preloading is an effective 10 solution for promoting radial flow, accelerating consolidation. However, when a mixture of soil and\\ud 11 water is deposited at a low initial density, a significant amount of deformation or surface settlement 12 occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce large strain theory, which has been widely used to manage\\ud 13 dredged disposal sites in one-dimensional theory, into radial consolidation theo...

  2. Low cycle fatigue strength of austenitic stainless steel under large strain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Michiya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Matsuura, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    In order to establish realistic seismic safety of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to clarify the failure mode of each components and prepare a damage evaluation method. The authors have proposed the damage evaluation method based on the fully numerical approach to evaluate the low cycle fatigue (LCF) failure under seismic loadings. This method has been validated by comparison with the dynamic failure tests of thin elbows which should be the one of the important components of the FBR primary piping system. However, since there exists limited LCF data, fatigue lives under large strain regime have been extrapolated by available fatigue data. In this study, LCF tests have been conducted over a large strain range from 2% to 10% on austenitic stainless steel SUS304. From the results, the regressive LCF curve has been proposed to modify the Wada's best-fit LCF curve under large strain regime. The usage factors calculated by author's numerical approach using proposed LCF curve have been improved to correct the underestimation of the fatigue damage. (author)

  3. Stability of surface plastic flow in large strain deformation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Udapa, Anirduh; Sagapuram, Dinakar; Mann, James; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    We examine large-strain unconstrained simple shear deformation in metals using a model two-dimensional cutting system and high-speed in situ imaging. The nature of the deformation mode is shown to be a function of the initial microstructure state of the metal and the deformation geometry. For annealed metals, which exhibit large ductility and strain hardening capacity, the commonly assumed laminar flow mode is inherently unstable. Instead, the imposed shear is accommodated by a highly rotational flow-sinuous flow-with vortex-like components and large-amplitude folding on the mesoscale. Sinuous flow is triggered by a plastic instability on the material surface ahead of the primary region of shear. On the other hand, when the material is extensively strain-hardened prior to shear, laminar flow again becomes unstable giving way to shear banding. The existence of these flow modes is established by stability analysis of laminar flow. The role of the initial microstructure state in determining the change in stability from laminar to sinuous / shear-banded flows in metals is elucidated. The implications for cutting, forming and wear processes for metals, and to surface plasticity phenomena such as mechanochemical Rehbinder effects are discussed.

  4. Large Signal Stabilization of Hybrid AC/DC Micro-Grids Using Nonlinear Robust Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pejmanfar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust nonlinear integrated controller to improve stability of hybrid AC/DC micro-grids under islanding mode. The proposed controller includes two independent controllers where each one is responsible to control one part of the system. First controller will improve the stability of input DC/DC converter. Using this controller, the voltage of DC bus is fully stabilized such that when a large disturbance occurs, its voltage will become constant without any significant dynamic. The necessity of DC bus regulation which has not been considered in previous studies, is imminent as it not only improves voltage stability of the micro-grid but also protects consumers which are directly connected to the DC bus, against voltage variations. Frequency stability of the micro-grid is provided by the second proposed controller which is applied to output DC/AC converter of the micro-grid. Adaptive method is used to make the controllers proposed in this paper, robust. Duty cycle of converters switches are adjusted such that voltage and frequency of the micro-grid are set on the desired value in minimum possible time under transient disturbances and uncertainty of the loads as well as micro-sources characteristics.

  5. Reducing NIR prediction errors with nonlinear methods and large populations of intact compound feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Ahumada, E; Gómez, A; Vallesquino, P; Guerrero, J E; Pérez-Marín, D; Garrido-Varo, A; Fearn, T

    2008-01-01

    According to the current demands of the authorities, the manufacturers and the consumers, controls and assessments of the feed compound manufacturing process have become a key concern. Among others, it must be assured that a given compound feed is well manufactured and labelled in terms of the ingredient composition. When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) together with linear models were used for the prediction of the ingredient composition, the results were not always acceptable. Therefore, the performance of nonlinear methods has been investigated. Artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) have been applied to a large (N = 20 320) and heterogeneous population of non-milled feed compounds for the NIR prediction of the inclusion percentage of wheat and sunflower meal, as representative of two different classes of ingredients. Compared to partial least squares regression, results showed considerable reductions of standard error of prediction values for both methods and ingredients: reductions of 45% with ANN and 49% with LS-SVM for wheat and reductions of 44% with ANN and 46% with LS-SVM for sunflower meal. These improvements together with the facility of NIRS technology to be implemented in the process make it ideal for meeting the requirements of the animal feed industry

  6. Numerical solution of large nonlinear boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowinski, R.; Le Tallec, P.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the numerical treatment of large highly nonlinear two or three dimensional boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques. In all the different situations where these techniques were applied, the methodology remains the same and is organized as follows: 1) derive a variational formulation of the original boundary value problem, and approximate it by Galerkin methods; 2) transform this variational formulation into a quadratic minimization problem (least squares methods) or into a sequence of quadratic minimization problems (augmented lagrangian decomposition); 3) solve each quadratic minimization problem by a conjugate gradient method with preconditioning, the preconditioning matrix being sparse, positive definite, and fixed once for all in the iterative process. This paper will illustrate the methodology above on two different examples: the description of least squares solution methods and their application to the solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids; the description of augmented lagrangian decomposition techniques and their application to the solution of equilibrium problems in finite elasticity

  7. Large-strain Soft Sensors Using Elastomers Blended with Exfoliated/Fragmented Graphite Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An elastic polymer (e.g., PDMS) blended with EFG particles is a promising conductive composite for fabricating soft sensors that can detect an object's deformation up to or more than 50 %. Here, we develop large-strain, sprayable soft sensors using a mixture of PDMS and EFG particles, which are used as a host elastomer and electrically conductive particles, respectively. A solution for a conductive composite mixture is prepared by the microwave-assisted graphite exfoliation, followed by ultrasonication-induced fragmentation of the exfoliated graphite and ultrasonic blending of PDMS and EFG. Using the prepared solutions for composite and pure PDMS, 1-, 2-, and 3-axis soft sensors are fabricated by airbrush stencil technique where composite mixture and pure PDMS are materials for sensing and insulating layers, respectively. We characterize the soft strain sensors after investigating the effect of PDMS/EFG wt % on mechanical compliance and electrical conductance of the conductive composite.

  8. Nonlinear behavior of capacitive micro-beams based on strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathalilou, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Morteza; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the size dependent behavior of materials in MEMS structures. This behavior becomes noticeable for a structure when the characteristic size such as thickness or diameter is close to its internal length-scale parameter and is insignificant for the high ratio of the characteristic size to the length-scale parameter, which is the case of the silicon base micro-beams. However, in some types of micro-beams like gold or nickel bases, the size dependent effect cannot be overlooked. In such cases, ignoring this behavior in modeling will lead to incorrect results. Some previous researchers have applied classic beam theory on their models and imposed a considerable hypothetical value of residual stress to match their theoretical results with the experimental ones. The equilibrium positions or fixed points of the gold and nickel micro-beams are obtained and shown that for a given DC voltage, there is a considerable difference between the obtained fixed points using classic beam theory, modified couple stress theory, and modified strain gradient theory. In addition, it is shown that the calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages using higher order theories are much closer to the experimental results and are higher several times than those obtained by classic beam theory.

  9. Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Sood, A. K.; Guha, Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Rao, C. N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Nonlinear transmission of 80 and 140fs pulsed light with 0.79μm wavelength through single walled carbon nanotubes suspended in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied. Pulse-width independent saturation absorption and negative cubic nonlinearity are observed, respectively, in open and closed aperture z-scan experiments. The theoretical expressions derived to analyze the z-dependent transmission in the saturable limit require two photon absorption coefficient β0˜1.4cm/MW and a nonlinear index γ ˜-5.5×10-11cm2/W to fit the data.

  10. Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Saif, Linda J; Marthaler, Douglas; Esseili, Malak A; Meulia, Tea; Lin, Chun-Ming; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Jung, Kwonil; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiuhong

    2014-10-10

    The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Neural Networks Decentralized FTC Design for Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Interconnected Large-Scale Systems Against Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Tong, Shaocheng

    The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small neighborhood of zero. Finally, numerical results of practical examples are presented to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small

  12. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in vertically oriented mesoporous silica thin films embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Liu, Qiming, E-mail: qmliu@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Taking advantage of the channel confinement of mesoporous films to prevent the agglomeration of Ag nanoparticles to achieve large third-order optical nonlinearity in amorphous materials, Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film was prepared by the electrochemical deposition method on ITO substrate. Ag ions were firstly transported into the channels of mesoporous film by the diffusion and binding force of channels, which were reduced to nanoparticles by applying suitable voltage. The existence and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles ranging in 1–10 nm in the mesoporous silica thin films were exhibited by UV spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The third-order optical nonlinearity induced by Ag nanoparticles was studied by the Z-scan technique. Due to the local field surface plasmon resonance, the maximum third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film is 1.53×10{sup −10} esu, which is 1000 times larger than that of the Ag-contained chalcogenide glasses which showed large nonlinearity in amorphous materials.

  13. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  14. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Binita; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index (η 2 ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility (χ (3) ). The real and imaginary parts of χ (3) are obtained in the orders of 10 -10 e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of χ (3) , to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  15. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

    2018-01-01

    Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

  16. Ductile fracture evaluation of ductile cast iron and forged steel by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Pt. 1. Tensile test by large scaled test pieces with surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ajima, Tatsuro; Inohara, Yasuto

    1999-01-01

    The ductile fracture tests of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under a tensile stress condition were conducted using large-scaled flat test specimens with a surface crack and were evaluated by the J-integral values, in order to propose an evaluation method of initiation of ductile fracture of a cask body with crack by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Following results were obtained. 1) 1 -strain relations of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under the tensile stress condition were obtained, which is necessary for the development of J-integral design curves for evaluating the initiation of ductile fracture of the cask body. 2) In case of Ductile Cast Iron, the experimental J-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman at room temperature, in both elastic and plastic regions. But, at 70degC in plastic region, the experimental i-integral values showed middle values between those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory and by the non- linear-elastic- theory (based on the fully plastic solution by Yagawa et al.). 3) In case of Forged Steel at both -25degC and room temperature, the experimental i-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, in the elastic region. In the plastic region, however, the experimental i-integral values fell apart from the curve predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, and also approached to those by the non-linear-elastic-theory with increasing strain.(author)

  17. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  18. Volterra representation enables modeling of complex synaptic nonlinear dynamics in large-scale simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Eric Y; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Song, Dong; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical synapses are comprised of a wide collection of intricate signaling pathways involving complex dynamics. These mechanisms are often reduced to simple spikes or exponential representations in order to enable computer simulations at higher spatial levels of complexity. However, these representations cannot capture important nonlinear dynamics found in synaptic transmission. Here, we propose an input-output (IO) synapse model capable of generating complex nonlinear dynamics while maintaining low computational complexity. This IO synapse model is an extension of a detailed mechanistic glutamatergic synapse model capable of capturing the input-output relationships of the mechanistic model using the Volterra functional power series. We demonstrate that the IO synapse model is able to successfully track the nonlinear dynamics of the synapse up to the third order with high accuracy. We also evaluate the accuracy of the IO synapse model at different input frequencies and compared its performance with that of kinetic models in compartmental neuron models. Our results demonstrate that the IO synapse model is capable of efficiently replicating complex nonlinear dynamics that were represented in the original mechanistic model and provide a method to replicate complex and diverse synaptic transmission within neuron network simulations.

  19. Large time behaviour of oscillatory nonlinear solute transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, van C.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations in flow occur under many different situations in natural porous media, due to tidal, daily or seasonal patterns. In this paper, we investigate how such oscillations in flow affect the transport of an initially sharp solute front, if the solute undergoes nonlinear sorption and,

  20. Real-time nonlinear MPC and MHE for a large-scale mechatronic application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukov, Milan; Gros, S.; Horn, G.

    2015-01-01

    Progress in optimization algorithms and in computational hardware made deployment of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) and Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) possible to mechatronic applications. This paper aims to assess the computational performance of NMPC and MHE for rotational start-up ...

  1. Indefinitely preconditioned inexact Newton method for large sparse equality constrained non-linear programming problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (1998), s. 219-247 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/96/0918 Keywords : nonlinear programming * sparse problems * equality constraints * truncated Newton method * augmented Lagrangian function * indefinite systems * indefinite preconditioners * conjugate gradient method * residual smoothing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.741, year: 1998

  2. Computational Experience with Globally Convergent Descent Methods for Large Sparse Systems of Nonlinear Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3-4 (1998), s. 201-223 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/96/0918 Keywords : nonlinear equations * Armijo-type descent methods * Newton-like methods * truncated methods * global convergence * nonsymmetric linear systems * conjugate gradient -type methods * residual smoothing * computational experiments Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On modeling the large strain fracture behaviour of soft viscous foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamniotis, C. G.; Elliott, M.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mastication is responsible for food breakdown with the aid of saliva in order to form a cohesive viscous mass, known as the bolus. This influences the rate at which the ingested food nutrients are later absorbed into the body, which needs to be controlled to aid in epidemic health problems such as obesity, diabetes, and dyspepsia. The aim of our work is to understand and improve food oral breakdown efficiency in both human and pet foods through developing multi-scale models of oral and gastric processing. The latter has been a challenging task and the available technology may be still immature, as foods usually exhibit a complex viscous, compliant, and tough mechanical behaviour. These are all addressed here through establishing a novel material model calibrated through experiments on starch-based food. It includes a new criterion for the onset of material stiffness degradation, a law for the evolution of degradation governed by the true material's fracture toughness, and a constitutive stress-strain response, all three being a function of the stress state, i.e., compression, shear, and tension. The material model is used in a finite element analysis which reproduces accurately the food separation patterns under a large strain indentation test, which resembles the boundary conditions applied in chewing. The results lend weight to the new methodology as a powerful tool in understanding how different food structures breakdown and in optimising these structures via parametric analyses to satisfy specific chewing and digestion attributes.

  5. Large strain variable stiffness composites for shear deformations with applications to morphing aircraft skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, G. P.; Henry, C. P.

    2008-03-01

    Morphing or reconfigurable structures potentially allow for previously unattainable vehicle performance by permitting several optimized structures to be achieved using a single platform. The key to enabling this technology in applications such as aircraft wings, nozzles, and control surfaces, are new engineered materials which can achieve the necessary deformations but limit losses in parasitic actuation mass and structural efficiency (stiffness/weight). These materials should exhibit precise control of deformation properties and provide high stiffness when exercised through large deformations. In this work, we build upon previous efforts in segmented reinforcement variable stiffness composites employing shape memory polymers to create prototype hybrid composite materials that combine the benefits of cellular materials with those of discontinuous reinforcement composites. These composites help overcome two key challenges for shearing wing skins: the resistance to out of plane buckling from actuation induced shear deformation, and resistance to membrane deflections resulting from distributed aerodynamic pressure loading. We designed, fabricated, and tested composite materials intended for shear deformation and address out of plane deflections in variable area wing skins. Our designs are based on the kinematic engineering of reinforcement platelets such that desired microstructural kinematics is achieved through prescribed boundary conditions. We achieve this kinematic control by etching sheets of metallic reinforcement into regular patterns of platelets and connecting ligaments. This kinematic engineering allows optimization of materials properties for a known deformation pathway. We use mechanical analysis and full field photogrammetry to relate local scale kinematics and strains to global deformations for both axial tension loading and shear loading with a pinned-diamond type fixture. The Poisson ratio of the kinematically engineered composite is ~3x higher than

  6. Extremely Large Magnetoresistance at Low Magnetic Field by Coupling the Nonlinear Transport Effect and the Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zhen-Gang; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-13

    The anomalous Hall effect of a magnetic material is coupled to the nonlinear transport effect of a semiconductor material in a simple structure to achieve a large geometric magnetoresistance (MR) based on a diode-assisted mechanism. An extremely large MR (>10(4) %) at low magnetic fields (1 mT) is observed at room temperature. This MR device shows potential for use as a logic gate for the four basic Boolean logic operations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Computation of the current density in nonlinear materials subjected to large current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Hixson, R.S.; Parsons, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the finite element method and the finite difference method are used to calculate the current distribution in two nonlinear conductors. The first conductor is a small ferromagnetic wire subjected to a current pulse that rises to 10,000 Amperes in 10 microseconds. Results from the transient thermal and transient magnetic solvers of the finite element code FLUX2D are used to compute the current density in the wire. The second conductor is a metal oxide varistor. Maxwell's equations, Ohm's law and the varistor relation for the resistivity and the current density of p = αj -β are used to derive a nonlinear differential equation. The solutions of the differential equation are obtained by a finite difference approximation and a shooting method. The behavior predicted by these calculations is in agreement with experiments

  8. Numerical methods for the design of large-scale nonlinear discrete ill-posed inverse problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, E; Horesh, L; Tenorio, L

    2010-01-01

    Design of experiments for discrete ill-posed problems is a relatively new area of research. While there has been some limited work concerning the linear case, little has been done to study design criteria and numerical methods for ill-posed nonlinear problems. We present an algorithmic framework for nonlinear experimental design with an efficient numerical implementation. The data are modeled as indirect, noisy observations of the model collected via a set of plausible experiments. An inversion estimate based on these data is obtained by a weighted Tikhonov regularization whose weights control the contribution of the different experiments to the data misfit term. These weights are selected by minimization of an empirical estimate of the Bayes risk that is penalized to promote sparsity. This formulation entails a bilevel optimization problem that is solved using a simple descent method. We demonstrate the viability of our design with a problem in electromagnetic imaging based on direct current resistivity and magnetotelluric data

  9. Large Spatial and Temporal Separations of Cause and Effect in Policy Making - Dealing with Non-linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskill, John

    There can be large spatial and temporal separation of cause and effect in policy making. Determining the correct linkage between policy inputs and outcomes can be highly impractical in the complex environments faced by policy makers. In attempting to see and plan for the probable outcomes, standard linear models often overlook, ignore, or are unable to predict catastrophic events that only seem improbable due to the issue of multiple feedback loops. There are several issues with the makeup and behaviors of complex systems that explain the difficulty many mathematical models (factor analysis/structural equation modeling) have in dealing with non-linear effects in complex systems. This chapter highlights those problem issues and offers insights to the usefulness of ABM in dealing with non-linear effects in complex policy making environments.

  10. Screening and characterization of Lactobacillus strains producing large amounts of exopolysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Flesch, F.; Brink, B. ten; Smith, M.R.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 182 Lactobacillus strains were screened for production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by a new method: growth in liquid media with high sugar concentrations. Sixty EPS-positive strains were identified; 17 strains produced more than 100 mg/l soluble EPS. Sucrose was an excellent

  11. Dynamical Chaos Rise in the System of Large Number of Nonlinear Coupled Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Koval'chuk, I.K.; Tarasov, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of dynamical chaos arising in distributed systems is considered. It was shown that in many cases it is possible to allocate relatively isolated subsystem which may be simpler for investigation. We suppose that chaos in this subsystem leads to chaotic behaviour of all system. Besides, the allocated subsystem may be used for describing complex dynamics of nonlinear three-wave interaction, in particular, in plasma systems. The analytical criterion of arising dynamics chaos in distributed system was obtained. This criterion was confirmed by numerical simulation

  12. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  13. Identifiability of large-scale non-linear dynamic network models applied to the ADM1-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmegeers, Philippe; Lauwers, Joost; Telen, Dries; Logist, Filip; Impe, Jan Van

    2017-06-01

    In this work, both the structural and practical identifiability of the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 (ADM1) is investigated, which serves as a relevant case study of large non-linear dynamic network models. The structural identifiability is investigated using the probabilistic algorithm, adapted to deal with the specifics of the case study (i.e., a large-scale non-linear dynamic system of differential and algebraic equations). The practical identifiability is analyzed using a Monte Carlo parameter estimation procedure for a 'non-informative' and 'informative' experiment, which are heuristically designed. The model structure of ADM1 has been modified by replacing parameters by parameter combinations, to provide a generally locally structurally identifiable version of ADM1. This means that in an idealized theoretical situation, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Furthermore, the generally positive structural identifiability results can be explained from the large number of interconnections between the states in the network structure. This interconnectivity, however, is also observed in the parameter estimates, making uncorrelated parameter estimations in practice difficult. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Large-N limit of the gradient flow in the 2D O(N) nonlinear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hiroki; Sugino, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The gradient flow equation in the 2D O(N) nonlinear sigma model with lattice regularization is solved in the leading order of the 1/N expansion. By using this solution, we analytically compute the thermal expectation value of a lattice energy–momentum tensor defined through the gradient flow. The expectation value reproduces thermodynamic quantities obtained by the standard large-N method. This analysis confirms that the above lattice energy–momentum tensor restores the correct normalization automatically in the continuum limit, in a system with a non-perturbative mass gap

  15. Fiber Optic Rosette Strain Gauge Development and Application on a Large-Scale Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P.; Przekop, Adam; Juarez, Peter D.; Roth, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed description of the construction, application, and measurement of 196 FO rosette strain gauges that measured multi-axis strain across the outside upper surface of the forward bulkhead component of a multibay composite fuselage test article is presented. A background of the FO strain gauge and the FO measurement system as utilized in this application is given and results for the higher load cases of the testing sequence are shown.

  16. Thermal Stability of Ultrafine Grained Pure Copper Prepared by Large Strain Extrusion Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxian Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine grained (UFG pure copper chips with improved material strength have been successfully prepared by large strain extrusion machining (LSEM. However, the thermal stability of the UFG chips has been a key characteristic that has restricted their use in practical applications. To understand the influence of annealing temperature and annealing time on their microstructures and mechanical properties, the UFG chips were subjected to isochronous and isothermal annealing treatments as well as Vickers hardness tests in the present study. From the results, we found that the UFG chips maintain high hardness when annealing at temperatures up to 160 °C but begin to exhibit a reduction in their hardness while the annealing temperature reached above 200 °C. When annealed at 280 °C for 10–240 min, the grain size increased slightly and reached a stable value of 2 µm with an increase in annealing time and with a decrease in the hardness of the chips. These results indicated that UFG pure copper chips have good thermal stability at temperatures below 160 °C.

  17. The nonlinear Maxwell-type model for viscoelastoplastic materials: simulation of temperature influence on creep, relaxation and strain-stress curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Khokhlov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Maxwell-type constitutive relation with two arbitrary material functions for viscoelastoplastic multi-modulus materials is studied analytically in uniaxial isothermic case to reveal the model abilities and applicability scope and to develop techniques of its identification, tuning and fitting. The constitutive equation is aimed at adequate modeling of the rheological phenomena set which is typical for reonomic materials exhibiting non-linear hereditary properties, strong strain rate sensitivity, secondary creep, yielding at constant stress, tension compression asymmetry and such temperature effects as increase of material compliance, strain rate sensitivity and rates of dissipation, relaxation, creep and plastic strain accumulation with temperature growth. The model is applicable for simulation of mechanical behaviour of various polymers, their solutions and melts, solid propellants, sand-asphalt concretes, composite materials, titanium and aluminum alloys, ceramics at high temperature and so on. To describe the influence of temperature on material mechanical behavior (under isothermic conditions, two scalar material parameters of the model (viscosity coefficient and “modulus of elasticity” are considered as a functions of temperature level. The general restrictions on their properties which are necessary and sufficient for adequate qualitative description of the basic thermomechanical phenomena related to typical temperature influence on creep and relaxation curves, creep recovery curves, creep curves under step-wise loading and quasi-static stress-strain curves of viscoelastoplastic materials are obtained. The restrictions are derived using systematic analytical study of general qualitative features of the theoretic creep and relaxation curves, creep curves under step-wise loading, long-term strength curves and stress-strain curves at constant strain or stress rates generated by the constitutive equation (under minimal

  18. Solving large nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems from Density Functional Theory calculations in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Hansen, Lars Bruno

    2001-01-01

    The quantum mechanical ground state of electrons is described by Density Functional Theory, which leads to large minimization problems. An efficient minimization method uses a self-consistent field (SCF) solution of large eigenvalue problems. The iterative Davidson algorithm is often used, and we...

  19. Nonlinear unbiased minimum-variance filter for Mars entry autonomous navigation under large uncertainties and unknown measurement bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengli; Zhang, Yongbo; Fu, Huimin; Wang, Zhihua

    2018-05-01

    High-precision navigation algorithm is essential for the future Mars pinpoint landing mission. The unknown inputs caused by large uncertainties of atmospheric density and aerodynamic coefficients as well as unknown measurement biases may cause large estimation errors of conventional Kalman filters. This paper proposes a derivative-free version of nonlinear unbiased minimum variance filter for Mars entry navigation. This filter has been designed to solve this problem by estimating the state and unknown measurement biases simultaneously with derivative-free character, leading to a high-precision algorithm for the Mars entry navigation. IMU/radio beacons integrated navigation is introduced in the simulation, and the result shows that with or without radio blackout, our proposed filter could achieve an accurate state estimation, much better than the conventional unscented Kalman filter, showing the ability of high-precision Mars entry navigation algorithm. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of molten thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) through large amplitude harmonic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, Jean L. [University P. and M. Curie-Paris 6, Polymer Rheology and Processing, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2007-10-15

    The so-called thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) are essentially blends of a crystalline thermoplastic polymer (e.g., polypropylene) and a vulcanizable rubber composition, prepared through a special process called dynamic vulcanization, which yields a fine dispersion of micron-size crosslinked rubber particles in a thermoplastic matrix. Such materials are by nature complex polymer systems, i.e., multiphase, heterogeneous, typically disordered materials for which structure is as important as composition. Correctly assessing their rheological properties is a challenging task for several reasons: first, even if the uniformity of their composition is taken for granted, TPV are indeed very complicated materials, not only heterogeneous but also with a morphology related to their composition; second, their morphology can be affected by the flow field used; third, the migration of small labile ingredients (e.g., oil, curative residue, etc.) can in the meantime significantly change the boundary flow conditions, for instance through self-lubrication due to phase separation of the oil, or wall slip, or both. The aims of the work reported were to investigate a series of commercial TPV through the so-called Fourier transform rheometry, a testing technique especially developed to accurately investigate the nonlinear viscoelastic domain. Results are tentatively interpreted in terms of material composition and structure. (orig.)

  1. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rust, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  2. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.

  3. High-accuracy power series solutions with arbitrarily large radius of convergence for the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, U. Al; Al-Refai, M.; Shchedrin, Gavriil; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-06-01

    Fractional nonlinear differential equations present an interplay between two common and important effective descriptions used to simplify high dimensional or more complicated theories: nonlinearity and fractional derivatives. These effective descriptions thus appear commonly in physical and mathematical modeling. We present a new series method providing systematic controlled accuracy for solutions of fractional nonlinear differential equations, including the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation. The method relies on spatially iterative use of power series expansions. Our approach permits an arbitrarily large radius of convergence and thus solves the typical divergence problem endemic to power series approaches. In the specific case of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation we find fractional generalizations of cnoidal waves of Jacobi elliptic functions as well as a fractional bright soliton. For the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation we find the combination of fractional and nonlinear effects results in a more strongly localized solution which nevertheless still exhibits power law tails, albeit at a much lower density.

  4. Biological consequences of ancient gene acquisition and duplication in the large genome soil bacterium, ""solibacter usitatus"" strain Ellin6076

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eichorst, Stephanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuske, Cheryl R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hauser, Loren [ORNL; Land, Miriam [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial genome sizes range from ca. 0.5 to 10Mb and are influenced by gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, gene loss and other evolutionary processes. Sequenced genomes of strains in the phylum Acidobacteria revealed that 'Solibacter usistatus' strain Ellin6076 harbors a 9.9 Mb genome. This large genome appears to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer via ancient bacteriophage and plasmid-mediated transduction, as well as widespread small-scale gene duplications. This has resulted in an increased number of paralogs that are potentially ecologically important (ecoparalogs). Low amino acid sequence identities among functional group members and lack of conserved gene order and orientation in the regions containing similar groups of paralogs suggest that most of the paralogs were not the result of recent duplication events. The genome sizes of cultured subdivision 1 and 3 strains in the phylum Acidobacteria were estimated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the prevalence of the large genome trait within the phylum. Members of subdivision 1 were estimated to have smaller genome sizes ranging from ca. 2.0 to 4.8 Mb, whereas members of subdivision 3 had slightly larger genomes, from ca. 5.8 to 9.9 Mb. It is hypothesized that the large genome of strain Ellin6076 encodes traits that provide a selective metabolic, defensive and regulatory advantage in the variable soil environment.

  5. Breaking Computational Barriers: Real-time Analysis and Optimization with Large-scale Nonlinear Models via Model Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Drohmann, Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Tuminaro, Raymond S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Computational Mathematics; Boggs, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Optimization and Uncertainty Estimation

    2014-10-01

    Model reduction for dynamical systems is a promising approach for reducing the computational cost of large-scale physics-based simulations to enable high-fidelity models to be used in many- query (e.g., Bayesian inference) and near-real-time (e.g., fast-turnaround simulation) contexts. While model reduction works well for specialized problems such as linear time-invariant systems, it is much more difficult to obtain accurate, stable, and efficient reduced-order models (ROMs) for systems with general nonlinearities. This report describes several advances that enable nonlinear reduced-order models (ROMs) to be deployed in a variety of time-critical settings. First, we present an error bound for the Gauss-Newton with Approximated Tensors (GNAT) nonlinear model reduction technique. This bound allows the state-space error for the GNAT method to be quantified when applied with the backward Euler time-integration scheme. Second, we present a methodology for preserving classical Lagrangian structure in nonlinear model reduction. This technique guarantees that important properties--such as energy conservation and symplectic time-evolution maps--are preserved when performing model reduction for models described by a Lagrangian formalism (e.g., molecular dynamics, structural dynamics). Third, we present a novel technique for decreasing the temporal complexity --defined as the number of Newton-like iterations performed over the course of the simulation--by exploiting time-domain data. Fourth, we describe a novel method for refining projection-based reduced-order models a posteriori using a goal-oriented framework similar to mesh-adaptive h -refinement in finite elements. The technique allows the ROM to generate arbitrarily accurate solutions, thereby providing the ROM with a 'failsafe' mechanism in the event of insufficient training data. Finally, we present the reduced-order model error surrogate (ROMES) method for statistically quantifying reduced- order

  6. Large-scale bioreactor production of the herbicide-degrading Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Frkova, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon and with ......The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon...... and with an element composition similar to the strain was generated. The optimal pH and temperature for strain growth were determined using shaker flasks and verified in bioreactors. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were suitable carbon sources for MSH1 (μ =0.1 h−1); slower growth was observed on succinate and acetic...... acid (μ =0.01 h−1). Standard conditions for growth of theMSH1 strain were defined at pH 7 and 25 °C, with glucose as the carbon source. In bioreactors (1 and 5 L), the specific growth rate of MSH1 increased from μ =0.1 h−1 on traditional mineral salt medium to μ =0.18 h−1 on the optimized mineral salt...

  7. APPLICATION OF UKRAINIAN GRID INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INVESTIGATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN LARGE NEURONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. О. Sudakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present work the Ukrainian National Grid (UNG infrastructure was applied for investigation of synchronization in large networks of interacting neurons. This application is important for solving of modern neuroscience problems related to mechanisms of nervous system activities (memory, cognition etc. and nervous pathologies (epilepsy, Parkinsonism, etc.. Modern non-linear dynamics theories and applications provides powerful basis for computer simulations of biological neuronal networks and investigation of phenomena which mechanisms hardly could be clarified by other approaches. Cubic millimeter of brain tissue contains about 105 neurons, so realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley model and phenomenological (Kuramoto-Sakaguchi, FitzHugh-Nagumo, etc. models simulations require consideration of large neurons numbers.

  8. Comparative genome analysis identifies two large deletions in the genome of highly-passaged attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain YM001 compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Huang, Yan; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Lei, Aiying; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lianfu

    2015-11-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen for neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. The global outbreaks of Streptococcus disease in tilapia cause huge economic losses and threaten human food hygiene safety as well. To investigate the mechanism of S. agalactiae pathogenesis in tilapia and develop attenuated S. agalactiae vaccine, this study sequenced and comparatively analyzed the whole genomes of virulent wild-type S. agalactiae strain HN016 and its highly-passaged attenuated strain YM001 derived from tilapia. We performed Illumina sequencing of DNA prepared from strain HN016 and YM001. Sequencedreads were assembled and nucleotide comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) , indels were analyzed between the draft genomes of HN016 and YM001. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and prophage were detected and analyzed in different S. agalactiae strains. The genome of S. agalactiae YM001 was 2,047,957 bp with a GC content of 35.61 %; it contained 2044 genes and 88 RNAs. Meanwhile, the genome of S. agalactiae HN016 was 2,064,722 bp with a GC content of 35.66 %; it had 2063 genes and 101 RNAs. Comparative genome analysis indicated that compared with HN016, YM001 genome had two significant large deletions, at the sizes of 5832 and 11,116 bp respectively, resulting in the deletion of three rRNA and ten tRNA genes, as well as the deletion and functional damage of ten genes related to metabolism, transport, growth, anti-stress, etc. Besides these two large deletions, other ten deletions and 28 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were also identified, mainly affecting the metabolism- and growth-related genes. The genome of attenuated S. agalactiae YM001 showed significant variations, resulting in the deletion of 10 functional genes, compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016. The deleted and mutated functional genes all

  9. The observation of nonlinear ion cyclotron wave excitation during high-harmonic fast wave heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Saito, K.; Mutoh, T.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Yamada, I.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Morita, S.; Nomura, G.; Shimpo, F.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Oosako, T.; Takase, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A wave detector, a newly designed magnetic probe, is installed in the large helical device (LHD). This wave detector is a 100-turn loop coil with electrostatic shield. Comparing a one-loop coil to this detector, this detector has roughly constant power coupling in the lower frequency range of 40 MHz, and it can easily detect magnetic wave in the frequency of a few megahertz. During high-harmonic fast wave heating, lower frequency waves (<10 MHz) were observed in the LHD for the first time, and for the power density threshold of lower frequency wave excitation (7.5 MHz) the power density of excited pumped wave (38.47 MHz) was approximately -46 dBm/Hz. These lower frequencies are kept constant for electron density and high energy particle distribution, and these lower frequency waves seem to be ion cyclotron waves caused by nonlinear wave-particle interaction, for example, parametric decay instability.

  10. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n 2 , of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response ( 2 was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 composition. Large values of n 2 ≅10 -14 cm 2 /W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications

  11. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  12. Mixed Models and Reduction Techniques for Large-Rotation, Nonlinear Analysis of Shells of Revolution with Application to Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    An effective computational strategy is presented for the large-rotation, nonlinear axisymmetric analysis of shells of revolution. The three key elements of the computational strategy are: (1) use of mixed finite-element models with discontinuous stress resultants at the element interfaces; (2) substantial reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom through the use of a multiple-parameter reduction technique; and (3) reduction in the size of the analysis model through the decomposition of asymmetric loads into symmetric and antisymmetric components coupled with the use of the multiple-parameter reduction technique. The potential of the proposed computational strategy is discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy of the mixed models developed and to show the potential of using the proposed computational strategy for the analysis of tires.

  13. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of flexible beams undergoing large rotations Via symbolic computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiaofeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage approach is presented for analyzing flexible beams undergoing large rotations. In the first stage, the symbolic forms of equations of motion and the Jacobian matrix are generated by means of MATLAB and written into a MATLAB script file automatically, where the flexible beams are described by the unified formulation presented in our previous paper. In the second stage, the derived equations of motion are solved by means of implicit numerical methods. Several comparison computations are performed. The two-stage approach proves to be much more efficient than pure numerical one.

  15. Solution of large nonlinear time-dependent problems using reduced coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mish, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    This research is concerned with the idea of reducing a large time-dependent problem, such as one obtained from a finite-element discretization, down to a more manageable size while preserving the most-important physical behavior of the solution. This reduction process is motivated by the concept of a projection operator on a Hilbert Space, and leads to the Lanczos Algorithm for generation of approximate eigenvectors of a large symmetric matrix. The Lanczos Algorithm is then used to develop a reduced form of the spatial component of a time-dependent problem. The solution of the remaining temporal part of the problem is considered from the standpoint of numerical-integration schemes in the time domain. All of these theoretical results are combined to motivate the proposed reduced coordinate algorithm. This algorithm is then developed, discussed, and compared to related methods from the mechanics literature. The proposed reduced coordinate method is then applied to the solution of some representative problems in mechanics. The results of these problems are discussed, conclusions are drawn, and suggestions are made for related future research

  16. Detection and characterisation of Yersinia enterocolitica strains in cold-stored carcasses of large game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Socha, Piotr; Szweda, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen. The aim of the present study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y.enterocolitica strains isolated from three different anatomical regions of cold-stored carcasses of large game animals intended for human consumption. Y.enterocolitica strains were found in 12/20 (60%) of the roe deer carcasses examined, 7/16 (43.8%) of red deer carcasses and 11/20 (55%) of wild boar carcasses. Of the 52 Y.enterocolitica strains, 19 were isolated from the perineum, followed by 17 strains from the peritoneum of the longissimus dorsi muscle and 16 from the tonsils. Only one strain was isolated from warm culture. Bioserotype 1A/NI was the most commonly found and was detected in 29/52 isolates. All isolates contained amplicons corresponding to ystB gene fragments. The relatively high degree of carcass contamination with Y.enterocolitica is of concern due to the growing popularity of game meat with consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G H; Royle, P J; Playne, M J

    1999-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria strains were examined for their influence on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced intestinal tumors in 100 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Lactobacillus acidophilus (Delvo Pro LA-1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (GG), Bifidobacterium animalis (CSCC1941), and Streptococcus thermophilus (DD145) strains were examined for their influence when added as freeze-dried bacteria to an experimental diet based on a high-fat semipurified (AIN-93) rodent diet. Four bacterial treatments were compared: L. acidophilus, L. acidophilus + B. animalis, L. rhamnosus, and S. thermophilus, the bacteria being added daily at 1% freeze-dried weight (10(10) colony-forming units/g) to the diet. Trends were observed in the incidence of rats with large intestinal tumors for three treatments: 25% lower than control for L. acidophilus, 20% lower for L. acidophilus + B. animalis and L. rhamnosus treatments, and 10% lower for S. thermophilus. Large intestinal tumor burden was significantly lower for treated rats with L. acidophilus than for the control group (10 and 3 tumors/treatment group, respectively, p = 0.05). Large intestinal tumor mass index was also lower for the L. acidophilus treatment than for control (1.70 and 0.10, respectively, p L. acidophilus, no adenocarcinomas were present in the colons. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of bacterial chromosomal DNA fragments was used to differentiate introduced (exogenous) bacterial strains from indigenous bacteria of the same genera present in the feces. Survival during gut passage and displacement of indigenous lactobacilli occurred with introduced L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus GG during the probiotic treatment period. However, introduced strains of B. animalis and S. thermophilus were not able to be isolated from feces. It is concluded that this strain of L. acidophilus supplied as freeze-dried bacteria in the diet was protective, as seen by a small but significant inhibition of tumors within the rat colon.

  18. Associations between Job Strain and Arterial Stiffness: A Large Survey among Enterprise Employees from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Kaewboonchoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As an intermediate endpoint to cardiovascular disease, arterial stiffness has received much attention recently. So far, the research on work stress and arterial stiffness is still sparse and inconsistent, and no investigations on work stress and cardiovascular health among the Thai working population have been reported. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study among 2141 Thai enterprise employees (858 men and 1283 women who were free from any diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Work stress was measured using Karasek’s Job Demand–Control model for job strain (a combination of high demand and low control. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by a non-invasive approach using pulse-wave analysis based on a finger photoplethysmogram. Multivariable linear regression was applied to examine associations between job strain and arterial stiffness. In men, job strain was significantly associated with arterial stiffness (β  =  0.078, 95% confidence interval  =  0.026 to 0.130, after accounting for sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary and biomedical factors. However, the association in women was not significant. As the first study in Thailand on work stress and cardiovascular risk, we found that job strain might be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease among Thai working men. Further studies with longitudinal design are warranted.

  19. Numerical modeling of large field-induced strains in ferroelastic bodies: a continuum approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikher, Yu L; Stolbov, O V

    2008-01-01

    A consistent continuum model of a soft magnetic elastomer (SME) is presented and developed for the case of finite strain. The numeric algorithm enabling one to find the field-induced shape changes of an SME body is described. The reliability of the method is illustrated by several examples revealing specifics of the magnetostriction effect in SME samples of various geometries

  20. Large-strain optical fiber sensing and real-time FEM updating of steel structures under the high temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Xia; Xiao, Hai; Bevans, Wesley James; Chen, Genda; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Steel buildings are subjected to fire hazards during or immediately after a major earthquake. Under combined gravity and thermal loads, they have non-uniformly distributed stiffness and strength, and thus collapse progressively with large deformation. In this study, large-strain optical fiber sensors for high temperature applications and a temperature-dependent finite element model updating method are proposed for accurate prediction of structural behavior in real time. The optical fiber sensors can measure strains up to 10% at approximately 700 °C. Their measurements are in good agreement with those from strain gauges up to 0.5%. In comparison with the experimental results, the proposed model updating method can reduce the predicted strain errors from over 75% to below 20% at 800 °C. The minimum number of sensors in a fire zone that can properly characterize the vertical temperature distribution of heated air due to the gravity effect should be included in the proposed model updating scheme to achieve a predetermined simulation accuracy. (paper)

  1. The nonlinear optical properties of a magneto-exciton in a strained Ga0.2In0.8As/GaAs quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N. R. Senthil; Peter, A. John; Yoo Chang Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field-dependent heavy hole excitonic states in a strained Ga 0.2 In 0.8 As/GaAs quantum dot are investigated by taking into account the anisotropy, non-parabolicity of the conduction band, and the geometrical confinement. The strained quantum dot is considered as a parabolic dot of InAs embedded in a GaAs barrier material. The dependence of the effective excitonic g-factor as a function of dot radius and the magnetic field strength is numerically measured. The interband optical transition energy as a function of geometrical confinement is computed in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field-dependent oscillator strength of interband transition under the geometrical confinement is studied. The exchange enhancements as a function of dot radius are observed for various magnetic field strengths in a strained Ga 0.2 In 0.8 As/GaAs quantum dot. Heavy hole excitonic absorption spectra, the changes in refractive index, and the third-order susceptibility of third-order harmonic generation are investigated in the Ga 0.2 In 0.8 As/GaAs quantum dot. The result shows that the effect of magnetic field strength is more strongly dependent on the nonlinear optical property in a low-dimensional semiconductor system. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. EBSD-based techniques for characterization of microstructural restoration processes during annealing of metals deformed to large plastic strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godfrey, A.; Mishin, Oleg; Yu, Tianbo

    2012-01-01

    Some methods for quantitative characterization of the microstructures deformed to large plastic strains both before and after annealing are discussed and illustrated using examples of samples after equal channel angular extrusion and cold-rolling. It is emphasized that the microstructures...... in such deformed samples exhibit a heterogeneity in the microstructural refinement by high angle boundaries. Based on this, a new parameter describing the fraction of regions containing predominantly low angle boundaries is introduced. This parameter has some advantages over the simpler high angle boundary...... on mode of the distribution of dislocation cell sizes is outlined, and it is demonstrated how this parameter can be used to investigate the uniformity, or otherwise, of the restoration processes occurring during annealing of metals deformed to large plastic strains. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications...

  3. Rapid MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Strain Typing during a Large Outbreak of Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Martin; Trusch, Maria; Rohde, Holger; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut; Wolters, Manuel; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Hentschke, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2011 northern Germany experienced a large outbreak of Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4. The large amount of samples sent to microbiology laboratories for epidemiological assessment highlighted the importance of fast and inexpensive typing procedures. We have therefore evaluated the applicability of a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry based strategy for outbreak strain identification. Methods Specific peaks in the outbreak strain’s spectrum were identified by comparative analysis of archived pre-outbreak spectra that had been acquired for routine species-level identification. Proteins underlying these discriminatory peaks were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and validated against publicly available databases. The resulting typing scheme was evaluated against PCR genotyping with 294 E. coli isolates from clinical samples collected during the outbreak. Results Comparative spectrum analysis revealed two characteristic peaks at m/z 6711 and m/z 10883. The underlying proteins were found to be of low prevalence among genome sequenced E. coli strains. Marker peak detection correctly classified 292 of 293 study isolates, including all 104 outbreak isolates. Conclusions MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed for reliable outbreak strain identification during a large outbreak of Shiga-Toxigenic E. coli. The applied typing strategy could probably be adapted to other typing tasks and might facilitate epidemiological surveys as part of the routine pathogen identification workflow. PMID:25003758

  4. Strain Dependent Genetic Networks for Antibiotic-Sensitivity in a Bacterial Pathogen with a Large Pan-Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van Opijnen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an antibiotic and bacterium is not merely restricted to the drug and its direct target, rather antibiotic induced stress seems to resonate through the bacterium, creating selective pressures that drive the emergence of adaptive mutations not only in the direct target, but in genes involved in many different fundamental processes as well. Surprisingly, it has been shown that adaptive mutations do not necessarily have the same effect in all species, indicating that the genetic background influences how phenotypes are manifested. However, to what extent the genetic background affects the manner in which a bacterium experiences antibiotic stress, and how this stress is processed is unclear. Here we employ the genome-wide tool Tn-Seq to construct daptomycin-sensitivity profiles for two strains of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Remarkably, over half of the genes that are important for dealing with antibiotic-induced stress in one strain are dispensable in another. By confirming over 100 genotype-phenotype relationships, probing potassium-loss, employing genetic interaction mapping as well as temporal gene-expression experiments we reveal genome-wide conditionally important/essential genes, we discover roles for genes with unknown function, and uncover parts of the antibiotic's mode-of-action. Moreover, by mapping the underlying genomic network for two query genes we encounter little conservation in network connectivity between strains as well as profound differences in regulatory relationships. Our approach uniquely enables genome-wide fitness comparisons across strains, facilitating the discovery that antibiotic responses are complex events that can vary widely between strains, which suggests that in some cases the emergence of resistance could be strain specific and at least for species with a large pan-genome less predictable.

  5. Largely Tunable Band Structures of Few-Layer InSe by Uniaxial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaoyu; Fan, Fengren; Xuan, Ningning; Huang, Shenyang; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Zhengzong; Wu, Hua; Yan, Hugen

    2018-01-31

    Because of the strong quantum confinement effect, few-layer γ-InSe exhibits a layer-dependent band gap, spanning the visible and near infrared regions, and thus recently has been drawing tremendous attention. As a two-dimensional material, the mechanical flexibility provides an additional tuning knob for the electronic structures. Here, for the first time, we engineer the band structures of few-layer and bulk-like InSe by uniaxial tensile strain and observe a salient shift of photoluminescence peaks. The shift rate of the optical gap is approximately 90-100 meV per 1% strain for four- to eight-layer samples, which is much larger than that for the widely studied MoS 2 monolayer. Density functional theory calculations well reproduce the observed layer-dependent band gaps and the strain effect and reveal that the shift rate decreases with the increasing layer number for few-layer InSe. Our study demonstrates that InSe is a very versatile two-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic material, which is suitable for tunable light emitters, photodetectors, and other optoelectronic devices.

  6. Determination of the State of Strain of Large Floating Covers Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Aided Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wern Hann; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kuen, Thomas; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2017-01-01

    Floating covers used in waste water treatment plants are one of the many structures formed with membrane materials. These structures are usually large and can spread over an area measuring 470 m × 170 m. The aim of this paper is to describe recent work to develop an innovative and effective approach for structural health monitoring (SHM) of such large membrane-like infrastructure. This paper will propose a potentially cost-effective non-contact approach for full-field strain and stress mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted with a digital camera and a global positioning system (GPS) tracker. The aim is to use the images acquired by the UAV to define the geometry of the floating cover using photogrammetry. In this manner, any changes in the geometry of the floating cover due to forces acting beneath resulting from its deployment and usage can be determined. The time-scale for these changes is in terms of weeks and months. The change in the geometry can be implemented as input conditions to a finite element model (FEM) for stress prediction. This will facilitate the determination of the state of distress of the floating cover. This paper investigates the possibility of using data recorded from a UAV to predict the strain level and assess the health of such structures. An investigation was first conducted on a laboratory sized membrane structure instrumented with strain gauges for comparison against strains, which were computed from 3D scans of the membrane geometry. Upon validating the technique in the laboratory, it was applied to a more realistic scenario: an outdoor test membrane structure and capable UAV were constructed to see if the shape of the membrane could be computed. The membrane displacements were then used to calculate the membrane stress and strain, state demonstrating a new way to perform structural health monitoring on membrane structures. PMID:28788081

  7. Determination of the State of Strain of Large Floating Covers Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Aided Photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wern Hann; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kuen, Thomas; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2017-07-28

    Floating covers used in waste water treatment plants are one of the many structures formed with membrane materials. These structures are usually large and can spread over an area measuring 470 m × 170 m. The aim of this paper is to describe recent work to develop an innovative and effective approach for structural health monitoring (SHM) of such large membrane-like infrastructure. This paper will propose a potentially cost-effective non-contact approach for full-field strain and stress mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted with a digital camera and a global positioning system (GPS) tracker. The aim is to use the images acquired by the UAV to define the geometry of the floating cover using photogrammetry. In this manner, any changes in the geometry of the floating cover due to forces acting beneath resulting from its deployment and usage can be determined. The time-scale for these changes is in terms of weeks and months. The change in the geometry can be implemented as input conditions to a finite element model (FEM) for stress prediction. This will facilitate the determination of the state of distress of the floating cover. This paper investigates the possibility of using data recorded from a UAV to predict the strain level and assess the health of such structures. An investigation was first conducted on a laboratory sized membrane structure instrumented with strain gauges for comparison against strains, which were computed from 3D scans of the membrane geometry. Upon validating the technique in the laboratory, it was applied to a more realistic scenario: an outdoor test membrane structure and capable UAV were constructed to see if the shape of the membrane could be computed. The membrane displacements were then used to calculate the membrane stress and strain, state demonstrating a new way to perform structural health monitoring on membrane structures.

  8. Determination of the State of Strain of Large Floating Covers Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Aided Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wern Hann Ong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Floating covers used in waste water treatment plants are one of the many structures formed with membrane materials. These structures are usually large and can spread over an area measuring 470 m × 170 m. The aim of this paper is to describe recent work to develop an innovative and effective approach for structural health monitoring (SHM of such large membrane-like infrastructure. This paper will propose a potentially cost-effective non-contact approach for full-field strain and stress mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV mounted with a digital camera and a global positioning system (GPS tracker. The aim is to use the images acquired by the UAV to define the geometry of the floating cover using photogrammetry. In this manner, any changes in the geometry of the floating cover due to forces acting beneath resulting from its deployment and usage can be determined. The time-scale for these changes is in terms of weeks and months. The change in the geometry can be implemented as input conditions to a finite element model (FEM for stress prediction. This will facilitate the determination of the state of distress of the floating cover. This paper investigates the possibility of using data recorded from a UAV to predict the strain level and assess the health of such structures. An investigation was first conducted on a laboratory sized membrane structure instrumented with strain gauges for comparison against strains, which were computed from 3D scans of the membrane geometry. Upon validating the technique in the laboratory, it was applied to a more realistic scenario: an outdoor test membrane structure and capable UAV were constructed to see if the shape of the membrane could be computed. The membrane displacements were then used to calculate the membrane stress and strain, state demonstrating a new way to perform structural health monitoring on membrane structures.

  9. A unified nonlocal strain gradient plate model for nonlinear axial instability of functionally graded porous micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Aghdam, Mohammad Mohammadi; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-04-01

    By gradually changing of the porosity across a specific direction, functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are produced which can impart desirable mechanical properties. To enhance these properties, it is common to reinforce FGPMs with nanofillers. The main aim of the current study is to investigate the size-dependent nonlinear axial postbuckling characteristics of FGPM micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets. For this purpose, the theory of nonlocal strain gradient elasticity incorporating the both stiffness reduction and stiffness enhancement mechanisms of size effects is applied to the refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. Three different patterns of porosity dispersion across the plate thickness in conjunction with the uniform one are assumed for FGPM as an open-cell metal foam is utilized associated with the coefficients of the relative density and porosity. With the aid of the virtual work’s principle, the non-classical governing differential equations are constructed. Thereafter, an improved perturbation technique is employed to capture the size dependencies in the nonlinear load-deflection and load-shortening responses of the reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with and without initial geometric imperfection. It is indicated that by increasing the value of porosity coefficient, the size-dependent critical buckling loads of reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with all types of porosity dispersion pattern reduce, but the associated shortening may increase or decrease which depends on the type of dispersion pattern.

  10. Novel probabilistic and distributed algorithms for guidance, control, and nonlinear estimation of large-scale multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Saptarshi

    guidance algorithms using results from numerical simulations and closed-loop hardware experiments on multiple quadrotors. In the second part of this dissertation, we present two novel discrete-time algorithms for distributed estimation, which track a single target using a network of heterogeneous sensing agents. The Distributed Bayesian Filtering (DBF) algorithm, the sensing agents combine their normalized likelihood functions using the logarithmic opinion pool and the discrete-time dynamic average consensus algorithm. Each agent's estimated likelihood function converges to an error ball centered on the joint likelihood function of the centralized multi-sensor Bayesian filtering algorithm. Using a new proof technique, the convergence, stability, and robustness properties of the DBF algorithm are rigorously characterized. The explicit bounds on the time step of the robust DBF algorithm are shown to depend on the time-scale of the target dynamics. Furthermore, the DBF algorithm for linear-Gaussian models can be cast into a modified form of the Kalman information filter. In the Bayesian Consensus Filtering (BCF) algorithm, the agents combine their estimated posterior pdfs multiple times within each time step using the logarithmic opinion pool scheme. Thus, each agent's consensual pdf minimizes the sum of Kullback-Leibler divergences with the local posterior pdfs. The performance and robust properties of these algorithms are validated using numerical simulations. In the third part of this dissertation, we present an attitude control strategy and a new nonlinear tracking controller for a spacecraft carrying a large object, such as an asteroid or a boulder. If the captured object is larger or comparable in size to the spacecraft and has significant modeling uncertainties, conventional nonlinear control laws that use exact feed-forward cancellation are not suitable because they exhibit a large resultant disturbance torque. The proposed nonlinear tracking control law guarantees

  11. Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Volkan Demir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present circular architecture bioimplant strain sensors that facilitate a strong resonance frequency shift with mechanical deformation. The clinical application area of these sensors is for in vivo assessment of bone fractures. Using a rectangular geometry, we obtain a resonance shift of 330 MHz for a single device and 170 MHz for its triplet configuration (with three side-by-side resonators on chip under an applied load of 3,920 N. Using the same device parameters with a circular isotropic architecture, we achieve a resonance frequency shift of 500 MHz for the single device and 260 MHz for its triplet configuration, demonstrating substantially increased sensitivity.

  12. Time-scale invariant changes in atmospheric radon concentration and crustal strain prior to a large earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to large earthquakes (e.g. 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan, an increase in the atmospheric radon concentration is observed, and this increase in the rate follows a power-law of the time-to-earthquake (time-to-failure. This phenomenon corresponds to the increase in the radon migration in crust and the exhalation into atmosphere. An irreversible thermodynamic model including time-scale invariance clarifies that the increases in the pressure of the advecting radon and permeability (hydraulic conductivity in the crustal rocks are caused by the temporal changes in the power-law of the crustal strain (or cumulative Benioff strain, which is associated with damage evolution such as microcracking or changing porosity. As the result, the radon flux and the atmospheric radon concentration can show a temporal power-law increase. The concentration of atmospheric radon can be used as a proxy for the seismic precursory processes associated with crustal dynamics.

  13. Study on the temperature gradient evolution of large size nonlinear crystal based on the fluid-solid coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.

  14. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred on March 11, 2011. Based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9, and it was considerably smaller than an actual value. On the other hand, using nine borehole strainmeters of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, we estimated a fault model with Mw 8.7 for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. This model can be estimated about seven minutes after the origin time, and five minute after wave arrival. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami (e.g., Ohta et al., 2012). Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  15. Use of endochronic plasticity for multi-dimensional small and large strain problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.

    1980-04-01

    The endochronic plasticity theory was proposed in its general form by K.C. Valanis. An intrinsic time measure, which is a property of the material, is used in the theory. the explicit forms of the constitutive equation resemble closely those of the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity. Excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental results is obtained for some metallic and non-metallic materials for one dimensional cases. No reference on the use of endochronic plasticity consistent with the general theory proposed by Valanis is available in the open literature. In this report, the explicit constitutive equations are derived that are consistent with the general theory for one-dimensional (simple tension or compression), two-dimensional plane strain or stress and three-dimensional axisymmetric problems

  16. Large-Strain Monitoring Above a Longwall Coal Mine With GPS and Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.; Andreatta, V.; Meertens, C. M.; Krahenbuhl, T.; Kenner, B.

    2001-12-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate continuous GPS measurements for use in mine safety studies, a joint GPS-seismic experiment was conducted at an underground longwall coal mine near Paonia, Colorado in June, 2001. Seismic and deformation signals were measured using prototype low-cost monitoring systems as a longwall panel was excavated 150 m beneath the site. Data from both seismic and GPS instruments were logged onto low-power PC-104 Linux computers which were networked using a wireless LAN. The seismic system under development at NIOSH/SRL is based on multiple distributed 8-channel 24-bit A/D converters. The GPS system uses a serial single-frequency (L1) receiver and UNAVCO's "Jstream" Java data logging software. For this experiment, a continuously operating dual-frequency GPS receiver was installed 2.4 km away to serve as a reference site. In addition to the continuously operating sites, 10 benchmarks were surveyed daily with short "rapid-static" occupations in order to provide greater spatial sampling. Two single-frequency sites were located 35 meters apart on a relatively steep north-facing slope. As mining progressed from the east, net displacements of 1.2 meters to the north and 1.65 meters of subsidence were observed over a period of 6 days. The east component exhibited up to 0.45 meters of eastward displacement (toward the excavation) followed by reverse movement to the west. This cycle, observed approximately two days earlier at the eastern L1 site, is consistent with a change in surface strain from tension to compression as the excavation front passed underneath. As this strain "wave" propagated across the field site, surface deformation underwent a cycle of tension crack nucleation, crack opening (up to 15 cm normal displacements), subsequent crack closure, and production of low-angle-thrust compressional deformation features. Analysis of seismic results, surface deformation, and additional survey results are presented.

  17. Characterization of an exo-chitinase from a Citrobacter strain isolated from the intestine content of large yellow croakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Yang, Yalin; Liu, Yang; Ran, Chao; Li, Juan; He, Suxu; Xu, Li; Ai, Xhunxiang; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-07-04

    We isolated bacterial strains with chitin-degrading activity from the digesta of large yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) fed with chitin-enriched trash fish, and characterized potential chitinases thereof. Chitin-degrading strains were screened with colloidal chitin agar from the digesta of P. crocea fed with trash fish. The chitinase gene (chi-X) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymatic properties of the chitinase (CHI-X) were characterized. A Citrobacter freundii strain with chitin-degrading activity was isolated. The chitinase gene encodes a protein containing 493 amino acid residues, with a proposed glycoside hydrolase family-18 catalytic domain. CHI-X could hydrolyze colloidal chitin. The optimal pH for CHI-X was 4.0 at optimal temperature (60 ℃). CHI-X was active over a broad pH range, with around 90% of the activity maintained after incubation at pH between 3.0 and 11 for 1 h. The enzymatic activity of CHI-X was stimulated by Mn2+, Li+, and K+, but inhibited by Ag+. The enzyme was stable after treatment by proteases and grouper intestinal juice. CHI-X hydrolyzes colloidal chitin into GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)2. Furthermore, an synergic effect was observed between CHIX and ChiB565 (a chitinase from Aeromonas veronii B565) on colloidal chitin. CHI-X from intestinal bacterium may be potentially used as feed additive enzyme for warm water marine fish.

  18. Large diameter femoral heads impose significant alterations on the strains developed on femoral component and bone: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, E G; Provatidis, C G; Babis, G C; Georgiou, C S; Megas, P D

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty aims at fully recreating a functional hip joint. Over the past years modular implant systems have become common practice and are widely used, due to the surgical options they provide. In addition Big Femoral Heads have also been implemented in the process, providing more flexibility for the surgeon. The current study aims at investigating the effects that femoral heads of bigger diameter may impose on the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant assembly. Using data acquired by Computed Tomographies and a Coordinate Measurement Machine, a cadaveric femur and a Profemur-E modular stem were fully digitized, leading to a three dimensional finite element model in ANSYS Workbench. Strains and stresses were then calculated, focusing on areas of clinical interest, based on Gruen zones: the calcar and the corresponding below the greater trochanter area in the proximal femur, the stem tip region and a profile line along linea aspera. The performed finite elements analysis revealed that the use of large diameter heads produces significant changes in strain development within the bone volume, especially in the lateral side. The application of Frost's law in bone remodeling, validated the hypothesis that for all diameters normal bone growth occurs. However, in the calcar area lower strain values were recorded, when comparing with the reference model featuring a 28mm femoral head. Along line aspera and for the stem tip area, higher values were recorded. Finally, stresses calculated on the modular neck revealed increased values, but without reaching the yield strength of the titanium alloy used.

  19. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  20. A new nonlinear blind source separation method with chaos indicators for decoupling diagnosis of hybrid failures: A marine propulsion gearbox case with a large speed variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhixiong; Peng, Z

    2016-01-01

    The normal operation of propulsion gearboxes ensures the ship safety. Chaos indicators could efficiently indicate the state change of the gearboxes. However, accurate detection of gearbox hybrid faults using Chaos indicators is a challenging task and the detection under speed variation conditions is attracting considerable attentions. Literature review suggests that the gearbox vibration is a kind of nonlinear mixture of variant vibration sources and the blind source separation (BSS) is reported to be a promising technique for fault vibration analysis, but very limited work has addressed the nonlinear BSS approach for hybrid faults decoupling diagnosis. Aiming to enhance the fault detection performance of Chaos indicators, this work presents a new nonlinear BSS algorithm for gearbox hybrid faults detection under a speed variation condition. This new method appropriately introduces the kernel spectral regression (KSR) framework into the morphological component analysis (MCA). The original vibration data are projected into the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the instinct nonlinear structure in the original data can be linearized by KSR. Thus the MCA is able to deal with nonlinear BSS in the KSR space. Reliable hybrid faults decoupling is then achieved by this new nonlinear MCA (NMCA). Subsequently, by calculating the Chaos indicators of the decoupled fault components and comparing them with benchmarks, the hybrid faults can be precisely identified. Two specially designed case studies were implemented to evaluate the proposed NMCA-Chaos method on hybrid gear faults decoupling diagnosis. The performance of the NMCA-Chaos was compared with state of art techniques. The analysis results show high performance of the proposed method on hybrid faults detection in a marine propulsion gearbox with large speed variations.

  1. Development of nonlinear empirical models to forecast daily PM2.5 and ozone levels in three large Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baolei; Cobourn, W. Geoffrey; Bai, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    Empirical regression models for next-day forecasting of PM2.5 and O3 air pollution concentrations have been developed and evaluated for three large Chinese cities, Beijing, Nanjing and Guangzhou. The forecast models are empirical nonlinear regression models designed for use in an automated data retrieval and forecasting platform. The PM2.5 model includes an upwind air quality variable, PM24, to account for regional transport of PM2.5, and a persistence variable (previous day PM2.5 concentration). The models were evaluated in the hindcast mode with a two-year air quality and meteorological data set using a leave-one-month-out cross validation method, and in the forecast mode with a one-year air quality and forecasted weather dataset that included forecasted air trajectories. The PM2.5 models performed well in the hindcast mode, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.54, 0.65 and 0.64, and normalized mean error (NME) values of 0.40, 0.26 and 0.23 respectively, for the three cities. The O3 models also performed well in the hindcast mode, with R2 values of 0.75, 0.55 and 0.73, and NME values of 0.29, 0.26 and 0.24 in the three cities. The O3 models performed better in summertime than in winter in Beijing and Guangzhou, and captured the O3 variations well all the year round in Nanjing. The overall forecast performance of the PM2.5 and O3 models during the test year varied from fair to good, depending on location. The forecasts were somewhat degraded compared with hindcasts from the same year, depending on the accuracy of the forecasted meteorological input data. For the O3 models, the model forecast accuracy was strongly dependent on the maximum temperature forecasts. For the critical forecasts, involving air quality standard exceedences, the PM2.5 model forecasts were fair to good, and the O3 model forecasts were poor to fair.

  2. Tuning martensitic transformation, large magnetoresistance and strain in Ni50-xFexMn36Sn14 Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pan; Jing, Chao; Zheng, Dong; Li, Zhe; Kang, Baojuan; Deng, Dongmei; Cao, Shixun; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Jincang

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the martensitic transformation, exchange bias, magnetoresistance (MR) and strain in Ni50-xFexMn36Sn14 (x=1, 2, 3, 4) Heusler alloys. With the increase of Fe content, the austenite phase could be stabilized with L21 structure and hence the martensitic transition shifts to a lower temperature and finally disappears. This behavior can be understood by the weakening of Ni-Mn hybridization to suppress AFM interactions and enhancement of Fe-Fe ferromagnetic exchange interactions. The same reason can account for the slight decrease of exchange bias field (HEB) with the increase of the Fe content from x=1 to 2 and the disappearance of HEB for x=3. We observed MR effect for x=3, and a maximum MR value of -52% was achieved, which can be explained by the change in the electronic structure during martensitic transformation induced by the magnetic field. In addition, a large strain of 0.207% in Ni49Fe1Mn36Sn14 was observed due to the changes of lattice parameters during the martensitic transformation induced by temperature.

  3. Time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis considering materials and geometrical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Takaoka, E.; Nakazawa, M.; Shikama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method was proposed and applied to earthquake response prediction analysis for a Large Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program in Hualien, Taiwan, in which a 1/4 scale model of a nuclear reactor containment structure was constructed on sandy gravel layer. In the analysis both of strain-dependent material nonlinearity, and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift, were considered. The 'Lattice Model' for the soil-structure interaction model was employed. An earthquake record on soil surface at the site was used as control motion, and deconvoluted to the input motion of the analysis model at GL-52 m with 300 Gal of maximum acceleration. The following two analyses were considered: (A) time history nonlinear, (B) equivalent linear, and the advantage of time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method is discussed

  4. Low-voltage, large-strain soft electrothermal actuators based on laser-reduced graphene oxide/Ag particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Ye; Yan, Jun-Chao; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Yang, Fan; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, low-voltage, large-strain flexible electrothermal actuators (ETAs) based on laser-reduced graphene oxide (LRGO)/Ag particle composites were fabricated in a simple and cost-efficient process. By adding Ag particles to the LRGO, the sheet resistance decreased effectively. Under a driving voltage of 28 V, the actuator obtained a bending angle of 192° within 6 s. Besides, the bending deformation could be precisely controlled by the driving voltage ranging from 10° to 192°. Finally, a gripper composed of two actuators was demonstrated to manipulate a piece of polydimethylsiloxane block. With the advantages of low-voltage, fast-response, and easy-to-manufacture, the graphene based ETAs have a promising application in soft robotics and soft machines.

  5. Large third-order nonlinearity of nonpolar A-plane GaN film at 800 nm determined by Z-scan technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Han, Xiangyun

    2014-09-01

    We report an investigation on the optical third-order nonlinear property of the nonpolar A-plane GaN film. The film sample with a thickness of ~2 μm was grown on an r-plane sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. By performing the Z-scan method combined with a mode-locked femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 50 fs), the optical nonlinearity of the nonpolar A-plane GaN film was measured with the electric vector E of the laser beam being polarized parallel (//) and perpendicular (⊥) to the c axis of the film. The results show that both the third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the nonlinear refractive index n2 of the sample film possess negative and large values, i.e. β// = -135 ± 29 cm/GW, n2// = -(4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-3 cm2/GW and β⊥ = -234 ± 29 cm/GW, n2⊥ = -(4.9 ± 0.4) × 10-3 cm2/GW, which are much larger than those of conventional C-plane GaN film, GaN bulk, and even the other oxide semiconductors.

  6. Electric Field-Induced Large Strain in Ni/Sb-co Doped (Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3-Based Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun; Li, Wei; Chu, Ruiqing

    2018-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.935Ba0.065Ti1- x (Ni0.5Sb0.5) x O3 (BNBT6.5- xNS) have been fabricated using conventional solid sintering technique. The effect of (Ni, Sb) doping on the phase structure and electrical properties of BNBT6.5 ceramics were systematically investigated. Results show that the addition of (Ni, Sb) destroyed the ferroelectric long-range order of BNBT6.5 and shifted the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature ( T F-R) down to room temperature. Thus, this process induced an ergodic relaxor phase at zero field in samples with x = 0.005. Under the electric field, the ergodic relaxor phase could reversibly transform to ferroelectric phase, which promotes the strain response with peak value of 0.38% (at 80 kV/cm, corresponding to d 33 * = 479 pm/V) at x = 0.005. Temperature-dependent measurements of both polarization and strain confirmed that the large strain originated from a reversible field-induced ergodic relaxor to ferroelectric phase transformation. The proposed material exhibits potential for nonlinear actuators.

  7. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  8. Large power microwave nonlinear effects on multifunction amplifier chip for Ka-band T/R module of phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo; Gu, Ling; Wu, Ruowu; Xu, Xiong; Zhou, Taifu; Niu, Xinjian; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Hui; Wei, Yanyu; Guo, Changyong

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear effects of large power millimeter wave on critical chips for the T/R module of phased array radar is experimental studied and analyzed in this paper. A multifunction amplifier chip is selected for our experiments. A solid continuous wave (CW) source and a large power pulsed magnetron are both employed to generate the Ka-band microwave. The input-output characteristics, the degradation and destroy threshold of the chips are obtained through a series of experimental tests. At last, the results are given by figures and analyzed theoretically.

  9. The nonlinear dustgrain-charging on large amplitude electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma with trapped ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-N. Nejoh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dustgrain-charging and the influence of the ion density and temperature on electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma having trapped ions are investigated by numerical calculation. This work is the first approach to the effect of trapped ions in dusty plasmas. The nonlinear variation of the dust-charge is examined, and it is shown that the characteristics of the dustcharge number sensitively depend on the plasma potential, Mach number, dust mass-to-charge ratio, trapped ion density and temperature. The fast and slow wave modes are shown in this system. An increase of the ion temperature decreases the dust-charging rate and the propagation speed of ion waves. It is found that the existence of electrostatic ion waves sensitively depends on the ion to electron density ratio. New findings of the variable-charge dust grain particles, ion density and temperature in a dusty plasma with trapped ions are predicted.

  10. Effect of large compressive strain on low field electrical transport in La0.88Sr0.12MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ravikant; Gaur, Anurag; Siwach, P K; Varma, G D; Kaur, A; Singh, H K

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of large in-plane compressive strain on the electrical transport in La 0.88 Sr 0.12 MnO 3 in thin films. For achieving large compressive strain, films have been deposited on single crystal LaAlO 3 (LAO, a = 3.798 A) substrate from a polycrystalline bulk target having average in-plane lattice parameter a av = (a b + b b )/2 = 3.925 A. The compressive strain was further relaxed by varying the film thickness in the range ∼6-75 nm. In the film having least thickness (∼6 nm) large increase (c = 3.929 A) in the out-of-plane lattice parameter is observed which gradually decreases towards the bulk value (c bulk = 3.87 A) for ∼75 nm thick film. This shows that the film having the least thickness is under large compressive strain, which partially relaxes with increasing film thickness. The T IM of the bulk target ∼145 K goes up to ∼235 K for the ∼6 nm thin film and even for partially strain relaxed ∼75 nm thick film T IM is as high as ∼200 K. This enhancement in T IM is explained in terms of suppression of Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra by the large in-plane compressive strain. We observe a large enhancement in the low field magnetoresistance (MR) just below T IM in the films having partial strain relaxation. Thick films of 6 and 20 nm have MR ∼14% at 3 kOe that almost doubles in 35 nm film to ∼27%. Similar enhancement is also obtained in the case of the temperature coefficient of resistivity. The near doubling of low field MR is explained in terms of delocalization of weakly localized carriers around T IM by small magnetic fields

  11. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Mann

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries. Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains, the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  12. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  13. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Houwman, Evert P.; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain

  14. In situ stress determination by the overcoring of large surface strain gauge rosettes on the walls of a raise-bored shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.

    1991-08-01

    AECL Research is conducting a series of experiments to examine the influence of scale on measured in situ stresses in granite rock. The ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment is one such test. This experiment, modelled on a previous test conducted in Australia, consisted of overcoring four 120-mm strain gauge rosettes glued to the surface of a 1.8-m-diameter bored raise. The in situ stresses were calculated from the measured strains using the equations for stresses around a cylindrical excavation in an elastic material. The possibility of excavation disturbance around the ventilation raise was investigated using overcore stress measurements, elastic modulus tests on retrieved core, and visual inspection of thin sections obtained from removed core. The effect of a stress-dependent elastic modulus (referred to as non-linear elastic behaviour) is also addressed. Results from the ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment suggest that rosette overcoring in a bored raise is an acceptable stress-measurement method. The effects of scale and excavation damage on the stress measurements were not considered to be significant; however, if the elastic modulus of the rock is strongly stress-dependent, non-linear elastic behaviour may have a small effect on the measured stresses

  15. Discovery of a new strain of murine rotavirus that is consistently shed in large quantities after oral inoculation of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, Monica M.; Belli, Janine; Basu, Mitali; Choi, Anthony H.-C.; Ward, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, we developed the adult mouse model for studies on active immunity against shedding of the EDIM strain of murine rotavirus. Low and inconsistent levels of EDIM shedding in some strains of adult mice, particularly those on C57BL/6 backgrounds, established the need for an alternative murine rotavirus strain for these studies. Fortuitously, such a rotavirus strain was obtained from mice housed within the conventional colony at Children's Hospital. This strain, named EMcN, was clearly distinguishable from EDIM based on electropherotype. Furthermore, sequence analyses of VP4 and VP7 genes of EMcN revealed non-identities in 5% of the amino acids of both proteins relative to EDIM but established EMcN as another G3P[16] strain of murine rotavirus. Subgroup analysis showed EMcN belonged to SG1 while EDIM was found to be non-SG1/SG2. Similarly, unlike EDIM, the EMcN strain was identified as serotype G3 based on neutralization by hyperimmune antisera developed against prototype human and simian G3 rotavirus strains. Although EDIM produced more days of diarrhea and was shed in greater quantities in neonatal BALB/c mice, EMcN was shed in much greater quantities in adult BALB/c mice. More importantly, in contrast to the EDIM strain, EMcN was shown to be consistently shed in large quantities in adult C57BL/6 mice and ko mice on this background. Therefore, it is recommended that the EMcN strain be used for future challenge studies with mice on this background

  16. A thermodynamically consistent model of magneto-elastic materials under diffusion at large strains and its analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    A theory of elastic magnets is formulated under possible diffusion and heat flow governed by Fick's and Fourier's laws in the deformed (Eulerian) configuration, respectively. The concepts of nonlocal nonsimple materials and viscous Cahn-Hilliard equations are used. The formulation of the problem uses Lagrangian (reference) configuration while the transport processes are pulled back. Except the static problem, the demagnetizing energy is ignored and only local non-self-penetration is considered. The analysis as far as existence of weak solutions of the (thermo) dynamical problem is performed by a careful regularization and approximation by a Galerkin method, suggesting also a numerical strategy. Either ignoring or combining particular aspects, the model has numerous applications as ferro-to-paramagnetic transformation in elastic ferromagnets, diffusion of solvents in polymers possibly accompanied by magnetic effects (magnetic gels), or metal-hydride phase transformation in some intermetallics under diffusion of hydrogen accompanied possibly by magnetic effects (and in particular ferro-to-antiferromagnetic phase transformation), all in the full thermodynamical context under large strains.

  17. Elastic and nonlinear behaviour of argillaceous rocks under combined moisture and mechanical loads investigated by means of multiscale full-field strain measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Chanchole, S.; Gharbi, H.; Valli, P.; Bornert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The construction of underground nuclear waste repositories will strongly disturb the initial thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical equilibrium of the site. In addition to direct mechanical perturbations during excavation, which induce redistribution of the stresses and possible damage of the surrounding rock mass, the ventilation of the galleries will also modify the moisture content of the rock, resulting in shrinking or swelling, and more generally modifying the physical-chemical properties of the material. Safety concerns about preservation of confining properties of rock mass at short and long time scales require a deep understanding of the hydro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. In particular the dependence of elastic, possibly anisotropic, moduli and nonlinear properties (plasticity, damage, creep...) as a function of the moisture level, need to be quantified. In addition, in order to construct physically based micromechanical models of these dependencies, the various micro-mechanisms at their origin and their characteristic scales need to be identified. Various independent studies agree on the decrease of overall rigidity and failure stress of argillite with increasing humidity. A recent study making use of optical full-field strain measurement techniques on centi-metric samples under uniaxial compression suggests that this apparent decrease of elastic properties on wet samples can be essentially explained by the presence of a millimetric network of 'meso-cracks', induced by the preliminary unconfined hydration process. Indeed, thanks to the full-field measurement technique, it was possible to show that the mechanical response of undamaged areas, in-between cracks, was very similar at all moisture contents, both in terms of average strains and strain fluctuations at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of the rock (matrix clay + other mineral inclusions). The preliminary hydro

  18. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  19. Method for generation of THz frequency radiation and sensing of large amplitude material strain waves in piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.

    2010-09-07

    Strain waves of THz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. Such radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time-dependence of the strain wave with unprecedented subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution.

  20. Characterization of a Large Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Found in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain B171 and Its Relatedness to Plasmids of Diverse E. coli and Shigella Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A

    2017-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline ( tetA ), sulfonamides ( sulI ), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor ( csi ). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 ( csi and traI ) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Tradeoffs between quality-of-control and quality-of-service in large-scale nonlinear networked control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, D. P.; Geiselhart, R.; Heemels, W. P. M. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study input-to-state stability (ISS) of large-scale networked control systems (NCSs) in which sensors, controllers and actuators are connected via multiple (local) communication networks which operate asynchronously and independently of each other. We model the large-scale NCS as an

  2. Assimilating Non-linear Effects of Customized Large-Scale Climate Predictors on Downscaled Precipitation over the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. M.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent findings considering high CO2 emission scenarios (RCP8.5) suggest that the tropical Andes may experience a massive warming and a significant precipitation increase (decrease) during the wet (dry) seasons by the end of the 21st century. Variations on rainfall-streamflow relationships and seasonal crop yields significantly affect human development in this region and make local communities highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. We developed an expert-informed empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) algorithm to explore and construct robust global climate predictors to perform skillful RCP8.5 projections of in-situ March-May (MAM) precipitation required for impact modeling and adaptation studies. We applied our framework to a topographically-complex region of the Colombian Andes where a number of previous studies have reported El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as the main driver of climate variability. Supervised machine learning algorithms were trained with customized and bias-corrected predictors from NCEP reanalysis, and a cross-validation approach was implemented to assess both predictive skill and model selection. We found weak and not significant teleconnections between precipitation and lagged seasonal surface temperatures over El Niño3.4 domain, which suggests that ENSO fails to explain MAM rainfall variability in the study region. In contrast, series of Sea Level Pressure (SLP) over American Samoa -likely associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ)- explains more than 65% of the precipitation variance. The best prediction skill was obtained with Selected Generalized Additive Models (SGAM) given their ability to capture linear/nonlinear relationships present in the data. While SPCZ-related series exhibited a positive linear effect in the rainfall response, SLP predictors in the north Atlantic and central equatorial Pacific showed nonlinear effects. A multimodel (MIROC, CanESM2 and CCSM) ensemble of ESD projections revealed

  3. Pilot study on rugged fiber optic brillouin sensors for large-strain measurements to ensure the safety of transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brillouin-scattering Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) is a viable technology for simultaneous, distributed : strain and temperature measurements for miles-long transportation structures. It is a promising tool to ensure the smooth : operatio...

  4. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d33 and the transverse strain constant d31 are calculated to be 520 and -200 pm /V , respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  5. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d_{33} and the transverse strain constant d_{31} are calculated to be 520 and -200  pm/V, respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  6. A class of non-linear exposure-response models suitable for health impact assessment applicable to large cohort studies of ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasari, Masoud M; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Chen, Hong; Crouse, Daniel; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Hubbell, Bryan; Fann, Neal; Cohen, Aaron; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stieb, David; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations. In this paper, we propose a new class of variable coefficient risk functions capable of capturing a variety of potentially non-linear associations which are suitable for health impact assessment. We construct the class by defining transformations of concentration as the product of either a linear or log-linear function of concentration multiplied by a logistic weighting function. These risk functions can be estimated using hazard regression survival models with currently available computer software and can accommodate large population-based cohorts which are increasingly being used for this purpose. We illustrate our modeling approach with two large cohort studies of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollution and mortality: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) cohort and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). We then estimate the number of deaths attributable to changes in fine particulate matter concentrations over the 2000 to 2010 time period in both Canada and the USA using both linear and non-linear hazard function models.

  7. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  8. Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglio, Rossella; Mariani, Stefano; Robbiano, Valentina; Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain-6 mm in displacement-and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm 3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm 3 , for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ 0 /ρ 50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm 3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams

  9. Eraser-based eco-friendly fabrication of a skin-like large-area matrix of flexible carbon nanotube strain and pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatiya, Parikshit; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports a new type of electronic, recoverable skin-like pressure and strain sensor, produced on a flexible, biodegradable pencil-eraser substrate and fabricated using a solvent-free, low-cost and energy efficient process. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film, the strain sensing element, was patterned on pencil eraser with a rolling pin and a pre-compaction mechanical press. This induces high interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which enables the sensor to achieve recoverability under ambient conditions. The eraser serves as a substrate for strain sensing, as well as acting as a dielectric for capacitive pressure sensing, thereby eliminating the dielectric deposition step, which is crucial in capacitive-based pressure sensors. The strain sensing transduction mechanism is attributed to the tunneling effect, caused by the elastic behavior of the MWCNTs and the strong mechanical interlock between MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which restricts slippage of MWCNTs on the eraser thereby minimizing hysteresis. The gauge factor of the strain sensor was calculated to be 2.4, which is comparable to and even better than most of the strain and pressure sensors fabricated with more complex designs and architectures. The sensitivity of the capacitive pressure sensor was found to be 0.135 MPa -1 .To demonstrate the applicability of the sensor as artificial electronic skin, the sensor was assembled on various parts of the human body and corresponding movements and touch sensation were monitored. The entire fabrication process is scalable and can be integrated into large areas to map spatial pressure distributions. This low-cost, easily scalable MWCNT pin-rolled eraser-based pressure and strain sensor has huge potential in applications such as artificial e-skin in flexible electronics and medical diagnostics, in particular in surgery as it provides high spatial resolution without a complex nanostructure architecture.

  10. JAC, 2-D Finite Element Method Program for Quasi Static Mechanics Problems by Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient (CG) Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: JAC is a two-dimensional finite element program for solving large deformation, temperature dependent, quasi-static mechanics problems with the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) technique. Either plane strain or axisymmetric geometry may be used with material descriptions which include temperature dependent elastic-plastic, temperature dependent secondary creep, and isothermal soil models. The nonlinear effects examined include material and geometric nonlinearities due to large rotations, large strains, and surface which slide relative to one another. JAC is vectorized to perform efficiently on the Cray1 computer. A restart capability is included. 2 - Method of solution: The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is employed in a two-dimensional plane strain or axisymmetric setting with various techniques for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface conditions are also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with orthogonal hourglass viscosity to control the zero energy modes. Three sets of continuum equations are needed - kinematic statements, constitutive equations, and equations of equilibrium - to describe the deformed configuration of the body. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 10 load and solution control functions, 4 materials. The strain rate is assumed constant over a time interval. Current large rotation theory is applicable to a maximum shear strain of 1.0. JAC should be used with caution for large shear strains. Problem size is limited only by available memory

  11. Nonlinear Force-free Field Extrapolation of a Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Supporting a Large-scale Solar Filament from a Photospheric Vector Magnetogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  12. Long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the current-current correlators in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Terras, V. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique

    2010-12-15

    We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)

  13. Long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the current-current correlators in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.K.; Terras, V.

    2010-12-01

    We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)

  14. Large-distance and long-time asymptotic behavior of the reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2010-12-15

    Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)

  15. Finite element analysis of a finite-strain plasticity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crose, J.G.; Fong, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-strain plasticity analysis was performed of an engraving process in a plastic rotating band during the firing of a gun projectile. The aim was to verify a nonlinear feature of the NIFDI/RB code: plastic large deformation analysis of nearly incompressible materials using a deformation theory of plasticity approach and a total Lagrangian scheme. (orig.)

  16. Nanoparticle amount, and not size, determines chain alignment and nonlinear hardening in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, H. Samet; Meng, Fanlong; Hosseinkhani, Babak; Malm, Christian; Bonn, Daniel; Bonn, Mischa; Zaccone, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites—materials in which a polymer matrix is blended with nanoparticles (or fillers)—strengthen under sufficiently large strains. Such strain hardening is critical to their function, especially for materials that bear large cyclic loads such as car tires or bearing sealants. Although the reinforcement (i.e., the increase in the linear elasticity) by the addition of filler particles is phenomenologically understood, considerably less is known about strain hardening (the nonlinear elasticity). Here, we elucidate the molecular origin of strain hardening using uniaxial tensile loading, microspectroscopy of polymer chain alignment, and theory. The strain-hardening behavior and chain alignment are found to depend on the volume fraction, but not on the size of nanofillers. This contrasts with reinforcement, which depends on both volume fraction and size of nanofillers, potentially allowing linear and nonlinear elasticity of nanocomposites to be tuned independently. PMID:28377517

  17. Genetic affinities within a large global collection of pathogenic Leptospira: implications for strain identification and molecular epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Nalam

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis with widespread human health implications. The non-availability of accurate identification methods for the individualization of different Leptospira for outbreak investigations poses bountiful problems in the disease control arena. We harnessed fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (FAFLP for Leptospira and investigated its utility in establishing genetic relationships among 271 isolates in the context of species level assignments of our global collection of isolates and strains obtained from a diverse array of hosts. In addition, this method was compared to an in-house multilocus sequence typing (MLST method based on polymorphisms in three housekeeping genes, the rrs locus and two envelope proteins. Phylogenetic relationships were deduced based on bifurcating Neighbor-joining trees as well as median joining network analyses integrating both the FAFLP data and MLST based haplotypes. The phylogenetic relationships were also reproduced through Bayesian analysis of the multilocus sequence polymorphisms. We found FAFLP to be an important method for outbreak investigation and for clustering of isolates based on their geographical descent rather than by genome species types. The FAFLP method was, however, not able to convey much taxonomical utility sufficient to replace the highly tedious serotyping procedures in vogue. MLST, on the other hand, was found to be highly robust and efficient in identifying ancestral relationships and segregating the outbreak associated strains or otherwise according to their genome species status and, therefore, could unambiguously be applied for investigating phylogenetics of Leptospira in the context of taxonomy as well as gene flow. For instance, MLST was more efficient, as compared to FAFLP method, in clustering strains from the Andaman island of India, with their counterparts from mainland India and Sri Lanka, implying that such strains share genetic

  18. Single-particle dynamics in a nonlinear accelerator lattice: attaining a large tune spread with octupoles in IOTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, S.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R and D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.

  19. Single-particle dynamics in a nonlinear accelerator lattice: attaining a large tune spread with octupoles in IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.

    2017-04-01

    Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.

  20. A New Method Based On Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm In Order To Solve Nonlinear Large Scale Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Baziar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to handle large scale problems this study has used shuffled frog leaping algorithm. This algorithm is an optimization method based on natural memetics that uses a new two-phase modification to it to have a better search in the problem space. The suggested algorithm is evaluated by comparing to some well known algorithms using several benchmark optimization problems. The simulation results have clearly shown the superiority of this algorithm over other well-known methods in the area.

  1. Single-particle dynamics in a nonlinear accelerator lattice: attaining a large tune spread with octupoles in IOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.

    2017-04-01

    Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually lead to a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the goals of the IOTA research program is to achieve a high betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. In this report, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for suppression of space-charge induced instabilities in high intensity machines.

  2. Isolation and characterization of large spectrum and multiple bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain from raw bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, N; ben Braiek, O; Hani, K; Volski, A; Chikindas, M L; Ghrairi, T

    2015-02-01

    To assess the antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria from Tunisian raw bovine milk. A bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from raw cow milk with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were thermostable and resistant to a broad range of pH (2-10). Mode of action of antimicrobial substances was determined as bactericidal. Maximum activity was reached at the end of the exponential growth phase when checked against Listeria ivanovii BUG 496 (2366.62 AU ml(-1)). However, maximum antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28753 was recorded at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 was characterized as free from virulence factors and was susceptible to tested antibiotics. PCR analysis of the micro-organism's genome revealed the presence of genes coding for enterocins A and B. Mass spectrometry analysis of RP-HPLC active fractions showed molecular masses corresponding to enterocins A (4835.77 Da) and B (5471.56 Da), and a peptide with a molecular mass of 3215.5 Da active only against Gram-negative indicator strains. The latter was unique in the databases. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 produces three bacteriocins with different inhibitory spectra. Based on its antimicrobial properties and safety, Ent. faecium GGN7 is potentially useful for food biopreservation. The results suggest the bacteriocins from GGN7 strain could be useful for food biopreservation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Genomic Variability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains of the Euro-American Lineage Based on Large Sequence Deletions and 15-Locus MIRU-VNTR Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindi, Laura; Medici, Chiara; Bimbi, Nicola; Buzzigoli, Andrea; Lari, Nicoletta; Garzelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 260 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains assigned to the Euro-American family was studied to identify phylogenetically informative genomic regions of difference (RD). Mutually exclusive deletions of regions RD115, RD122, RD174, RD182, RD183, RD193, RD219, RD726 and RD761 were found in 202 strains; the RDRio deletion was detected exclusively among the RD174-deleted strains. Although certain deletions were found more frequently in certain spoligotype families (i.e., deletion RD115 in T and LAM, RD174 in LAM, RD182 in Haarlem, RD219 in T and RD726 in the “Cameroon” family), the RD-defined sublineages did not specifically match with spoligotype-defined families, thus arguing against the use of spoligotyping for establishing exact phylogenetic relationships between strains. Notably, when tested for katG463/gyrA95 polymorphism, all the RD-defined sublineages belonged to Principal Genotypic Group (PGG) 2, except sublineage RD219 exclusively belonging to PGG3; the 58 Euro-American strains with no deletion were of either PGG2 or 3. A representative sample of 197 isolates was then analyzed by standard 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing, a suitable approach to independently assess genetic relationships among the strains. Analysis of the MIRU-VNTR typing results by using a minimum spanning tree (MST) and a classical dendrogram showed groupings that were largely concordant with those obtained by RD-based analysis. Isolates of a given RD profile show, in addition to closely related MIRU-VNTR profiles, related spoligotype profiles that can serve as a basis for better spoligotype-based classification. PMID:25197794

  4. Enhanced saturated fatty acids accumulation in cultures of newly-isolated strains of Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytriidae sp. for large-scale biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Sen, Biswarup; Liu, Xianhua; He, Yaodong; Xie, Yunxuan; Wang, Guangyi

    2018-08-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists (Thraustochytrids) have received increasingly global attention as a renewable, sustainable and alternative source of biodiesel because of their high ability of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) accumulation. Yet, the influence of extrinsic factors (nutrients and environmental conditions) on thraustochytrid culture and optimal conditions for high SFAs production are poorly described. In the present study, two different thraustochytrid strains, Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were studied for their growth and SFAs production profiles under various conditions (carbon, nitrogen, temperature, pH, KH 2 PO 4 , salinity, and agitation speed). Of the culture conditions, substrates (C and N) source and conc., temperature, and agitation speed significantly influenced the cell growth and SFAs production of both strains. Although both the strains were capable of growth and SFAs production in the broad range of culture conditions, their physiological responses to KH 2 PO 4 , pH, and salinity were dissimilar. Under their optimal batch culture conditions, peak SFAs productions of 3.3g/L and 2.2g/L with 62% and 49% SFAs contents (relative to total fatty acids) were achieved, respectively. The results of 5-L fed-batch fermentation under optimal conditions showed a nearly 4.5-fold increase in SFAs production (i.e., 7.5g/L) by both strains compared to unoptimized conditions. Of the two strains, the quality of biodiesel produced from the fatty acids of PKU#Mn4 met the biodiesel standard defined by ASTM6751. This study, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first comprehensive report of optimal fermentation conditions demonstrating enhanced SFAs production by strains belonging to two different thraustochytrid genera and provides the basis for large-scale biodiesel production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Experimental verification of a bridge-shaped, nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafforelli, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gafforelli@polimi.it; Corigliano, Alberto [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 20133 (Italy); Xu, Ruize; Kim, Sang-Gook [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    This paper reports a comprehensive modeling and experimental characterization of a bridge shaped nonlinear energy harvester. A doubly clamped beam at large deflection requires stretching strain in addition to the bending strain to be geometrically compatible, which stiffens the beam as the beam deflects and transforms the dynamics to a nonlinear regime. The Duffing mode non-linear resonance widens the frequency bandwidth significantly at higher frequencies than the linear resonant frequency. The modeling includes a nonlinear measure of strain coupled with piezoelectric constitutive equations which end up in nonlinear coupling terms in the equations of motion. The main result supports that the power generation is bounded by the mechanical damping for both linear and nonlinear harvesters. Modeling also shows the power generation is over a wider bandwidth in the nonlinear case. A prototype is manufactured and tested to measure the power generation at different load resistances and acceleration amplitudes. The prototype shows a nonlinear behavior with well-matched experimental data to the modeling.

  6. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  7. A large-strain, fast-response, and easy-to-manufacture electrothermal actuator based on laser-reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Qian; Deng, Ning-Qin; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Wang, Dan-Yang; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we have developed a high-performance graphene electrothermal actuator (ETA). The fabrication method is easy, fast, environmentally friendly, and suitable for preparing both large-size and miniature graphene ETAs. When applied with the driving voltage of 65 V, the graphene ETA achieves a large bending angle of 270° with a fast response of 8 s and the recovery process costs 19 s. The large bending deformation is reversible and can be precisely controlled by the driving voltage. A simple robotic hand prepared by using a single graphene ETA can hold the object, which is more than ten times the weight of itself. By virtue of its large-strain, fast response, and easy-to-manufacture, we believe that the graphene ETA has tremendous potential in extensive applications involving biomimetic robotics, artificial muscles, switches, and microsensors in both macroscopic and microscopic fields.

  8. NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF A CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE SUPPORTING A LARGE-SCALE SOLAR FILAMENT FROM A PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Feng, Xueshang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-10

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ≲ 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  9. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vercelloni

    Full Text Available Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  10. Genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in Tuscany, Italy, based on large sequence deletions, SNPs in putative DNA repair genes and MIRU-VNTR polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzelli, Carlo; Lari, Nicoletta; Rindi, Laura

    2016-03-01

    The Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is cause of global concern as it is rapidly spreading worldwide, is considered hypervirulent, and is most often associated to massive spread of MDR/XDR TB, although these epidemiological or pathological properties have not been confirmed for all strains and in all geographic settings. In this paper, to gain new insights into the biogeographical heterogeneity of the Beijing family, we investigated a global sample of Beijing strains (22% from Italian-born, 78% from foreign-born patients) by determining large sequence polymorphism of regions RD105, RD181, RD150 and RD142, single nucleotide polymorphism of putative DNA repair genes mutT4 and mutT2 and MIRU-VNTR profiles based on 11 discriminative loci. We found that, although our sample of Beijing strains showed a considerable genomic heterogeneity, yielding both ancient and recent phylogenetic strains, the prevalent successful Beijing subsets were characterized by deletions of RD105 and RD181 and by one nucleotide substitution in one or both mutT genes. MIRU-VNTR analysis revealed 47 unique patterns and 9 clusters including a total of 33 isolates (41% of total isolates); the relatively high proportion of Italian-born Beijing TB patients, often occurring in mixed clusters, supports the possibility of an ongoing cross-transmission of the Beijing genotype to autochthonous population. High rates of extra-pulmonary localization and drug-resistance, particularly MDR, frequently reported for Beijing strains in other settings, were not observed in our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A large portion of meningococcal antigen typing system-negative meningococcal strains from spain is killed by sera from adolescents and infants immunized with 4CMenB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, R; Biolchi, A; Moschioni, M; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Vázquez, J A

    2015-04-01

    A new vaccine (the 4CMenB 4-component protein vaccine [Bexsero], which includes PorA, factor H-binding protein [fHbp], neisserial heparin-binding antigen [NHBA], and Neisseria adhesin A [NadA]) against serogroup B meningococci has recently been approved for use in people older than age 2 months in Europe, Australia, and Canada. Preapproval clinical efficacy studies are not feasible for invasive meningococcal disease because its incidence is low/very low, and the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer (or the human SBA [hSBA] titer when human complement is used in the assay) has been used as a surrogate marker of protection. However, the hSBA assay cannot be used on a large scale, and therefore, a meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) was developed. MATS combines conventional PorA genotyping with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantifies both the expression and the cross-reactivity of antigenic variants. The assay has been used to evaluate the potential of the 4CMenB meningococcal group B vaccine to cover group B strains in several countries. Some recent data suggest that MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage. We used pooled sera from adolescents and infants to test by the hSBA assay 10 meningococcal group B strains isolated in Spain that were negative for the 3 antigens (n = 9) or that had very low levels of the 3 antigens (n = 1) by MATS. We found that all strains were killed by sera from adolescents and that 5 of the 10 strains were also killed, although at a low titer, by sera from infants. Our data confirm that MATS underestimates vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Generation of a restriction minus enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69 strain that is efficiently transformed with large, low copy plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Jordan D

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many microbes possess restriction-modification systems that protect them from parasitic DNA molecules. Unfortunately, the presence of a restriction-modification system in a given microbe also hampers genetic analysis. Although plasmids can be successfully conjugated into the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E2348/69 and optimized protocols for competent cell preparation have been developed, we found that a large, low copy (~15 bioluminescent reporter plasmid, pJW15, that we modified for use in EPEC, was exceedingly difficult to transform into E2348/69. We reasoned that a restriction-modification system could be responsible for the low transformation efficiency of E2348/69 and sought to identify and inactivate the responsible gene(s, with the goal of creating an easily transformable strain of EPEC that could complement existing protocols for genetic manipulation of this important pathogen. Results Using bioinformatics, we identified genes in the unfinished enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strain E2348/69 genome whose predicted products bear homology to the HsdM methyltransferases, HsdS specificity subunits, and HsdR restriction endonucleases of type I restriction-modification systems. We constructed a strain carrying a deletion of the conserved enzymatic domain of the EPEC HsdR homologue, NH4, and showed that its transformation efficiency was up to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the parent strain. Further, the modification capacity of NH4 remained intact, since plasmids that were normally recalcitrant to transformation into E2348/69 could be transformed upon passage through NH4. NH4 was unaffected in virulence factor production, since bundle forming pilus (BFP subunits and type III secreted (T3S proteins were present at equivalent levels to those seen in E2348/69. Further, NH4 was indistinguishable from E2348/69 in tissue culture infection model assays of localized adherence and T3S. Conclusion We

  13. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  14. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  15. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  16. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  17. Large bandgap blueshifts in the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad

    2016-04-04

    We report on a novel quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique that induces a large degree of bandgapblueshift in the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure. In this technique, high external compressive strain induced by a thick layer of SiO2 cap with a thickness ≥1 μm was used to enhance QWI in the tensile-strained InGaP/InAlGaP quantum well layer. A bandgapblueshift as large as 200 meV was observed in samples capped with 1-μm SiO2 and annealed at 1000 °C for 120 s. To further enhance the degree of QWI, cycles of annealing steps were applied to the SiO2 cap. Using this method, wavelength tunability over the range of 640 nm to 565 nm (∼250 meV) was demonstrated. Light-emitting diodes emitting at red (628 nm), orange (602 nm), and yellow (585 nm) wavelengths were successfully fabricated on the intermixed samples. Our results show that this new QWI method technique may pave the way for the realization of high-efficiency orange and yellow light-emitting devices based on the InGaP/InAlGaP material system.

  18. Large bandgap blueshifts in the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jabr, A. A.; Majid, M. A.; Alias, M. S.; Ng, T. K.; Ooi, B. S., E-mail: boon.ooi@kaust.edu.sa [Photonics Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (Saudi Arabia); Anjum, D. H. [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Facilities, (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-07

    We report on a novel quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique that induces a large degree of bandgap blueshift in the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure. In this technique, high external compressive strain induced by a thick layer of SiO{sub 2} cap with a thickness ≥1 μm was used to enhance QWI in the tensile-strained InGaP/InAlGaP quantum well layer. A bandgap blueshift as large as 200 meV was observed in samples capped with 1-μm SiO{sub 2} and annealed at 1000 °C for 120 s. To further enhance the degree of QWI, cycles of annealing steps were applied to the SiO{sub 2} cap. Using this method, wavelength tunability over the range of 640 nm to 565 nm (∼250 meV) was demonstrated. Light-emitting diodes emitting at red (628 nm), orange (602 nm), and yellow (585 nm) wavelengths were successfully fabricated on the intermixed samples. Our results show that this new QWI method technique may pave the way for the realization of high-efficiency orange and yellow light-emitting devices based on the InGaP/InAlGaP material system.

  19. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  20. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  1. Listeria monocytogenes strains show large variations in competitive growth in mixed culture biofilms and suspensions with bacteria from food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Simensen, Andreas; Langsrud, Solveig

    2018-06-20

    Interactions and competition between resident bacteria in food processing environments could affect their ability to survive, grow and persist in microhabitats and niches in the food industry. In this study, the competitive ability of L. monocytogenes strains grown together in separate culture mixes with other L. monocytogenes (L. mono mix), L. innocua (Listeria mix), Gram-negative bacteria (Gram- mix) and with a multigenera mix (Listeria + Gram- mix) was investigated in biofilms on stainless steel and in suspensions at 12 °C. The mixed cultures included resident bacteria from processing surfaces in meat and salmon industry represented by L. monocytogenes (n = 6), L. innocua (n = 5) and Gram-negative bacteria (n = 6; Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Despite hampered in growth in mixed cultures, L. monocytogenes established in biofilms with counts at day nine between 7.3 and 9.0 log per coupon with the lowest counts in the Listeria + G- mix that was dominated by Pseudomonas. Specific L. innocua inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes strains differently; inhibition that was further enhanced by the background Gram-negative microbiota. In these multispecies and multibacteria cultures, the growth competitive effects lead to the dominance of a strong competitor L. monocytogenes strain that was only slightly inhibited by L. innocua and showed strong competitive abilities in mixed cultures with resident Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicates complex patterns of bacterial interactions and L. monocytogenes inhibition in the multibacteria cultures that only partially depend on cell contact and likely involve various antagonistic and bacterial tolerance mechanisms. The study indicates large variations among L. monocytogenes in their competitiveness under multibacterial culture conditions that should be considered in further studies towards understanding of L

  2. The role of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A strains in a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in 2012 in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Ru-Sheng; Ou, Xin-Hua; Chen, Fa-Ming; Sun, Bian-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    During 2012, Changsha experienced a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), resulting in 25,438 cases, including 42 severe cases and eight deaths. Seven hundred and forty-six clinical specimens were collected from hospital-based surveillance for HFMD in 2012. The detection and genotyping of enterovirus were performed by real-time RT-PCR and sequencing of the VP1 regions; phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 sequences. A total of 545 (73.1%) enterovirus-positive samples were identified, with the most frequently presenting serotype being enterovirus 71 (EV-71; n=364, 66.8%), followed by coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16; n=84, 15.4%), CV-A6 (n=22, 4.0%), and CV-A10 (n=19, 3.5%). Most of the affected patients were children aged ≤5 years (n=524, 96.1%). EV-71 was the major pathogen in the severe and fatal cases (n=22, 78.6%). Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences showed the EV-71 isolates to belong to subgenotype C4a, and the CV-A16 isolates to belong to subgenotype B1. The Changsha CV-A6 and CV-A10 circulating strains were homologous to strains circulating in other areas of mainland China. Our results demonstrate that EV-71 was the primary causative agent responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Changsha in 2012, and the co-circulation of other coxsackievirus A strains posed a potential risk to public health.

  3. Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; Bosma, H; Peter, R; Siegrist, J

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Job Demand-Control (JD-C) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model on employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 11,636 employed Dutch men and women. Logistic regression analyses were used. Controlling for job sector, demographic characteristics (including educational level) and managerial position, employees reporting high job demands (i.e. psychological and physical demands) and low job control had elevated risks of emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic and physical health complaints and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios ranged from 2.89 to 10.94). Odds ratios were generally higher in employees reporting both high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards (i.e. poor salary, job insecurity and low work support): they ranged from 3.23 to 15.43. Furthermore, overcommitted people had higher risks of poor well-being due to a high effort-low reward mismatch (ORs: 3.57-20.81) than their less committed counterparts (ORs: 3.01-12.71). Finally, high efforts and low occupational rewards were stronger predictors of poor well-being than low job control when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. In conclusion, our findings show independent cumulative effects of both the JD-C Model and the ERI Model on employee well-being and are not significantly different in men and women as well as in young and old people. In particular, high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards adversely affected employee well-being. Preliminary findings also indicate excess risks of poor well-being in overcommitted persons suffering from high cost--low gain conditions at work.

  4. Strain induced ferromagnetism and large magnetoresistance of epitaxial La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, J.; Jyotsna, G.; N, Nileena; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the structural, magnetic, and magneto-transport properties of La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6 (LSCMO) thin films deposited on a SrTiO3 (001) substrate were investigated. A normal θ/2θ x-ray diffraction, rocking curve, ϕ-scan, and reciprocal space mapping data showed that prepared LSCMO thin films are single phase and highly strained with epitaxial nature. Temperature vs. magnetization of LSCMO films exhibits strain-induced ferromagnetic ordering with TC ˜ 165 K. In contrast to the bulk samples, there was no exchange bias and canted type antiferromagnetic and spin glass behavior in films having thickness (t) ≤ 26 nm. Temperature dependent resistivity data were explained using Schnakenberg's model and the polaron hopping conduction process. The slope change in resistivity and magnetoresistance maximum (˜65%) around TC indicates the existence of a weak double exchange mechanism between the mixed valence states of transition metal ions. Suppression of spin dependent scattering with the magnetic field is attributed for the large negative magnetoresistance in LSCMO films.

  5. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  6. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  7. Parallel processors and nonlinear structural dynamics algorithms and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear structural dynamics finite element program was developed to run on a shared memory multiprocessor with pipeline processors. The program, WHAMS, was used as a framework for this work. The program employs explicit time integration and has the capability to handle both the nonlinear material behavior and large displacement response of 3-D structures. The elasto-plastic material model uses an isotropic strain hardening law which is input as a piecewise linear function. Geometric nonlinearities are handled by a corotational formulation in which a coordinate system is embedded at the integration point of each element. Currently, the program has an element library consisting of a beam element based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and trianglar and quadrilateral plate element based on Mindlin theory.

  8. Nonlinear finite element analyses: advances and challenges in dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, N; Ona, M; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, Y

    2008-07-01

    To discuss the development and current status of application of nonlinear finite element method (FEM) in dentistry. The literature was searched for original research articles with keywords such as nonlinear, finite element analysis, and tooth/dental/implant. References were selected manually or searched from the PUBMED and MEDLINE databases through November 2007. The nonlinear problems analyzed in FEM studies were reviewed and categorized into: (A) nonlinear simulations of the periodontal ligament (PDL), (B) plastic and viscoelastic behaviors of dental materials, (C) contact phenomena in tooth-to-tooth contact, (D) contact phenomena within prosthodontic structures, and (E) interfacial mechanics between the tooth and the restoration. The FEM in dentistry recently focused on simulation of realistic intra-oral conditions such as the nonlinear stress-strain relationship in the periodontal tissues and the contact phenomena in teeth, which could hardly be solved by the linear static model. The definition of contact area critically affects the reliability of the contact analyses, especially for implant-abutment complexes. To predict the failure risk of a bonded tooth-restoration interface, it is essential to assess the normal and shear stresses relative to the interface. The inclusion of viscoelasticity and plastic deformation to the program to account for the time-dependent, thermal sensitive, and largely deformable nature of dental materials would enhance its application. Further improvement of the nonlinear FEM solutions should be encouraged to widen the range of applications in dental and oral health science.

  9. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  10. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  11. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2011-07-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  12. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandino, E; Garibaldi, L; Marchesiello, S

    2011-01-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled M onitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing , financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  13. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  14. Nonlinear Optical Fiber Arrays for Limiting Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khoo, Iam-Choon

    2006-01-01

    .... Measurements show that they possess desirable nonlinear optical such as low-freezing pint, non-volatile, transparent for low light level and possess large effective nonlinear absorption coefficients...

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  16. Strain-induced large spin splitting and persistent spin helix at LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ interface

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ishii, Fumiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the tensile strain on the spin splitting at the n-type interface in LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ in terms of the spin-orbit coupling coefficient $\\alpha$ and spin texture in the momentum space using first-principles calculations. We found that the $\\alpha$ could be controlled by the tensile strain and be enhanced up to 5 times for the tensile strain of 7%, and the effect of the tensile strain leads to a persistent spin helix, which has a long spin lifetime. These results ...

  17. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  18. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  19. Unconstrained Finite Element for Geometrical Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Breves Coda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a positional FEM formulation to deal with geometrical nonlinear dynamics of shells. The main objective is to develop a new FEM methodology based on the minimum potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions and generalized unconstrained vectors not displacements and rotations. These characteristics are the novelty of the present work and avoid the use of large rotation approximations. A nondimensional auxiliary coordinate system is created, and the change of configuration function is written following two independent mappings from which the strain energy function is derived. This methodology is called positional and, as far as the authors' knowledge goes, is a new procedure to approximated geometrical nonlinear structures. In this paper a proof for the linear and angular momentum conservation property of the Newmark algorithm is provided for total Lagrangian description. The proposed shell element is locking free for elastic stress-strain relations due to the presence of linear strain variation along the shell thickness. The curved, high-order element together with an implicit procedure to solve nonlinear equations guarantees precision in calculations. The momentum conserving, the locking free behavior, and the frame invariance of the adopted mapping are numerically confirmed by examples.

  20. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  1. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Pressurized Aircraft Fuselage Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aims to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration are not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One of the airframe concepts that might dramatically improve aircraft performance is a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presents inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a nonlinear finite element analysis of a large-scale test article being developed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. There are specific reasons why geometrically nonlinear analysis may be warranted for the hybrid wing body flat panel structure. In general, for sufficiently high internal pressure and/or mechanical loading, energy related to the in-plane strain may become significant relative to the bending strain energy, particularly in thin-walled areas such as the minimum gage skin extensively used in the structure under analysis. To account for this effect, a geometrically nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is needed to properly couple large out-of-plane and in-plane deformations. Depending on the loading, this nonlinear coupling mechanism manifests itself in a distinct manner in compression- and tension-dominated sections of the structure. Under significant compression, nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately predict loss of stability and postbuckled deformation. Under significant tension, the nonlinear effects account for suppression of the out-of-plane deformation due to in-plane stretching. By comparing the present results with the previously

  2. A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2014-02-01

    Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.

  3. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  4. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  5. The role of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A strains in a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in 2012 in Changsha, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Chen

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that EV-71 was the primary causative agent responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Changsha in 2012, and the co-circulation of other coxsackievirus A strains posed a potential risk to public health.

  6. Large-scale lagovirus disease outbreaks in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in France caused by RHDV2 strains spatially shared with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Hubert, Céline; Top, Sokunthea; Decors, Anouk; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 s...

  7. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  8. Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)

  9. The new allelic variant of the subtilase cytotoxin (subAB2) is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from large game animals and their meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sergio; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Martínez, Remigio; Llorente, María Teresa; Herrera-León, Silvia; Vidal, Dolors

    2013-10-25

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 toxin produced by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. Two allelic variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described: subAB1, located on a plasmid, and subAB2, located on a pathogenicity island (PAI) together with tia gene. While subAB1 has been reported to be more frequent among bovine strains, subAB2 has been mainly associated with strains from small ruminants. We investigated the presence of the two variants of subAB among 59 eae-negative STEC from large game animals (deer and wild boar) and their meat and meat products in order to assess the role of other species in the epidemiology of subAB-positive, eae-negative STEC. For this approach, the strains were PCR-screened for the presence of subAB, including the specific detection of both allelic variants, for the presence of saa, tia and sab, and for stx subtyping. Overall, subAB genes were detected in 71.2% of the strains: 84.1% of the strains from deer and 33.3% of the strains from wild boar. Most of them (97.6%) possessed subAB2 and most of these subAB2-positive strains (92.7%) were also positive for tia and negative for saa, suggesting the presence of the subAB2-harbouring PAI. Subtype stx2b was present in most of the strains (67.8%) and a statistically significant association could be established between subAB2 and stx2b. Our results suggest that large game animals, mainly deer, may represent an important animal reservoir of subAB2-positive, eae-negative STEC, and also highlight the risk of human infection posed by the consumption of large game meat and meat products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transport properties through graphene grain boundaries: strain effects versus lattice symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung Nguyen, V.; Hoang, Trinh X.; Dollfus, P.; Charlier, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    As most materials available at the macroscopic scale, graphene samples usually appear in a polycrystalline form and thus contain grain boundaries. In the present work, the effect of uniaxial strain on the electronic transport properties through graphene grain boundaries is investigated using atomistic simulations. A systematic picture of transport properties with respect to the strain and lattice symmetry of graphene domains on both sides of the boundary is provided. In particular, it is shown that strain engineering can be used to open a finite transport gap in all graphene systems where the two domains are arranged in different orientations. This gap value is found to depend on the strain magnitude, on the strain direction and on the lattice symmetry of graphene domains. By choosing appropriately the strain direction, a large transport gap of a few hundred meV can be achieved when applying a small strain of only a few percents. For a specific class of graphene grain boundary systems, strain engineering can also be used to reduce the scattering on defects and thus to significantly enhance the conductance. With a large strain-induced gap, these graphene heterostructures are proposed to be promising candidates for highly sensitive strain sensors, flexible electronic devices and p-n junctions with non-linear I-V characteristics.

  11. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  12. A Constitutive Model for Strain-Controlled Strength Degradation of Rockmasses (SDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalos, A.; Kavvadas, M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a continuum, rate-independent, incremental plasticity constitutive model applicable in weak rocks and heavily fractured rockmasses, where mechanical behaviour is controlled by rockmass strength rather than structural features (discontinuities). The model describes rockmass structure by a generalised Hoek-Brown Structure Envelope (SE) in the stress space. Stress paths inside the SE are nonlinear and irreversible to better simulate behaviour at strains up to peak strength and under stress reversals. Stress paths on the SE have user-controlled volume dilatancy (gradually reducing to zero at large shear strains) and can model post-peak strain softening of brittle rockmasses via a structure degradation (damage) mechanism triggered by accumulated plastic shear strains. As the SE may strain harden with plastic strains, ductile behaviour can also be modelled. The model was implemented in the Finite Element Code Simulia ABAQUS and was applied in plane strain (2D) excavation of a cylindrical cavity (tunnel) to predict convergence-confinement curves. It is shown that small-strain nonlinearity, variable volume dilatancy and post-peak hardening/softening strongly affect the predicted curves, resulting in corresponding differences of lining pressures in real tunnel excavations.

  13. Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballai, I

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas

  14. Antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralizes a heterologous wild-type mumps virus associated with a large outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steven A; Qi, Li; Audet, Susette A; Sullivan, Bradley; Carbone, Kathryn M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Sirota, Lev; Beeler, Judy

    2008-08-15

    Recent mumps outbreaks in older vaccinated populations were caused primarily by genotype G viruses, which are phylogenetically distinct from the genotype A vaccine strains used in the countries affected by the outbreaks. This finding suggests that genotype A vaccine strains could have reduced efficacy against heterologous mumps viruses. The remote history of vaccination also suggests that waning immunity could have contributed to susceptibility. To examine these issues, we obtained consecutive serum samples from children at different intervals after vaccination and assayed the ability of these samples to neutralize the genotype A Jeryl Lynn mumps virus vaccine strain and a genotype G wild-type virus obtained during the mumps outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2006. Although the geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers against the genotype G virus were approximately one-half the titers measured against the vaccine strain, and although titers to both viruses decreased with time after vaccination, antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralized the outbreak-associated virus at all time points tested.

  15. Finite element analysis of large elasto-plastic deformation for sealing ring in nuclear pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xuejian; Chen Ruxin

    1995-02-01

    Based on the R. Hills incremental virtual power principle and the elasto-plastic constitution equation for large deformation and by considering physical nonlinear, geometric nonlinear and thermal effects, a plane and axisymmetric finite element equation for thermal large elasto-plastic deformation has been established in the Euler description. The corresponding analysis program ATLEPD has been also complied for thermal large elasto-plastic deformation process of O-ring in RPV. The variations of stress, strain, contact specific pressure, mesh deformation and the aspects of spring back in upsetting and spring back process have been also investigated. Numerical results are fairly consistent with experimental ones. (5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  16. On the solvability of asymmetric quasilinear finite element approximate problems in nonlinear incompressible elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruas, V.

    1982-09-01

    A class of simplicial finite elements for solving incompressible elasticity problems in n-dimensional space, n=2 or 3, is presented. An asymmetric structure of the shape functions with respect to the centroid of the simplex, renders them particularly stable in the large strain case, in which the incompressibility condition is nonlinear. It is proved that under certain assembling conditions of the elements, there exists a solution to the corresponding discrete problems. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the method. (Author) [pt

  17. Effects of torsional degree of freedom, geometric nonlinearity, and gravity on aeroelastic behavior of large-scale horizontal axis wind turbine blades under varying wind speed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Min-Soo; Cha, Myung-Chan; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Modern horizontal axis wind turbine blades are long, slender, and flexible structures that can undergo considerable deformation, leading to blade failures (e.g., blade-tower collision). For this reason, it is important to estimate blade behaviors accurately when designing large-scale wind turbine...

  18. An Experimental Study on Static and Dynamic Strain Sensitivity of Embeddable Smart Concrete Sensors Doped with Carbon Nanotubes for SHM of Large Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoni, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Downey, Austin; García-Macías, Enrique; Rallini, Marco; Materazzi, A Luigi; Torre, Luigi; Laflamme, Simon; Castro-Triguero, Rafael; Ubertini, Filippo

    2018-03-09

    The availability of new self-sensing cement-based strain sensors allows the development of dense sensor networks for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete structures. These sensors are fabricated by doping cement-matrix mterials with conductive fillers, such as Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs), and can be embedded into structural elements made of reinforced concrete prior to casting. The strain sensing principle is based on the multifunctional composites outputting a measurable change in their electrical properties when subjected to a deformation. Previous work by the authors was devoted to material fabrication, modeling and applications in SHM. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of several sensors fabricated with and without aggregates and with different MWCNT contents. The strain sensitivity of the sensors, in terms of fractional change in electrical resistivity for unit strain, as well as their linearity are investigated through experimental testing under both quasi-static and sine-sweep dynamic uni-axial compressive loadings. Moreover, the responses of the sensors when subjected to destructive compressive tests are evaluated. Overall, the presented results contribute to improving the scientific knowledge on the behavior of smart concrete sensors and to furthering their understanding for SHM applications.

  19. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  20. Large-scale lagovirus disease outbreaks in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in France caused by RHDV2 strains spatially shared with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Hubert, Céline; Top, Sokunthea; Decors, Anouk; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-10-28

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 strains infecting hares do not belong to a lineage that has evolved only in this species. We showed that RHDV2 is widely distributed in France and that it was responsible for more than a third of cases of lagovirus disease in European hare populations in 2015. The oldest RHDV2 positive hare was sampled in November 2013 and we reported two hares co-infected by EBHSV and RHDV2. All together, our results raise important epidemiological and evolutionary issues. In particular, along with the potential emergence of recombinant EBHSV/RHDV2 strains in hares, the enlargement of the host range changes the host population structure of RHDV2 and may alter the impact of the virus on rabbit and hare populations.

  1. An Experimental Study on Static and Dynamic Strain Sensitivity of Embeddable Smart Concrete Sensors Doped with Carbon Nanotubes for SHM of Large Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of new self-sensing cement-based strain sensors allows the development of dense sensor networks for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of reinforced concrete structures. These sensors are fabricated by doping cement-matrix mterials with conductive fillers, such as Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs, and can be embedded into structural elements made of reinforced concrete prior to casting. The strain sensing principle is based on the multifunctional composites outputting a measurable change in their electrical properties when subjected to a deformation. Previous work by the authors was devoted to material fabrication, modeling and applications in SHM. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of several sensors fabricated with and without aggregates and with different MWCNT contents. The strain sensitivity of the sensors, in terms of fractional change in electrical resistivity for unit strain, as well as their linearity are investigated through experimental testing under both quasi-static and sine-sweep dynamic uni-axial compressive loadings. Moreover, the responses of the sensors when subjected to destructive compressive tests are evaluated. Overall, the presented results contribute to improving the scientific knowledge on the behavior of smart concrete sensors and to furthering their understanding for SHM applications.

  2. Optimisation and Validation of the ARAMIS Digital Image Correlation System for Use in Large-scale High-strain-rate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    enamel paint. Under extreme plastic deformation, the relative deformation of the coating could cause the coating to separate resulting in loss of...point for one to be found. If a discontinuity, such as a crack , occurs through the object separating speckle pattern, then the strain data will only

  3. Geometrically exact nonlinear analysis of pre-twisted composite rotor blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li'na SHANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of pre-twisted composite rotor blades is very complicated not only because of the geometric non-linearity, but also because of the cross-sectional warping and the transverse shear deformation caused by the anisotropic material properties. In this paper, the geometrically exact nonlinear modeling of a generalized Timoshenko beam with arbitrary cross-sectional shape, generally anisotropic material behavior and large deflections has been presented based on Hodges’ method. The concept of decomposition of rotation tensor was used to express the strain in the beam. The variational asymptotic method was used to determine the arbitrary warping of the beam cross section. The generalized Timoshenko strain energy was derived from the equilibrium equations and the second-order asymptotically correct strain energy. The geometrically exact nonlinear equations of motion were established by Hamilton’s principle. The established modeling was used for the static and dynamic analysis of pre-twisted composite rotor blades, and the analytical results were validated based on experimental data. The influences of the transverse shear deformation on the pre-twisted composite rotor blade were investigated. The results indicate that the influences of the transverse shear deformation on the static deformation and the natural frequencies of the pre-twisted composite rotor blade are related to the length to chord ratio of the blade. Keywords: Geometrically exact, Nonlinear, Pre-twisted composite blade, Transverse shear deformation, Variational asymptotic, Warping

  4. Wave transmission in nonlinear lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, D.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    The interplay of nonlinearity with lattice discreteness leads to phenomena and propagation properties quite distinct from those appearing in continuous nonlinear systems. For a large variety of condensed matter and optics applications the continuous wave approximation is not appropriate. In the present review we discuss wave transmission properties in one dimensional nonlinear lattices. Our paradigmatic equations are discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equations and their study is done through a dynamical systems approach. We focus on stationary wave properties and utilize well known results from the theory of dynamical systems to investigate various aspects of wave transmission and wave localization. We analyze in detail the more general dynamical system corresponding to the equation that interpolates between the non-integrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the integrable Albowitz-Ladik equation. We utilize this analysis in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney model and investigate transmission and band modification properties. We discuss the modifications that are effected through an electric field and the nonlinear Wannier-Stark localization effects that are induced. Several applications are described, such as polarons in one dimensional lattices, semiconductor superlattices and one dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap systems. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Nonlinear tension-bending deformation of a shape memory alloy rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Zejin; Wang, Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measured shape memory alloy (SMA) stress–strain curve and the nonlinear large deformation theory of extensible beams (or rods), the first-order nonlinear governing equations of a SMA cantilever straight rod are established. They consist of a boundary-value problem of ordinary differential equations with a strong nonlinearity, in which seven unknown functions are contained and the arc length of the deformed axis is considered as one of the basic unknown functions. The shooting method combining with the Newton–Raphson iteration method is applied to solve the equations numerically. For a SMA cantilever rod subjected to a transverse uniformly distributed force, the deformation characteristics curves, the maximum strain and the maximum stress distribution curves along the longitudinal direction of rod, and the relation curves between deformation characteristic parameters and transverse uniformly force under different slenderness ratios are obtained. The effects of material nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity and slenderness ratio on the tension-bending deformation of the SMA cantilever rod are investigated. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data from the literature, verifying the soundness of the entire numerical simulation scheme. (paper)

  6. Transition to large scale use of hydrogen and sustainable energy services. Choices of technology and infrastructure under path dependence, feedback and nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gether, Kaare

    2004-07-01

    We live in a world of becoming. The future is not given, but forms continuously in dynamic processes where path dependence plays a major role. There are many different possible futures. What we actually end up with is determined in part by chance and in part by the decisions we make. To make sound decisions we require models that are flexible enough to identify opportunities and to help us choose options that lead to advantageous alternatives. This way of thinking differs from traditional cost-benefit analysis that employs net present value calculations to choose on purely economic grounds, without regard to future consequences. Time and dynamic behaviour introduce a separate perspective. There is a focus on change, and decisions acquire windows of opportunity: the right decision at the right time may lead to substantial change, while it will have little effect if too early or too late. Modelling needs to reflect this dynamic behaviour. It is the perspective of time and dynamics that leads to a focus on sustainability, and thereby the role hydrogen might play in a future energy system. The present work develops a particular understanding relevant to energy infrastructures. Central elements of this understanding are: competition, market preference and choice beyond costs, bounded rationality, uncertainty and risk, irreversibility, increasing returns, path dependence, feedback, delay, nonlinear behaviour. Change towards a ''hydrogen economy'' will involve far-reaching change away from our existing energy infrastructure. This infrastructure is viewed as a dynamic set of interacting technologies (value sequences) that provide services to end-users and uphold the required supply of energy for this, all the way from primary energy sources. The individual technologies also develop with time. Building on this understanding and analysis, an analytical tool has emerged: the Energy Infrastructure Competition (EICOMP) model. In the model each technology is

  7. LDRD report nonlinear model reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.; Heinstein, M.

    1997-09-01

    The very general problem of model reduction of nonlinear systems was made tractable by focusing on the very large subclass consisting of linear subsystems connected by nonlinear interfaces. Such problems constitute a large part of the nonlinear structural problems encountered in addressing the Sandia missions. A synthesis approach to this class of problems was developed consisting of: detailed modeling of the interface mechanics; collapsing the interface simulation results into simple nonlinear interface models; constructing system models by assembling model approximations of the linear subsystems and the nonlinear interface models. These system models, though nonlinear, would have very few degrees of freedom. A paradigm problem, that of machine tool vibration, was selected for application of the reduction approach outlined above. Research results achieved along the way as well as the overall modeling of a specific machine tool have been very encouraging. In order to confirm the interface models resulting from simulation, it was necessary to develop techniques to deduce interface mechanics from experimental data collected from the overall nonlinear structure. A program to develop such techniques was also pursued with good success.

  8. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  9. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  10. Bending of a nonlinear beam reposing on an unilateral foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machalová J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is going to deal with bending of a nonlinear beam whose mathematical model was proposed by D. Y. Gao in (Gao, D. Y., Nonlinear elastic beam theory with application in contact problems and variational approaches,Mech. Research Communication, 23 (1 1996. The model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis and under assumption of nonzero lateral stress component enables moderately large deflections but with small strains. This is here extended by the unilateralWinkler foundation. The attribution unilateral means that the foundation is not connected with the beam. For this problem we demonstrate a mathematical formulation resulting from its natural decomposition which leads to a saddle-point problem with a proper Lagrangian. Next we are concerned with methods of solution for our problem by means of the finite element method as the paper (Gao, D. Y., Nonlinear elastic beam theory with application in contact problems and variational approaches, Mech. Research Communication, 23 (1 1996 has no mention of it. The main alternatives are here the solution of a system of nonlinear nondifferentiable equations or finding of a saddle point through the use of the augmented Lagrangian method. This is illustrated by an example in the final part of the article.

  11. No demonstrable association between the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain and aseptic meningitis in a large clinical trial in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H J; Oun, S Aly; Bakr, S S Abou; Kapre, S V; Jadhav, S S; Dhere, R M; Bhardwaj, S

    2010-04-01

    To address the claim that the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) mumps vaccine strain is causally associated with aseptic meningitis, a prospective, post-marketing safety study was conducted with a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) (TRESIVAC(R); Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, India), which uses the L-Z strain as its mumps component in Egypt. In all, 453 119 children (65 423 children aged 16-24 months and 329 211 children aged 5-7 years) received MMR. The control groups which, as a result of local health regulations, were slightly younger than vaccinees, comprised 12 253 and 46 232 children, respectively. Using questionnaires, the parents recorded solicited local, systemic and neurological adverse events for up to 42 days post-vaccination. All data were analysed externally on an intention-to-treat basis by individuals not participating in the study. Local and/or systemic reactions were reported in a small percentage of participants, with pain, fever and parotitis being the most common signs among vaccinees in both age groups. No case of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, anaphylaxis or convulsions was observed in any participant. Thus, in this series of more than 450 000 Egyptian children, the L-Z mumps vaccine strain in this vaccine did not cause aseptic meningitis. The vaccine is considerably cheaper than Western competitors and a valid alternative to other MMR vaccines.

  12. Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Geomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    TenCate, James A.; Pasqualini, Donatella; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Johnson, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The transition from linear to nonlinear dynamical elasticity in rocks is of considerable interest in seismic wave propagation as well as in understanding the basic dynamical processes in consolidated granular materials. We have carried out a careful experimental investigation of this transition for Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones. Below a well-characterized strain, the materials behave linearly, transitioning beyond that point to a nonlinear behavior which can be accurately captured by a s...

  13. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...... pure meta-heuristics. We study problem-adapted inversion algorithms that exploit the knowledge of the smoothness of the misfit function of the problem. Optimal sampling strategies exist for such problems, but many of these problems remain hard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....

  14. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  15. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  16. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  17. Investigation of Nonlinear Site Response and Seismic Compression from Case History Analysis and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eric

    In this thesis I address a series of issues related to ground failure and ground motions during earthquakes. A major component is the evaluation of cyclic volumetric strain behavior of unsaturated soils, more commonly known as seismic compression, from advanced laboratory testing. Another major component is the application of nonlinear and equivalent linear ground response analyses to large-strain problems involving highly nonlinear dynamic soil behavior. These two components are merged in the analysis of a truly unique and crucial field case history of nonlinear site response and seismic compression. My first topic concerns dynamic soil testing for relatively small strain dynamic soil properties such as threshold strains, gammatv. Such testing is often conducted using specialized devices such as dual-specimen simple-shear, as devices configured for large strain testing produce noisy signals in the small strain range. Working with a simple shear device originally developed for large-strain testing, I extend its low-strain capabilities by characterizing noisy signals and utilizing several statistical methods to extract meaningful responses in the small strain range. I utilize linear regression of a transformed variable to estimate the cyclic shear strain from a noisy signal and the confidence interval on its amplitude. I utilize Kernel regression with the Nadaraya-Watson estimator and a Gaussian kernel to evaluate vertical strain response. A practical utilization of these techniques is illustrated by evaluating threshold shear strains for volume change with a procedure that takes into account uncertainties in the measured shear and vertical strains. My second topic concerns the seismic compression characteristics of non-plastic and low-plasticity silty sands with varying fines content (10 ≤ FC ≤ 60%). Simple shear testing was performed on various sand-fines mixtures at a range of modified Proctor relative compaction levels ( RC) and degrees-of-saturation (S

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics in Spear Wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    BL11, the most recently installed wiggler in the SPEAR storage ring at SSRL, produces a large nonlinear perturbation of the electron beam dynamics, which was not directly evident in the integrated magnetic field measurements. Measurements of tune shifts with betatron oscillation amplitude and with closed orbit shifts were used to characterize the nonlinear fields of the SPEAR insertion devices (IDs). Because of the narrow pole width in BL11, the nonlinear fields seen along the wiggling electron trajectory are dramatically different than the flip coil measurements made along a straight line. This difference explains the tune shift measurements and the observed degradation in dynamic aperture. Corrector magnets to cancel the BL11 nonlinear fields are presently under construction

  19. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  20. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  1. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Lin, Ran; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical

  2. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  3. Nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions under oscillatory shear: mode-coupling theory and Fourier transform rheology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, J M; Siebenbürger, M; Ballauff, M; Reinheimer, K; Wilhelm, M; Frey, S J; Weysser, F; Fuchs, M

    2010-12-01

    Using a combination of theory, experiment, and simulation we investigate the nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The time-dependent stress response is calculated using a recently developed schematic mode-coupling-type theory describing colloidal suspensions under externally applied flow. For finite strain amplitudes the theory generates a nonlinear response, characterized by significant higher harmonic contributions. An important feature of the theory is the prediction of an ideal glass transition at sufficiently strong coupling, which is accompanied by the discontinuous appearance of a dynamic yield stress. For the oscillatory shear flow under consideration we find that the yield stress plays an important role in determining the nonlinearity of the time-dependent stress response. Our theoretical findings are strongly supported by both large amplitude oscillatory experiments (with Fourier transform rheology analysis) on suspensions of thermosensitive core-shell particles dispersed in water and Brownian dynamics simulations performed on a two-dimensional binary hard-disk mixture. In particular, theory predicts nontrivial values of the exponents governing the final decay of the storage and loss moduli as a function of strain amplitude which are in good agreement with both simulation and experiment. A consistent set of parameters in the presented schematic model achieves to jointly describe linear moduli, nonlinear flow curves, and large amplitude oscillatory spectroscopy.

  4. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  5. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  6. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  7. Monitoring of clinical strains and environmental fungal aerocontamination to prevent invasive aspergillosis infections in hospital during large deconstruction work: a protocol study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffert, Sophie Tiphaine; Melloul, Elise; Dananché, Cédric; Hénaff, Laetitia; Bénet, Thomas; Cassier, Pierre; Dupont, Damien; Guillot, Jacques; Botterel, Françoise; Wallon, Martine; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-25

    Monitoring fungal aerocontamination is an essential measure to prevent severe invasive aspergillosis (IA) infections in hospitals. One central block among 32 blocks of Edouard Herriot Hospital (EHH) was entirely demolished in 2015, while care activities continued in surrounding blocks. The main objective was to undertake broad environmental monitoring and clinical surveillance of IA cases to document fungal dispersion during major deconstruction work and to assess clinical risk. A daily environmental survey of fungal loads was conducted in eight wards located near the demolition site. Air was collected inside and outside selected wards by agar impact samplers. Daily spore concentrations were monitored continuously by volumetric samplers at a flow rate of 10 L.min -1 . Daily temperature, wind direction and speed as well as relative humidity were recorded by the French meteorological station Meteociel. Aspergillus fumigatus strains stored will be genotyped by multiple-locus, variable-number, tandem-repeat analysis. Antifungal susceptibility will be assessed by E-test strips on Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium supplemented with agar. Ascertaining the adequacy of current environmental monitoring techniques in hospital is of growing importance, considering the rising impact of fungal infections and of curative antifungal costs. The present study could improve the daily management of IA risk during major deconstruction work and generate new data to ameliorate and redefine current guidelines. This study was approved by the clinical research and ethics committees of EHH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  9. Methods of stability analysis in nonlinear mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Gabella, W.; Ecklund, K.

    1989-01-01

    We review our recent work on methods to study stability in nonlinear mechanics, especially for the problems of particle accelerators, and compare our ideals to those of other authors. We emphasize methods that (1) show promise as practical design tools, (2) are effective when the nonlinearity is large, and (3) have a strong theoretical basis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  11. Evaluation of area strain response of dielectric elastomer actuator using image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Raj K.; Sudarshan, Koyya; Patra, Karali; Bhaumik, Shovan

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is a kind of soft actuators that can produce significantly large electric-field induced actuation strain and may be a basic unit of artificial muscles and robotic elements. Understanding strain development on a pre-stretched sample at different regimes of electrical field is essential for potential applications. In this paper, we report about ongoing work on determination of area strain using digital camera and image processing technique. The setup, developed in house consists of low cost digital camera, data acquisition and image processing algorithm. Samples have been prepared by biaxially stretched acrylic tape and supported between two cardboard frames. Carbon-grease has been pasted on the both sides of the sample, which will be compliant with electric field induced large deformation. Images have been grabbed before and after the application of high voltage. From incremental image area, strain has been calculated as a function of applied voltage on a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer (DE) sample. Area strain has been plotted with the applied voltage for different pre-stretched samples. Our study shows that the area strain exhibits nonlinear relationship with applied voltage. For same voltage higher area strain has been generated on a sample having higher pre-stretched value. Also our characterization matches well with previously published results which have been done with costly video extensometer. The study may be helpful for the designers to fabricate the biaxial pre-stretched planar actuator from similar kind of materials.

  12. Turning the tide or riding the waves? Impacts of antibiotic stewardship and infection control on MRSA strain dynamics in a Scottish region over 16 years: non-linear time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M

    2015-03-26

    To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. General adult (N=1,051,993) or intensive care (18,235) admissions and primary care registrations (460,000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and '4Cs' (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10,000 inhabitant-days). 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10,707/15,947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of '4Cs' and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R(2)=0.63-0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135-141, and 48-81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected resistance phenotypes of clonal complexes. Infection control measures and changes in population

  13. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of high energy line pipe whip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.C.; Kuo, A.Y.; Tang, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    To facilitate potential cost savings in pipe whip protection design, TVA conducted a 1'' high pressure line break test to investigate the pipe whip behavior. The test results are available to EPRI as a data base for a generic study on nonlinear dynamic behavior of piping systems and pipe whip phenomena. This paper describes a nonlinear dynamic analysis of the TVA high energy line tests using ABAQUS-EPGEN code. The analysis considers the effects of large deformation and high strain rate on resisting moment and energy absorption capability of the analyzed piping system. The numerical results of impact forces, impact velocities, and reaction forces at pipe supports are compared to the TVA test data. The pipe whip impact time and forces have also been calculated per the current NRC guidelines and compared. The calculated pipe support reaction forces prior to impact have been found to be in good agreement with the TVA test data except for some peak values at the very beginning of the pipe break. These peaks are believed to be due to stress wave propagation which cannot be addressed by the ABAQUS code. Both the effects of elbow crushing and strain rate have been approximately simulated. The results are found to be important on pipe whip impact evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  15. Induced dynamic nonlinear ground response at Gamer Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Z.; Bodin, P.; Langston, C.A.; Pearce, F.; Gomberg, J.; Johnson, P.A.; Menq, F.-Y.; Brackman, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a prototype experiment in which we actively induce, observe, and quantify in situ nonlinear sediment response in the near surface. This experiment was part of a suite of experiments conducted during August 2004 in Garner Valley, California, using a large mobile shaker truck from the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. We deployed a dense accelerometer array within meters of the mobile shaker truck to replicate a controlled, laboratory-style soil dynamics experiment in order to observe wave-amplitude-dependent sediment properties. Ground motion exceeding 1g acceleration was produced near the shaker truck. The wave field was dominated by Rayleigh surface waves and ground motions were strong enough to produce observable nonlinear changes in wave velocity. We found that as the force load of the shaker increased, the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity decreased by as much as ???30% at the highest frequencies used (up to 30 Hz). Phase velocity dispersion curves were inverted for S-wave velocity as a function of depth using a simple isotropic elastic model to estimate the depth dependence of changes to the velocity structure. The greatest change in velocity occurred nearest the surface, within the upper 4 m. These estimated S-wave velocity values were used with estimates of surface strain to compare with laboratory-based shear modulus reduction measurements from the same site. Our results suggest that it may be possible to characterize nonlinear soil properties in situ using a noninvasive field technique.

  16. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  17. Utilisation of ISA Reverse Genetics and Large-Scale Random Codon Re-Encoding to Produce Attenuated Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus within Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively. Both re-encoded viruses were attenuated when compared with WT virus using a laboratory mouse model and the relative level of attenuation increased with the degree of re-encoding. Moreover, all infected animals produced neutralizing antibodies. This novel, rapid and efficient approach to engineering attenuated viruses could potentially expedite the development of safe and effective new-generation live attenuated vaccines.

  18. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  19. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de

    2002-11-15

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  20. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von

    2002-01-01

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined

  1. Micro-/nanoscale multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Mingwei; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of mechanics/electronics/photonics may improve the performance of nanophotonic devices not only in the linear region but also in the nonlinear region. This review letter mainly presents the recent advances on multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinear piezoelectric effect and piezo-phototronic effects in quantum wells and fibers show that large second-order nonlinear susceptibilities can be achieved, and second harmonic generation and electro-optic modulation can be enhanced and modulated. Strain engineering can tune the lattice structures and induce second order susceptibilities in central symmetry semiconductors. By combining the absorption-based photoacoustic effect and intensity-dependent photobleaching effect, subdiffraction imaging can be achieved. This review will also discuss possible future applications of these novel effects and the perspective of their research. The review can help us develop a deeper knowledge of the substance of photon-electron-phonon interaction in a micro-/nano- system. Moreover, it can benefit the design of nonlinear optical sensors and imaging devices with a faster response rate, higher efficiency, more sensitivity and higher spatial resolution which could be applied in environmental detection, bio-sensors, medical imaging and so on.

  2. Computational mechanics of nonlinear response of shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraetzig, W.B. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik); Onate, E. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Shell structures and their components are utilized in a wide spectrum of engineering fields reaching from space and aircraft structures, pipes and pressure vessels over liquid storage tanks, off-shore installations, cooling towers and domes, to bodyworks of motor vehicles. Of continuously increasing importance is their nonlinear behavior, in which large deformations and large rotations are involved as well as nonlinear material properties. The book starts with a survey about nonlinear shell theories from the rigorous point of view of continuum mechanics, this starting point being unavoidable for modern computational concepts. There follows a series of papers on nonlinear, especially unstable shell responses, which draw computational connections to well established tools in the field of static and dynamic stability of systems. Several papers are then concerned with new finite element derivations for nonlinear shell problems, and finally a series of authors contribute to specific applications opening a small window of the above mentioned wide spectrum. (orig./HP) With 159 figs.

  3. Computational mechanics of nonlinear response of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraetzig, W.B.; Onate, E.

    1990-01-01

    Shell structures and their components are utilized in a wide spectrum of engineering fields reaching from space and aircraft structures, pipes and pressure vessels over liquid storage tanks, off-shore installations, cooling towers and domes, to bodyworks of motor vehicles. Of continuously increasing importance is their nonlinear behavior, in which large deformations and large rotations are involved as well as nonlinear material properties. The book starts with a survey about nonlinear shell theories from the rigorous point of view of continuum mechanics, this starting point being unavoidable for modern computational concepts. There follows a series of papers on nonlinear, especially unstable shell responses, which draw computational connections to well established tools in the field of static and dynamic stability of systems. Several papers are then concerned with new finite element derivations for nonlinear shell problems, and finally a series of authors contribute to specific applications opening a small window of the above mentioned wide spectrum. (orig./HP) With 159 figs

  4. Large Piezoelectric Strain with Superior Thermal Stability and Excellent Fatigue Resistance of Lead-Free Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Grain Orientation-Controlled Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yi; Ren, Wei; Niu, Gang; Wang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jinyan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Ming; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Liu, Liqiang; Karaki, Tomoaki

    2018-03-19

    Environment-friendly lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric response and high stability in a wide temperature range are urgently needed for various applications. In this work, grain orientation-controlled (with a 90% ⟨001⟩ c -oriented texture) (K,Na)NbO 3 -based ceramics with a large piezoelectric response ( d 33 *) = 505 pm V -1 and a high Curie temperature ( T C ) of 247 °C have been developed. Such a high d 33 * value varies by less than 5% from 30 to 180 °C, showing a superior thermal stability. Furthermore, the high piezoelectricity exhibits an excellent fatigue resistance with the d 33 * value decreasing within only by 6% at a field of 20 kV cm -1 up to 10 7 cycles. These exceptional properties can be attributed to the vertical morphotropic phase boundary and the highly ⟨001⟩ c -oriented textured ceramic microstructure. These results open a pathway to promote lead-free piezoelectric ceramics as a viable alternative to lead-based piezoceramics for various practical applications, such as actuators, transducers, sensors, and acoustic devices, in a wide temperature range.

  5. Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shunting strategies for vibration mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibration absorbers that are designed based on the equal-peak method. A comparison between the performance of linear mechanical and electrical tuned vibration absorbers coupled to a linear oscillator is first performed. Nonlinearity is then introduced in the primary oscillator to which a new nonlinear electrical tuned vibration absorber is attached. Despite the frequency-energy dependence of nonlinear oscillations, we show that the nonlinear absorber is capable of effectively mitigating the vibrations of the nonlinear primary system in a large range of forcing amplitudes.

  6. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52 for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pruszynski

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti.This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site.Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.

  7. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52) for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynski, Catherine A; Hribar, Lawrence J; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had treated sites was >50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.

  8. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52) for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynski, Catherine A.; Hribar, Lawrence J.; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. Methodology This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Conclusions Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA. PMID:28199323

  9. Nonlinear operators and their propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Mathematical physicists are familiar with a large set of tools designed for dealing with linear operators, which are so common in both the classical and quantum theories; but many of those tools are useless with nonlinear equations of motion. In this work a general algebra and calculus is developed for working with nonlinear operators: The basic new tool being the open-quotes slash product,close quotes defined by A(1+εB) =A+εA/B+O(ε 2 ). For a generic time development equation, the propagator is constructed and then there follows the formal version of time dependent perturbation theory, in remarkable similarity to the linear situation. A nonperturbative approximation scheme capable of producing high accuracy computations, previously developed for linear operators, is shown to be applicable as well in the nonlinear domain. A number of auxiliary mathematical properties and examples are given. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  11. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE) NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov V.A.; Sacharov A.S.; Guliar A. I.; Pyskunov S.O.; Maksymiuk Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  12. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  13. Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  14. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in

  15. Isolation and characterization of cbbL and cbbS genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large and small subunits in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Ryuichi; Kato, Junichi; Morita, Hiromu; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    2002-03-01

    The cbbL and cbbS genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large and small subunits in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11 were cloned and sequenced. The deduced gene products, CbbL and CbbS, had 93 and 87% identity with Thiobacillus intermedius CbbL and Nitrobacter winogradskyi CbbS, respectively. Expression of cbbL and cbbS in Escherichia coli led to the detection of RubisCO activity in the presence of 0.1 mM isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the genes involved in the carbon fixation reaction in chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

  16. FEAST: a two-dimensional non-linear finite element code for calculating stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.

    1986-06-01

    The computer code FEAST calculates stresses, strains, and displacements. The code is two-dimensional. That is, either plane or axisymmetric calculations can be done. The code models elastic, plastic, creep, and thermal strains and stresses. Cracking can also be simulated. The finite element method is used to solve equations describing the following fundamental laws of mechanics: equilibrium; compatibility; constitutive relations; yield criterion; and flow rule. FEAST combines several unique features that permit large time-steps in even severely non-linear situations. The features include a special formulation for permitting many finite elements to simultaneously cross the boundary from elastic to plastic behaviour; accomodation of large drops in yield-strength due to changes in local temperature and a three-step predictor-corrector method for plastic analyses. These features reduce computing costs. Comparisons against twenty analytical solutions and against experimental measurements show that predictions of FEAST are generally accurate to ± 5%

  17. Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi; Hemar, Yacine; Hilliou, loic; Gilbert, Elliot P.; McGillivray, Duncan James; Williams, Martin A. K.; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.

  18. Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-14

    We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.

  19. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  20. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  1. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  2. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B; Kolotkov, D Y; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G

    2016-12-02

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  3. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  4. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  5. Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together four lecture courses on modern aspects of water waves. The intention, through the lectures, is to present quite a range of mathematical ideas, primarily to show what is possible and what, currently, is of particular interest. Water waves of large amplitude can only be fully understood in terms of nonlinear effects, linear theory being not adequate for their description. Taking advantage of insights from physical observation, experimental evidence and numerical simulations, classical and modern mathematical approaches can be used to gain insight into their dynamics. The book presents several avenues and offers a wide range of material of current interest. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the book should be of interest to mathematicians (pure and applied), physicists and engineers. The lectures provide a useful source for those who want to begin to investigate how mathematics can be used to improve our understanding of water wave phenomena. In addition, some of the...

  6. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  7. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  8. Nonlinear and anisotropic tensile properties of graft materials used in soft tissue applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathon H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix grafts that are intended to augment or replace soft tissues should be comparable to the native tissue. Such grafts are often used in fiber-reinforced tissue applications that undergo multi-axial loading and therefore knowledge of the anisotropic and nonlinear properties are needed, including the moduli and Poisson's ratio in two orthogonal directions within the plane of the graft. The objective of this study was to measure the tensile mechanical properties of several marketed grafts: Alloderm, Restore, CuffPatch, and OrthADAPT. The degree of anisotropy and non-linearity within each graft was evaluated from uniaxial tensile tests and compared to their native tissue. The Alloderm graft was anisotropic in both the toe- and linear-region of the stress-strain response, was highly nonlinear, and generally had low properties. The Restore and CuffPatch grafts had similar stress-strain responses, were largely isotropic, had a linear-region modulus of 18MPa, and were nonlinear. OrthADAPT was anisotropic in the linear-region (131 MPA vs 47MPa in the toe-region) and was highly nonlinear. The Poisson ratio for all grafts was between 0.4 and 0.7, except for the parallel orientation of Restore which was greater than 1.0. Having an informed understanding of how the available grafts perform mechanically will allow for better assessment by the physician for which graft to apply depending upon its application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...... prediction of short term triaxial behaviour from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Key results from a nonlinear finite element calculation of a gas-filled cavity are given, and the general features are related to a simple nonlinear method of stress evaluation....

  10. The physics of large deformation of crystalline solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, James F

    1968-01-01

    Historically, a major problem for the study of the large deformation of crystalline solids has been the apparent lack of unity in experimentally determined stress-strain functions. The writer's discovery in 1949 of the unexpectedly high velocity of incremental loading waves in pre-stressed large deformation fields emphasized to him the pressing need for the independent, systematic experimental study of the subject, to provide a firm foundation upon which physically plausible theories for the finite deformation of crystalline solids could be constructed. Such a study undertaken by the writer at that time and continued uninterruptedly to the present, led in 1956 to the development of the diffraction grating experiment which permitted, for the first time, the optically accurate determination of the strain-time detail of non-linear finite amplitude wave fronts propagating into crystalline solids whose prior history was precisely known. These experimental diffraction grating studies during the past decade have led...

  11. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  12. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  13. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  15. A nonlinear model for the fluidization of marine mud by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Chou, Hsien-Ter (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-04-15

    The authors consider the problem of fluidization of mud deposits in shallow waters due to interactions with water waves. This is of increasing interest because of concerns that water pollutants, including heavy metals, pesticides, etc., are often found near surfaces of mud deposits. The authors look at the question of whether the cohesive properties of mud deposits exhibit nonlinear properties when they experience strains from water wave interactions. It is obvious that with large enough wave interactions the deposits become fluidized, and are not in that case truly nonlinear. In their modeling efforts they try to incorporate these ideas into a cohesive model where the magnitude of the water wave-sediment interaction has an influence on the type of response within the system.

  16. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  17. Dynamics modeling for a rigid-flexible coupling system with nonlinear deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fengyan; He Xingsuo; Li Liang; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a moving flexible beam, which incorporates the effect of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of deformation, is investigated. Considering the second-order coupling terms of deformation in the longitudinal and transverse deflections, the exact nonlinear strain-displacement relations for a beam element are described. The shear strains formulated by the present modeling method in this paper are zero, so it is reasonable to use geometrically nonlinear deformation fields to demonstrate and simplify a flexible beam undergoing large overall motions. Then, considering the coupling terms of deformation in two dimensions, finite element shape functions of a beam element and Lagrange's equations are employed for deriving the coupling dynamical formulations. The complete expression of the stiffness matrix and all coupling terms are included in the formulations. A model consisting of a rotating planar flexible beam is presented. Then the frequency and dynamical response are studied, and the differences among the zero-order model, first-order coupling model and the new present model are discussed. Numerical examples demonstrate that a 'stiffening beam' can be obtained, when more coupling terms of deformation are added to the longitudinal and transverse deformation field. It is shown that the traditional zero-order and first-order coupling models may not provide an exact dynamic model in some cases

  18. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  19. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  20. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  1. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henari, F. Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com; Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2015-03-30

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10{sup −6} cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  2. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henari, F. Z.; Cassidy, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10 −7 cm 2 /W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10 −6 cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated

  3. Nonlinear dissipative devices in structural vibration control: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Zhou, Ying; Lu, Xilin

    2018-06-01

    Structural vibration is a common phenomenon existing in various engineering fields such as machinery, aerospace, and civil engineering. It should be noted that the effective suppression of structural vibration is conducive to enhancing machine performance, prolonging the service life of devices, and promoting the safety and comfort of structures. Conventional linear energy dissipative devices (linear dampers) are largely restricted for wider application owing to their low performance under certain conditions, such as the detuning effect of tuned mass dampers subjected to nonstationary excitations and the excessively large forces generated in linear viscous dampers at high velocities. Recently, nonlinear energy dissipative devices (nonlinear dampers) with broadband response and high robustness are being increasingly used in practical engineering. At the present stage, nonlinear dampers can be classified into three groups, namely nonlinear stiffness dampers, nonlinear-stiffness nonlinear-damping dampers, and nonlinear damping dampers. Corresponding to each nonlinear group, three types of nonlinear dampers that are widely utilized in practical engineering are reviewed in this paper: the nonlinear energy sink (NES), particle impact damper (PID), and nonlinear viscous damper (NVD), respectively. The basic concepts, research status, engineering applications, and design approaches of these three types of nonlinear dampers are summarized. A comparison between their advantages and disadvantages in practical engineering applications is also conducted, to provide a reference source for practical applications and new research.

  4. Beam Stability and Nonlinear Dynamics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Beam Stability and Nonlinear Dynamics symposium held in Santa Barbara in December 1996. The symposium was sponsored by the National Science Foundation as part of the United States long term accelerator research. The focus of this symposium was on nonlinear dynamics and beam stability. The topics included single-particle and many-particle dynamics, and stability in large circular accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider(LHC). Other subjects covered were spin dynamics, nonlinear aberration correction, collective effects in the LHC, sawtooth instability and Landau damping in the presence of strong nonlinearity. There were presentations concerning plasma physics including the effect of beam echo. There are 17 papers altogether in these proceedings and 8 of them have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  5. Nonlinear predictive control in the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, E; Cristea, S; Casas, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a nonlinear model-based control strategy in a real challenging process. A predictive controller based on a nonlinear model derived from physical relationships, mainly heat and mass balances, has been developed and commissioned in the inner triplet heat exchanger unit (IT-HXTU) of the large hadron collider (LHC) particle accelerator at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). The advanced regulation\\ maintains the magnets temperature at about 1.9 K. The development includes a constrained nonlinear state estimator with a receding horizon estimation procedure to improve the regulator predictions.

  6. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  7. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  8. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  9. GPU-based acceleration of computations in nonlinear finite element deformation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, Ramin; Sirouspour, Shahin

    2014-03-01

    The physics of deformation for biological soft-tissue is best described by nonlinear continuum mechanics-based models, which then can be discretized by the FEM for a numerical solution. However, computational complexity of such models have limited their use in applications requiring real-time or fast response. In this work, we propose a graphic processing unit-based implementation of the FEM using implicit time integration for dynamic nonlinear deformation analysis. This is the most general formulation of the deformation analysis. It is valid for large deformations and strains and can account for material nonlinearities. The data-parallel nature and the intense arithmetic computations of nonlinear FEM equations make it particularly suitable for implementation on a parallel computing platform such as graphic processing unit. In this work, we present and compare two different designs based on the matrix-free and conventional preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithms for solving the FEM equations arising in deformation analysis. The speedup achieved with the proposed parallel implementations of the algorithms will be instrumental in the development of advanced surgical simulators and medical image registration methods involving soft-tissue deformation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. EURDYN: computer programs for the nonlinear transient analysis of structures submitted to dynamic loading. EURDYN (Release 3): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleux, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The EURDYN computer codes are mainly designed for the simulation of nonlinear dynamic response of fast-reactor compoments submitted to impulse loading due to abnormal working conditions. Two releases of the structural computer codes EURDYN 01 (2-D beams and triangles and axisymmetric conical shells and triangular tores), 02 (axisymmetric and 2-D quadratic isoparametric elements) and 03 (triangular plate elements) have already been produced. They include material (elasto-plasticity using the classical flow theory approach) and geometrical (large displacements and rotations treated by a corotational technique) nonlinearities. The new features of Release 3 roughly consist in: full large strain capability for 9-node isoparametric elements, generalized array dimensions, introduction of the radial return algorithm for elasto-plastic material modelling, extension of the energy check facility to the case of prescribed displacements, and, possible interface to a post-processing package including time plot facilities

  11. An optimal approach to active damping of nonlinear vibrations in composite plates using piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, M R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a nonlinear approach to studying the vibration characteristic of laminated composite plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layer/patch is formulated, based on the Green Lagrange type of strain–displacements relations, by incorporating higher-order terms arising from nonlinear relations of kinematics into mathematical formulations. The equations of motion are obtained through the energy method, based on Lagrange equations and by using higher-order shear deformation theories with von Karman–type nonlinearities, so that transverse shear strains vanish at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. An isoparametric finite element model is provided to model the nonlinear dynamics of the smart plate with piezoelectric layer/ patch. Different boundary conditions are investigated. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found using a genetic algorithm to maximize spatial controllability/observability and considering the effect of residual modes to reduce spillover effect. Active attenuation of vibration of laminated composite plate is achieved through an optimal control law with inequality constraint, which is related to the maximum and minimum values of allowable voltage in the piezoelectric elements. To keep the voltages of actuator pairs in an allowable limit, the Pontryagin’s minimum principle is implemented in a system with multi-inequality constraint of control inputs. The results are compared with similar ones, proving the accuracy of the model especially for the structures undergoing large deformations. The convergence is studied and nonlinear frequencies are obtained for different thickness ratios. The structural coupling between plate and piezoelectric actuators is analyzed. Some examples with new features are presented, indicating that the piezo-patches significantly improve the damping characteristics of the plate for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations. (paper)

  12. A micro-macro constitutive model for finite-deformation viscoelasticity of elastomers with nonlinear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.

    2018-01-01

    Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.

  13. Microstructural Origins of Nonlinear Response in Associating Polymers under Oscillatory Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of associating polymers with oscillatory shear is studied through large-scale simulations. A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD, Monte Carlo (MC algorithm is employed. Polymer chains are modeled as a coarse-grained bead-spring system. Functionalized end groups, at both ends of the polymer chains, can form reversible bonds according to MC rules. Stress-strain curves show nonlinearities indicated by a non-ellipsoidal shape. We consider two types of nonlinearities. Type I occurs at a strain amplitude much larger than one, type II at a frequency at which the elastic storage modulus dominates the viscous loss modulus. In this last case, the network topology resembles that of the system at rest. The reversible bonds are broken and chains stretch when the system moves away from the zero-strain position. For type I, the chains relax and the number of reversible bonds peaks when the system is near an extreme of the motion. During the movement to the other extreme of the cycle, first a stress overshoot occurs, then a yield accompanied by shear-banding. Finally, the network restructures. Interestingly, the system periodically restores bonds between the same associating groups. Even though major restructuring occurs, the system remembers previous network topologies.

  14. A non-linear kinematic hardening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1977-05-01

    Based on the classical theory of plasticity, and accepting the von Mises criterion as the initial yield criterion, a non-linear kinematic hardening function applicable both to Melan-Prager's and to Ziegler's hardening rule is proposed. This non-linear hardening function is determined by means of the uniaxial stress-strain curve, and any such curve is applicable. The proposed hardening function considers the problem of general reversed loading, and a smooth change in the behaviour from one plastic state to another nearlying plastic state is obtained. A review of both the kinematic hardening theory and the corresponding non-linear hardening assumptions is given, and it is shown that material behaviour is identical whether Melan-Prager's or Ziegler's hardening rule is applied, provided that the von Mises yield criterion is adopted. (author)

  15. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  16. Quasistatic nonlinear viscoelasticity and gradient flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, John M.; Şengül, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the equation of motion for one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelasticity of strain-rate type under the assumption that the stored-energy function is λ-convex, which allows for solid phase transformations. We formulate this problem as a gradient flow, leading to existence and uniqueness of solutions. By approximating general initial data by those in which the deformation gradient takes only finitely many values, we show that under suitable hypotheses on the stored-energy function the d...

  17. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  18. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  19. Strain modulations as a mechanism to reduce stress relaxation in laryngeal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold tissues in animal and human species undergo deformation processes at several types of loading rates: a slow strain involved in vocal fold posturing (on the order of 1 Hz or so), cyclic and faster posturing often found in speech tasks or vocal embellishment (1-10 Hz), and shear strain associated with vocal fold vibration during phonation (100 Hz and higher). Relevant to these deformation patterns are the viscous properties of laryngeal tissues, which exhibit non-linear stress relaxation and recovery. In the current study, a large strain time-dependent constitutive model of human vocal fold tissue is used to investigate effects of phonatory posturing cyclic strain in the range of 1 Hz to 10 Hz. Tissue data for two subjects are considered and used to contrast the potential effects of age. Results suggest that modulation frequency and extent (amplitude), as well as the amount of vocal fold overall strain, all affect the change in stress relaxation with modulation added. Generally, the vocal fold cover reduces the rate of relaxation while the opposite is true for the vocal ligament. Further, higher modulation frequencies appear to reduce the rate of relaxation, primarily affecting the ligament. The potential benefits of cyclic strain, often found in vibrato (around 5 Hz modulation) and intonational inflection, are discussed in terms of vocal effort and vocal pitch maintenance. Additionally, elderly tissue appears to not exhibit these benefits to modulation. The exacerbating effect such modulations may have on certain voice disorders, such as muscle tension dysphonia, are explored.

  20. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  1. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...

  2. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  3. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  4. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  5. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  6. Dynamics of nonlinear feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, H P; van Hateren, J H

    2007-05-01

    Feedback control in neural systems is ubiquitous. Here we study the mathematics of nonlinear feedback control. We compare models in which the input is multiplied by a dynamic gain (multiplicative control) with models in which the input is divided by a dynamic attenuation (divisive control). The gain signal (resp. the attenuation signal) is obtained through a concatenation of an instantaneous nonlinearity and a linear low-pass filter operating on the output of the feedback loop. For input steps, the dynamics of gain and attenuation can be very different, depending on the mathematical form of the nonlinearity and the ordering of the nonlinearity and the filtering in the feedback loop. Further, the dynamics of feedback control can be strongly asymmetrical for increment versus decrement steps of the input. Nevertheless, for each of the models studied, the nonlinearity in the feedback loop can be chosen such that immediately after an input step, the dynamics of feedback control is symmetric with respect to increments versus decrements. Finally, we study the dynamics of the output of the control loops and find conditions under which overshoots and undershoots of the output relative to the steady-state output occur when the models are stimulated with low-pass filtered steps. For small steps at the input, overshoots and undershoots of the output do not occur when the filtering in the control path is faster than the low-pass filtering at the input. For large steps at the input, however, results depend on the model, and for some of the models, multiple overshoots and undershoots can occur even with a fast control path.

  7. A finite element model for nonlinear shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    A shell-of-revolution model was developed to analyze impact problems associated with the safety analysis of nuclear material shipping containers. The nonlinear shell theory presented by Eric Reissner in 1972 was used to develop our model. Reissner's approach includes transverse shear deformation and moments turning about the middle surface normal. With these features, this approach is valid for both thin and thick shells. His theory is formulated in terms of strain and stress resultants that refer to the undeformed geometry. This nonlinear shell model is developed using the virtual work principle associated with Reissner's equilibrium equations. First, the virtual work principle is modified for incremental loading; then it is linearized by assuming that the nonlinear portions of the strains are known. By iteration, equilibrium is then approximated for each increment. A benefit of this approach is that this iteration process makes it possible to use nonlinear material properties. (orig.)

  8. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  9. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  10. An efficient nonlinear Feshbach engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fogarty, Thomás; Campbell, Steve; Chen, Xi; Busch, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We investigate a thermodynamic cycle using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with nonlinear interactions as the working medium. Exploiting Feshbach resonances to change the interaction strength of the BEC allows us to produce work by expanding and compressing the gas. To ensure a large power output from this engine these strokes must be performed on a short timescale, however such non-adiabatic strokes can create irreversible work which degrades the engine’s efficiency. To combat this, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity which can achieve an adiabatic-like evolution within a finite time, therefore significantly reducing the out-of-equilibrium excitations in the BEC. We investigate the effect of the shortcut to adiabaticity on the efficiency and power output of the engine and show that the tunable nonlinearity strength, modulated by Feshbach resonances, serves as a useful tool to enhance the system’s performance.

  11. Determination of Burst Pressure of API Steel Pipes using Stress Modified Critical Strain Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Sulaiman, A S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which can be used to determine the burst pressure of defective steel pipes using non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. The technique uses stress modified critical strain (SMCS) failure criterion to study the effect of gouge defects on maximum working pressure of API X65 steel pipes. The procedures in determining the model parameters using 3-D, homogeneous isotropic elastic-plastic material model with large deformation finite element analyses from notched tensile bars were systematically discussed. The relationship between burst pressure and gouge depth was proposed. The burst pressure estimated then was compared to experimental data from the literature for validation showing overall good agreements.

  12. Influence of mechanically-induced dilatation on the shape memory behavior of amorphous polymers at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzon, Drew W.; Lu, Haibao; Yakacki, Christopher M.; Yu, Kai

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the influence of mechanically-induced dilatation on the thermomechanical and shape memory behavior of amorphous shape memory polymers (SMPs) at large deformation. The uniaxial tension, glass transition, stress relaxation and free recovery behaviors are examined with different strain levels (up to 340% engineering strain). A multi-branched constitutive model that incorporates dilatational effects on the polymer relaxation time is established and applied to assist in discussions and understand the nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors of SMPs. It is shown that the volumetric dilatation results in an SMP network with lower viscosity, faster relaxation, and lower Tg. The influence of the dilatational effect on the thermomechanical behaviors is significant when the polymers are subject to large deformation or in a high viscosity state. The dilation also increases the free recovery rate of SMP at a given recovery temperature. Even though the tested SMPs are far beyond their linear viscoelastic region when a large programming strain is applied, the free recovery behavior still follows the time-temperature superposition (TTSP) if the dilatational effect is considered during the transformation of time scales; however, if the programming strain is different, TTSP fails in predicting the recovery behavior of SMPs because the network has different entropy state and driving force during shape recovery. Since most soft active polymers are subject to large deformation in practice, this study provides a theoretical basis to better understand their nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors, and optimize their performance in engineering applications.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper represents an extensive study of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the Nuclotron. Chromatic effects, including the dependence of the betatron tunes on the amplitude, and chromatic perturbations have been investigated taking into account the measured field imperfections. Beam distortion, smear, dynamic aperture and nonlinear acceptance have been calculated for different particle energies and betatron tunes

  14. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  15. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  16. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  17. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  18. Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals occupy an important niche in nonlinear optics as a result of their unique physical and optical properties. Besides their broadband birefringence and transparency, abilities to self-assemble into various crystalline phases and to conform to various flexible forms and shapes, liquid crystals are compatible with almost all other optoelectronic materials and technology platforms. In both isotropic and ordered phases, liquid crystals possess extraordinarily large optical nonlinearities that stretch over multiple time scales. To date, almost all conceivable nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed in a very broad spectrum spanning the entire visible to infrared and beyond. In this review, we present a self-contained complete discussion of the optical nonlinearities of liquid crystals, and a thorough review of a wide range of nonlinear optical processes and phenomena enabled by these unique properties. Starting with a brief historical account of the development of nonlinear optical studies of the mesophases of liquid crystals, we then review various liquid crystalline materials and structures, and their nonlinear optical properties. Emphasis is placed on the nematic phase, which best exemplifies the dual nature of liquid crystals, although frequent references to other phases are also made. We also delve into recent work on novel structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials and nanostructures and their special characteristics and emergent properties. The mechanisms and complex nonlocal dynamics of optical nonlinearities associated with laser induced director axis reorientation, thermal, density, and order parameter fluctuations, space charge field formation and photorefractivity are critically reviewed as a foundation for the discussions of various nonlinear optical processes detailed in this paper

  19. Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the

  20. Symmetry and exact solutions of nonlinear spinor equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushchich, W.I.; Zhdanov, R.Z.

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to the application of algebraic-theoretical methods to the problem of constructing exact solutions of the many-dimensional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations for spinor, vector and scalar fields widely used in quantum field theory. Large classes of nonlinear spinor equations invariant under the Poincare group P(1, 3), Weyl group (i.e. Poincare group supplemented by a group of scale transformations), and the conformal group C(1, 3) are described. Ansaetze invariant under the Poincare and the Weyl groups are constructed. Using these we reduce the Poincare-invariant nonlinear Dirac equations to systems of ordinary differential equations and construct large families of exact solutions of the nonlinear Dirac-Heisenberg equation depending on arbitrary parameters and functions. In a similar way we have obtained new families of exact solutions of the nonlinear Maxwell-Dirac and Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations. The obtained solutions can be used for quantization of nonlinear equations. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  2. Kyropoulos method for growth of nonlinear optical organic crystal ABP (4-aminobenzophenone) from the melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.

  3. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  4. The cold effect of ambient temperature on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospital admissions: A large database study in Beijing, China between years 2013 and 2014-Utilizing a distributed lag non-linear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxia; Li, Haibin; Huang, Fangfang; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Qin Xu; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Li, Xia; Liu, Mengyang; Zheng, Deqiang; Chen, Sipeng; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xinghua; Tan, Peng; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xueqin; Guo, Xiuhua

    2018-01-01

    The effects of ambient temperature on stroke death in China have been well addressed. However, few studies are focused on the attributable burden for the incident of different types of stroke due to ambient temperature, especially in Beijing, China. We purpose to assess the influence of ambient temperature on hospital stroke admissions in Beijing, China. Data on daily temperature, air pollution, and relative humidity measurements and stroke admissions in Beijing were obtained between 2013 and 2014. Distributed lag non-linear model was employed to determine the association between daily ambient temperature and stroke admissions. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Attribution fraction (AF) with 95% CI were calculated based on stroke subtype, gender and age group. A total number of 147, 624 stroke admitted cases (including hemorrhagic and ischemic types of stroke) were documented. A non-linear acute effect of cold temperature on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospital admissions was evaluated. Compared with the 25th percentile of temperature (1.2 °C), the cumulative RR of extreme cold temperature (first percentile of temperature, -9.6 °C) was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08-2.10) over lag 0-14 days for ischemic type and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03-1.59) for hemorrhagic stroke over lag 0-3 days. Overall, 1.57% (95% CI: 0.06%-2.88%) of ischemic stroke and 1.90% (95% CI: 0.40%-3.41%) of hemorrhagic stroke was attributed to the extreme cold temperature over lag 0-7 days and lag 0-3 days, respectively. The cold temperature's impact on stroke admissions was found to be more obvious in male gender and the youth compared to female gender and the elderly. Exposure to extreme cold temperature is associated with increasing both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke admissions in Beijing, China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  6. PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zadoks, R.I. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.

  7. Prediction of crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas transmission pipelines with a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). Part 2: Large scale pipe models with gas depressurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomidis, F.; Shterenlikht, A.; Truman, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper described a specimen for the measurement of high strain rate flow and fracture properties of pipe material and for tuning a strain rate dependent damage model (SRDD). In part 2 the tuned SRDD model is used for the simulation of axial crack propagation and arrest in X100 natural gas pipelines. Linear pressure drop model was adopted behind the crack tip, and an exponential gas depressurisation model was used ahead of the crack tip. The model correctly predicted the crack initiation (burst) pressure, the crack speed and the crack arrest length. Strain rates between 1000 s −1 and 3000 s −1 immediately ahead of the crack tip are predicted, giving a strong indication that a strain rate material model is required for the structural integrity assessment of the natural gas pipelines. The models predict the stress triaxiality of about 0.65 for at least 1 m ahead of the crack tip, gradually dropping to 0.5 at distances of about 5–7 m ahead of the crack tip. Finally, the models predicted a linear drop in crack tip opening angle (CTOA) from about 11−12° at the onset of crack propagation down to 7−8° at crack arrest. Only the lower of these values agree with those reported in the literature for quasi-static measurements. This discrepancy might indicate substantial strain rate dependence in CTOA. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations of 3 burst tests of X100 pipes are detailed. • Strain rate dependent damage model, tuned on small scale X100 samples, was used. • The models correctly predict burst pressure, crack speed and crack arrest length. • The model predicts a crack length dependent critical CTOA. • The strain rate dependent damage model is verified as mesh independent

  8. Photostable nonlinear optical polycarbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faccini, M.; Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Torosantucci, Riccardo; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Highly thermal and photostable nonlinear optical polymers were obtained by covalently incorporating the tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) chromophore to a polycarbonate backbone. NLO polycarbonates with different chromophore attachment modes and flexibilities were synthesized. In spite

  9. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  10. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  11. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A

    2017-01-01

    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  12. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  13. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  14. Nonlinear surface Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)

  15. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  16. A nonlinear oscillatory problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qingqing.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the nonlinear oscillatory problem of orthotropic cylindrical shell, we have analyzed the character of the oscillatory system. The stable condition of the oscillatory system has been given. (author). 6 refs

  17. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  18. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  19. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  20. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    associated with the lattice background; the nonlinearity is derived from the inclusion of cubic nonlinearity. Often the background potential is periodic...dispersion branch we can find discrete evolution equations for the envelope associated with the lattice NLS equation (1) by looking for solutions of...spatial operator in the above NLS equation can be elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic . We remark that further reduction is possible by going into a moving

  1. Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)

  2. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  3. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) of Acrylic Emulsion-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sipei; Nakatani, Alan; Griffith, William

    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) testing has recently taken on renewed interest in the rheological community. It is a very useful tool to probe the viscoelastic response of materials in the non-linear regime. Much of the discussion on polymers in the LAOS field has focused on melts in or near the terminal flow regime. Here we present a LAOS study conducted on a commercial rheometer for acrylic emulsion-based pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) films in the plateau regime. The films behaved qualitatively similar over an oscillation frequency range of 0.5-5 rad/s. From Fourier transform analysis, the fifth or even the seventh order harmonic could be observed at large applied strains. From stress decomposition analysis or Lissajous curves, inter-cycle elastic softening, or type I behavior, was observed for all films as the strain increases, while intra-cycle strain hardening occurred at strains in the LAOS regime. Overall, as acid content increases, it was found that the trend in elasticity under large applied strains agreed very well with the trend in cohesive strength of the films.

  4. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  5. Introduction to nonlinear acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the basic principles of fluid mechanics needed for development of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic concepts will be given. The fundamental equations of nonlinear ultrasonics will be derived and their physical properties explained. It will be shown how an originally monochromatic finite-amplitude ultrasonic wave, due to nonlinear effects, will distort during its propagation in time and space to form higher harmonics to its fundamental frequency. The concepts of shock formation will be presented. The material nonlinearity, described by the nonlinearity parameter B/A of the material, and the convective nonlinearity, described by the ultrasonic Mach Number, will be explained. Two procedures for determination of B/A will briefly be described and some B/A-values characterizing biological materials will be presented. Shock formation, described by use of the Goldberg Number,and Ultrasonic Saturation will be discussed.. An introduction to focused ultrasonic fields will be given and it will be shown how the ultrasonic intensity will vary axially and laterally in and near the focal region and how the field parameters of interest to biomedical applications may be described by use of the KZK-Model. Finally, an introduction will be given to the parametric acoustic array formed by mixing and interaction of two monochromatic, finite-amplitude ultrasonic waves in a liquid and the potentials of this mixing process in biomedical ultrasound will briefly be mentioned.

  6. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  7. Nonlinear Stress Relaxation of ``Quasi-monodisperse'' Miscible Blends of cis-Polyisoprene and Poly(ptert-butylstyrene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumiya, Yumi

    Viscoelastic relaxation was examined for entangled miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(ptert-butylstyrene) (PtBS). The terminal relaxation times of PI and PtBS therein, τPI and τPtBS, changed with the composition wPI and the molecular weights MPI and MPtBS. This ratio became unity when the wPI, MPI, and MPtBS values were chosen adequately. For example, in a blend with wPI = 0.75, MPI = 321k, and MPtBS = 91k at T = 40ûC, τPI/τPtBS = 1 and M/Me = 55 and 8.3 for PI and PtBS. Under small strains, this blend exhibited sharp, single-step terminal relaxation as similar to monodisperse homopolymers, thereby behaving as a ``quasi-monodisperse'' material. Under large step strains, the blend exhibited moderate nonlinear damping known as the type-A damping for entangled monodisperse homopolymers. Nevertheless, PI had M/Me = 55 in that blend, and homopolymers having such a large M/Me ratio exhibit very strong type-C damping. Thus, as compared to homopolymers, the nonlinearity was suppressed in the PI/PtBS blend having the large M/Me ratio. This suppression is discussed in relation to the slow Rouse retraction of the coexisting PtBS chains (having M/Me = 8.3 in the blend).

  8. Fourth Order Nonlinear Intensity and the corresponding Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonlinear effects occur whenever the optical fields associated with one or more intense light such as from laser beams propagating in a crystal are large enough to produce polarization fields. This paper describes how the fourth order nonlinear intensity and the corresponding effective refractive index that is intensity ...

  9. Fundamentals of nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear optics; nonlinear polarization; optical fiber communication; optical switch- ing. PACS Nos 42.65Tg; ... The importance of nonlinear optics is to understand the nonlinear behavior in the induced polarization and to ..... but much work in material development and characterization remains to be done. 16. Conclusion.

  10. Global solutions of nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgain, J

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents recent progress in the theory of nonlinear dispersive equations, primarily the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. The Cauchy problem for defocusing NLS with critical nonlinearity is discussed. New techniques and results are described on global existence and properties of solutions with large Cauchy data. Current research in harmonic analysis around Strichartz's inequalities and its relevance to nonlinear PDE is presented. Several topics in NLS theory on bounded domains are reviewed. Using the NLS as an example, the book offers comprehensive insight on current research r

  11. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  12. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... for such behavior is the interplay of nonstationarity and nonlinearity. In particular, we show that nonlinearity of the data generating process can be asymptotically negligible when the error variance is moderate or large (compared to the "amount of nonlinearity"), rendering the linear test more powerful than...

  13. Inducing in situ, nonlinear soil response applying an active source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Pearce, F.; Lawrence, Z.; Menq, F.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    [1] It is well known that soil sites have a profound effect on ground motion during large earthquakes. The complex structure of soil deposits and the highly nonlinear constitutive behavior of soils largely control nonlinear site response at soil sites. Measurements of nonlinear soil response under natural conditions are critical to advancing our understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes. Many factors limit the use of earthquake observations to estimate nonlinear site response such that quantitative characterization of nonlinear behavior relies almost exclusively on laboratory experiments and modeling of wave propagation. Here we introduce a new method for in situ characterization of the nonlinear behavior of a natural soil formation using measurements obtained immediately adjacent to a large vibrator source. To our knowledge, we are the first group to propose and test such an approach. Employing a large, surface vibrator as a source, we measure the nonlinear behavior of the soil by incrementally increasing the source amplitude over a range of frequencies and monitoring changes in the output spectra. We apply a homodyne algorithm for measuring spectral amplitudes, which provides robust signal-to-noise ratios at the frequencies of interest. Spectral ratios are computed between the receivers and the source as well as receiver pairs located in an array adjacent to the source, providing the means to separate source and near-source nonlinearity from pervasive nonlinearity in the soil column. We find clear evidence of nonlinearity in significant decreases in the frequency of peak spectral ratios, corresponding to material softening with amplitude, observed across the array as the source amplitude is increased. The observed peak shifts are consistent with laboratory measurements of soil nonlinearity. Our results provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies of strong ground motion during earthquakes.

  14. On the hyperporous non-linear elasticity model for fusion-relevant pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Giammusso, R.; Vella, G.

    2010-01-01

    Packed pebble beds are particular granular systems composed of a large amount of small particles, arranged in irregular lattices and surrounded by a gas filling interstitial spaces. Due to their heterogeneous structure, pebble beds have non-linear and strongly coupled thermal and mechanical behaviours whose constitutive models seem limited, being not suitable for fusion-relevant design-oriented applications. Within the framework of the modelling activities promoted for the lithiated ceramics and beryllium pebble beds foreseen in the Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed breeding blanket concept of DEMO, at the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo (DIN) a thermo-mechanical constitutive model has been set-up assuming that pebble beds can be considered as continuous, homogeneous and isotropic media. The present paper deals with the DIN non-linear elasticity constitutive model, based on the assumption that during the reversible straining of a pebble bed its effective logarithmic bulk modulus depends on the equivalent pressure according to a modified power law and its effective Poisson modulus remains constant. In these hypotheses the functional dependence of the effective tangential and secant bed deformation moduli on either the equivalent pressure or the volumetric strain have been derived in a closed analytical form. A procedure has been, then, defined to assess the model parameters for a given pebble bed from its oedometric test results and it has been applied to both polydisperse lithium orthosilicate and single size beryllium pebble beds.

  15. Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik

    1999-01-01

    In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...

  16. Nonlinear propagation in fusion laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.S.; Glass, A.J.; Glaze, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    This report was assembled to provide a brief review of the historical development of the study of self-focusing and nonlinear light propagation and its impact on the design of large, Nd-glass lasers for fusion research. No claim to completeness is made, but we feel that the enclosed summary does not miss many of the major developments in the field

  17. Numerical Methods for Nonlinear PDEs in Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Sima

    Nonlinear Black-Scholes equations arise from considering parameters such as feedback and illiquid markets eects or large investor preferences, volatile portfolio and nontrivial transaction costs into option pricing models to have more accurate option price. Here some nite dierence schemes have be...

  18. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  19. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  20. Application of nonlinear rheology to assess the effect of secondary nanofiller on network structure of hybrid polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Milad; Aliabadian, Ehsan; Shayesteh Zeraati, Ali; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrical properties by forming a percolated network. Adding a secondary filler can significantly affect the CNTs' network, resulting in changing the electrical properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of adding manganese dioxide nanowires (MnO2NWs) as a secondary nanofiller on the CNTs' network structure inside a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Incorporating MnO2NWs to PVDF/CNT samples produced a better state of dispersion of CNTs, as corroborated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The steady shear and oscillatory shear flows were employed to obtain a better insight into the nanofiller structure and viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites. The transient response under steady shear flow revealed that the stress overshoot of hybrid nanocomposites (two-fillers), PVDF/CNT/MnO2NWs, increased dramatically in comparison to binary nanocomposites (single-filler), PVDF/CNT and PVDF/MnO2NWs. This can be attributed to microstructural changes. Large amplitude oscillatory shear characterization was also performed to further investigate the effect of the secondary nanofiller on the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the samples. The nonlinear rheological observations were explained using quantitative nonlinear parameters [strain-stiffening ratio (S) and shear-thickening ratio (T)] and Lissajous-Bowditch plots. Results indicated that a more rigid nanofiller network was formed for the hybrid nanocomposites due to the better dispersion state of CNTs and this led to a more nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

  1. DIESYS—dynamically non-linear dielectric elastomer energy generating synergetic structures: perspectives and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I A; Venetsanos, D T; Papaspyridis, F G

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer based generators (DEGs) offer some unique properties over energy generators based on other materials. These properties include high energy density, high efficiency over a broad range of frequencies, low compliance, the ability to produce high strain, large area, low cost films with no toxic materials and wide range environmental tolerance. As further shown in this paper, DEG materials can also exhibit a non-linear dynamic behavior, enhancing broad-band energy transfer. More specifically, dielectric elastomer (DE) energy generating synergetic structures (DIESYS) are considered as dynamic energy absorbers. Two elementary characteristic DIESYS design concepts are examined, leading to a typical antagonistic configuration for in-plane oscillations and a typical synagonistic configuration for out-of-plane oscillations. Originally, all the DE elements of the structure are assumed to be always in tension during all the phases of the harvesting cycle, conforming to the traditional concept of operation of DE structures. As shown in this paper, the traditional always-in-tension concept results in a linear dynamic system response, despite the fact that the implemented (DE) parts are considered to have been made of a non-linear (hyperelastic) material. In contrast, the proposed loose-part concept ensures the appearance of a non-linear broad-band system response, enhancing energy transfer from the environmental source. (paper)

  2. 50 years of nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuanrang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the birth and early investigations of nonlinear optics, such as second harmonic generation,sum and difference frequency generation, stimulated Raman scattering,and self-action of light etc. Several important research achievements and applications of nonlinear optics are presented as well, including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, phase conjugation and adaptive optics, coherent nonlinear optics, and high-order harmonic generation. In the end, current and future research topics in nonlinear optics are summarized. (authors)

  3. Chaos, patterns, coherent structures, and turbulence: Reflections on nonlinear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    The paradigms of nonlinear science were succinctly articulated over 25 years ago as deterministic chaos, pattern formation, coherent structures, and adaptation/evolution/learning. For chaos, the main unifying concept was universal routes to chaos in general nonlinear dynamical systems, built upon a framework of bifurcation theory. Pattern formation focused on spatially extended nonlinear systems, taking advantage of symmetry properties to develop highly quantitative amplitude equations of the Ginzburg-Landau type to describe early nonlinear phenomena in the vicinity of critical points. Solitons, mathematically precise localized nonlinear wave states, were generalized to a larger and less precise class of coherent structures such as, for example, concentrated regions of vorticity from laboratory wake flows to the Jovian Great Red Spot. The combination of these three ideas was hoped to provide the tools and concepts for the understanding and characterization of the strongly nonlinear problem of fluid turbulence. Although this early promise has been largely unfulfilled, steady progress has been made using the approaches of nonlinear science. I provide a series of examples of bifurcations and chaos, of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pattern formation, and of turbulence to illustrate both the progress and limitations of the nonlinear science approach. As experimental and computational methods continue to improve, the promise of nonlinear science to elucidate fluid turbulence continues to advance in a steady manner, indicative of the grand challenge nature of strongly nonlinear multi-scale dynamical systems.

  4. Spatial nonlinearities: Cascading effects in the earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Pielke, R.A.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, K. M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Pataki, Diane E.; Pitelka, Louis F.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior is prevalent in all aspects of the Earth System, including ecological responses to global change (Gallagher and Appenzeller 1999; Steffen et al. 2004). Nonlinear behavior refers to a large, discontinuous change in response to a small change in a driving variable (Rial et al. 2004). In contrast to linear systems where responses are smooth, well-behaved, continuous functions, nonlinear systems often undergo sharp or discontinuous transitions resulting from the crossing of thresholds. These nonlinear responses can result in surprising behavior that makes forecasting difficult (Kaplan and Glass 1995). Given that many system dynamics are nonlinear, it is imperative that conceptual and quantitative tools be developed to increase our understanding of the processes leading to nonlinear behavior in order to determine if forecasting can be improved under future environmental changes (Clark et al. 2001).

  5. Piezoelectric effect in strained quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, L.S.; Andre, R.; Cibert, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some physical aspects of the piezoelectric effect which takes place in strained semiconductor heterostructures grown along a polar axis. First we show how piezoelectric fields can be accurately measured by optical spectroscopy. Then we discuss about the origin of the non-linear piezoelectric effect reported recently for CdTe, and maybe for InAs as well. Finally we compare excitonic effects in piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric quantum wells. (orig.)

  6. A discrete element model for the investigation of the geometrically nonlinear behaviour of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockelmann, Felix; Dinkler, Dieter

    2018-07-01

    A three-dimensional discrete element model for elastic solids with large deformations is presented. Therefore, an discontinuum approach is made for solids. The properties of elastic material are transferred analytically into the parameters of a discrete element model. A new and improved octahedron gap-filled face-centred cubic close packing of spheres is split into unit cells, to determine the parameters of the discrete element model. The symmetrical unit cells allow a model with equal shear components in each contact plane and fully isotropic behaviour for Poisson's ratio above 0. To validate and show the broad field of applications of the new model, the pin-pin Euler elastica is presented and investigated. The thin and sensitive structure tends to undergo large deformations and rotations with a highly geometrically nonlinear behaviour. This behaviour of the elastica can be modelled and is compared to reference solutions. Afterwards, an improved more realistic simulation of the elastica is presented which softens secondary buckling phenomena. The model is capable of simulating solids with small strains but large deformations and a strongly geometrically nonlinear behaviour, taking the shear stiffness of the material into account correctly.

  7. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  8. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  9. Algorithms For Integrating Nonlinear Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved algorithms developed for use in numerical integration of systems of nonhomogenous, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations. In comparison with integration algorithms, these algorithms offer greater stability and accuracy. Several asymptotically correct, thereby enabling retention of stability and accuracy when large increments of independent variable used. Accuracies attainable demonstrated by applying them to systems of nonlinear, first-order, differential equations that arise in study of viscoplastic behavior, spread of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus and predator/prey populations.

  10. Handbook of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Polyanin, Andrei D

    2011-01-01

    New to the Second Edition More than 1,000 pages with over 1,500 new first-, second-, third-, fourth-, and higher-order nonlinear equations with solutions Parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, and other systems of equations with solutions Some exact methods and transformations Symbolic and numerical methods for solving nonlinear PDEs with Maple(t), Mathematica(R), and MATLAB(R) Many new illustrative examples and tables A large list of references consisting of over 1,300 sources To accommodate different mathematical backgrounds, the authors avoid wherever possible the use of special terminology. They

  11. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  12. Strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.

  13. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  14. The importance of non-linearities in modern proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines the physics and mathematics of non-linear field errors in the quide fields of accelerators, with particular reference to large accelerators such as the SPS. These non-linearities give rise to closed orbital distortions and non-linear resonances or stopbands. Both of these effects are briefly discussed and the use of resonances for slow beam extraction is also described. Another problem considered is that of chromaticity of the particle beam. The use of sextupoles to correct chromaticity and the Landau damping of beam instabilities using octupoles are also discussed. In the final section the application of Hamiltonian mechanics to non-linearities is demonstrated. The author concludes that the effect of non-linearities on particle dynamics may place a more severe limit on intensity and storage time in large rings than any other effect in transverse phase space. (B.D.)

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  16. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  17. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    of a proposed NSE system with high dynamic performance. The goal of the work is to achieve a state-of-the art transient time of 10 µs. In order to produce the arbitrary nonlinear curve, the exponential function of a typical diode is used, but the diode can be replaced by other nonlinear curve reference...... of conductive common-mode current produced by the high rate of change of voltage over time (high dv/dt) at the NSE output. v/xvii The contributions of the thesis are based on the development of both units: the low Cio isolated power supply and the high dynamic performance NSE. Both units are investigated......-of-the-art dynamic performance among devices of the same kind. It also offers a complete solution for simulation of nonlinear source systems of different sizes, both in terrestrial and non-terrestrial applications. Key words: Current transformers, dc-dc power converters, hysteresis, parasitic capacitance, system...

  18. Nonlinearity in data with gaps: Application to ecological and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    apply this to the multifractal spectra of multiple datasets with missing data from the SMEAR ... that there are certain values of gap size and frequency ... Most nonlinear quantifiers require large evenly ..... This adds weight to the claims in the.

  19. Nonlinear Subincremental Method for Determination of Elastic-Plastic-Creep Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. Saabye; Gunneskov, O.

    1985-01-01

    to general elastic-plastic-creep behaviour including problems with a highly nonlinear total strain path caused by the occurrence of creep hardening. This nonlinear method degenerates to the linear approach for elastic-plastic behaviour and when secondary creep is present. It is also linear during step......The frequently used subincremental method has so far been used on a linear interpolation of the total strain path within each main step. This method has proven successful when elastic-plastic behaviour and secondary creep is involved. The authors propose a nonlinear subincremental method applicable...

  20. The application of large amplitude oscillatory stress in a study of fully formed fibrin clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, T. F.; Thomas, B. R.; Curtis, D. J.; Badiei, N.; Williams, P. R.; Hawkins, K.

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of controlled stress large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOStress) for the characterisation of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fully formed fibrin clots is investigated. Capturing the rich nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of the fibrin network is important for understanding the structural behaviour of clots formed in blood vessels which are exposed to a wide range of shear stresses. We report, for the first time, that artefacts due to ringing exist in both the sample stress and strain waveforms of a LAOStress measurement which will lead to errors in the calculation of nonlinear viscoelastic properties. The process of smoothing the waveforms eliminates these artefacts whilst retaining essential rheological information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of LAOStress for characterising the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fibrin clots in response to incremental increases of applied stress up to the point of fracture. Alternating LAOStress and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements provide detailed information of reversible and irreversible structural changes of the fibrin clot as a consequence of elevated levels of stress. We relate these findings to previous studies involving large scale deformations of fibrin clots. The LAOStress technique may provide useful information to help understand why some blood clots formed in vessels are stable (such as in deep vein thrombosis) and others break off (leading to a life threatening pulmonary embolism).