WorldWideScience

Sample records for large stored energy

  1. Protection of large-stored-energy superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, F.

    1975-11-01

    When the stored energy of superconducting magnets increases, the problem of the protection of the coil when a quench occurs becomes more and more important, especially if the structure of the coil is such that the energy can be dissipated only in a small part of the coil. The aim of this paper is first to describe a program which enables to predict the increase of temperature inside the coil for several kinds of protection and to give results for KEK pulsed dipoles (under construction and planned for TRISTAN). (auth.)

  2. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  3. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  4. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  5. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  6. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  7. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  8. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  9. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  10. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  12. Experimental verification of stored energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hann, C.R.; Christensen, J.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Marshall, R.K.; Williford, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is provided of irradiation tests designed to provide data needed to verify existing steady state fuel performance codes. The tests are being conducted in the Halden Reactor, and are designed to provide data pertinent to stored energy calculations over a range of linear heat ratings utilized in contemporary power reactors

  13. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. D.

    1984-02-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. A distributed energy storage railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed. A simple simulation of the railgun system based on this model, but ignoring frictional drag, was compared with the experimental results. During the process of comparing results from the simulation and the experiment, the effect of significant frictional drag of the projectile on the sidewalls of the bore was observed.

  14. Fast liberation of energy stored using superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, G.; Sole, J.

    1967-01-01

    After a rapid description of the circumstances in which they first thought of using superconducting materials for the storage and liberation of energy, the authors examine, in comparison to condensers, the energy densities which can thus be stored, the methods used for introducing this energy into the superconducting circuit and for trapping it, and the law governing the discharge of this energy into a purely dissipative impedance. This leads to a derivation of the expression for the energy yield which depends on the characteristics of the switch used for opening the superconducting circuit. An experimental study has been made of a superconducting switch with a view to understanding the various parameters. As a result of this analysis, transitions of this switch, over the whole of its mass, were obtained for periods of a few microseconds, and energy yields close to unity were obtained. The obtention of fast discharges is now no longer a technological problem. (authors) [fr

  15. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  16. A Comparison of Customer Relationships between Large Chain Stores and Small Local Stores in the Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Krstevska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates customer relationships of two distinct store formats (small local stores and large chain stores) in the fashion industry. The aim is to find out if there are differences between the store formats regarding customer relationships. Relationship marketing theory was used to formulate hypotheses. Shoppers of small local stores and large chain stores in Würzburg, Germany, were surveyed to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that customer relationships significantly dif...

  17. Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy is a text version of the video entitled "Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy." ; Bacteria from some of the Earth's harshest environments now have a new home at NREL. [A natural spring has

  18. Stored energy analysis in the scaled-down test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chengcheng; Chang, Huajian; Qin, Benke; Wu, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three methods are developed to evaluate stored energy in the scaled-down test facilities. • The mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. • The application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME facility of China. - Abstract: In the scaled-down test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy release in the metal structures has an important influence on the accuracy and effectiveness of the experimental data. Three methods of stored energy analysis are developed, and the mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. Moreover, the application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME test facility newly built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements of three methods analyzing the stored energy release decrease gradually. The physical mechanism of stored energy release process can be characterized by the dimensionless numbers including Stanton number, Fourier number and Biot number. Under the premise of satisfying the overall similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy release process in the scale-down test facilities cannot maintain exact similarity. The results of the application of stored energy analysis illustrate that both the transient release process and integral total stored energy of the reactor pressure vessel wall of CAP1400 power plant can be well reproduced in the ACME test facility.

  19. Stored energy analysis in scale-down test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chengcheng; Qin Benke; Fang Fangfang; Chang Huajian; Ye Zishen

    2013-01-01

    In the integral test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy in the metal components has a direct influence on the simulation range and the test results of the facilities. Based on the heat transfer theory, three methods analyzing the stored energy were developed, and a thorough study on the stored energy problem in the scale-down test facilities was further carried out. The lumped parameter method and power integration method were applied to analyze the transient process of energy releasing and to evaluate the average total energy stored in the reactor pressure vessel of the ACME (advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment) facility, which is now being built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements for such three methods to analyze the stored energy in the test facilities are reduced gradually. Under the condition of satisfying the integral similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy releasing process in the scale-down test facilities can't maintain exact similarity. The stored energy in the reactor pressure vessel wall of ACME, which is released quickly during the early stage of rapid depressurization of system, will not make a major impact on the long-term behavior of system. And the scaling distortion of integral average total energy of the stored heat is acceptable. (authors)

  20. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  1. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ

  2. Globally optimal, minimum stored energy, double-doughnut superconducting magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the minimum stored energy current density map-based methodology of designing closed-bore symmetric superconducting magnets was described recently. The technique is further developed to cater for the design of interventional-type MRI systems, and in particular open symmetric magnets of the double-doughnut configuration. This extends the work to multiple magnet domain configurations. The use of double-doughnut magnets in MRI scanners has previously been hindered by the ability to deliver strong magnetic fields over a sufficiently large volume appropriate for imaging, essentially limiting spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and field of view. The requirement of dedicated interventional space restricts the manner in which the coils can be arranged and placed. The minimum stored energy optimal coil arrangement ensures that the field strength is maximized over a specific region of imaging. The design method yields open, dual-domain magnets capable of delivering greater field strengths than those used prior to this work, and at the same time it provides an increase in the field-of-view volume. Simulation results are provided for 1-T double-doughnut magnets with at least a 50-cm 1-ppm (parts per million) field of view and 0.7-m gap between the two doughnuts. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Sampling of charged liquid radwaste stored in large tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Domage, M.; Bernard-Bruls, X.

    1995-01-01

    The final safe disposal of radwaste, in France and elsewhere, entails, for liquid effluents, their conversion to a stable solid form, hence implying their conditioning. The production of conditioned waste with the requisite quality, traceability of the characteristics of the packages produced, and safe operation of the conditioning processes, implies at least the accurate knowledge of the chemical and radiochemical properties of the effluents concerned. The problem in sampling the normally charged effluents is aggravated for effluents that have been stored for several years in very large tanks, without stirring and retrieval systems. In 1992, SGN was asked by Cogema to study the retrieval and conditioning of LL/ML chemical sludge and spent ion-exchange resins produced in the operation of the UP2 400 plant at La Hague, and stored temporarily in rectangular silos and tanks. The sampling aspect was crucial for validating the inventories, identifying the problems liable to arise in the aging of the effluents, dimensioning the retrieval systems and checking the transferability and compatibility with the downstream conditioning process. Two innovative self-contained systems were developed and built for sampling operations, positioned above the tanks concerned. Both systems have been operated in active conditions and have proved totally satisfactory for taking representative samples. Today SGN can propose industrially proven overall solutions, adaptable to the various constraints of many spent fuel cycle operators

  4. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  5. Design feasibility of an intermittent domestic energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahat, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Sceince and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Babus`Haq, R.F.; O`Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, energy storage has been recognised as a potentially significant means by which primary energy consumption can be reduced in domestic, commercial and industrial processes. An intermittent domestic thermochemical heat pump, with a 5 kW{sub e} electric power output when employed as an energy store, is proposed. Different design options have been considered and their economic feasibilities evaluated. (author)

  6. A model for stored energy in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinivella, G.

    1980-12-01

    The observed saturation value of stored energy in irradiated amorphous silica is too big to be explained by the energy of recombined non-grouped defects. The hypothesis that it can be due to a structural change has been tested, and a simple model based on the fluctuation of the atomic distances shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  7. Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Samuel S.

    2009-08-25

    Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

  8. The network-based energy management system for convenience stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, An-Ping; Hsu, Pau-Lo [Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsiue Road, Hsinchu City 310 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Convenience stores generally consume energy higher than other retailing merchants. As the problem of energy shortage becomes more serious during summer, almost all convenience stores sign a contract with power plants, which provides for fines if demand limiting occurs in Taiwan and many other countries. Therefore, a reliable and effective method to reduce their utility consumption is required for modern business and industry. This research integrates the remote sensors, the control network, and the embedded system technologies to construct a distributed energy management control system for dedicated convenience stores. Energy consumption can thus be reasonably managed with demand limits by measuring and analyzing the power consumption sources in four major subsystems of convenience stores, namely, (1) air-conditioning, (2) lighting, (3) heating, and (4) refrigeration. By applying the proposed demand prediction and control method, the demand limiting condition can be properly predicted, and the possible peak load can thus be eliminated via the network control mechanism. Moreover, by integrating the LonWork fieldbus and the WinCE operating system (OS), the proposed system has been successfully applied to a convenience store. The experimental results indicate that the proposed distributed energy management system suitably predicts the peak loading condition and successfully prevents its occurrence by switching the air-conditioning system without affecting the indoor temperature regulation. (author)

  9. Stored energy in fusion magnet materials irradiated at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, R.L.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R.

    1989-08-01

    During the power cycle of a fusion reactor, the radiation reaching the superconducting magnet system will produce an accumulation of immobile defects in the magnet materials. During a subsequent warm-up cycle of the magnet system, the defects will become mobile and interact to produce new defect configurations as well as some mutual defect annihilations which generate heat-the release of stored energy. This report presents a brief qualitative discussion of the mechanisms for the production and release of stored energy in irradiated materials, a theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials, theoretical analysis of the thermal response of irradiated materials during warm-up, and a discussion of the possible impact of stored energy release on fusion magnet operation 20 refs

  10. Exchanging and Storing Energy. Reducing Energy Demand through Heat Exchange between Functions and Temporary Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillem, E.

    2011-06-15

    As typical office buildings from the nineties have large heating and cooling installations to provide heat or cold wherever and whenever needed, more recent office buildings have almost no demand for heating due to high internal heat loads caused by people, lighting and office appliances and because of the great thermal qualities of the contemporary building envelope. However, these buildings still have vast cooling units to cool down servers and other energy consuming installations. At the same time other functions such as dwellings, swimming pools, sporting facilities, archives and museums still need to be heated most of the year. In the current building market there is an increasing demand for mixed-use buildings or so called hybrid buildings. The Science Business Centre is no different and houses a conference centre, offices, a museum, archives, an exhibition space and a restaurant. From the initial program brief it seemed that the building will simultaneously house functions that need cooling most of the year and functions that will need to be heated the majority of the year. Can this building be equipped with a 'micro heating and cooling network' and where necessary temporarily store energy? With this idea a research proposal was formulated. How can the demand for heating and cooling of the Science Business Centre be reduced by using energy exchange between different kinds of functions and by temporarily storing energy? In conclusion the research led to: four optimized installation concepts; short term energy storage in pavilion concept and museum; energy exchange between the restaurant and archives; energy exchange between the server space and the offices; the majority of heat and cold will be extracted from the soil (long term energy storage); the access heat will be generated by the energy roof; PV cells from the energy roof power all climate installations; a total energy plan for the Science Business Centre; a systematic approach for exchanging

  11. Measurement of the energy stored in alkalihalogenids by radiation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrey, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy stored in alkali-halogen crystals after X-ray irradiation is studied at 11 K. Using a heat flux calorimeter designed especially for this experiment, single crystals are irradiated and the energy release is recorded as the temperature is increased proportional to time from 10 K to 50 K. The energy release spectra are compared with relevant optical measurements and thus a relation between energy release and tempering of point defects is established. The energy release peaks can be assigned definitly to tempering stages of the Frenkel pairs. For explanation a simple model is proposed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  12. Inductive energy store (IES) technology for multi-terrawatt generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sincerny, P.S.; Ashby, S.R.; Childers, F.K.; Deeney, C.; Kortbawi, D.; Goyer, J.R.; Riordan, J.C.; Roth, I.S.; Stallings, C.; Schlitt, L.

    1993-01-01

    An IES pulsed power machine has been built at Physics International Company that serves as a prototype demonstration of IES technology that is scaleable to very large TW generators. The prototype module utilizes inductive store opening switch technology for the final stage of pulse compression and is capable of driving both electron beam Bremsstrahlung loads or imploding plasma loads. Each module consists of a fast discharge Marx driving a water dielectric transfer capacitor which is command triggered to drive the inductive store section of the machine. The inductive store is discharged into the load using a plasma erosion opening switch. Data demonstrating 22% efficient operation into an electron beam diode load are presented. The system issues addressing the combining of these modules into a very large pulsed power machine are discussed

  13. Spontaneous transfer of magnetically stored energy to Kinetic energy by electric double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.; Torven, S.

    1983-05-01

    Current disruptions are investigated in a magnetized plasma column with an inductive external electric circuit. It is found that they persist in spite of the fact that each disruption gives rise to a large inductive over-voltage. This drops off at an electric double layer formed in the plasma where most of the magnetic energy, initially stored in the circuit inductance, is released as particle energy. Simultanously as the current disrupts, the potential level at a local potential minimum in the plasma decreases. This is expected to cause the disruption by reflection of electrons. (authors)

  14. Electron, photons, and molecules: Storing energy from light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular charge separation has important potential for photochemical energy storage. Its efficiency can be enhanced by principals which maximize the rates of the electron transfer steps which separate charge and minimize those which recombine high-energy charge pairs to lose stored energy. Dramatic scientific progress in understanding these principals has occurred since the founding of DOE and its predecessor agency ERDA. While additional knowledge in needed in broad areas of molecular electron transfer, some key areas of knowledge hold particular promise for the possibility of moving this area from science toward technology capable of contributing to the nation`s energy economy.

  15. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  16. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  17. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARNERIS, I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented

  18. Stored energy calculation: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Lanning, D.D.; Olsen, A.R.; Williford, R.E.; Hann, C.R.

    1978-05-01

    The report is the result of an investigation to determine the current state of the art of fuel temperature, gap conductance, and stored energy calculations. Major emphasis was placed on the propagation of input and model uncertainties. To support this study a comparison was made to the observed variability of experimental data for fuel centerline temperature and gap conductance values. The uncertainty analysis was performed by identifying major thermal models and collecting them into an abstract of a thermal performance code. Uncertainties in the calculations were determined using the method of propagation of uncertainties with a first order Taylor series approximation to the nonlinear functions. Output uncertainty results are presented for the beginning of fuel life, the end of life, and throughout a typical power history. Also presented is an influence and importance analysis for the input parameters. It is concluded that the relative uncertainty in stored energy is approximately +-20 percent at beginning of fuel life, and increases to +-25 to 40 percent contact. The foregoing are 3 sigma (99.9 percent) confidence intervals. The most important contributors to stored energy uncertainty are linear heat rating and fuel thermal conductivity

  19. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  20. New results with stored exotic nuclei at relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, F. (Fritz); Boutin, D. (Daniel); Fastermann, T. (Thomas); Falch, M. (Markus); Franzke, B. (Bernhard); Hausmann, M. (Marc); Hellstrom, M. (Margarete); Kaza, E. (Evangelia); Kerscher, T. (Thomas); Klepper, O. (Otto); Kluge, H.-Jürgen; Kozhuharov, C. (Christophor); Kratz, K. L.; Litinov, S. A. (Sergei A); Lobner, G. K. E. (Gunther K. E.); Maier, L. (Ludwig); Matos, M. (Milan); Munzenberg, G. (Gottfried); Nolden, F. (Fritz); Novikov, Y. N. (Yuri N.); Ohtsubo, T. (Takashi); Ostrowski, A. (Alexander); Patyk, Z. (Zygmund); Pfeiffer, B.; Portillo, M. (Mauricio); Radon, T. P. (Torsten P.); Scheidenberger, C. (Christoph); Shishkin, V. (Vladimir); Stadlman, J. (Jens); Steck, M. (Markus); Vieira, D. J. (David J.); Weick, H. (Helmut); Winkler, M. (Martin); Wollnik, Hermann; Yamaguchi, T. (Takayuki)

    2004-01-01

    Recently, much progress has been made with stored exotic nuclei at relativistic velocities v/c = 0.7. Fragments of {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi projectiles and fission fragments from {sup 238}U ions have been produced, separated in flight with the fragment separator FRS, and injected into the storage-cooler ring ESR for precision measurements. Precise masses of neutron-deficient isotopes in the lead region have been measured with time-resolved Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS). A new isospin dependence of the pairing energy was observed due to the improved mass accuracy of typical 1.5 x 10{sup -7} (30 keV). New masses of short-lived neutron-rich fission fragments have been obtained with Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS). An innovative field of spectroscopy has been opened up with lifetime measurements of stored bare and few-electron fragments after applying both stochastic and electron cooling.

  1. Energy saving by optimized controls for supermarket stores; Energie sparen mit optimierter Regeltechnik im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, Horst [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Danfoss has been delivering for 20 years the optimizing ADAP-KOOL(R) control system. It enables the store to save 30% of the yearly energy bill, compared to a store with electronic standard controls. Over years the stores took the cheap standard solution, but now several German supermarket chains decide to take the best for the investment and lifecycle cost. This article describes the main control circuits and shows the measurements of the energy consumption of two stores with standard and optimized controls. This control system is available for chemical and for the natural refrigerant R744. (orig.)

  2. The use of nested chevron rails in a distributed energy store railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.

    1984-03-01

    It is pointed out that the large amounts of energy required by electromagnetic launchers will necessitate that energy stores be distributed along their length. The nested chevron rail construction will make it possible for a railgun launcher to be produced in which most of the switching requirements for the launcher/energy store system will be met automatically. Each nested chevron-shaped conductor will be electrically insulated from its neighbors, and each opposing chevron pair (one on each rail) will be connected to the terminals of one energy store (Marshall, 1982). It is explained that as the projectile moves down the railgun the chevrons and associated energy stores at first are unaffected by the approach. At this time the inductors can be charged, and any other preliminary operation can be performed. When the armature comes into contact with the Nth chevron, charge begins to flow from the Nth energy storage system; it flows through one chevron, into the armature, out of the armature into the other chevron, and from that chevron back to the energy storage system.

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  4. Analysis of magnetic energy stored in superconducting coils with and without ferromagnetic inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Inductance and energy of superconducting coils are calculated by (1) a long-solenoid approximation, (2) a finite-element model, and (3) working formulas and tables. The results of the finite-element model compare favorably with those of the working formulas. The long-solenoid approximation overpredicts the energy and inductance compared to the other two methods. The difference decreases with increasing length-to-diameter ratio. Energy stored in a coil with a ferromagnetic insert is calculated by using a long-solenoid approximation and a finite-element model. The analysis shows that the gain in energy ratio is equal to the relative permeability of the insert (which decreases with increasing current or current density). Even though large gains can be achieved at relatively low currents, the energy level itself is too low. The stored energy increases with current, but the gain decreases with increasing current because relative permeability decreases. If a coil with a diameter of 0.3 m and a length of 0.3 m is required to store 10 kJ of energy, the current density must equal 4000 A/cm 2 . The gain in energy ratio is equal to 2.55 when the insert is used

  5. Treated Carbon Nanofibers for Storing Energy in Aqueous KOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsich, David W.

    2004-01-01

    A surface treatment has been found to enhance the performances of carbon nanofibers as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors in which aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide are used as the electrolytes. In the treatment, sulfonic acid groups are attached to edge plane sites on carbon atoms. The treatment is applicable to a variety of carbon nanofibers, including fibrils and both single- and multiple-wall nanotubes. The reason for choosing nanofibers over powders and other forms of carbon is that nanofibers offer greater power features. In previous research, it was found that the surface treatment of carbon nanofibers increased energy-storage densities in the presence of acid electrolytes. Now, it has been found that the same treatment increases energy-storage densities of carbon nanofibers in the presence of alkaline electrolytes when the carbon is paired with a NiOOH electrode. This beneficial effect varies depending on the variety of carbon substrate to which it is applied. It has been conjectured that the sulfonic acid groups, which exist in a deprotonated state in aqueous KOH solutions, undergo reversible electro-chemical reactions that are responsible for the observed increases in energystorage capacities. The increases can be considerable: For example, in one case, nanofibers exhibited a specific capacitance of 34 Farads per gram before treatment and 172 Farads per gram (an increase of about 400 percent) after treatment. The most promising application of this development appears to lie in hybrid capacitors, which are devices designed primarily for storing energy. These devices are designed to be capable of (1) discharge at rates greater than those of batteries and (2) storing energy at densities approaching those of batteries. A hybrid capacitor includes one electrode like that of a battery and one electrode like that of an electrochemical capacitor. For example, a hybrid capacitor could contain a potassium hydroxide solution as the electrolyte

  6. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  7. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  8. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  9. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Grocery Stores (Revised) (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders successfully plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited in these guides. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. Grocery stores were selected as one of the highest priority sectors, because they represent one of the most energy-intensive market segments.

  10. Economic Evaluation of a Solar Charged Thermal Energy Store for Space Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A thermal energy store corrects the misalignment of heating demand in the winter relative to solar thermal energy gathered in the summer. This thesis reviews the viability of a solar charged hot water tank thermal energy store for a school at latitude 56.25N, longitude -120.85W

  11. Uncertainties in modeling and scaling in the prediction of fuel stored energy and thermal response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1987-01-01

    The steady-state temperature distribution and the stored energy in nuclear fuel elements are computed by analytical methods and used to rank, in the order of importance, the effects on stored energy from statistical uncertainties in modeling parameters, in boundary and in operating conditions. An integral technique is used to calculate the transient fuel temperature and to estimate the uncertainties in predicting the fuel thermal response and the peak clad temperature during a large-break loss of coolant accident. The uncertainty analysis presented here is an important part of evaluating the applicability, the uncertainties and the scaling capabilities of computer codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses. The methods employed in this analysis merit general attention because of their simplicity. It is shown that the blowdown peak is dominated by fuel stored energy alone or, equivalently, by linear heating rate. Gap conductance, peaking factors and fuel thermal conductivity are the three most important fuel modeling parameters affecting peak clad temperature uncertainty. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  12. An astrophysical engine that stores gravitational work as nuclear Coulomb energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Donald

    2014-03-01

    I describe supernovae gravity machines that store large internal nuclear Coulomb energy, 0.80Z2A- 1 / 3MeV per nucleus. Excess of it is returned later by electron capture and positron emission. Decay energy manifests as (1) observable gamma-ray lines (2) light curves of supernovae (3) chemical energy of free carbon dissociated from CO molecules (4) huge abundances of radiogenic daughters. I illustrate by rapid silicon burning, a natural epoch in SN II. Gravitational work produces the high temperatures that photoeject nucleons and alpha particles from heavy nuclei. These are retained by other nuclei to balance photoejection rates (quasiequilibrium). The abundance distribution adjusts slowly as remaining abundance of Z = N 28Si decomposes, so p, n, α recaptures hug the Z = N line. This occurs in milliseconds, too rapidly for weak decay to alter bulk Z/N ratio. The figure displays those quasiequilibrium abundances color-coded to their decays. Z = N = 2k nuclei having k 10 are radioactive owing to excess Coulomb energy. Weak decays radiate that excess energy weeks later to fuel the four macroscopic energetic phenomena cited. How startling to think of the Coulomb nuclear force as storing cosmic energy and its weak decay releasing macroscopic activation to SNII.

  13. Experimental Study on Conversion of Stored Thermal Energy to Mechanical Work in FCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Kondo, S.; Mivazaki, K.

    1976-01-01

    In the present study the process how the thermal energy stored in the coolant should be converted into the mechanical work is emphasized as well as the generation of pressure waves, eliminating the complicated problems involved in FCI, such as fragmentation, heat transfer from molten fuel to coolant, etc. A simulation experiment has been performed in a small scale vertical channel using stagnant potassium. Large superheat inherent in liquid metals was utilized as the method to accumulate the thermal energy. The following experimental parameters were chosen to examine their effects on the energy conversion ratio: the heat flux, the cover gas pressure, the liquid column length, the temperature of the upper unheated region and the incipient boiling superheat (corresponding to the stored thermal energy). The results are summarized that the conversion ratio from thermal to kinetic energies has increasing trends with increases of the incipient boiling superheat, the cover gas pressure and the temperature of upper unheated region, ranging over 0.02-0.75% in the present experiment. The important conclusions of the present experiment are summarized as follows. The thermal to kinetic energy conversion ratio n k ranges over 0.02-0.75 % for ΔT s = 10-150 deg.C, estimating from the maximum velocity measured. The thermal to mechanical work conversion ratio n w ranges over 0.14-5.6%. The effect of the heat flux on the both conversion ratios is small within the range covered by the present experiment (g≤133 W/cm 2 ). The effect of the liquid column length is not presented. The thermal to kinetic energy conversion ratio increases with the incipient boiling superheat which corresponds to the stored thermal energy in the present experiment. The both conversion ratio decrease with a decrease of the cover gas pressure. This is attributable to the thermal contact in the upper unheated region. The both conversion ratios increase with an increase in the temperature of the upper

  14. Measurement of the stored energy in the NRX reactor reflector graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, H. B.; Larson, E. A.G.

    1959-07-15

    With the co-operation of workers at Windscale and Harwell, whose assistance is hereby gratefully acknowledged, the stored energy content of the inner reflector graphite of NRX has been measured. Measurements made at three different elevations and at different positions through the reflector show that there is, at present, no danger to NRX from an accidental release of the energy. The energy stored in the reflector in 1958 is less by a factor five to ten than the stored energy as measured in 1953. It appears that there has been a continual release of stored energy since 1954 when, after the rehabilitation, the maximum power was raised to 40 MW. Additional thermocouples have been installed in the inner reflector, and future stored energy measurements are being scheduled. (author)

  15. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  16. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  17. Apparatus and method for use in storing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathrum, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Some embodiments provide energy storage systems that comprise: a first electrode; a second electrode; an electrolyte; the first electrode, the second electrode and the electrolyte are positioned such that the electrolyte is in contact with at least the first electrode; and a polarity reversal system electrically coupled with the first electrode and the second electrode, wherein the polarity reversal system is configured to allow the energy storage system to operate while a first polarity to charge and discharge electrical energy while operating in the first polarity, and the polarity reversal system is configured to reverse the voltage polarity across the first and second electrodes to a second polarity to allow the energy storage system to continue to operate while the second polarity is established across the first electrode and the second electrode to continue to charge and discharge electrical energy while operating in the second polarity.

  18. Fat or lean: adjustment of endogenous energy stores to predictable and unpredictable changes in allostatic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, Jannik; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott

    2013-01-01

    1. The ability to store energy endogenously is an important ecological mechanism that allows animals to buffer predictable and unpredictable variation in allostatic load. The secretion of glucocorticoids, which reflects changes in allostatic load, is suggested to play a major role in the adjustment of endogenous stores to these varying conditions.

  19. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs

  20. Energy-Storing Structures: Composite Capacitors and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    circuit board (PCB) prepreg C electrode dielectric Autoclave-processed structural capacitor • Objective: High energy density, scalable...Continued scaling (lab safety limit  100 J) – Beyond commercial FR4 prepreg  high dielectric additives, super- clean prepregging

  1. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  2. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Neely, Michael J.; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically ...

  3. Distributed energy store powered railguns for hypervelocity launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Marshall, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly distributed power supplies are proposed as a basis for current difficulties with hypervelocity railgun power-supply compactness. This distributed power supply configuration reduces rail-to-rail voltage behind the main armature, thereby reducing the tendency for secondary armature current formation; secondary current elimination is essential for achieving the efficiencies associated with muzzle velocity above 6 km/sec. Attention is given to analytical and experimental results for two distributed energy storage schemes.

  4. Electron cloud buildup driving spontaneous vertical instabilities of stored beams in the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 2016 run, an anomalous beam instability was systematically observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC. Its main characteristic was that it spontaneously appeared after beams had been stored for several hours in collision at 6.5 TeV to provide data for the experiments, despite large chromaticity values and high strength of the Landau-damping octupole magnet. The instability exhibited several features characteristic of those induced by the electron cloud (EC. Indeed, when LHC operates with 25 ns bunch spacing, an EC builds up in a large fraction of the beam chambers, as revealed by several independent indicators. Numerical simulations have been carried out in order to investigate the role of the EC in the observed instabilities. It has been found that the beam intensity decay is unfavorable for the beam stability when LHC operates in a strong EC regime.

  5. New kinds of energy-storing building composite PCMs for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biçer, Alper; Sarı, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, 10 new kinds of BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid xylitol pentalaurate (XPL) and xylitol pentamyristate (XPM) esters into gypsum, cement, diatomite, perlite and vermiculite. DSC results showed that the melting temperatures and energy storage capacities of the prepared BCPCMs are in range of about 40–55 °C and 31–126 J/g, respectively. TG investigations and thermal cycling test showed that the BCPCMs had good thermal endurance and thermal reliability. It can be also concluded that among the prepared 10 kinds materials, especially the BCPCMs including perlite, vermiculite, diatomite were found to better candidates for thermal energy storage applications in buildings due to the fact that they have relatively high heat storage ability. Highlights: ► New kinds BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid XPL and XPM esters with some building materials. ► The BCPCMs had suitable melting temperatures and energy storage capacities. ► Especially, the BCPCMs including perlite, vermiculite, diatomite were found to better candidates for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: Energy storing-composite phase change materials (PCMs) are significant means of thermal energy storage in buildings. Although several building composite PCMs (BCPCMs) have been developed in recent years, the additional investigations are still required to enrich the diversity of BCPCMs for solar heating and energy conservation applications in buildings. For this purpose, the present work is focused the preparation, characterization and determination of 10 new kinds of BCPCMs. The BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid xylitol pentalaurate (XPL) and xylitol pentamyristate (XPM) esters with gypsum, cement, diatomite, perlite and vermiculite as supporting matrices. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the ester compounds were adsorbed uniformly into the building materials due to capillary forces

  6. Differential calorimeter and temperature controller for stored energy measurements in irradiated alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Martinez, L.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of a simple temperature-controlled differential calorimeter are presented. This system allows to measure radiation-induced stored energy in insulators, above room temperature with a differential thermal analysis method. With platelets of KC1 single crystals, the base lines obtained for T 2 T 1 (with T 2 : irradiated sample temperature and T 1 : reference sample temperature) show a smooth drift less of 0,2 degree centigree in the interval from 25 to 400 degree centigree. The discrepancy between two consecutive base lines is less than ± 0,02 degree centigree which implies a calorimeter sensitivity of about ±0,004 cal/g. This sensitivity allows to measure stored energy release in samples with a color center concentration low enough to be directly measured with a spectrophotometer so that a search for correlations among the features of the stored energy spectrum and the color center annealing can be made. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Analysis of Products Demand on E.U. Markets Based on Commerce Activity of Large Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ghita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Retail in large store-chains extended in well-developed countries. 465 millions inhabitants express their supply on their markets; between 2000 and 2005 sales values were increasing; the increase-sources were the promotional prices, as well as the European buyers' availability to respond to the supply's diversity. After the political events that happened after 1989, in Romania appeared large hypermarket-chains and supermarket-chains, most of them being transnational companies that developed their own business in our country. Due to these commercial-units, the retail-value in Romania grew in a spectacular way, with more than 85% during 2000-2005 period, although from the retail-value per inhabitant point of view, we are far behind other European countries' level. The number of retail-commercial units, as well as the sales-purchasing value in these units characterizes the commercial sector situation in a country. For a comparative analysis at territorial level, for different European Union's countries, we will realize a multicriterial hierarchy, based on the two statistical indicators previously mentioned, and on other two general macroeconomic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP per inhabitant and unemployment-rate. The main European Union's countries hierarchy based on the four criteria was realized by two statistical methods: the ranks' method and the relative-distance method from the maximum performance unit.

  8. Energy stores are not altered by long-term partial sleep deprivation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan T Harbison

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent human studies reveal a widespread association between short sleep and obesity. Two hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, might explain this association. First, genetic factors that reduce endogenous sleep times might also impact energy stores, an assertion that we confirmed in a previous study. Second, metabolism may be altered by chronic partial sleep deprivation. Here we address the second assertion by measuring the impact of long-term partial sleep deprivation on energy stores using Drosophila as a model. We subjected flies to long-term partial sleep deprivation via two different methods: a mechanical stimulus and a light stimulus. We then measured whole-body triglycerides and glycogen, two important sources of energy for the fly, and compared them to un-stimulated controls. We also measured changes in energy stores in response to a random circadian clock shift. Sex and line-dependent alterations in glycogen and/or triglyceride levels occurred in response to the circadian clock shift and in flies subjected to a single night of sleep deprivation using light. Thus, consistent with previous studies, our findings suggest that acute sleep loss and changes to the circadian clock can alter metabolism. Significant changes in energy stores were also observed when flies were subjected to chronic sleep loss via the mechanical stimulus, although not the light stimulus. Interestingly, mechanical stimulation resulted in the same change in energy stores even when it was not associated with sleep deprivation, suggesting that the changes are caused by stress rather than sleep loss. These findings emphasize the importance of taking stress into account when evaluating the relationship between sleep loss and metabolism.

  9. Stored Energy of Coupled Electric and Magnetic Currents and the Lower Bound on Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2015-01-01

    —New expressions for the stored energy and radiated power of an arbitrary combination of electric and magnetic currents in free space are presented. These expressions enable the calculation of the fundamental lower bound on Q for arbitraryshaped electrically small antennas of finite size....

  10. Power-to-Gas: storing surplus electrical energy. A design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, O.S.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Veneman, Rens; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a conceptual design of a Power-to-Gas (PtG) process for storing electrical energy in form of synthetic natural gas (SNG) of gas grid quality H is presented. The combination with a conventional lignite fired power plant (LPP) was investigated for possible improvement of its economic

  11. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  12. Low stored energy 100 kV regulator for ion sources at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.G.; Haffner, R.L.; Ingalls, W.B.; Meyer, B.J.; Stelzer, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To minimize accelerating column damage caused by uncontrolled energy release during arc-downs, it is desirable to minimize the available stored electrical energy. For the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) H - ion sources, the stored energy includes, in addition to the charge in the power supply output capacitance, the charge on the electronics racks. They are supported and insulated from ground by PVC pipe and have a capacitance to ground of approximately 900 pf. In 1988 (LANSCE) personnel designed a high-voltage current source using a low-stored-energy power supply and planar triode with the goal of eliminating uncontrolled release of charge stored in the power supply. Construction and testing were performed intermittently as resources permitted until 1993. When work on the Short Pulse Spallation Source (SPSS) started on the LANSCE Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS) it was recognized that a higher current power supply would be needed and work resumed on the regulator circuitry. A 120 kV power supply having low output capacitance, and a planar triode have been used to supply 40 mA, 120 Hz, 12% duty-factor current for the ISTS beam. The triode's cathode current is controlled by circuitry operating both at power-supply voltage level and at ground level via a fiber optic link. Voltage droop is approximately 600 V during the 1 ms beam pulse. The authors present the status of the regulator and its special challenges

  13. Fascicles and the interfascicular matrix show decreased fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2017-07-01

    Tendon is composed of rope-like fascicles bound together by interfascicular matrix (IFM). The IFM is critical for the function of energy storing tendons, facilitating sliding between fascicles to allow these tendons to cyclically stretch and recoil. This capacity is required to a lesser degree in positional tendons. We have previously demonstrated that both fascicles and IFM in energy storing tendons have superior fatigue resistance compared with positional tendons, but the effect of ageing on the fatigue properties of these different tendon subunits has not been determined. Energy storing tendons become more injury-prone with ageing, indicating reduced fatigue resistance, hence we tested the hypothesis that the decline in fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons would be more pronounced in the IFM than in fascicles. We further hypothesised that tendon subunit fatigue resistance would not alter with ageing in positional tendons. Fascicles and IFM from young and old energy storing and positional tendons were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing until failure, and mechanical properties were calculated. The results show that both IFM and fascicles from the SDFT exhibit a similar magnitude of reduced fatigue life with ageing. By contrast, the fatigue life of positional tendon subunits was unaffected by ageing. The age-related decline in fatigue life of tendon subunits in energy storing tendons is likely to contribute to the increased risk of injury in aged tendons. Full understanding of the mechanisms resulting in this reduced fatigue life will aid in the development of treatments and interventions to prevent age-related tendinopathy. Understanding the effect of ageing on tendon-structure function relationships is crucial for the development of effective preventative measures and treatments for age-related tendon injury. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the fatigue resistance of the interfascicular matrix decreases with ageing in energy

  14. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  15. Possible means to manage and store the BKAB RPV and other Swedish large radioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    calculations show that it is fully acceptable for managing RPVs as single pieces, including RVIs, from Barsebaeck to the final disposal at the SFR or SFL facilities. Regarding nuclear waste, an inventory must be drawn of all nuclear waste within the site of a facility. All nuclear waste that is handled, processed, stored or disposed of at the facility must be confined safely. SKB and the nuclear industry have intensified their efforts to review various options for handling and disposal of large components in order to bring substantial savings not only in dismantling time, but also in dose uptakes for the decommissioning staff. As Barsebaeck NPP, the Swedish nuclear industry and SKB have agreed to present a proposal to the SKB Management Board in early 2010 with a view to extending tunnels and caverns in the SFR facility and preparing for ability to manage whole RPVs. The Ringhals NPPs are owned by Vattenfall AB, with 3 PWRs and 1 BWR. SGs were replaced in two of the PWRs (three from each unit), in 1989 and 1995. Retired SGs are considered as waste, which normally is stored temporarily on site pending transport for final disposal or off-site treatment. The Ringhals SGs were replaced in two of the PWRs (three from each unit), in 1989 and 1995. Retired SGs are considered as waste, which normally is stored temporarily on site pending transport for final disposal or off-site treatment. Each SG weighs about 310 t and measures 21 m in length by 5.5 m in diameter; it requires a storage volume of 400 m3. With a volume reduction over 90 per cent, less than 40 m3 will be stored at the SFR or SFL Facility for short-lived or long-lived waste, respectively. Three SGs have been treated in Studsvik facilities from 2006 to 2009. Three other SGs have been delivered to Studsvik with a roll-on/roll-off ship M/S Electron with the capability to take all three SGs on board. Those three SGs have been treated since 2010. Other large components have been sent to Studsvik as whole pieces for scrap

  16. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkali halides. Stored energy, thermoluminiscence and colouration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminiscence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminiscence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KCl samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose. Capacity of alkali halides to sotore energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. It appears that most of the observed release is not related to annealing processes of the radiation induced anion Frenkel pairs. The existence of damage in the cation sublattice with which this energy release might be related is considered. (auth.)

  17. Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a large store

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available duration ? ERU forces + store weight release causes aircraft ?g-jump? ? Period of ERU force is short enough to excite wing vibration modes ? ERU force/time & front/back force balance important for determining store separation rates from aircraft... ? Constrained motion in other DOF ? Used mass, inertias, CG of aircraft without Katleho ? Used trimmed forces of aircraft with Katleho ? Assumes delay in pilot response to g-jump ? CSIR 2011 Slide 14 Aircraft rigid accelerations Aircraft mass...

  18. A Dynamic Non Energy Storing Guidance Constraint with Motion Redirection for Robot Assisted Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    move during the operation. Robot -assisted beating heart surgery is an example of procedures that can benefit from dynamic constraints. Their...A Dynamic Non-Energy-Storing Guidance Constraint with Motion Redirection for Robot -Assisted Surgery Nima Enayati, Eva C. Alves Costa, Giancarlo...Momi, and G. Ferrigno, “Haptics in Robot -Assisted Surgery : Challenges and Benefits,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng., 2016. [2] L. B. Rosenberg, “Virtual

  19. Regulatory taxation of large energy users reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannaerts, H.

    2002-01-01

    Energy policy in the Netherlands with respect to the basic industries has been restrained. National energy taxation is considered to be unsuitable for large energy users because of its international reallocation effects. However, alternative measures such as energy restrictions and marginal taxation induce low average and high marginal energy costs and consequently generate small displacement effects, together with large energy savings. A system of tradable permits not only has the advantage of low average and high marginal costs, but also keeps one firm from investing in relatively expensive energy-saving options while other firms refrain from exploiting their relatively cheap saving options

  20. Evaluating the release of a large store from the BAE Hawk Mk120

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available -Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code where applicable to calculate the carriage loads; calculating the rigid and flexible structural dynamic responses from the ejection forces and using a three-component look-up table to model the loads on the store in free...

  1. PCM/wood composite to store thermal energy in passive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Vecstaudza, J.; Bajare, D.; Fernandez, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The development of new materials to store thermal energy in a passive building system is a must to improve the thermal efficiency by thermal-regulating the indoor temperatures. This fact will deal with the reduction of the gap between energy supply and energy demand to achieve thermal comfort in building indoors. The aim of this work was to test properties of novel PCM/wood composite materials developed at Riga Technical University. Impregnation of PCM (phase change material) in wood increases its thermal mass and regulates temperature fluctuations during day and night. The PCM used are paraffin waxes (RT-21 and RT-27 from Rubitherm) and the wood used was black alder, the most common wood in Latvia. The PCM distribution inside wood sample has been studied as well as its thermophysical, mechanical and fire reaction properties. Developed composite materials are promising in the field of energy saving in buildings.

  2. SIMULATION RESULTS OF RUNNING THE AGS MMPS, BY STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARNERIS, I.

    2006-09-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to equivalent maximum proton energy of 29 GeV. The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-go00 Volts. The peak magnet power is 49.5 Mwatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The motor is rated at 9 MW, input voltage 3 phase 13.8 KV 60 Hz. The generator is rated at 50 MVA its output voltage is 3 phase 7500 Volts. Thus the peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The rotor changes speed by about +/-2.5% of its nominal speed of 1200 Revolutions per Minute. The reason the power supply is powered by the Generator is that the local power company (LIPA) can not sustain power swings of +/- 50 MW in 0.5 sec if the power supply were to be interfaced directly with the AC lines. The Motor Generator is about 45 years old and Siemens is not manufacturing similar machines in the future. As a result we are looking at different ways of storing energy and being able to utilize it for our application. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. The simulation program used is called PSIM Version 6.1. The control system of the power supply will also be presented. The average power from LIPA into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  3. Stored Energy and Quality Factor of Spherical Wave Functions–in Relation to Spherical Antennas With Material Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels V.; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    wave, the excitation coefficients for the internal and external spherical waves, the radiated power, the internal and external stored electric and magnetic energies, the difference of total electric and total magnetic energy, the cavity and radiating resonance conditions, and the quality factor. We...... investigate the variation of the internal/external and electric/magnetic stored energies with the electrical size of the antenna to study their relative significance for the quality factor....

  4. Food at checkouts in non-food stores: a cross-sectional study of a large indoor shopping mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James; Kamp, Erin; White, Martin; Adams, Jean; Sowden, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the display of food at non-food store checkouts; and to classify foods by type and nutrient content, presence of price promotions and whether food was at child height. Cross-sectional survey of checkout displays at non-food stores. Foods were classified as 'less healthy' or healthier using the UK Food Standards Agency's Nutrient Profile Model. Written price promotions were recorded. Child height was defined as the sight line of an 11-year-old approximated from UK growth charts. A large indoor shopping mall, Gateshead, UK, February-March 2014. Two hundred and five out of 219 non-food stores in the shopping mall directory which were open for trading. Thirty-two (15·6%) of 205 non-food stores displayed food at the checkout. All displayed less healthy foods, and fourteen (43·8%) had healthier foods. Overall, 5911 checkout foods were identified. Of these, 4763 (80·6%) were 'less healthy'. No fruits, vegetables, nuts or seeds were found. Of 4763 less healthy foods displayed, 195 (4·1%) were subject to price promotions, compared with twelve of 1148 (1·0%) healthier foods (χ 2(df=1)=25·4, P<0·0001). There was no difference in the proportion of less healthy (95·1%) and healthier (96·2%) foods displayed at child height. Almost one-sixth of non-food stores displayed checkout food, the majority of which was 'less healthy' and displayed at child height. Less healthy food was more likely to be subject to a written price promotion than healthier food. Further research into the drivers and consequences of checkout food in non-food stores is needed. Public health regulation may be warranted.

  5. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part I: minimum stored energy (MSE) current density map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    An optimal current density map is crucial in magnet design to provide the initial values within search spaces in an optimization process for determining the final coil arrangement of the magnet. A strategy for obtaining globally optimal current density maps for the purpose of designing magnets with coaxial cylindrical coils in which the stored energy is minimized within a constrained domain is outlined. The current density maps obtained utilising the proposed method suggests that peak current densities occur around the perimeter of the magnet domain, where the adjacent peaks have alternating current directions for the most compact designs. As the dimensions of the domain are increased, the current density maps yield traditional magnet designs of positive current alone. These unique current density maps are obtained by minimizing the stored magnetic energy cost function and therefore suggest magnet coil designs of minimal system energy. Current density maps are provided for a number of different domain arrangements to illustrate the flexibility of the method and the quality of the achievable designs.

  6. Fuzzy droop control loops adjustment for stored energy balance in distributed energy storage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    system, in order to smooth the variations at the prime energy generator. In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in order to balance the state of charge of distributed energy storage systems in lowvoltage three phase AC microgrid. The proposed method weights the action...

  7. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Sze, Jia Yin; Balamurugan, Nagarajan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of energy storage in cooling applications. Cold energy storage technologies addressed are: Li-Ion batteries (Li-Ion EES), sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES); phase change material (PCM TES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and liquid air energy storage (LAES). Batteries and CAES are electrical storage systems which run the cooling systems; SHTES and PCM TES are thermal storage systems which directly store cold energy; LAES is assessed as a hybrid storage system which provides both electricity (for cooling) and cold energy. A hybrid quantitative-qualitative comparison is presented. Quantitative comparison was investigated for different sizes of daily cooling energy demand and three different tariff scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was performed to show the suitability of the different storage systems at different scales. Three parameters were used (Pay-back period, Savings-per-energy-unit and levelized-cost-of-energy) to analyze and compare the different scenarios. The qualitative analysis was based on five comparison criteria (Complexity, Technology Readiness Level, Sustainability, Flexibility and Safety). Results showed the importance of weighing the pros and cons of each technology to select a suitable cold energy storage system. Techno-economic analysis highlighted the fundamental role of tariff scenario: a greater difference between peak and off-peak electricity tariff leads to a shorter payback period of each technology. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation of energy storage solutions for cooling applications. • Comparison between five energy storage (EES, SHTES, PCM, CAES, LAES) is performed. • Qualitative and quantitative performance parameters were used for the analysis. • LAES/PCM can be valid alternatives to more established technologies EES, SHTES, CAES. • Tariffs, price arbitrage and investment cost play a key role in energy storage spread.

  8. Simultaneous Feedback Control of Plasma Rotation and Stored Energy on the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoville, J.T.; Ferron, J.R.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major modifications made to the DIII-D tokamak during the 2005 Long Torus Opening was the rotation of one of the four two-source neutral beam injection systems. Prior to this modification, all beams injected power with a component in the same direction as the usual plasma current ('' co-injection ''). Starting in early 2006, two of the seven beams inject with a component in the opposite direction ('' counter-injection ''). This new capability allows, for the first time, a partial decoupling of the injected energy and momentum during neutral beam heating experiments. An immediate advantage of mixed co- and counter-injection beams is the capability to control the plasma rotation velocity. High beta plasmas can now be studied over a wide range of the plasma rotation velocity. The stabilizing effect of rotation on the resistive wall mode (RWM), for example, can be directly compared to the stabilization achieved by external feedback coils. This is an advantage over previous techniques to control plasma rotation, such as magnetic braking, which have had only limited success. We describe development and implementation of a model-based control algorithm for simultaneous regulation of plasma rotation and beta. The model includes the two relevant plasma states (plasma rotation and stored energy), and describes the dynamic effects of the relevant actuators on those states. The actuators include the applied beam torque and beam power, which depend on the amount of co and counter-injected beams. Implementation of the model-based control within the plasma control system (PCS) [B.G. Penaflor, et al, '' Current Status of DIII-D Plasma Control System Computer Upgrades,'' Fusion Eng. and Design 71 (2004) 47] requires real-time measurements of the plasma rotation, obtained from the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic, and stored energy calculated by the real-time EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. Details of this model and its development, and a comparison with

  9. The deployment of a large scale object store at the RAL Tier-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, A.; Johnson, I.; Adams, J.; Canning, B.; Vasilakakos, G.; Packer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Since 2014, the RAL Tier-1 has been working on deploying a Ceph backed object store. The aim is to replace Castor for disk-only storage. This new service must be scalable to meet the data demands of the LHC to 2020 and beyond. As well as offering access protocols the LHC experiments currently use, it must also provide industry standard access protocols. In order to keep costs down the service must use erasure coding rather than replication to ensure data reliability. This paper will present details of the storage service setup, which has been named Echo, as well as the experience gained from running it. The RAL Tier-1 has also been developing XrootD and GridFTP plugins for Ceph. Both plugins are built on top of the same libraries that write striped data into Ceph and therefore data written by one protocol will be accessible by the other. In the long term we hope the LHC experiments will migrate to industry standard protocols, therefore these plugins will only provide the features needed by the LHC experiments. This paper will report on the development and testing of these plugins.

  10. Low frequency noise from large wind turbines - updated 2011; Lavfrekvent stoej fra store vindmoeller - opdateret 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.; Sejer Pedersen, C.; Pedersen, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    The study analyzed measurements of noise from 65 wind turbines, 25 large turbines (2.3 to 3.6 MW) and 40 small ones (up to 2 MW). The large mills (2.3 to 3.6 MW) emit relatively more low frequency noise than the small ones (up to 2 MW). The difference is statistically significant for the frequency range 63-250 Hz, regardless of whether calculations are performed on all the large mills or only on new wind turbines. There are no significant differences between prototype turbines and the new mills. Because of wind noise in the measurements of the small mills, it is not possible to determine whether the difference between small and large turbines continues further down in frequency. Looking at the A-weighted sound pressure in relevant neighbor distances, the lower frequencies constitute an essential part of the noise from the large mills, and there is no doubt that the low frequency noise is both audible and annoying. When the total A-weighted sound pressure level is the same, there will on average be about 3 dB more low frequency noise from large turbines than from small ones. At large distances the noise character becomes yet more low frequency because atmospheric absorption reduces the high frequencies more than the low frequencies. Depending on the sound insulation the low frequency noise can also be annoying indoors. If the total A-weighted sound pressure level outdoors is 44 dB, the low frequency noise can be heard indoors in all the houses and for all the large turbines. The sound pressure level will in many cases exceed the indoor limit for evening night at 20 dB. (ln)

  11. Principal considerations in large energy-storage capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Capacitor banks storing one or more megajoules and costing more than one million dollars have unique problems not often found in smaller systems. Two large banks, Scyllac at Los Alamos and Shiva at Livermore, are used as models of large, complex systems. Scyllac is a 10-MJ, 60-kV theta-pinch system while Shiva is a 20-MJ, 20-kV energy system for laser flash lamps. A number of design principles are emphasized for expediting the design and construction of large banks. The sensitive features of the charge system, the storage system layout, the switching system, the transmission system, and the design of the principal bank components are presented. Project management and planning must involve a PERT chart with certain common features for all the activities. The importance of the budget is emphasized

  12. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.P.; Diyankov, V.S.; Kormilitsin, A.I.; Lavrent'ev, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10 11 W, pulse duration of 10 -3 to 10 -6 s, and time interval between them 10 -7 to 10 -5 s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs

  13. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V P; Diyankov, V S; Kormilitsin, A I; Lavrent` ev, B N [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10{sup 11} W, pulse duration of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} s, and time interval between them 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Changes in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-12-01

    Low-temperature storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low temperature, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-temperature. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were changed. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, changes in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast liberation of energy stored using superconductors; Liberation rapide d'energie stockee au moyen de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, G; Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a rapid description of the circumstances in which they first thought of using superconducting materials for the storage and liberation of energy, the authors examine, in comparison to condensers, the energy densities which can thus be stored, the methods used for introducing this energy into the superconducting circuit and for trapping it, and the law governing the discharge of this energy into a purely dissipative impedance. This leads to a derivation of the expression for the energy yield which depends on the characteristics of the switch used for opening the superconducting circuit. An experimental study has been made of a superconducting switch with a view to understanding the various parameters. As a result of this analysis, transitions of this switch, over the whole of its mass, were obtained for periods of a few microseconds, and energy yields close to unity were obtained. The obtention of fast discharges is now no longer a technological problem. (authors) [French] Rappelant tres brievement les circonstances dans lesquelles ont pris naissance leurs premieres idees d'utilisation des materiaux supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la liberation d'energie les auteurs examinent, par rapport aux condensateurs, les densites d'energie que l'on peut ainsi stocker, les methodes utilisables pour introduire cette energie dans le circuit supraconducteur et pour la pieger, la loi de decharge de cette energie dans une impedance purement dissipative. Ceci conduit a l'expression du rendement en energie. Ce rendement depend des caracteristiques de l'interrupteur qui sert a ouvrir le circuit supraconducteur. Le cas de l'interrupteur supraconducteur a ete analyse experimentalement de facon a en degager les differents parametres. La suite de cette analyse, des transitions de l'interrupteur, dans la totalite de sa masse, ont ete obtenues dans des temps de quelques microsecondes permettant des rendements en energie se rapprochant de l'unite. L'obtention de decharges rapides

  16. Plastic incompatibility stresses and stored elastic energy in plastically deformed copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczmanski, A. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: baczman@ftj.agh.edu.pl; Hfaiedh, N.; Francois, M. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 11 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Wierzbanowski, K. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-02-15

    The X-ray diffraction method and theoretical model of elastoplastic deformation were used to examine the residual stresses in polycrystalline copper. To this end, the {l_brace}2 2 0{r_brace} strain pole figures were determined for samples subjected to different magnitudes of tensile deformation. Using diffraction data and the self-consistent model, the tensor of plastic incompatibility stress was found for each orientation of a polycrystalline grain. Crystallographic textures, macroscopic and second-order residual stresses were considered in the analysis. As a result, the distributions of elastic stored energy and von Mises equivalent stress were presented in Euler space and correlated with the preferred orientations of grains. Moreover, using the model prediction, the variation of the critical resolved shear stress with grain orientation was determined.

  17. Is there a limitation to the stored beam energy for 2011 and beyond?

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2011-01-01

    The machine protection systems have been designed to ultimately operate with beams of a stored energy of 360MJ. This presentation will address if there is an intermediate limit and what upgrades are required to permit operation with 360MJ. A failure in one of the protection systems (BLM, BIC, LBDS, ...) could have catastrophic consequences for LHC. Considering the operational experience, the most critical failure modes are reviewed, their probability is estimated and methods for mitigation are discussed. Ideas for reducing the risk include additional interlocks (DIDT interlock, abort gap cleaning/monitoring, fast BLMs, additional BPMs as HW interlock, aperture measurements,...), operational procedures and upgrades of hardware systems. There are also examples when the beams should NOT be dumped immediately.

  18. Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, P V; Bosco, C

    1978-01-01

    An alternating cycle of eccentric-concentric contractions in locomotion represents a sequence when storage and utilization of elastic energy takes place. It is possible that this storage capacity and its utilization depends on the imposed stretch loads in activated muscles, and that sex differences may be present in these phenomena. To investigate these assumed differences, subjects from both sexes and of good physical condition performed vertical jumps on the force-platform from the following experimental conditions: squatting jump (SJ) from a static starting position; counter-movement jump (CMJ) from a free standing position and with a preparatory counter-movement; drop jumps (DJ) from the various heights (20 to 100 cm) on to the platform followed immediately by a vertical jump. In all subjects the SJ, in which condition no appreciable storage of elastic energy takes place, produced the lowest height of rise of the whole body center of gravity (C.G.). The stretch load (drop height) influenced the performance so that height of rise of C. of G. increased when the drop height increased from 26 up to 62 cm (males) and from 20 to 50 cm (females). In all jumping conditions the men jumped higher than the women. However, examination of the utilization of elastic energy indicated that in CMJ the female subjects were able to utilize most (congruent to 90%) of the energy produced in the prestretching phase. Similarly, in DJ the overall change in positive energy over SJ condition was higher in women as compared to men. Thus the results suggest that although the leg extensor muscles of the men subjects could sustain much higher stretch loads, the females may be able to utilize a greater portion of the stored elastic energy in jumping activities.

  19. [Study on freshness evaluation of ice-stored large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Hua; Hou, Qiao-Juan; Wang, Xi-Chang; Dong, Ruo-Yan; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used in this experiment to evaluate the freshness of ice-stored large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) during different storage periods. And the TVB-N was used as an index to evaluate the freshness. Through comparing the correlation coefficent and standard deviations of calibration set and validation set of models established by singly and combined using of different pretreatment methods, different modeling methods and different wavelength region, the best TVB-N models of ice-stored large yellow croaker sold in the market were established to predict the freshness quickly. According to the research, the model shows that the best performance could be established by using the normalization by closure (Ncl) with 1st derivative (Dbl) and normalization to unit length (Nle) with 1st derivative as the pretreated method and partial least square (PLS) as the modeling method combined with choosing the wavelength region of 5 000-7 144, and 7 404-10 000 cm(-1). The calibration model gave the correlation coefficient of 0.992, with a standard error of calibration of 1.045 and the validation model gave the correlation coefficient of 0.999, with a standard error of prediction of 0.990. This experiment attempted to combine several pretreatment methods and choose the best wavelength region, which has got a good result. It could have a good prospective application of freshness detection and quality evaluation of large yellow croaker in the market.

  20. Green energy and large commercial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capage, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties faced in selling green energy to large commercial users are reviewed in this article. Four steps are identified in helping energy service suppliers (ESP) focus on opportunities for maximising revenue, namely, targeting the best prospects, identifying the right contact person, appealing to the primary contact, and helping contacts to make the sale internally. Companies with environmentally conscious customers and well defined environmental policies and led by those that promote environmental stewardship are recognised as commercial customers most likely to sign a deal for green energy

  1. Efficient reduction and modularization for large fault trees stored by pages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shanqi; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jiaqun; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New fault tree pre-processing methods used in RiskA are presented. • Including the fault tree paging storage, simplification and modularization. • For getting MCS for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and events. • Reduce computer resources needs (RAM) and improve computation speed. - Abstract: Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), an indispensable tool used in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been used throughout the commercial nuclear power industry for safety and reliability analyses. However, large fault tree analysis, such as those used in nuclear power plant requires significant computer resources, which makes the analysis of PRA model inefficient and time consuming. This paper describes a fault tree pre-processing method used in the reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA that is capable of generating minimal cutsets for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and basic events. The novel feature of this method is not only that Boolean reduction rules are used but also that a new objective of simplification is proposed. Moreover, since the method aims to find more fault tree modules by the linear-time algorithm, it can optimize fault tree modularization, which further reduces the computational time of large fault tree analysis.

  2. Regulation of Energy Stores and Feeding by Neuronal and Peripheral CREB Activity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Koichi; Zhao, LiJuan; Shenton, Christopher; Iijima-Ando, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    The cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB functions in adipose tissue and liver to regulate glycogen and lipid metabolism in mammals. While Drosophila has a homolog of mammalian CREB, dCREB2, its role in energy metabolism is not fully understood. Using tissue-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (DN-CREB), we have examined the effect of blocking CREB activity in neurons and in the fat body, the primary energy storage depot with functions of adipose tissue and the liver in flies, on energy balance, stress resistance and feeding behavior. We found that disruption of CREB function in neurons reduced glycogen and lipid stores and increased sensitivity to starvation. Expression of DN-CREB in the fat body also reduced glycogen levels, while it did not affect starvation sensitivity, presumably due to increased lipid levels in these flies. Interestingly, blocking CREB activity in the fat body increased food intake. These flies did not show a significant change in overall body size, suggesting that disruption of CREB activity in the fat body caused an obese-like phenotype. Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and β-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body reduced CRE-mediated transcription in flies. This study demonstrates that CREB activity in either neuronal or peripheral tissues regulates energy balance in Drosophila, and that the key signaling pathway regulating CREB activity in peripheral tissue is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:20041126

  3. Large solid angle detectors (low energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with large solid angle detectors used in low energy experiments (mainly in Nuclear Physics). The reasons for using such detectors are discussed, and several basic principles of their design are presented. Finally, two examples of data analysis from such detectors are given [fr

  4. Sampling methodology and characterization of resins, stored in large tanks; Metodologia de muestreo y caracterizacion de resinas almacenadas en tanques de grandes dimensiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Sanchez Fernandez, L.; Fenoy Cruz, A.; Sanchez Fernandez, R.

    2013-07-01

    Ion exchange resins, which are have been stored in various tanks of installation, have been generated during the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant of Kozloduy (Bulgaria). Before putting them in containers, the resins should be characterized physically, chemically and radiologically to ensure they comply with the relevant criteria. The particularity of this project is that the resins are stored in large tanks. (Author)

  5. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  6. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  7. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3–4 g Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  8. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, James L

    2005-12-13

    Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria), polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3-4 g) Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  10. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  11. Invited paper: distributed energy store railgun system experimental results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics (CEM-UT) has constructed a distributed energy store railgun facility. The facility contains a 33-in. railgun with four current feed connection points and a 142-in. railgun with connections for all ten of the capacitor bank modules with pulse forming inductors that are used to power the railguns. Each of the ten capacitor bank modules can supply up to 200 kA with a maximum energy of 60 kJ. Each capacitor bank is turned on as the projectile moves down the bore of the gun as detected by magnetic pickup coils. Designed to achieve velocities in excess of 10 kmats, the guns are accelerating 3/8-in. Lexan cubes weighing between 0.5 and 1.0 g. This system has been operated at over 500 kA for repeated shots from zero initial velocity or a single set of rails. A theoretical analysis of the DES railgun system has been made. This includes a two-dimensional current diffusion analysis which has resulted in a simple approximate formula for rail resistance. The theoretical model is a two-dimensional steady state solution. The current feed points to the rails move along the rails with the same velocity as the armature. This model is reasonably approximated by a DES railgun and allows the use of steady state solution techniques. The approximate formula for the rail resistance has been used to predict maximum allowable current levels per unit height of the rails. Current levels greater than 50% of the predicted limits have been tested in the railguns. A simple modeling technique for determining the driving inductance of a railgun is presented

  12. Energy expenditure in people with transtibial amputation walking with crossover and energy storing prosthetic feet: A randomized within-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cody L; Kramer, Patricia A; Morgan, Sara J; Halsne, Elizabeth G; Cheever, Sarah M; Hafner, Brian J

    2018-05-01

    Energy storing feet are unable to reduce the energy required for normal locomotion among people with transtibial amputation. Crossover feet, which incorporate aspects of energy storing and running specific feet, are designed to maximize energy return while providing stability for everyday activities. Do crossover prosthetic feet reduce the energy expenditure of walking across a range of speeds, when compared with energy storing feet among people with transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes? A randomized within-subject study was conducted with a volunteer sample of twenty-seven adults with unilateral transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes. Participants were fit with two prostheses. One had an energy storing foot (Össur Variflex) and the other a crossover foot (Össur Cheetah Xplore). Other components, including sockets, suspension, and interface were standardized. Energy expenditure was measured with a portable respirometer (Cosmed K4b2) while participants walked on a treadmill at self-selected slow, comfortable, and fast speeds with each prosthesis. Gross oxygen consumption rates (VO 2  ml/min) were compared between foot conditions. Energy storing feet were used as the baseline condition because they are used by most people with a lower limb prosthesis. Analyses were performed to identify people who may benefit from transition to crossover feet. On average, participants had lower oxygen consumption in the crossover foot condition compared to the energy storing foot condition at each self-selected walking speed, but this difference was not statistically significant. Participants with farther six-minute walk test distances, higher daily step counts, and higher Medicare Functional Classification Levels at baseline were more likely to use less energy in the crossover foot. Crossover feet may be most beneficial for people with higher activity levels and physical fitness. Further research is needed to examine the effect of crossover feet on

  13. The ability to store energy in pea protein gels is set by network dimensions smaller than 50 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify which length scales set the ability to elastically store energy in pea protein network structures. Various network structures were obtained frompea proteins by varying the pH and salt conditions during gel formation. The coarseness of the network structure

  14. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. © 2016 APJPH.

  15. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors in order to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  16. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  17. Simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in a tree due to an explosive seed dispersal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Eduardo; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    There are different forms to introduce/illustrate the energy concepts for the basic physics students. The explosive seed dispersal mechanism found in a variety of trees could be one of them. Sibipiruna trees carry out fruits (pods) who show such an explosive mechanism. During the explosion, the pods throw out seeds several meters away. In this manuscript we show simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in the Sibipiruna tree due to such a process. Two different physics approaches were used to carry out this study: by monitoring indoor and in situ the explosive seed dispersal mechanism and by measuring the elastic constant of the pod shell. An energy of the order of kJ was found to be stored in a single tree due to such an explosive mechanism.

  18. The underground as a storage facility. Modelling of nuclear waste repositories and aquifer thermal energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, T.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis, which consists of eleven papers and reports, deals with nuclear waste repositories in solid rock and with aquifer thermal energy storage systems. All these storage systems induce multidimensional, time-variable thermo-hydro-elastic processes in the ground in and around the storage region. The partial differential equations that govern the physical processes are solved analytically in some cases, and in other cases numerical models are developed. Many methods of classical mathematical physics are employed for the solution. The analytical approach provides a deeper physical understanding of the processes and their interactions. At large depths, the salinity of groundwater, and hence its density, often increases downwards. In the first study, the upward buoyancy flow of groundwater in fracture planes due to heat release from the nuclear waste is studied considering the added effect of a salt gradient. The aim of the study is to determine the natural barrier effect caused by the salt. A simple formula for the largest upward displacement from the repository is derived. There may be a strong natural barrier, which is independent of fracture permeabilities. In two papers, the temperature field in rock due to a large rectangular grid of heat-releasing canisters containing nuclear waste is studied. The solution is by superposition divided into different parts. There is a global temperature field due to the large rectangular canister area, while a local field accounts for the remaining heat source problem. A complete analytical solution is presented. In the next set of papers, the thermoelastic response from the rectangular field of nuclear waste is analysed. Another study concerns the use of heat as a tracer to investigate flow in a fracture plane. Two papers deal with the thermohydraulic evaluations of two aquifer thermal energy storage projects in southern Sweden. Both plants have been successfully simulated using models based on conformal flow and entropy

  19. Detection and characterisation of Yersinia enterocolitica strains in cold-stored carcasses of large game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Socha, Piotr; Szweda, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen. The aim of the present study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y.enterocolitica strains isolated from three different anatomical regions of cold-stored carcasses of large game animals intended for human consumption. Y.enterocolitica strains were found in 12/20 (60%) of the roe deer carcasses examined, 7/16 (43.8%) of red deer carcasses and 11/20 (55%) of wild boar carcasses. Of the 52 Y.enterocolitica strains, 19 were isolated from the perineum, followed by 17 strains from the peritoneum of the longissimus dorsi muscle and 16 from the tonsils. Only one strain was isolated from warm culture. Bioserotype 1A/NI was the most commonly found and was detected in 29/52 isolates. All isolates contained amplicons corresponding to ystB gene fragments. The relatively high degree of carcass contamination with Y.enterocolitica is of concern due to the growing popularity of game meat with consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2015-12-01

    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Extraction in the CERN Large Hadron Collider a Project Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Kazmine, B; Medvedko, A S; Sytchev, V V; Vasilev, L B

    2001-01-01

    In case of a resistive transition (quench), fast and reliable extraction of the magnetic energy, stored in the superconducting coils of the electromagnets of a particle collider, represents an important part of its magnet protection system. In general, the quench detectors, the quench heaters and the cold by-pass diodes across each magnet, together with the energy extraction facilities provide the required protection of the quenching superconductors against damage due to local energy dissipation. In CERN's LHC machine the energy stored in each of its eight superconducting dipole chains exceeds 1300 MJ. Following an opening of the extraction switches this energy will be absorbed in large extraction resistors located in the underground collider tunnel or adjacent galleries, during the exponential current decay. Also the sixteen, 13 kA quadrupole chains (QF, QD) and more than one hundred and fifty, 600 A circuits of the corrector magnets will be equipped with extraction systems. The extraction switch-gear is bas...

  2. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE RELEASE AND CONVERSION VIA RECONNECTION OF ENERGY STORED BY A CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using a simple two-dimensional, zero-{beta} model, we explore the manner by which reconnection at a current sheet releases and dissipates free magnetic energy. We find that only a small fraction (3%-11% depending on current-sheet size) of the energy is stored close enough to the current sheet to be dissipated abruptly by the reconnection process. The remaining energy, stored in the larger-scale field, is converted to kinetic energy in a fast magnetosonic disturbance propagating away from the reconnection site, carrying the initial current and generating reconnection-associated flows (inflow and outflow). Some of this reflects from the lower boundary (the photosphere) and refracts back to the X-point reconnection site. Most of this inward wave energy is reflected back again and continues to bounce between X-point and photosphere until it is gradually dissipated, over many transits. This phase of the energy dissipation process is thus global and lasts far longer than the initial purely local phase. In the process, a significant fraction of the energy (25%-60%) remains as undissipated fast magnetosonic waves propagating away from the reconnection site, primarily upward. This flare-generated wave is initiated by unbalanced Lorentz forces in the reconnection-disrupted current sheet, rather than by dissipation-generated pressure, as some previous models have assumed. Depending on the orientation of the initial current sheet, the wave front is either a rarefaction, with backward-directed flow, or a compression, with forward-directed flow.

  3. The roles of direct input of energy from the solar wind and unloading of stored magnetotail energy in driving magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, G.; Akasofu, S. I.; Baumjohann, W.; Kamide, Y.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions to the substorm expansive phase of direct energy input from the solar wind and from energy stored in the magnetotail which is released in an unpredictable manner are considered. Two physical processes for the dispensation of the energy input from the solar wind are identified: (1) a driven process in which energy supplied from the solar wind is directly dissipated in the ionosphere; and (2) a loading-unloading process in which energy from the solar wind is first stored in the magnetotail and then is suddenly released to be deposited in the ionosphere. The pattern of substorm development in response to changes in the interplanetary medium has been elucidated for a canonical isolated substorm.

  4. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  5. Comparison of blood RNA isolation methods from samples stabilized in Tempus tubes and stored at a large human biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarem, Jeanette; Brunborg, Gunnar; Aas, Kaja K; Harbak, Kari; Taipale, Miia M; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Duale, Nur

    2016-09-01

    More than 50,000 adult and cord blood samples were collected in Tempus tubes and stored at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Biobank for future use. In this study, we systematically evaluated and compared five blood-RNA isolation protocols: three blood-RNA isolation protocols optimized for simultaneous isolation of all blood-RNA species (MagMAX RNA Isolation Kit, both manual and semi-automated protocols; and Norgen Preserved Blood RNA kit I); and two protocols optimized for large RNAs only (Tempus Spin RNA, and Tempus 6-port isolation kit). We estimated the following parameters: RNA quality, RNA yield, processing time, cost per sample, and RNA transcript stability of six selected mRNAs and 13 miRNAs using real-time qPCR. Whole blood samples from adults (n = 59 tubes) and umbilical cord blood (n = 18 tubes) samples collected in Tempus tubes were analyzed. High-quality blood-RNAs with average RIN-values above seven were extracted using all five RNA isolation protocols. The transcript levels of the six selected genes showed minimal variation between the five protocols. Unexplained differences within the transcript levels of the 13 miRNA were observed; however, the 13 miRNAs had similar expression direction and they were within the same order of magnitude. Some differences in the RNA processing time and cost were noted. Sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA were obtained using all five protocols, and the Tempus blood RNA system therefore seems not to be dependent on one specific RNA isolation method.

  6. High stored-energy breakdown tests on electrodes made of stainless steel, copper, titanium and molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, H. P. L. de, E-mail: hubert.de-esch@cea.fr; Simonin, A.; Grand, C. [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-04-08

    IRFM have conducted resilience tests on electrodes made of Cu, stainless steel 304L, Ti and Mo against breakdowns up to 170 kV and 300 J. The tests of the 10×10 cm{sup 2} electrodes have been performed at an electrode distance d=11 mm under vacuum (P∼5×10{sup −6} mbar). No great difference in voltage holding between the materials could be identified; all materials could reach a voltage holding between 140 and 170 kV over the 11 mm gap, i.e. results scatter within a ±10% band. After exposure to ∼10000 seconds of high-voltage (HV) on-time, having accumulated ∼1000 breakdowns, the electrodes were inspected. The anodes were covered with large and small craters. The rugosity of the anodes had increased substantially, that of the cathodes to a lesser extent. The molybdenum electrodes are least affected, but this does not show in their voltage holding capability. It is hypothesized that penetrating high-energy electrons from the breakdown project heat below the surface of the anode and cause a micro-explosion of material when melting point is exceeded. Polished electrodes have also been tested. The polishing results in a substantially reduced breakdown rate in the beginning, but after having suffered a relatively small number (∼100) of breakdowns, the polished electrodes behaved the same as the unpolished ones.

  7. Neutron bombardment of single wall carbon nanohorn (SWCNH). DSC determination of the stored Wigner-Szilard energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Cataldo; Susana Iglesias-Groth; Yaser Hafez; Giancarlo Angelini

    2014-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanohorn (SWCNH) were neutron-bombarded to a dose of 3.28 × 10 16 n/cm 2 . The Wigner or stored energy was determined by a differential scanning calorimeter and was found 5.49 J/g, 50 times higher than the Wigner energy measured on graphite flakes treated at the same neutron dose. The activation energy for the thermal annealing of the accumulated radiation damage in SWCNH was determined in the range 6.3-6.6 eV against a typical activation energy for the annealing of the radiation-damaged graphite which is in the range of 1.4-1.5 eV. Furthermore the stored energy in neutron-damaged SWCNH is released at 400-430 deg C while the main peak in the neutron-damaged graphite occurs at 200-220 deg C. The radiation damaged SWCNH were examined with FT-IR spectroscopy showing the formation of acetylenic and aliphatic moieties suggesting the aromatic C=C breakdown caused by the neutron bombardment. (author)

  8. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  9. Energy management of a large estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, R J

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines energy management of the Property Services Agency (PSA) estate, which has been pursued since 1972. PSA's current expenditure on energy in buildings is Pound 235M per annum (1983-1984), and while energy management has been in operation the aggregate annual saving achieved across the civil and armed services estate is estimated at 33%. The development of energy management is described; the initial organisation concentrated on the existing estate. An Energy Database was generated for the whole of the civil estate and routine monitoring and targetting of consumption was instituted. Regional Energy Conservation Officers were appointed with responsibilities for energy management of defined areas of the estate and a headquarters group was set up to direct the campaign and determine policy. The funding of all energy efficiency applications depends on a favourable value analysis. The calculations used in establishing investment priorities were based on CIBSE (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) methods. This was quickly followed by the introduction of design techniques to promote energy efficiency in new building work. The use of Design Energy Targets is a prominent feature. Over the period to date an in-house training programme in energy conservation has been established for technical staff involved in building design and operation and for general staff. An expanding range of in-house publications on energy efficiency is also available.

  10. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  11. Target Pilots Energy Efficiency Measures for Broad Rollout in Existing Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  12. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration; Aniquilacion termica de dano inducido por irradiacion a altas dosis en haluros alcalinos a 300 k. energia almacenda. Termoluminiscencia y coloracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, L

    1980-07-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs.

  13. Deuteron photo-disintegration at large energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterveld, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Current proposals at CEBAF include the measurement of cross sections and polarization observables of exclusive photo-reactions such as deuteron photo-disintegration and pion photo-production from nucleons. At issue is the applicability of traditional meson-exchange models versus quark models of these reactions at photon energies of several GeV. Beam energies above 4 GeV at CEBAF could make possible the measurement of these reactions over a kinematic range sufficiently broad to distinguish between the models. Estimates of counting rates for a Hall-C experiment to measure the γd → pn cross section are presented

  14. Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed for balancing the state of charge of the energy storage units for distributed PV-based active generators. The proposed method, weights the action of conventional droop control loops for privileging the charge of the energy...... expandable and can be applied to a several number of power generators interconnected in a microgrid. Frequency and voltage bus signaling is used in order to coordinate the control operation mode between units. Simulation results in a low-voltage, three-phase, islanded AC microgrid show the feasibility...... of the proposed method and its applicability even for several active generators....

  15. Environmentally Powered Yarn Arrays that Sense, Actuate, Harvest, and Store Energy (NBIT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    other electrolytes, we surprising discovered that we can generate high electrical power output and high electrical energy per mechanical cycle without...than the gravimetric power generation capability of a cars combustion engine and (2) functioned as a torsional artificial muscle to rotate a heavy...power generation capability of a car’s combustion engine and (2) functioned as a torsional artificial muscle to rotate a heavy rotor to over 90,000

  16. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  17. Tangent moduli of the Hencky material model derived from the stored energy function at finite strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poživilová, Alena; Plešek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 482, č. 482 (2005), s. 327-330 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/03/0331; GA ČR(CZ) GP106/03/D038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustoelasticity * large strains * third order elastic moduli Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  18. Energy Dissipation and Dynamics in Large Guide Field Turbulence Driven Reconnection at the Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBarge, J. M.; Shay, M. A.; Sharma, P.; Juno, J.; Haggerty, C. C.; Drake, J. F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hakim, A.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence and magnetic reconnection are the primary mechanisms responsible for the conversion of stored magnetic energy into particle energy in many space and astrophysical plasmas. The magnetospheric multiscale mission (MMS) has given us unprecedented access to high cadence particle and field data of turbulence and magnetic reconnection at earth's magnetopause. The observations include large guide field reconnection events generated within the turbulent magnetopause. Motivated by these observations, we present a study of large guide reconnection using the fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell component of the Gkeyll simulation framework, and we also employ and compare with gyrokinetics to explore the asymptotically large guide field limit. In addition to studying the configuration space dynamics, we leverage the recently developed field-particle correlations to diagnose the dominant sources of dissipation and compare the results of the field-particle correlation to other energy dissipation measures.

  19. Confinement characteristics of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R; Saito, K; Torii, Y; Mutoh, T; Seki, T; Watari, T; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Sasao, M; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, T; Notake, T; Takeuchi, N; Saida, T; Shimpo, F; Nomura, G; Yokota, M; Kato, A; Zao, Y; Okada, H; Isobe, M; Ozaki, T; Narihara, K; Nagayama, Y; Inagaki, S; Morita, S; Krasilnikov, A V; Idei, H; Kubo, S; Ohkubo, K; Sato, M; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Oka, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Funaba, H; Goto, M; Ida, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Muto, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Ohdachi, S; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K Y; Yamada, I; Yamamoto, S; Yoshinuma, M; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K-Y; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N; Yamada, H; Yamazaki, K; Sudo, S; Matsuoka, K; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of high-energy ions accelerated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) electric field in the large helical device (LHD) is discussed. A better confinement performance of high-energy ions in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration was experimentally verified by measuring their energy spectrum and comparing it with the effective temperature determined by an electron slowing down process. In the standard magnetic axis configuration a saturation of the measured tail temperature was observed as the effective temperature was increased. The ratio between these two quantities is a measure of the quality of transfer efficiency from high-energy ions to a bulk plasma; when this efficiency was compared with Monte Carlo simulations the results agreed fairly well. The ratio of the stored energy of the high-energy ions to that of the bulk plasma was measured using an ICRF heating power modulation method; it was deduced from phase differences between total and bulk plasma stored energies and the modulated ICRF heating power. The measured high energy fraction agreed with that calculated using the injected ICRF heating power, the transfer efficiency determined in the experiment and the confinement scaling of the LHD plasma

  20. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  2. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 . Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm −2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g −1 ). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.63 kW kg −1 , respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  3. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  4. Large Energy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Space and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge to global energy future lies in meeting the needs and aspirations of the ten to twelve billion earthlings that will be on this planet by 2050. At least an eight-fold increase in annual production will be required by the middle of this century. The energy sources that can be considered developed and 'in the box' for consideration as sources for major increases in supply over the next half century are fossil fuels, nuclear fission, and, to a lesser degree, various forms of direct and stored solar energy and conservation. None of these near-term sources of energy will provide an eight-fold or more increase in energy supply for various technical, environmental and political reasons.Only a few potential energy sources that fall 'out of the box' appear worthy of additional consideration as possible contributors to energy demand in 2050 and beyond. These particular candidates are deuterium-tritium fusion, space solar energy, and lunar helium-3 fusion. The primary advantage that lunar helium-3 fusion will have over other 'out of the box' energy sources in the pre-2050 timeframe is a clear path into the private capital markets. The development and demonstration of new energy sources will require several development paths, each of Apollo-like complexity and each with sub-paths of parallel development for critical functions and components

  5. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  6. The heliothermic lake: a direct method of collecting and storing solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Douglas W.; Bradbury, J. Platt; Dean, Walter E.

    1980-01-01

    Heliothermic lakes contain a sun-heated layer of warm, saline water beneath a surface layer of cooler, less saline water. The two layers are separated by a chemocline, a stratum in which salinity increases progressively with depth. The chemocline, the position of which varies from lake to lake, functions as a heat trap. Most sunlight that penetrates this stratum is transformed into heat, which cannot escape by radiation because water is opaque to infrared light, and which cannot escape by convection because the specific gravity of the dense water below the chemocline is not significantly decreased by the increasing temperature. Heat can escape only by conduction through the chemocline, and water or brine is a very poor conductor. As a result, the temperature within and commonly below the chemocline rises. Under ideal conditions of a clear solution, high isolation, and a suitable salinity distribution, the temperature of the chemocline will increase to the boiling point. The lower part of the chemocline in a shallow (0.8-m) manmade heliothermic lake at Sedom, Israel, for example, reached a temperature of 96°C (205°F) in spite of a brine with poor light transmissibility.About 30 natural heliothermic lakes have been reported. The best known, Lake Ursului, occurs in Transylvania, Romania (latitude, 46°35'N). During four consecutive summers, 1899 to 1902, this lake had temperatures of 60-70°C (140-158°F) at a depth of 1-2 m. Heliothermic conditions have persisted in this lake for at least 28 and probably for more than 77 years. The most unusual, Lake Vanda, Victoria Land, Antarctica (latitude, 77°35'S), has a temperature of 26°C near the base of the chemocline at a depth of 61 despite a mean atmospheric temperature of -20°C. Sunlight penetrates into the chemocline through 5 m of remarkably clear ice.Maintenance of the chemocline is the chief problem preventing commercial use of manmade heliothermic lakes for the collection and storage of solar energy. The most

  7. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  8. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc, 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  9. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  10. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  11. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  12. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  13. Analysis of slave labor in large department stores: a modern reading of the new mode of exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Antônio Bruno da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a process that has promoted significant changes in the inner workings of global production chains. Moreover, capital, which is embodied in various forms of labor relations, can and in some current cases exploits, even now, its labor force. Furthermore, this research is structured in two segments. The first analyzes how large companies use labor exploitation in order to reduce production costs and maximize profits, dissociating themselves from the responsibilities that they have in relation to their laborers that are an important part of their internal structure. The second investigates whether these companies can be held responsible for the exploitation of their employees – whom are part of their production network. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the context in which public policies fight contemporary slave labor in Brazil, highlighting the complexities of implementing these policies.

  14. Thermal modelling of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores; Zur thermischen Modellierung von Erdwaermesonden und Erdsonden-Waermespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dan

    2011-07-15

    The thermal use of the underground for heating and cooling applications can be done with borehole heat exchangers. This work deals with the further development of the modelling of thermal transport processes inside and outside the borehole as well as with the application of the further developed models. The combination of high accuracy and short computation time is achieved by the development of three-dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for borehole heat exchangers. Short transient transport processes can be calculated by the developed model with a considerable higher dynamic and accuracy than with known models from literature. The model is used to evaluate measurement data of a thermal response test by parameter estimation technique with a transient three-dimensional model for the first time. Clear advantages like shortening of the test duration are shown. The developed borehole heat exchanger model is combined with a three-dimensional description of the underground in the Finite-Element-Program FEFLOW. The influence of moving groundwater on borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores is then quantified.

  15. On Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present paper describes the work carried out in the project ’Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters’, which is a Danish research project carried out in a period of three years from September 2014, with the aim of reducing cost of the moorings for four wave energy converters...

  16. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  17. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  18. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  19. Water-energy-food nexus in Large Asian River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli

    2016-01-01

    The water-energy-food nexus ("nexus") is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water's Special Issue "Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins" look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus. While it is eviden...

  20. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  1. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Unit Challenge (RTU Challenge). This program provides a market mechanism that reduces barriers for... commercial air-cooler air conditioners and heat pumps in the field. \\7\\ U.S. Department of Energy. Building... the IEER more than the EER for commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. D. Engineering Analysis The...

  2. Energy Dynamics of an Infinitely Large Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    , particularly in the near-term, can be expected in the higher resource, moderate water depths of the North Sea rather than the Mediterranean. There should therefore be significant interest in understanding the energy dynamics of the infinitely large wind farm – how wakes behave and whether the extraction...... of energy by wind turbines over a large area has a significant and lasting impact on the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we focus on developing understanding of the infinite wind farm through a combination of theoretical considerations, data analysis and modeling. Initial evaluation of power losses due...... is of about the same magnitude as for the infinitely large wind farm. We will examine whether this can be proved theoretically or is indicated by data currently available. We will also evaluate whether energy extraction at the likely scale of development in European Seas can be expected to modulate...

  3. Frequency Activated Fast Power Reserve for Wind Power Plant Delivered from Stored Kinetic Energy in the Wind Turbine Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Thuring, P.; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    is proposed that delivers a short-term power reserve from the kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) inertia, while considering the inherent characteristics of a wind power plant. The aim is to contribute with a fast power reserve to stabilize the frequency drop during large and sudden production deficits......With increased penetration of converter interfaced generation, synchronous generators may start to be displaced to keep the overall power balance. As a consequence the resulting inertia in the system may decrease and make the power system more exposed to frequency excursions. Here, a control...

  4. Energy consumption of storing special flower bulbs. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia and Fritillaria; Energieverbruik bij het bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia en Fritillaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Vasen, R. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The energy use of drying and storing special flower bulbs has been mapped. From the variation in energy use between various businesses, more energy efficient ventilation, circulation and temperature standards can be derived. This way the costs for energy use in a business and at sector level can be reduced significantly [Dutch] Het energieverbruik voor drogen en bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen is in kaart gebracht. Uit de variatie in het energieverbruik tussen de verschillende bedrijven kunnen energiezuiniger ventilatie-, circulatie- en temperatuursnormen worden afgeleid. Hiermee kunnen de kosten voor energieverbruik op het bedrijf en op sectorniveau fors verlaagd worden.

  5. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years

  6. Energy-efficiency supervision systems for energy management in large public buildings: Necessary choice for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanping; Wu Yong; Liu Changbin

    2009-01-01

    Buildings are important contributors to total energy consumption accounting for around 30% of all energy consumed in China. Of this, around two-fifths are consumed within urban homes, one-fifth within public buildings, and two-fifths within rural area. Government office buildings and large-scale public buildings are the dominant energy consumers in cities but their consumption can be largely cut back through improving efficiency. At present, energy management in the large public sector is a particular priority in China. Firstly, this paper discusses how the large public building is defined, and then energy performance in large public buildings is studied. The paper also describes barriers to improving energy efficiency of large public buildings in China and examines the energy-efficiency policies and programs adopted in United States and European Union. The energy-efficiency supervision (EES) systems developed to improve operation and maintenance practices and promote energy efficiency in large public sector are described. The benefits of the EES systems are finally summarized.

  7. Energy-efficiency supervision systems for energy management in large public buildings. Necessary choice for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan-ping, Feng [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Economics and Management, Jiaoda Donglu18, 5-803, Beijing 100044 (China); Yong, Wu [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Beijing 100835 (China); Chang-bin, Liu [Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Buildings are important contributors to total energy consumption accounting for around 30% of all energy consumed in China. Of this, around two-fifths are consumed within urban homes, one-fifth within public buildings, and two-fifths within rural area. Government office buildings and large-scale public buildings are the dominant energy consumers in cities but their consumption can be largely cut back through improving efficiency. At present, energy management in the large public sector is a particular priority in China. Firstly, this paper discusses how the large public building is defined, and then energy performance in large public buildings is studied. The paper also describes barriers to improving energy efficiency of large public buildings in China and examines the energy-efficiency policies and programs adopted in United States and European Union. The energy-efficiency supervision (EES) systems developed to improve operation and maintenance practices and promote energy efficiency in large public sector are described. The benefits of the EES systems are finally summarized. (author)

  8. Energy-efficiency supervision systems for energy management in large public buildings: Necessary choice for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yanping [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Economics and Management, Jiaoda Donglu18, 5-803, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: fengyanping10@sohu.com; Wu Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Beijing 100835 (China); Liu Changbin [Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Buildings are important contributors to total energy consumption accounting for around 30% of all energy consumed in China. Of this, around two-fifths are consumed within urban homes, one-fifth within public buildings, and two-fifths within rural area. Government office buildings and large-scale public buildings are the dominant energy consumers in cities but their consumption can be largely cut back through improving efficiency. At present, energy management in the large public sector is a particular priority in China. Firstly, this paper discusses how the large public building is defined, and then energy performance in large public buildings is studied. The paper also describes barriers to improving energy efficiency of large public buildings in China and examines the energy-efficiency policies and programs adopted in United States and European Union. The energy-efficiency supervision (EES) systems developed to improve operation and maintenance practices and promote energy efficiency in large public sector are described. The benefits of the EES systems are finally summarized.

  9. Energy efficient heating and ventilation of large halls

    CERN Document Server

    Hojer, Ondrej; Kabele, Karel; Kotrbaty, Miroslav; Sommer, Klaus; Petras, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook is focused on modern methods for design, control and operation of energy efficient heating systems in large spaces and industrial halls. The book deals with thermal comfort, light and dark gas radiant heaters, panel radiant heating, floor heating and industrial air heating systems. Various heating systems are illustrated with case studies. Design principles, methods and modeling tools are presented for various systems.

  10. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  11. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussmann, A; Molly, J P; Muser, D

    1979-06-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  12. Environmental orientation of large energy companies? The large four and their contribution to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyar, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The project is aimed to study the motivation and willingness for environmental engagement of the four large German energy companies RWE, E.ON, Vattenfall and EnBW. The two changes of political appraisal of nuclear energy by the German government occurred during the project. The work covers the following issues: Governance and climate policy, multi-level governance, corporate governance; climate topics in the management practice, energy policy and climate policy, national and international aspects, initiatives and engagement; research design and empirical investigations.

  13. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  14. Who is behind the stocking of energy-dense foods and beverages in small stores? The importance of food and beverage distributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; D'Angelo, Heather; Gittelsohn, Joel; Horton, Lucy; Ribisl, Kurt; Sindberg, Lesley Schmidt; Olson, Christina; Kharmats, Anna; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined food and beverage distributors' sourcing, placement and promotion of obesogenic (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) product categories from the perspective of small food store owners/managers. The obesogenic product categories of interest were savoury snacks, sugary beverages, sweet snacks, confectionery and frozen treats. Specifically, we examined how frequently distributors sourced these products, and the types of agreements and expectations they had for their placement and promotion. Differences were explored by store size and ethnicity. Fresh produce was used as a comparison when examining differences in frequency of sourcing only, with implications for healthy food access. Survey research involving in-person interviews. Four urban areas in the USA: Baltimore, MD; Durham, NC; Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN; and San Diego, CA. Seventy-two small food store owners/managers, 65 % consent rate. Most distributors sourced obesogenic products weekly. Agreements to place products were predominantly informal (e.g. handshake) with sweet snack, confectionery and frozen treat distributors, and formal (e.g. contract) with savoury snack and sugary beverage distributors. Free-standing displays were the most common incentive provided by distributors and they expected some control over their placement and pricing. Free/discounted products and signage were also common incentives but slotting fees were not. Smaller stores and ethnic stores were less likely to receive various incentives, but among sweet snack distributors, they were more likely to control the price in ethnic v. non-ethnic stores. Obesogenic products are ubiquitous. Influencing what is made available to consumers in the retail food environment needs to consider the distributor.

  15. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  16. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific

  17. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  18. Differential calorimeter and temperature controller for stored energy measurements in irradiated alkali halides; Calorimetro diferencial y controlador de temperatura para medidas de energia almacenada en haluros alcalinos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Martinez, L

    1977-07-01

    The design and performance of a simple temperature-controlled differential calorimeter are presented. This system allows to measure radiation-induced stored energy in insulators, above room temperature with a differential thermal analysis method. With platelets of KC1 single crystals, the base lines obtained for T{sub 2} T{sub 1} (with T{sub 2}: irradiated sample temperature and T{sub 1}: reference sample temperature) show a smooth drift less of 0,2 degree centigree in the interval from 25 to 400 degree centigree. The discrepancy between two consecutive base lines is less than {+-} 0,02 degree centigree which implies a calorimeter sensitivity of about {+-}0,004 cal/g. This sensitivity allows to measure stored energy release in samples with a color center concentration low enough to be directly measured with a spectrophotometer so that a search for correlations among the features of the stored energy spectrum and the color center annealing can be made. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Large-scale nuclear energy from the thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.; Duret, M.F.; Craig, D.S.; Veeder, J.I.; Bain, A.S.

    1973-02-01

    The thorium fuel cycle in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactors challenges breeders and fusion as the simplest means of meeting the world's large-scale demands for energy for centuries. Thorium oxide fuel allows high power density with excellent neutron economy. The combination of thorium fuel with organic caloporteur promises easy maintenance and high availability of the whole plant. The total fuelling cost including charges on the inventory is estimated to be attractively low. (author) [fr

  20. VLAD for epithermal neutron scattering experiments at large energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G; Perelli-Cippo, E; Andreani, C; Imberti, S; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Rhodes, N R; Schooneveld, E M

    2006-01-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank will extend the kinematical region covered by today's epithermal neutron scattering experiments to low momentum transfer ( -1 ) together with large energy transfer 0 -4 0 . In this paper the design of VLAD is presented together with Montecarlo simulations of the detector performances. The results of tests made with prototype VLAD detectors are also presented, confirming the usefulness of the Resonance Detector for measurements at very low scattering angles

  1. New energy levels of praseodymium with large angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shamim; Siddiqui, Imran; Gamper, Bettina; Syed, Tanweer Iqbal; Guthoehrlein, Guenter H.; Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium {sup 59}Pr{sub 141} is [Xe] 4f{sup 3}6s{sup 2}, with ground state level {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}. Our research is mainly devoted to find previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines and their hyperfine structures. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with R6G, Kiton Red, DCM and LD700. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum is used for selecting promising excitation wavelengths. Then the laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the spectral line to be investigated, and a search for fluorescence from excited levels is performed. From the observed hyperfine structure we determine J-values and hyperfine constants A of the combining levels. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of involved new levels. Up to now we have discovered large number of previously unknown energy levels with various angular momentum values. We present here the data (energies, parities, angular momenta J, magnetic hyperfine constants A) of ca. 40 new, until now unknown energy levels with high angular momentum values: 15/2, 17/2, 19/2, 21/2.

  2. Classical convective energy transport in large gradient regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Large gradients in density and temperature occur near the edge in H-mode plasmas and in the core of tokamak plasmas with negative central shear. Transport in these regions may be comparable to neoclassical. Standard neoclassical theory does not apply when the gradient lengths are comparable to an ion orbit excursion, or banana width. A basic question for neoclassical transport in large gradient regions is: do ion-ion collisions drive particle transport? Near the plasma edge in H-mode, where ion orbit loss requires that the ion energy transport be convective, neoclassical particle transport due to ion-ion collisions may play an important role. In negative central shear plasmas, where transport is inferred to be near neoclassical, it is important to have accurate predictions for the neoclassical rate of energy and particle transport. A simple 2-D slab model has been used, with a momentum-conserving collision operator, to show that ion-ion collisions do drive particle transport. When the gradients are large, the open-quotes field particleclose quotes contribution to the particle flux is non-local, and does not cancel the open-quotes test particleclose quotes contribution, which is local. Solutions of the kinetic equation are found which show that the steepness of the density profile, for increasing particle flux, is limited by orbit averaging. The gradient length is limited by the thermal gyroradius, and the convective energy flux is independent of ion temperature. This will allow an ion thermal runaway to occur, if there are no other ion energy loss mechanisms

  3. Energy stored in BeO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 oxides irradiated with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Andre

    1969-01-01

    Within the field of researches on refractory oxides which may be used in structure materials in atomic pile, the objective of this research thesis has been the measurement of the energy stored in some specific oxides (BeO, MgO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 ) after their irradiation in a nuclear reactor. This measurement is performed by 'healing' the irradiated substance by means of thermal treatments during which sample initial mass and morphologies are preserved. The measurement of the Wigner energy is then performed by differential enthalpy analysis. The first part reports the experimental determination of Wigner energies (measurement apparatus, method of ballistic differential enthalpy analysis, thermo-gram compensation). The second part presents the Wigner energies obtained for the sintered BeO, the sintered MgO, the sintered Al 2 O 3 , and the vitreous SiO 2 . The third part reports the result interpretation

  4. Conserving Coherence and Storing Energy during Internal Conversion: Photoinduced Dynamics of cis- and trans-Azobenzene Radical Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Munkerup, Kristin; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Bohinski, Timothy; Stephansen, Anne B.; Levis, Robert J.; Sø lling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Light harvesting via energy storage in azobenzene has been a key topic for decades, and the process of energy distribution over the molecular degrees of freedom following photoexcitation remains to be understood. Dynamics of a photoexcited system

  5. The Strain Energy, Seismic Moment and Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaru, G.

    2004-12-01

    The strain energy Est, as potential energy, released by an earthquake and the seismic moment Mo are two fundamental physical earthquake parameters. The earthquake rupture process ``represents'' the release of the accumulated Est. The moment Mo, first obtained in 1966 by Aki, revolutioned the quantification of earthquake size and led to the elimination of the limitations of the conventional magnitudes (originally ML, Richter, 1930) mb, Ms, m, MGR. Both Mo and Est, not in a 1-to-1 correspondence, are uniform measures of the size, although Est is presently less accurate than Mo. Est is partitioned in seismic- (Es), fracture- (Eg) and frictional-energy Ef, and Ef is lost as frictional heat energy. The available Est = Es + Eg (Aki and Richards (1980), Kostrov and Das, (1988) for fundamentals on Mo and Est). Related to Mo, Est and Es, several modern magnitudes were defined under various assumptions: the moment magnitude Mw (Kanamori, 1977), strain energy magnitude ME (Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), tsunami magnitude Mt (Abe, 1979), mantle magnitude Mm (Okal and Talandier, 1987), seismic energy magnitude Me (Choy and Boatright, 1995, Yanovskaya et al, 1996), body-wave magnitude Mpw (Tsuboi et al, 1998). The available Est = (1/2μ )Δ σ Mo, Δ σ ~=~average stress drop, and ME is % \\[M_E = 2/3(\\log M_o + \\log(\\Delta\\sigma/\\mu)-12.1) ,\\] % and log Est = 11.8 + 1.5 ME. The estimation of Est was modified to include Mo, Δ and μ of predominant high slip zones (asperities) to account for multiple events (Purcaru, 1997): % \\[E_{st} = \\frac{1}{2} \\sum_i {\\frac{1}{\\mu_i} M_{o,i} \\Delta\\sigma_i} , \\sum_i M_{o,i} = M_o \\] % We derived the energy balance of Est, Es and Eg as: % \\[ E_{st}/M_o = (1+e(g,s)) E_s/M_o , e(g,s) = E_g/E_s \\] % We analyzed a set of about 90 large earthquakes and found that, depending on the goal these magnitudes quantify differently the rupture process, thus providing complementary means of earthquake characterization. Results for some

  6. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  7. Large energy absorption in Ni-Mn-Ga/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Richard, Marc L.; Tang, Yun J.; Berkowitz, Ami E.; O'Handley, Robert C.; Allen, Samuel M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys can respond to a magnetic field or applied stress by the motion of twin boundaries and hence they show large hysteresis or energy loss. Ni-Mn-Ga particles made by spark erosion have been dispersed and oriented in a polymer matrix to form pseudo 3:1 composites which are studied under applied stress. Loss ratios have been determined from the stress-strain data. The loss ratios of the composites range from 63% to 67% compared to only about 17% for the pure, unfilled polymer samples

  8. Risk Management Challenges in Large-scale Energy PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegeltija, Miroslava; Oehmen, Josef; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic risk management approaches have a long tradition in engineering. A large variety of tools and techniques based on the probabilistic view of risk is available and applied in PSS practice. However, uncertainties that arise due to lack of knowledge and information are still missing...... adequate representations. We focus on a large-scale energy company in Denmark as one case of current product/servicesystems risk management best practices. We analyze their risk management process and investigate the tools they use in order to support decision making processes within the company. First, we...... identify the following challenges in the current risk management practices that are in line with literature: (1) current methods are not appropriate for the situations dominated by weak knowledge and information; (2) quality of traditional models in such situations is open to debate; (3) quality of input...

  9. Low energy microcolumn for large field view inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul [Department of Optometry, Eulji University, 212 Yangji-dong, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung-Joon; Oh, Tae-Sik; Kim, Dae-Wook [Department of Nanoscience, Sun Moon University 100 Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myun, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho-Seob, E-mail: hskim3@sunmoon.ac.kr [Department of Nanoscience, Sun Moon University 100 Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myun, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Won Kweon [Division of Electronic, Computer and Communication Engineering, Hanseo University 360 DaeKook-ri, Haemi-myun, Seosan-si, Chungnam 356-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Since the development of microcolumn system, it attracted much attention because multiple microcolumns can be assembled into arrayed form, which is expected to generate multiple electron beams and overcome the disadvantage of electron beam inspection equipments, low throughput . However, it is not easy to apply a microcolumn to the practical inspection or testing equipment since its scanning area is too small. Even if the arrayed operation using multiple microcolumns can overcome this limit, it requires complicated supporting systems and related technologies to operate a number of microcolumns simultaneously. Therefore, we tried to modify microcolumn design itself so that it can have a large field of view. In this work, two kinds of modified columns will be suggested and the preliminary results showing their performance of scanning large area will be discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of microcolumn designs to achieve a large field of view are fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field of view of a microcolumn increases linearly with the working distance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New designed microcolumns can be developed as a low energy column system for large view inspections.

  10. Concept of electric power output control system for atomic power generation plant utilizing cool energy of stored snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Toita, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A concept of the SEAGUL system (Snow Enhancing Atomic-power Generation UtiLity) is proposed in this paper. Lowering the temperature of sea water for cooling of atomic-power plant will make a efficiency of power generation better and bring several ten MW additional electric power for 1356 MW class plant. The system concept stands an idea to use huge amount of seasonal storage snow for cooling water temperature control. In a case study for the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, it is estimated to cool down the sea water of 29degC to 20degC by 80 kt snow for 3 hours in a day would brought 60 MWh electric power per a day. Annually 38.4 Mt of stored snow will bring 1800 MWh electric power. (author)

  11. Large scale scenario analysis of future low carbon energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleye, Olaitan; Baker, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use a multi-model framework to examine a set of possible future energy scenarios resulting from R&D investments in Solar, Nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Bio-fuels, Bio-electricity, and Batteries for Electric Transportation. Based on a global scenario analysis, we examine the impact on the economy of advancement in energy technologies, considering both individual technologies and the interactions between pairs of technologies, with a focus on the role of uncertainty. Nuclear and CCS have the most impact on abatement costs, with CCS mostly important at high levels of abatement. We show that CCS and Bio-electricity are complements, while most of the other energy technology pairs are substitutes. We also examine for stochastic dominance between R&D portfolios: given the uncertainty in R&D outcomes, we examine which portfolios would be preferred by all decision-makers, regardless of their attitude toward risk. We observe that portfolios with CCS tend to stochastically dominate those without CCS; and portfolios lacking CCS and Nuclear tend to be stochastically dominated by others. We find that the dominance of CCS becomes even stronger as uncertainty in climate damages increases. Finally, we show that there is significant value in carefully choosing a portfolio, as relatively small portfolios can dominate large portfolios. - Highlights: • We examine future energy scenarios in the face of R&D and climate uncertainty. • We examine the impact of advancement in energy technologies and pairs of technologies. • CCS complements Bio-electricity while most technology pairs are substitutes. • R&D portfolios without CCS are stochastically dominated by portfolios with CCS. • Higher damage uncertainty favors R&D development of CCS and Bio-electricity

  12. Conserving Coherence and Storing Energy during Internal Conversion: Photoinduced Dynamics of cis- and trans-Azobenzene Radical Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Munkerup, Kristin

    2017-10-24

    Light harvesting via energy storage in azobenzene has been a key topic for decades, and the process of energy distribution over the molecular degrees of freedom following photoexcitation remains to be understood. Dynamics of a photoexcited system can exhibit high degrees of non-ergodicity when it is driven by just a few degrees of freedom. Typically, an internal conversion leads to the loss of such localization of dynamics, as the intramolecular energy becomes statistically redistributed over all molecular degrees of freedom. Here, we present a unique case where the excitation energy remains localized even subsequent to internal conversion. Strong-field ionization is used to prepare cis- and trans-azobenzene radical cations on the D1 surface with little excess energy, at the equilibrium neutral geometry. These D1 ions are preferably formed because in this case D1 and D0 switch place in the presence of the strong laser field. The post-ionization dynamics is dictated by the potential energy landscape. The D1 surface is steep downhill along the cis/trans isomerization coordinate and towards a common minimum shared by the two isomers in the region of D1/D0 conical intersection. Coherent cis/trans torsional motion along this coordinate is manifested in the ion transients by a cosine modulation. In this scenario, D0 becomes populated with molecules that are energized mainly along the cis-trans isomerization coordinate, with the kinetic energy above the cis-trans inter-conversion barrier. These activated azobenzene molecules easily cycle back and forth along the D0 surface, and give rise to several periods of modulated signal before coherence is lost. This persistent localization of the internal energy during internal conversion is provided by the steep downhill potential energy surface, small initial internal energy content, and a strong hole-lone pair interaction that drives the molecule along the cis-trans isomerization coordinate to facilitate the transition between

  13. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A; Belkin, A; Ilin, E; Pak, M; Colla, Eugene V; Hubler, A

    2017-12-08

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm -1 (i.e., 1 GV m -1 ), which is much larger than the table value of the Al 2 O 3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  14. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A.; Belkin, A.; Ilin, E.; Pak, M.; Colla, Eugene V.; Hubler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al2O3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm-1 (i.e., 1 GV m-1), which is much larger than the table value of the Al2O3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  15. Analytic calculation of depolarization due to large energy spread in high-energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1989-08-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA, TRISTAN, and LEP at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...

  17. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  18. Department of Energy assessment of the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the conclusions of the committee that assessed the cost estimate for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This proton-proton collider will be built at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva, Switzerland. The committee found the accelerator-project cost estimate of 2.3 billion in 1995 Swiss francs, or about $2 billion US, to be adequate and reasonable. The planned project completion date of 2005 also appears achievable, assuming the resources are available when needed. The cost estimate was made using established European accounting procedures. In particular, the cost estimate does not include R and D, prototyping and testing, spare parts, and most of the engineering labor. Also excluded are costs for decommissioning the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) that now occupies the tunnel, modifications to the injector system, the experimental areas, preoperations costs, and CERN manpower. All these items are assumed by CERN to be included in the normal annual operations budget rather than the construction budget. Finally, contingency is built into the base estimate, in contrast to Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that explicitly identify contingency. The committee's charge, given by Dr. James F. Decker, Deputy Directory of the DOE Office of Energy Research, was to understand the basis for the LHC cost estimate, identify uncertainties, and judge the overall validity of the estimate, proposed schedule, and related issues. The committee met at CERN April 22--26, 1996. The assessment was based on the October 1995 LHC Conceptual Design Report or ''Yellow Book,'' cost estimates and formal presentations made by the CERN staff, site inspection, detailed discussions with LHC technical experts, and the committee members' considerable experience

  19. Use of near infrared correlation spectroscopy for quantitation of surface iron, absorbed water and stored electronic energy in a suite of Mars soil analog materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Lelia M.; Banin, Amos; Carle, Glenn; Orenberg, James; Scattergood, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A number of questions concerning the surface mineralogy and the history of water on Mars remain unresolved using the Viking analyses and Earth-based telescopic data. Identification and quantitation of iron-bearing clays on Mars would elucidate these outstanding issues. Near infrared correlation analysis, a method typically applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual constituents of multicomponent mixtures, is adapted here to selection of distinctive features of a small, highly homologous series of Fe/Ca-exchanged montmorillonites and several kalinites. Independently determined measures of surface iron, relative humidity and stored electronic energy were used as constituent data for linear regression of the constituent vs. reflectance data throughout the spectral region 0.68 to 2.5 micrometers. High correlations were found in appropriate regions for all three constituents, though that with stored energy is still considered tenuous. Quantitation was improved using 1st and 2nd derivative spectra. High resolution data over a broad spectral range would be required to quantitatively identify iron-bearing clays by remotely sensed reflectance.

  20. Large-angle hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Basing on the quasipotential Logunov-Tavkhelidze approach, corrections to the amplitude of high-energy large-angle meson-nucleon scattering are estimated. The estimates are compared with the available experimental data on pp- and π +- p-scattering, so as to check the adequacy of the suggested scheme to account for the preasymptotic deffects. The compared results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. The following conclusions are drawn: 1. the account for corrections, due to the long-range interaction, to the amplituda gives a good aghreee main asymptotic termment between the theoretical and experimental data. 2. in the case of π +- p- scattering the corrections prove to be comparable with the main asymptotic term up to the values of transferred pulses psub(lambdac)=50 GeV/c, which results in a noticeable deviation form the quark counting rules at such energies. Nevertheless, the preasymptotic formulae do well, beginning with psub(lambdac) approximately 6 GeV/c. In case of pp-scattering the corrections are mutually compensated to a considerable degree, and the deviation from the quark counting rules is negligible

  1. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  2. Energy efficiency indicators for assessing construction systems storing renewable energy: Application to phase change material-bearing Façades

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Ríos, José Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos, José; Ruiz-Pardo, Álvaro; Álvarez, Servando; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the performance or energy efficiency of a single construction element by itself is often a futile exercise. That is not the case, however, when an element is designed, among others, to improve building energy performance by harnessing renewable energy in a process that requires a source of external energy. Harnessing renewable energy is acquiring growing interest in Mediterranean climates as a strategy for reducing the energy consumed by buildings. When such reduction is oriented to...

  3. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B x ) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B z ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n e ∼ 2 × 10 11  cm −3 and T e ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma

  4. On the ability of some cyclic plasticity models to predict the evolution of stored energy in a type 304L stainless steel submitted to high cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue analyses of materials are generally based on a so-called stabilized cycle, on which plastic strain amplitude, plastic energy, maximum shear stress and so on are determined. The part of plastic energy which is dissipated in heat cannot be used to accumulate damage and it should be worthwhile extracting only the part of plastic energy which is stored in material microstructure in order to build a consistent damage model. In this paper, some cyclic plasticity models including a polycrystalline model are reformulated in the thermodynamic framework in order to test their capacity to predict both the stress-strain behaviour and the partition of plastic energy for a high cycle fatigue test on a type 304L stainless steel. For an equivalent description of stress-strain loops, the number of kinematic hardening variables chosen in a model may qualitatively alter the prediction of plastic energy partition due to the modification of the isotropic hardening variable. Measurements of the specimen temperature increase due to plastic dissipation is therefore proposed as a convenient complementary experimental data to identify the constitutive equation of the isotropic hardening variable of a cyclic plasticity model. (author)

  5. Balance of the stored energies sustained by the internal and edge transport barriers and effects of ELMs and L-H transitions in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Koide, Y.; Oyama, N.; Urano, H.; Kamiya, K.; Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.

    2009-01-01

    To understand key physics processes determining radial profiles of the kinetic plasma parameters in the advanced tokamak operation scenarios, correlations between the edge transport barrier (ETB) and the internal transport barrier (ITB) have been studied in the JT-60U tokamak device. It has been found that the edge pedestal poloidal beta, β p -ped, increases almost linearly with the total poloidal beta, β p -tot, over a wide range of the plasma current for type I ELMing H-mode plasmas, and this dependence becomes stronger with increasing triangularity. This dependence is not due to the profile stiffness, since the dependence is the same regardless of the existence of ITB. As the stored energy inside the ITB-foot radius (W ITB ) increases, the total thermal stored energy (W th ) increases and then the pedestal stored energy (W ped ) increases. On the other hand, as W ped increases, the ELM penetration expands more inwards and finally reaches the ITB-foot radius. At this situation, the ITB-foot radius cannot move outwards because of the erosion by ELMs. Then the fractions of W ITB /W th and W ped /W th become almost constant. It has also been found that the type I ELM expels/decreases the edge toroidal momentum larger than the edge ion thermal energy. The ELM penetration for the toroidal rotation tends to be deeper than that for the ion temperature and can exceed the ITB-foot radius. The ELM penetration is deeper for CO-rotating plasmas than CTR rotating plasmas. In both cases, the ELM penetration is deeper in the order of the toroidal rotation (V t ), the ion temperature (T i ) and then the electron temperature (T e ). The L-H transition also changes the V t profile more significantly than the T i profile. At the L-H transition, the pedestal V t shifts into the CTR-direction deeply and suddenly without a change in T i , and then the pedestal V t grows further together with a growth of the pedestal T i in a slower timescale. Such changes in V t by ELMs and L

  6. Large high current density superconducting solenoids for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Taylor, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Very often the study of high energy physics in colliding beam storage-rings requires a large magnetic field volume in order to detect and analyze charged particles which are created from the collision of two particle beams. Large superconducting solenoids which are greater than 1 meter in diameter are required for this kind of physics. In many cases, interesting physics can be done outside the magnet coil, and this often requires that the amount of material in the magnet coil be minimized. As a result, these solenoids should have high current density (up to 10 9 A m -2 ) superconducting windings. The methods commonly used to stabilize large superconducting magnets cannot be employed because of this need to minimize the amount of material in the coils. A description is given of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory program for building and testing prototype solenoid magnets which are designed to operate at coil current densities in excess of 10 9 A m -2 with magnetic stored energies which are as high as 1.5 Megajoules per meter of solenoid length. The coils use intrinsically stable multifilament Nb--Ti superconductors. Control of the magnetic field quench is achieved by using a low resistance aluminum bore tube which is inductively coupled to the coil. The inner cryostat is replaced by a tubular cooling system which carries two phase liquid helium. The magnet coil, the cooling tubes, and aluminum bore tube are cast in epoxy to form a single unified magnet and cryogenic system which is about 2 centimeters thick. The results of the magnet coil tests are discussed

  7. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  8. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  9. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores ( n = 2973) were linked to state taxes ( n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  10. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  11. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  12. Advanced energy systems (APU) for large commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberger, A.; Bleil, J.; Arendt, M. [Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The intention of using a highly integrated component using on fuel cell technology installed on board of large commercial passenger aircraft for the generation of onboard power for the systems demand during an entire aircraft mission was subject of several studies. The results of these studies have been based on the simulation of the whole system in the context of an aircraft system environment. In front of the work stood the analyses of different fuel cell technologies and the analyses of the aircraft system environment. Today onboard power is provided on ground by an APU and in flight by the main engines. In order to compare fuel cell technology with the today's usual gas turbine operational characteristics have been analysed. A second analysis was devoted to the system demand for typical aircraft categories. The MEA system concept was supposed in all cases. The favourable concept represented an aircraft propelled by conventional engines with starter generator units, providing AC electrical power, covering in total proximately half of the power demand and a component based on fuel cell technology. This component provided electrical DC power, clean potable water, thermal energy at 180 degrees Celsius and nitrogen enriched air for fire suppression and fire extinguishing agent. In opposite of a usual gas turbine based APU, this new unit was operated as the primary power system. (orig.)

  13. Formation of large target residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    We have used radiochemical techniques to measure the yields, angular distributions and velocity spectra of the large (A/sub frag/ ≥ 2/3 A/sub tgt/) target residues from the fragmentation of 197 Au by intermediate energy 12 C, 20 Ne, 32 S, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 139 La projectiles. The fragment moving frame angular distributions are asymmetric for the lighter projectiles (C-Ar). The fragment velocity spectra are Maxwellian for the Kr induced reactions and non-Maxwellian for the reactions induced by the lighter ions. We interpret these results in terms of a change in the dominant fragment production mechanism(s) from one(s) involving a fast non-equilibrium process for the lighter ions to a slow, equilibrium process for Kr. Comparison of the measured yields and angular distributions with calculations made using a Boltzmann transport equation with appropriate modifications for Pauli blocking, etc., show excellent agreement between data and theory. 12 refs., 12 figs

  14. Analytical Calculation of Stored Electrostatic Energy per Unit Length for an Infinite Charged Line and an Infinitely Long Cylinder in the Framework of Born-Infeld Electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, F.; Moayedi, S. K.; Shafabakhsh, M.

    2015-01-01

    More than 80 years ago, Born-Infeld electrodynamics was proposed in order to remove the point charge singularity in Maxwell electrodynamics. In this work, after a brief introduction to Lagrangian formulation of Abelian Born-Infeld model in the presence of an external source, we obtain the explicit forms of Gauss’s law and the energy density of an electrostatic field for Born-Infeld electrostatics. The electric field and the stored electrostatic energy per unit length for an infinite charged line and an infinitely long cylinder in Born-Infeld electrostatics are calculated. Numerical estimations in this paper show that the nonlinear corrections to Maxwell electrodynamics are considerable only for strong electric fields. We present an action functional for Abelian Born-Infeld model with an auxiliary scalar field in the presence of an external source. This action functional is a generalization of the action functional which was presented by Tseytlin in his studies on low energy dynamics of D-branes (Nucl. Phys. B469, 51 (1996); Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 19, 3427 (2004)). Finally, we derive the symmetric energy-momentum tensor for Abelian Born-Infeld model with an auxiliary scalar field

  15. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  16. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  17. Look-Ahead Strategies Based on Store-Carry and Forward Relaying for Energy Efficient Cellular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotis Kolios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing availability of Internet type services on mobile devices and the attractive flat rate all-you-can-eat billing system, cellular telecommunication networks are experiencing a tremendous growth in data usage demand. However, there are increasing concerns that current network deployment trends (including more efficient radio access techniques and increased spectrum allocation strategies, will be unable to support the increased Internet traffic in a sustainable way. The delay tolerant nature of mobile Internet traffic allows for a large degree of flexibility in optimizing network performance to meet different design objectives and it’s a feature that has mostly gone unexplored by the research community. In this paper, we introduce a novel message forwarding mechanism in cellular networks that benefits from the inherent delay tolerance of Internet type services to provide flexible and adjustable forwarding strategies for efficient network operation while guaranteeing timely deliveries. By capitalizing on the elasticity of message delivery deadlines and the actual mobility of nodes inside the cell, considerable performance gains can be achieved by physically propagating information messages within the network.

  18. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, Ajit [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), SAS Nagar, Mohali, Punjab 160 062 (India); Jena, Gopabandhu, E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), SAS Nagar, Mohali, Punjab 160 062 (India)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields}Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. {yields}Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. {yields}Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. {yields}Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia ({approx}18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 {+-} 16.32 vs. 126.37 {+-} 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance ({approx}78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  19. S961, an insulin receptor antagonist causes hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistance and depletion of energy stores in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Ajit; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →Insulin receptor antagonist S961 causes hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in rats. →Peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone improves S961 induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. →Long term treatment with insulin receptor antagonist S961 results in the decreased adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. →Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. -- Abstract: Impairment in the insulin receptor signaling and insulin mediated effects are the key features of type 2 diabetes. Here we report that S961, a peptide insulin receptor antagonist induces hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia (∼18-fold), glucose intolerance and impairment in the insulin mediated glucose disposal in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, long-term S961 treatment (15 day, 10 nM/kg/day) depletes energy storage as evident from decrease in the adiposity and hepatic glycogen content. However, peroxysome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone significantly (P < 0.001) restored S961 induced hyperglycemia (196.73 ± 16.32 vs. 126.37 ± 27.07 mg/dl) and glucose intolerance (∼78%). Improvement in the hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by pioglitazone clearly demonstrates that S961 treated rats can be successfully used to screen the novel therapeutic interventions having potential to improve glucose disposal through receptor independent mechanisms. Further, results of the present study reconfirms and provide direct evidence to the crucial role of insulin receptor signaling in the glucose homeostasis and fuel metabolism.

  20. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Assessing Construction Systems Storing Renewable Energy: Application to Phase Change Material-Bearing Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Tenorio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance or energy efficiency of a single construction element by itself is often a futile exercise. That is not the case, however, when an element is designed, among others, to improve building energy performance by harnessing renewable energy in a process that requires a source of external energy. Harnessing renewable energy is acquiring growing interest in Mediterranean climates as a strategy for reducing the energy consumed by buildings. When such reduction is oriented to lowering demand, the strategy consists in reducing the building’s energy needs with the use of construction elements able to passively absorb, dissipate, or accumulate energy. When reduction is pursued through M&E services, renewable energy enhances building performance. The efficiency of construction systems that use renewable energy but require a supplementary power supply to operate can be assessed by likening these systems to regenerative heat exchangers built into the building. The indicators needed for this purpose are particularly useful for designers, for they can be used to compare the efficiency or performance to deliver an optimal design for each building. This article proposes a series of indicators developed to that end and describes their application to façades bearing phase change materials (PCMs.

  1. Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems: System and project perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blarke Morten B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps (HP with existing combined heat and power (CHP plants, is critically sensitive to the operational mode of the HP vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance, mainly given by the temperature level of the heat source. When using ground source for low-temperature heat source, heat production costs increases by about 10%, while partial use of condensed flue gasses for low-temperature heat source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the analysis shows that when a large-scale HP is integrated with an existing CHP plant, the projected spot market situation in The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool towards 2025, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-supply constrained power generation electricity, further reduces the operational hours of the CHP unit over time, while increasing the operational hours of the HP unit. In result, an HP unit at half the heat production capacity as the CHP unit in combination with a heat-only boiler represents as a possibly financially feasible alternative to CHP operation, rather than a supplement to CHP unit operation. While such revised operational strategy would have impacts on policies to promote co-generation, these results indicate that the integration of large-scale HP may jeopardize efforts to promote co-generation. Policy instruments should be designed to promote the integration of HP with lower than half of the heating capacity of the CHP unit. Also it is found, that CHP-HP plant designs should allow for the utilization of heat recovered from the CHP unit’s flue gasses for both concurrent (CHP unit and HP unit and independent operation (HP unit only. For independent operation, the recovered heat is required to be stored. .

  2. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  3. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  4. Storing biomass in round bales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summer, H.R.; Hellwig, R.E.; Monroe, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    Biomass fuels, in the form of crop residues, were stored outside in large round bales. The influence of rainfall on bale mass and the change in apparent average moisture content (A.A.M.C) was studied. Covering the bales with large sheets of polyethylene was found to be the most effective way of reducing moisture penetration.

  5. Large scale computing in the Energy Research Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Energy Research Supercomputer Users Group (ERSUG) comprises all investigators using resources of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Research supercomputers. At the December 1989 meeting held at Florida State University (FSU), the ERSUG executive committee determined that the continuing rapid advances in computational sciences and computer technology demanded a reassessment of the role computational science should play in meeting DOE's commitments. Initial studies were to be performed for four subdivisions: (1) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Applied Mathematical Sciences (AMS), (2) Fusion Energy, (3) High Energy and Nuclear Physics, and (4) Health and Environmental Research. The first two subgroups produced formal subreports that provided a basis for several sections of this report. Additional information provided in the AMS/BES is included as Appendix C in an abridged form that eliminates most duplication. Additionally, each member of the executive committee was asked to contribute area-specific assessments; these assessments are included in the next section. In the following sections, brief assessments are given for specific areas, a conceptual model is proposed that the entire computational effort for energy research is best viewed as one giant nation-wide computer, and then specific recommendations are made for the appropriate evolution of the system

  6. Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)

  7. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  8. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  9. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  10. Large-scale wind energy application. Transporting wind energy over long distances using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy or biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Geuzendam, C.; Gilijamse, W.; Westra, C.A.; Curvers, A.P.W.M.; Beurskens, H.J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The main objective of the study on the title subject is to assess the long-term prospects for large-scale application of wind energy, in combination with hydro energy in Norway and in combination with biomass energy in Scotland. These countries have high wind resource areas, however they are located far away from load centres. The development of new transmission technologies as High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, in combination with highly suitable places for wind energy in Norway and Scotland, forms the driving force behind this study. The following two cases are being considered: (1) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Norway from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy. Hydro energy already makes a large contribution to the energy supply of Norway. Wind farms can contribute to the electricity production and save hydro energy generated electricity and make the export of electricity profitable; and (2) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Scotland from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with biomass energy. Scotland has a large potential for biomass production such as energy crops and forestry. Poplars and willows cultivated on set-aside land can be gasified and fed into modern combined-cycle plants to generate electricity. In Scotland the usable potential of wind energy may be limited in the short and medium term by the capacity of the grid. New connections can overcome this constraint and allow wind energy to be treated as a European Union resource rather than as a national resource. Thus, the concept of this study is to look at the possibilities of making a 1,000 MW link from The Netherlands to Norway or to Scotland, in order to supply electricity at competitive costs generated with renewable energy sources. 16 figs., 24 tabs., 80 refs

  11. The stored energy in processed Cu-0.4 wt.%Cr-0.12 wt.%Zr-0.02 wt.%Si-0.05 wt.%Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.F.; Dong, A.P.; Wang, L.T.; Yu, Z.; Meng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The crystal orientation in processed Cu-0.4 wt.%Cr-0.12 wt.%Zr-0.02 wt.%Si-0.05 wt.%Mg is deviating from the as-cast specimens and microstrain of the alloy is gradually increasing as the draw ratio rising before η ≤ 6.7. → The dynamic recovery has taken place as 6.7 texture is formed with the draw ratio rising. Meanwhile, the stored energy also increases with the draw ratio rising and a peak is reached with draw ratio of 6.7. The release of stored energy is primarily due to the decrease of dislocation density. The flow stress estimated from the stored energy has a similar variation trend with the measured data with a stress difference ∼20 to 120 MPa. The main strengthening effect is attributed to dislocation mechanism.

  12. Unsupervised Calculation of Free Energy Barriers in Large Crystalline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, Thomas D.; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of free energy differences for thermally activated mechanisms in the solid state are routinely hindered by the inability to define a set of collective variable functions that accurately describe the mechanism under study. Even when possible, the requirement of descriptors for each mechanism under study prevents implementation of free energy calculations in the growing range of automated material simulation schemes. We provide a solution, deriving a path-based, exact expression for free energy differences in the solid state which does not require a converged reaction pathway, collective variable functions, Gram matrix evaluations, or probability flux-based estimators. The generality and efficiency of our method is demonstrated on a complex transformation of C 15 interstitial defects in iron and double kink nucleation on a screw dislocation in tungsten, the latter system consisting of more than 120 000 atoms. Both cases exhibit significant anharmonicity under experimentally relevant temperatures.

  13. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  14. Column Store for GWAC: A High-cadence, High-density, Large-scale Astronomical Light Curve Pipeline and Distributed Shared-nothing Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Meng; Wu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Yulei; Xin, Liping; Mullender, Sjoerd; Mühleisen, Hannes; Scheers, Bart; Zhang, Ying; Nes, Niels; Kersten, Martin; Huang, Yongpan; Deng, Jinsong; Wei, Jianyan

    2016-11-01

    The ground-based wide-angle camera array (GWAC), a part of the SVOM space mission, will search for various types of optical transients by continuously imaging a field of view (FOV) of 5000 degrees2 every 15 s. Each exposure consists of 36 × 4k × 4k pixels, typically resulting in 36 × ˜175,600 extracted sources. For a modern time-domain astronomy project like GWAC, which produces massive amounts of data with a high cadence, it is challenging to search for short timescale transients in both real-time and archived data, and to build long-term light curves for variable sources. Here, we develop a high-cadence, high-density light curve pipeline (HCHDLP) to process the GWAC data in real-time, and design a distributed shared-nothing database to manage the massive amount of archived data which will be used to generate a source catalog with more than 100 billion records during 10 years of operation. First, we develop HCHDLP based on the column-store DBMS of MonetDB, taking advantage of MonetDB’s high performance when applied to massive data processing. To realize the real-time functionality of HCHDLP, we optimize the pipeline in its source association function, including both time and space complexity from outside the database (SQL semantic) and inside (RANGE-JOIN implementation), as well as in its strategy of building complex light curves. The optimized source association function is accelerated by three orders of magnitude. Second, we build a distributed database using a two-level time partitioning strategy via the MERGE TABLE and REMOTE TABLE technology of MonetDB. Intensive tests validate that our database architecture is able to achieve both linear scalability in response time and concurrent access by multiple users. In summary, our studies provide guidance for a solution to GWAC in real-time data processing and management of massive data.

  15. Large scale grid integration of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents comprehensive coverage of the means to integrate renewable power, namely wind and solar power. It looks at new approaches to meet the challenges, such as increasing interconnection capacity among geographical areas, hybridisation of different distributed energy resources and building up demand response capabilities.

  16. Guaranteed Discrete Energy Optimization on Large Protein Design Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncini, David; Allouche, David; de Givry, Simon; Delmas, Céline; Barbe, Sophie; Schiex, Thomas

    2015-12-08

    In Computational Protein Design (CPD), assuming a rigid backbone and amino-acid rotamer library, the problem of finding a sequence with an optimal conformation is NP-hard. In this paper, using Dunbrack's rotamer library and Talaris2014 decomposable energy function, we use an exact deterministic method combining branch and bound, arc consistency, and tree-decomposition to provenly identify the global minimum energy sequence-conformation on full-redesign problems, defining search spaces of size up to 10(234). This is achieved on a single core of a standard computing server, requiring a maximum of 66GB RAM. A variant of the algorithm is able to exhaustively enumerate all sequence-conformations within an energy threshold of the optimum. These proven optimal solutions are then used to evaluate the frequencies and amplitudes, in energy and sequence, at which an existing CPD-dedicated simulated annealing implementation may miss the optimum on these full redesign problems. The probability of finding an optimum drops close to 0 very quickly. In the worst case, despite 1,000 repeats, the annealing algorithm remained more than 1 Rosetta unit away from the optimum, leading to design sequences that could differ from the optimal sequence by more than 30% of their amino acids.

  17. Experimental testing of moorings for large floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a test campaign, which investigates the behaviour of a synthetic mooring system applied to the Floating Power Plant wave energy converter. The study investigates the motion and tension response under operational and extreme sea states expected at the deployment ...

  18. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  19. Large combined heat and power plants in sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    . It is concluded that the CCGT CHP plant is the most feasible both from a technical analysis and a market economic analysis with electricity exchange. It is found that the current economic framework for large CHP plants in Denmark generates a mismatch between socio economy and business economy as well...

  20. Analysis of Danish energy research: are the funds sufficient, and are the priorities the right ones?; Analyse af dansk energiforskning: er bevillingerne store nok, og er prioriteringerne rigtige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhagen, C. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Hougaard Jensen, S.E. (Centre For Economic and Business Research (CEBR), Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Moellgaard, P.; Nielsen, Soeren Bo (Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    One of Denmark's official energy policy objectives is that Denmark must be independent of fossil fuels in the long term (2050). In addition, Denmark has committed itself to targets at the medium term (2020), which implies a much higher proportion of renewable energy in total energy supply and a marked lower emission of greenhouse gases. An assessment of the Danish energy research must be considered in conjunction with these broad objectives. Additionally the energy research must be assessed from its socio-economic importance, including its contribution to economic growth and productivity. Danish energy research has shown that it is possible to create good research environments and results at a high international level. Danish energy research are today carried out in close international cooperation, and Danish energy researchers are good at getting EU research funding. The analysis indicates that both co-financing from abroad and from industry are significantly higher for Danish energy research than for Danish research in general. There are Danish strongholds within the technologies which the International Energy Agency (IEA) has estimated to provide the highest cost reduction, including fuel cells, electric cars, solar cells and geothermal heat pumps. With Risoe / DTU as the leading institute and with larger environments at other universities, Denmark has managed to develop specific competencies in several renewable technologies and in development and integration of the electricity system. Despite statements of wanting to be the 'pioneer' country, Denmark does not give energy research especially high priority. Thus, public funding for energy research is only 7-8% of the total public research funding, which corresponds to OECD average. The research funding system for energy has been characterized by considerable instability in funding over a longer period of time ('stop-go'). This weakens the possibilities for long term planning of research

  1. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  2. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  3. The evolution with strain of the stored energy in different texture components of cold-rolled IF steel revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauthier-Monnin, A. [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); ArcelorMittal Research Voie Romaine BP 30320, 57 283 Maizières-les Metz (France); Chauveau, T.; Castelnau, O. [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Réglé, H. [ArcelorMittal Research Voie Romaine BP 30320, 57 283 Maizières-les Metz (France); Bacroix, B., E-mail: brigitte.bacroix@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-06-15

    During the deformation of low carbon steel by cold-rolling, dislocations are created and stored in grains depending on local crystallographic orientation, deformation, and deformation gradient. Orientation dependent dislocation densities have been estimated from the broadening of X-ray diffraction lines measured on a synchrotron beamline. Different cold-rolling levels (from 30% to 95% thickness reduction) have been considered. It is shown that the present measurements are consistent with the hypothesis of the sole consideration of screw dislocations for the analysis of the data. The presented evolutions show that the dislocation density first increases within the α fiber (=(hkl)<110>) and then within the γ fiber (=(111)). A comparison with EBSD measurements is done and confirms that the storage of dislocations during the deformation process is orientation dependent and that this dependence is correlated to the cold-rolling level. If we assume that this dislocation density acts as a driving force during recrystallization, these observations can explain the fact that the recrystallization mechanisms are generally different after moderate or large strains. - Highlights: • Dislocation densities are assessed by XRD in main texture components of a steel sheet. • Dislocation densities vary with both strain and texture components. • The analysis relies on the sole presence of screw dislocations. • The measured dislocation densities include the contribution of both SSD and GND.

  4. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC): The Energy Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Giorgio; Jenni, Peter

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Superconducting Magnets: Powerful, Precise, Plentiful * LHC Cryogenics: Quantum Fluids at Work * Current Leads: High Temperature Superconductors to the Fore * A Pumping Vacuum Chamber: Ultimate Simplicity * Vertex Detectors at LHC: In Search of Beauty * Large Silicon Trackers: Fast, Precise, Efficient * Two Approaches to High Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimetry * Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber: Chronometry of Particles * The LHCb RICH: The Lord of the Cherenkov Rings * Signal Processing: Taming the LHC Data Avalanche * Giant Magnets for Giant Detectors

  5. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  6. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the

  7. Energy Constraints for Building Large-Scale Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    although most systems built to date do not consider these issues as primary constraints. Keywords: Neuromorphic Engineering; Cortical Operation...2Mbyte, 32bit input data, and 1Mbyte, 32bit output data, results in 3.1mW (Vdd = 2.5V) of power, even though one might find a DSP chip computing at...4MMAC(/s)/mW power efficiency [5], close to the power / energy efficiency wall [6]. A memory chip or data source further away requires even higher

  8. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schmidt; S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin); L.C. Rivero; J.H. Doorn; V.E. Ferraggine

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML

  9. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  10. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  11. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  12. Public reactions to large-scale energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C J; Daamen, D D; Verplanken, B

    1986-02-01

    In the first part of this article we discuss certain factors which are of influence upon the perception of risks connected to energy technologies. Several studies show that the catastrophic potential and the degree to which people consider negative consequences to be controllable are the main factors which influence this perception. In the next part differences between experts and lay people are discussed. Lay people are found to be bad at making numerical estimates of annual fatality frequencies of different causes of death. High frequencies appear to be underestimated and low frequencies overestimated. We conclude that differences between experts and lay people may be partly explained by the use of different concepts in talking about risks. In the third part attitudes on the use of nuclear energy and coal for the generation of electricity are discussed. Attitudes are determined by the observed probability of negative consequences rather than the expected probability of positive effects. It appears that the differences between the two groups are mostly not based on ideology but rather determined by a fairly rational trade-off of expected risks and advantages. The last part is concerned with the siting of nuclear power plants. The fact that people living near nuclear plants give a lower estimate of the risks than people living further away can be explained in a number of ways. Finally we discuss the problem of compensation for local residents and representatives in the choice of a site for a new plant. Our conclusion is that the usefulness of such strategies depends on the fact whether the perception of risks on a local level is based on feelings of insecurity or on an expert-like risk assessment. 4 figs., 35 refs.

  13. Risk Management Challenges in Large-scale Energy PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegeltija, Miroslava; Oehmen, Josef; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    data and representation of the results to the decision makers play an important role. Second, we introduce a selection of alternative, so-called “post-probabilistic”, risk management methods developed across different scientific fields to cope with uncertainty due to lack of knowledge. Possibilities......Probabilistic risk management approaches have a long tradition in engineering. A large variety of tools and techniques based on the probabilistic view of risk is available and applied in PSS practice. However, uncertainties that arise due to lack of knowledge and information are still missing...... for overcoming industrial PSS risk management challenges are suggested through application of post-probabilistic methods. We conclude with the discussion on the importance for the field to consider their application....

  14. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhenxing; Wu Yong; Li Baizhan; Gao Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China.

  15. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhenxing; Li, Baizhan; Gao, Yafeng [The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China); Wu, Yong [The Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Zhenxing [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China)], E-mail: jinzhenxing33@sina.com; Wu Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Beijing 100835 (China); Li Baizhan; Gao Yafeng [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045 (China)

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China.

  17. Large wind farms in the electric power systems. Voltage quality and power dynamics. Final report; Store vindmoelleparker i elsystemet. Spaendingskvalitet og effektdynamik. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the project has partly been to compare practical measurements with theoretical calculations in order to make quantitative evaluations of the consequences for the power system when large offshore wind farms are connected and partly to develop a regulation algorithm for control of offshore wind farm's power production meeting the demands of the connection conditions. A comparison between calculated flicker emissions and measured flicker emissions has shown that the IEC standard for calculation of flicker emissions from wind farms is conservative as the counterbalancing is underestimated. The calculated flicker emissions are approx. twice as big as the measured flicker emissions. A comparison between theoretical simulations of grid faults and measurement tests has shown satisfying correspondence. This has validated the newly developed theoretical models of offshore wind turbines for simulation of stability conditions in the power system. The validation has been an important element during evaluations of offshore wind turbines' effect on the operating stability of the power system and hereby the reliability of supply. A failsafe regulation algorithm for control of offshore wind farms maximum (instantaneous)production has been developed. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice and has proven to work satisfactory. (BA)

  18. Method for activity measurement in large packages of radioactive wastes. Is the overall activity stored inside a final repository systematically under-estimated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottner, B.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of a rad waste package is usually evaluated from gamma spectrometry measurements or dose rates emitted by the package, associated with transfer functions. These functions are calculated assuming that both activity and mass distributions are homogeneous. The proposed method, OPROF-STAT (patented) evaluates the error arising from this homogeneous assumption. This error has a systematic part, leading to an over or underestimation of the overall activity in a family of similar waste packages, and a stochastic part, whose mean effect on the overall activity of the family is null. The method consists in building a virtual family of packages, by numeric simulation of the filling of each package of the family. The simulated filling has a stochastic part, so that the mass and activity distributions inside a package are different from one package to another. The virtual packages are wholly known, which is not the case for the real family, and it is then possible to compute the result of a measurement, and the associated error, for each package of the virtual family. A way to fit and demonstrate the representativeness of the virtual is described. The main trends and parameters modifying the error are explored: a systematic underestimation of the activity in a large family of rad waste packages is possible. (author)

  19. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  20. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  1. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  2. Large eddy simulation study of the kinetic energy entrainment by energetic turbulent flow structures in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative

  3. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  4. Energy key performance indicators : a european benchmark and assessment of meaningful indicators for the use of energy in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrichs, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze energy key performance indicators among large European companies. Energy usage has become a very meaningful topic for both internal management as well as external stakeholders of a company. A review of current literature suggests that while environmental indicators in general have found broad attention and plenty of theories concerning good and meaningful indicators are published, no study investigating actually applied energy indicators ...

  5. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  6. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stores or if it is possible to predict that success. Multiple studies of private commercial grocery consumer preferences , habits and demographics have...appropriate number of competitors due to the nature of international cultures and consumer preferences . 2. Missing Data Four of the remaining stores

  7. Storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear have applied for permission to build a temporary ground-level dry store for spent fuel at Torness. However, Nirex's failure to find a suitable site for a long-term repository could mean that the Torness store will be less temporary than planned. (author)

  8. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  9. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  10. Search for new physics in final states with a high energy electron and large missing transverse energy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00345099

    The most successful and comprehensive theory describing the microcosm is the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). It comprises all known elementary particles and describes in high precision the basic processes of three of the four fundamental interactions. But still, not all experimental observations and theoretical challenges are covered. Many models exist that take the SM as a good approximation of natural phenomena in already discovered energy regions, but extend it in various ways. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides the opportunity to look into these high energy regions using proton-proton collisions at significantly higher center-of-mass energies than previous experiments. This dissertation searches for physics beyond the SM especially in final states with one highly energetic electron (respectively positron) and large missing transverse energy. With the data set recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector making use of the LHC, the spectrum of the related combined ...

  11. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new store is integrated with an aircraft, it is necessary to verify that it separates safely for all possible release and emergency jettison scenarios. A large number of store separation analyses are required to comply with this requirement...

  12. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A.R.; Manegold, Stefan; Kersten, Martin; Rivero, L.C.; Doorn, J.H.; Ferraggine, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML standards as possible. The ubiquity of XML has sparked great interest in deploying concepts known from Relational Database Management Systems such as declarative query languages, transactions, indexes ...

  13. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  14. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  15. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  16. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    You can now make Material Request from CERN Stores over the WEB :CERN Home/Administrative Tools/EDH/Material Requestor https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAGVia the Stores Catalogue : CERN Home/Administrative Tools/Stores Catalogueor http://edhcat.cern.ch/In both cases, you need to enter your EDH login and password.For more details, you can consult the Quick Reference Guide on :http://edh.cern.ch/doc/quickrefguides.htmlor obtain a printed version from AIS Support at tel: 79933or e-mail to: ais.support@cern.chSPL DivisionLogistics Group

  17. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  18. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  19. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  20. Direct evaluation of free energy for large system through structure integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Tanaka, Ryohei; Yuge, Koretaka

    2015-09-30

    We propose a new approach, 'structure integration', enabling direct evaluation of configurational free energy for large systems. The present approach is based on the statistical information of lattice. Through first-principles-based simulation, we find that the present method evaluates configurational free energy accurately in disorder states above critical temperature.

  1. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  2. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  3. Inclusive spectra of mesons with large transverse momenta in proton-nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykasov, G.I.; Sherkhonov, B.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Basing on the proposed earlier quark model of hadron-nucleus processes with large transverse momenta psub(perpendicular) the spectra of π +- , K +- meson production with large psub(perpendicular) in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies are calculated. The performed comparison of their dependence of the nucleus-target atomic number A with experimental data shows a good agreement. Theoretical and experimental ratios of inclusive spectra of K +- and π +- mesons in the are compared. Results of calculations show a rather good description of experimental data on large psub(perpendicular) meson production at high energies

  4. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  5. Comparison of energy flows in deep inelastic scattering events with and without a large rapidity gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-07-01

    Energy flows in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering are investigated at a centre-of-mass energy of 296 GeV for the range Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector. A comparison is made between events with and without a large rapidity gap between the hadronic system and the proton direction. The energy flows, corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, are shown for these two classes of events in both the HERA laboratory frame and the Breit frame. From the differences in the shapes of these energy flows we conclude that QCD radiation is suppressed in the large-rapidity-gap events compared to the events without a large rapidity gap. (orig.)

  6. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  7. Application of solar energy for meeting the energetic demand of large hotel objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycheh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The extensive review of renewable energy sources especially taking account the solar energy and its practical application have been described. It has been shown that the use of solar batteries for supply the large hotel objects is satisfactory only in geographic regions of very intensive isolation, e.g. in Latakia. For regions in Middle Europe, the calculations of energy needs during whole year have been shown that application of only solar energy is un-sufficient and economically unreasonable. During winter the solar installation should be supported by the sources of energy available in the region. The core full economical analysis has been done. Its results proved that e.g. for the German climate conditions the price of energy unit taken from combined solar installation is very close the price of energy obtained in conventional fossil fuel power plants. 37 refs, 48 figs, 29 tabs

  8. Numerical Analysis of a Large Floating Wave Energy Converter with Adjustable Structural Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Pecher, Arthur Francois Serge; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    by the structural loads in extreme conditions. TheWeptos is a large floating WEC, with multiple absorbers, which has proven to be a serious candidate for the renewable energy market, due to both relevant power performance and reduced cost if compared with other WECs. The scope of this article is to compare two......The current cost of energy (CoE) from wave energy converters (WECs) is still significantly higher than other renewable energy resources, thus the sector has not yet reached a competitive level. WECs have a relative small turnover compared to the high capital cost, which to a large extent is driven...... different configurations of the Weptos machine, using the cost of energy (CoE) as a base of comparison. The numerical results are obtained via a multi-body analysis carried out in frequency domain....

  9. Economic Model Predictive Control for Large-Scale and Distributed Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura

    Sources (RESs) in the smart grids is increasing. These energy sources bring uncertainty to the production due to their fluctuations. Hence,smart grids need suitable control systems that are able to continuously balance power production and consumption.  We apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC......) strategy to optimise the economic performances of the energy systems and to balance the power production and consumption. In the case of large-scale energy systems, the electrical grid connects a high number of power units. Because of this, the related control problem involves a high number of variables......In this thesis, we consider control strategies for large and distributed energy systems that are important for the implementation of smart grid technologies.  An electrical grid has to ensure reliability and avoid long-term interruptions in the power supply. Moreover, the share of Renewable Energy...

  10. Mechanism and models for collisional energy transfer in highly excited large polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer in highly excited molecules (say, 200-500 kJ mol -1 above the zero-point energy of reactant, or of product, for a recombination reaction) is reviewed. An understanding of this energy transfer is important in predicting and interpreting the pressure dependence of gas-phase rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions. For many years it was thought that this pressure dependence could be calculated from a single energy-transfer quantity, such as the average energy transferred per collision. However, the discovery of 'super collisions' (a small but significant fraction of collisions which transfer abnormally large amounts of energy) means that this simplistic approach needs some revision. The 'ordinary' (non-super) component of the distribution function for collisional energy transfer can be quantified either by empirical models (e.g., an exponential-down functional form) or by models with a physical basis, such as biased random walk (applicable to monatomic or diatomic collision partners) or ergodic (for polyatomic collision partners) treatments. The latter two models enable approximate expressions for the average energy transfer to be estimated from readily available molecular parameters. Rotational energy transfer, important for finding the pressure dependence for recombination reactions, can for these purposes usually be taken as transferring sufficient energy so that the explicit functional form is not required to predict the pressure dependence. The mechanism of 'ordinary' energy transfer seems to be dominated by low-frequency modes of the substrate, whereby there is sufficient time during a vibrational period for significant energy flow between the collision partners. Super collisions may involve sudden energy flow as an outer atom of the substrate is squashed between the substrate and the bath gas, and then is moved away from the interaction by large-amplitude motion such as a ring vibration or a rotation; improved

  11. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  12. Free energies of binding from large-scale first-principles quantum mechanical calculations: application to ligand hydration energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephen J; Pittock, Chris; Tautermann, Christofer S; Fox, Thomas; Christ, Clara; Malcolm, N O J; Essex, Jonathan W; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2013-08-15

    Schemes of increasing sophistication for obtaining free energies of binding have been developed over the years, where configurational sampling is used to include the all-important entropic contributions to the free energies. However, the quality of the results will also depend on the accuracy with which the intermolecular interactions are computed at each molecular configuration. In this context, the energy change associated with the rearrangement of electrons (electronic polarization and charge transfer) upon binding is a very important effect. Classical molecular mechanics force fields do not take this effect into account explicitly, and polarizable force fields and semiempirical quantum or hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) calculations are increasingly employed (at higher computational cost) to compute intermolecular interactions in free-energy schemes. In this work, we investigate the use of large-scale quantum mechanical calculations from first-principles as a way of fully taking into account electronic effects in free-energy calculations. We employ a one-step free-energy perturbation (FEP) scheme from a molecular mechanical (MM) potential to a quantum mechanical (QM) potential as a correction to thermodynamic integration calculations within the MM potential. We use this approach to calculate relative free energies of hydration of small aromatic molecules. Our quantum calculations are performed on multiple configurations from classical molecular dynamics simulations. The quantum energy of each configuration is obtained from density functional theory calculations with a near-complete psinc basis set on over 600 atoms using the ONETEP program.

  13. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  14. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  15. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  16. Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Chae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs for the building envelope, HVAC system operational methods, and system replacement. It also evaluated each ECM from the perspective of both energy and utility cost saving potentials to help retrofitting plan decision making. The study shows that the energy consumption of the building was highly dominated by the thermal requirements of laboratory spaces. Among other ECMs the demand management option of overriding the setpoint temperature is the most cost effective measure.

  17. Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Garrett; Noble, Bram; Belcher, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is receiving increased attention as a viable alternative to non-renewable electrical generation, however, meeting global energy demands will require a more ambitious renewable energy program than is currently the case. There have been several reviews of potential technological, economic, social, or public barriers and solutions to renewable energy investment. Although important, there is also need for multi-dimensional analyses of these barriers and identification of the most significant underlying barriers if viable solutions are to be developed. In this paper we apply a theoretical framework to examine stakeholder's perceptions and understanding of the barriers to wind energy development in Saskatchewan, Canada. We identify and examine the most significant underlying barriers to investment in renewable energy and the interactions between those barriers. Results show a number of perceived barriers to wind energy investment, however, these barriers can be explained in large part by knowledge barriers, if not disagreement over whether the current level of investment in wind energy is sufficient. We show that barriers to renewable energy cannot be explained solely by technological, social, political, or economic factors in isolation, and that a multi-dimensional approach, identifying and explaining the underlying sources of these barriers, is necessary to develop viable solutions. - Highlights: ► Meeting future wind energy objectives requires an ambitious investment program. ► A framework is applied to identify and explain perceived barriers to wind energy. ► Stakeholders perceived technological and political barriers as the most significant. ► These could be explained by knowledge barriers and complacency with the status quo. ► Even with additional investment these underlying barriers will constrain progress.

  18. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  19. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  20. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  1. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  2. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  3. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  4. Shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen giver en introduktion til shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition. Den ser på de vigtigste gudinder, begreber, traditioner og forestillinger, ligesom den giver et vue over forskningssituationen. Shaktismens opståen i sin klassiske form, dens hovedretninger, virkelighedsforståelse...

  5. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of March onwards, the LYRECO (stationery) catalogue will be accessible from the Material Request form on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores catalogue and the existing individual supplier catalogues. Items will be delivered within a maximum of 48 hours. Logistics Group FI Department

  6. Store Security: Reducing Shoplifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsel, Robert; Garman, Jerry

    The major purpose of the course outline presented in the document is the reduction of stealing in retail stores. The teaching outline is formatted by juxtaposing the content outline of each substantive area next to relevant activities and methods. Some of the topics covered are psychology of shoplifting, tools used by shoplifters, Ohio's law on…

  7. Environmental impact evaluation from large energy projects; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental de grandes projetos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Alberto [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    This paper builds up theoretical framework and methodological approaches to assess environmental impacts from large energy projects. It aims towards the definition of concrete tools, and technical proceedings to allow identification and quantification (or weighing) of effects on the natural and social environment. The environmental impacts assessment, (EIA), studies are described as important instruments in planning and in the choice of alternative energy policies. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  8. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  9. Modeling the impact of large-scale energy conversion systems on global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    There are three energy options which could satisfy a projected energy requirement of about 30 TW and these are the solar, nuclear and (to a lesser extent) coal options. Climate models can be used to assess the impact of large scale deployment of these options. The impact of waste heat has been assessed using energy balance models and general circulation models (GCMs). Results suggest that the impacts are significant when the heat imput is very high and studies of more realistic scenarios are required. Energy balance models, radiative-convective models and a GCM have been used to study the impact of doubling the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. State-of-the-art models estimate a surface temperature increase of 1.5-3.0 0 C with large amplification near the poles, but much uncertainty remains. Very few model studies have been made of the impact of particles on global climate, more information on the characteristics of particle input are required. The impact of large-scale deployment of solar energy conversion systems has received little attention but model studies suggest that large scale changes in surface characteristics associated with such systems (surface heat balance, roughness and hydrological characteristics and ocean surface temperature) could have significant global climatic effects. (Auth.)

  10. Energy efficiency improving opportunities in a large Chinese shoe-making enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Yang

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption and energy intensity reduction opportunities are quite different from one enterprise to another. It is necessary to understand how much energy is used at individual enterprise, where the most energy is consumed and what the best opportunities are to invest in energy efficiency. Auditing energy efficiency was recently undertaken in one of the top 1000 largest Chinese enterprises. The objectives of this paper are to fill a gap in the literature of auditing energy efficiency for a Chinese manufacturing enterprise and to share the audited energy efficiency results. This paper concludes that if the enterprise invests USD 1.9 million to improve energy efficiency, the investment will be recovered in about 18 months. The net present value of the investment would be about USD 9.8 million at a discount rate of 12%. The investment will reduce a large amount of energy consumption at the enterprise based on its figures in 2008, including 15% of electricity, 40% of fuel oil, and 54% of diesel. Carbon reduction is also very cost-effective. Investment of one dollar in the enterprise will help cut carbon emission by 7.95 kg per year and generate $5.3 net revenue in the economic lifetime of the invested technology.

  11. Large-scale building energy efficiency retrofit: Concept, model and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhou; Wang, Bo; Xia, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    BEER (Building energy efficiency retrofit) projects are initiated in many nations and regions over the world. Existing studies of BEER focus on modeling and planning based on one building and one year period of retrofitting, which cannot be applied to certain large BEER projects with multiple buildings and multi-year retrofit. In this paper, the large-scale BEER problem is defined in a general TBT (time-building-technology) framework, which fits essential requirements of real-world projects. The large-scale BEER is newly studied in the control approach rather than the optimization approach commonly used before. Optimal control is proposed to design optimal retrofitting strategy in terms of maximal energy savings and maximal NPV (net present value). The designed strategy is dynamically changing on dimensions of time, building and technology. The TBT framework and the optimal control approach are verified in a large BEER project, and results indicate that promising performance of energy and cost savings can be achieved in the general TBT framework. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency retrofit of many buildings is studied. • A TBT (time-building-technology) framework is proposed. • The control system of the large-scale BEER is modeled. • The optimal retrofitting strategy is obtained.

  12. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  13. A Short Proof of the Large Time Energy Growth for the Boussinesq System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolese, Lorenzo; Mouzouni, Charafeddine

    2017-10-01

    We give a direct proof of the fact that the L^p-norms of global solutions of the Boussinesq system in R^3 grow large as t→ ∞ for 1R+× R3. In particular, the kinetic energy blows up as \\Vert u(t)\\Vert _2^2˜ ct^{1/2} for large time. This contrasts with the case of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. Smart Energy Cryo-refrigerator Technology for the next generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We describe a “smart energy” cryocooler technology architecture for the next generation Very Large Array that makes use of multiple variable frequency cold heads driven from a single variable speed air cooled compressor. Preliminary experiments indicate that the compressor variable flow control, advanced diagnostics, and the cryo-refrigerator low vibration, provide a unique energy efficient capability for the very large number of antennas that will be employed in this array.

  15. Large-Scale Power Production Potential on U.S. Department of Energy Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillesheim, Michael B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jeff [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Boak, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Washington, Jeremy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sharp, Cory [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This report summarizes the potential for independent power producers to generate large-scale power on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and export that power into a larger power market, rather than serving on-site DOE loads. The report focuses primarily on the analysis of renewable energy (RE) technologies that are commercially viable at utility scale, including photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, biomass, landfill gas (LFG), waste to energy (WTE), and geothermal technologies. The report also summarizes the availability of fossil fuel, uranium, or thorium resources at 55 DOE sites.

  16. A stochastic model of depolarization enhancement due to large energy spread in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1988-10-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of isolated spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA and LEP, at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  17. An energy-efficient data gathering protocol in large wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Zhang, Ruihua; Tao, Shizhong

    2006-11-01

    Wireless sensor network consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power transceiver can be an effective tool for gathering data in a variety of environment. The collected data must be transmitted to the base station for further processing. Since a network consists of sensors with limited battery energy, the method for data gathering and routing must be energy efficient in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this paper, we presented an energy-efficient data gathering protocol in wireless sensor network. The new protocol used data fusion technology clusters nodes into groups and builds a chain among the cluster heads according to a hybrid of the residual energy and distance to the base station. Results in stochastic geometry are used to derive the optimum parameter of our algorithm that minimizes the total energy spent in the network. Simulation results show performance superiority of the new protocol.

  18. Nuclear fusion and its large potential for the future world energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongena Jef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the energy problem in the world is presented. The colossal task of ‘decarbonizing’ the current energy system, with ~85% of the primary energy produced from fossil sources is discussed. There are at the moment only two options that can contribute to a solution: renewable energy (sun, wind, hydro, etc. or nuclear fission. Their contributions, ~2% for sun and wind, ~6% for hydro and ~5% for fission, will need to be enormously increased in a relatively short time, to meet the targets set by policy makers. The possible role and large potential for fusion to contribute to a solution in the future as a safe, nearly inexhaustible and environmentally compatible energy source is discussed. The principles of magnetic and inertial confinement are outlined, and the two main options for magnetic confinement, tokamak and stellarator, are explained. The status of magnetic fusion is summarized and the next steps in fusion research, ITER and DEMO, briefly presented.

  19. Dry fuel store for advanced gas cooled reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.S.; Boocock, P.M.; Ealing, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel storage requirements in Scotland and the selection of a Dry Fuel Store of the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) design developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GECA). A similar design of store has been selected and has been constructed in the USA by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation in collaboration with GECA

  20. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  1. The vertex and large angle detectors of a spectrometer system for high energy muon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Dobinson, R.W.; Dosselli, U.; Edwards, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Kellner, G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mueller, H.; Osborne, A.M.; Scaramelli, A.; Watson, E.; Brasse, F.W.; Falley, G.; Flauger, W.; Gayler, J.; Goessling, C.; Koll, J.; Korbel, V.; Nassalski, J.; Singer, G.; Thiele, K.; Zank, P.; Figiel, J.; Janata, F.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Bernaudin, B.; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Noppe, J.M.; Pascaud, C.; Bertsch, Y.; Bouard, X. de; Broll, C.; Coignet, G.; Favier, J.; Jansco, G.; Lebeau, M.; Maire, M.; Minssieux, H.; Montanet, F.; Moynot, M.; Nagy, E.; Payre, P.; Perrot, G.; Pessard, H.; Ribarics, P.; Schneegans, M.; Thenard, J.M.; Botterill, D.; Carr, J.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Rousseau, M.D.; Sproston, M.; Thompson, J.C.; Albanese, J.P.; Allkofer, O.C.; Arneodo, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bianchi, F.; Bibby, J.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Cornelssen, M.; Costa, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dau, W.D.; Davies, J.K.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Eckardt, V.; Ferrero, M.I.; Gamet, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Haas, J.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kahl, T.; Krueger, J.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Manz, A.; Mermet-Guyennet, M.; Mohr, W.; Moser, K.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Peroni, C.; Pettingale, J.; Poetsch, M.; Preissner, H.; Renton, P.; Rith, K.; Roehner, F.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schultze, K.; Shiers, J.; Sloan, T.; Smith, R.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Williams, D.A.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.; Winkmueller, G.; Wolf, G.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the detector system which forms the large angle spectrometer and vertex detector of the EMC spectrometer. The apparatus is used in the NA9 experiment which studies the complete hadronic final state from the interaction of high energy muons. (orig.)

  2. Combining offshore wind energy and large-scale mussel farming: background & technical, ecological and economic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Rockmann, C.; Scholl, M.M.; Bartelings, H.; Burg, van den S.W.K.; Jak, R.G.; Jansen, H.M.; Klijnstra, J.; Leopold, M.F.; Poelman, M.; Smith, S.R.; Stavenuiter, J.; Veenstra, F.A.; Veltman, C.; Westra, C.

    2014-01-01

    This Blauwdruk project report presents background and technical, ecological and economic considerations of the potential combination of offshore wind energy production and large-scale mussel farming in offshore areas in the North Sea. The main objective of the Blauwdruk project was to study the

  3. Study on superhigh energy γ-ray family events with large-scale Fe emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling; Su Shi

    1990-01-01

    Using a large-scale iron emulsion chamber, a big γ-ray family event with observed energy ΣE r = 7631 TeV was obtained. This paper described the advantages of iron emulsion chamber for studying big families and the characteristics of the event observed, together with a comparison with the Monte-Carlo simulation results

  4. Large-Scale Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires for Solar Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingchang; Jie, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiujuan; Ou, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-10-11

    The development of silicon (Si) materials during past decades has boosted up the prosperity of the modern semiconductor industry. In comparison with the bulk-Si materials, Si nanowires (SiNWs) possess superior structural, optical, and electrical properties and have attracted increasing attention in solar energy applications. To achieve the practical applications of SiNWs, both large-scale synthesis of SiNWs at low cost and rational design of energy conversion devices with high efficiency are the prerequisite. This review focuses on the recent progresses in large-scale production of SiNWs, as well as the construction of high-efficiency SiNW-based solar energy conversion devices, including photovoltaic devices and photo-electrochemical cells. Finally, the outlook and challenges in this emerging field are presented.

  5. Large-area atmospheric Cherenkov detectors for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new ground-based gamma-ray detectors to explore the energy region between 20 and 200 GeV. This region in energy is interesting because it is currently unexplored by any experiment. The proposed detectors use the atmospheric Cherenkov technique, in which Cherenkov radiation produced in the gamma-ray air showers is detected using mirrors and light-sensitive devices. The important feature of the proposed experiments is the use of large mirror collection areas, which should allow for a significant improvement (i.e. reduction) in energy threshold over existing experiments. Large mirror areas are available for relatively low cost at central tower solar power plants, and there are two groups developing gamma-ray experiments using solar heliostat arrays. This paper summarizes the progress in the design of experiments using this novel approach

  6. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro......-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher...... and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity...

  7. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  8. Ultrasonic-energy enhance the ionic liquid-based dual microextraction to preconcentrate the lead in ground and stored rain water samples as compared to conventional shaking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Sooraj; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I

    2018-01-01

    An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb +2 ) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb +2 was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb +2 complex in aqueous samples. For second phase, dual microextraction (DµE phase), the enriched Pb +2 complex in ionic liquid, extracted back into the acidic aqueous solution and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some major analytical parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of developed method, such as pH, concentration of ligand, volume of ionic liquid and samples, time of shaking in thermostatic electrical shaker and ultrasonic bath, effect of back extracting HNO 3 volume, matrix effect, centrifugation time and rate were optimized. At the sample volume of 25mL, the calculated preconcentration factor was 62.2. The limit of detection of proposed procedure for Pb +2 ions was found to be 0.54μgL -1 . The validation of developed method was performed by the analysis of certified sample of water SRM 1643e and standard addition method in a real water sample. The extraction recovery of Pb +2 was enhanced≥2% with shaking time of 80s in ultrasonic bath as compared to used thermostatic electrical shaker, where for optimum recovery up to 10min was required. The developed procedure was successfully used for the enrichment of Pb +2 in ground and stored rain water (surface water) samples of an endemic region of Pakistan. The resulted data indicated that the ground water samples were highly contaminated with Pb +2 , while some of the surface water samples were also have higher values of Pb +2 than permissible limit of

  9. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  10. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  11. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  12. Energy System Analysis of Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-11-01

    The paper presents the results of two research projects conducted by Aalborg University and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme. Both projects include the development of models and system analysis with focus on large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems. Market reactions and ability to exploit exchange on the international market for electricity by locating exports in hours of high prices are included in the analyses. This paper focuses on results which are valid for energy systems in general. The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power, The ability is expressed by three factors: One factor is the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and CHP heat demands. The other factor is the ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO 2 emission in the system. And the third factor is the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system, in which 50 per cent of the electricity demand is produced in CHP, a number of future energy systems with CO 2 reduction potentials are analysed, i.e. systems with more CHP, systems using electricity for transportation (battery or hydrogen vehicles) and systems with fuel-cell technologies. For the present and such potential future energy systems different regulation strategies have been analysed, i.e. the inclusion of small CHP plants into the regulation task of electricity balancing and grid stability and investments in electric heating, heat pumps and heat storage capacity. Also the potential of energy management has been analysed. The results of the analyses make it possible to compare short-term and long-term potentials of different strategies of large-scale integration of wind power

  13. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  14. Search for new physics in final states with a high energy electron and large missing transverse energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, Natascha

    2017-01-13

    The most successful and comprehensive theory describing the microcosm is the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). It comprises all known elementary particles and describes in high precision the basic processes of three of the four fundamental interactions. But still, not all experimental observations and theoretical challenges are covered. Many models exist that take the SM as a good approximation of natural phenomena in already discovered energy regions, but extend it in various ways. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides the opportunity to look into these high energy regions using proton-proton collisions at significantly higher center-of-mass energies than previous experiments. This dissertation searches for physics beyond the SM especially in final states with one highly energetic electron (respectively positron) and large missing transverse energy. With the data set recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector making use of the LHC, the spectrum of the related combined transverse mass can be measured up to the TeV scale. To find any evidence to the existence of new physics beyond the SM, it was searched for significant deviations between the observed data and the expectations due to SM processes. Unfortunately, no significant excess could be observed and exclusion limits in the context of three different new physics scenarios are provided. Besides a so-called Sequential Standard Model (SSM) predicting additional vector gauge bosons, also the possible existence of (charged) chiral bosons is analyzed. Also inferences about dark matter candidates called ''weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)'' are drawn. With the aid of a Bayesian ansatz, the observed (expected) exclusion limit on the boson pole mass is set to 3.13 TeV(3.13 TeV) for a SSM W' boson and to 3.08 TeV(3.08 TeV) for charged chiral W{sup *} bosons (at 95% C.L.).

  15. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  16. Extinction of radiant energy by large atmospheric crystals with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The calculated results of extinction characteristics of visible and infrared radiation for large semi-transparent crystals are obtained by hybrid technique, which is a combination of the geometric optics method and the physical optics method. Energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation extinction in terms of the elements of the extinction matrix for individual large crystals and ensemble of crystals are discussed. Influences of particle shapes, aspect ratios, parameters of size distribution, complex refractive index, orientation of crystals, wavelength, and the polarization state of an incident radiation on the extinction are illustrated. It is shown that the most expressive and stable features of energy and polarization characteristics of the extinction are observed in the midinfrared region, despite the fact that the ice particles significantly absorb the radiant energy of this spectrum. It is demonstrated that the polarized extinction characteristics can reach several tens of percent at IR wavelengths. For the large crystals, the conditions of occurrence of the spectral behavior of the extinction coefficient in the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength ranges are determined. - Highlights: • Method of physical optics is used at coherent sum of diffracted and refracted fields. • The extinction characteristics in terms of elements of extinction matrix are obtained. • Influence of shapes and sizes of large particles on the extinction is evaluated. • Conditions of occurrence of extinction features are determined.

  17. The first Spanish prototype for storing energy in a superconductor cylinder. Primer prototipo espanol de almacenamiento de energia en bobina superconductora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tabares Rodriguez, L.; Tamarit Rodriguez, J. (CEDEX. MORT (Spain))

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the first test of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) of 20 KJ at 4.2 degree K which has been developed within the framework of a common agreement between four Institutions: ACICA, CEDEX, ICMA and MIDAS,being the second part of a report already published in this review entitled ''A 10 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid of Energy Storage.'' After a brief description of how SMES works and which are its main components, a more detailed definition of the tests which have been carried out is presented. These tests demonstrate that a very high efficiency can be achieved in the entire process of charging and discharging the coil throughout a six pulses converter, establishing a very reliable procedure of injecting and extracting energy to the electrical grid. Finally, future trends in the field of SMES are briefly described and which be their main applications. (Author)

  18. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, Jinghui [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chuirazzi, William [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-21

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current–voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a {sup 241}Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 µm at −550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field. - Highlights: • An alpha-particle detector based on a Schottky-structured GaN wafer was tested. • The detector's large depletion depth enables fuller energy spectra to be obtained. • The best resolution yet attained in GaN alpha-particle spectrometry was achieved. • The detector's short carrier transit time resulted in improved charge collection. • This detector is usable in extreme conditions, including intense radiation fields.

  19. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Aumeier, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  20. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  1. Value of spatial planning for large mining and energy complexes. [Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matko, Z; Spasic, N

    1982-01-01

    In the example of the Kosovo complex (Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslovia) an examination is made of the value of developing a spatial plan for the territory of large mining-energy complexes. The goals and expected results of spatial planning are discussed. The open method of working lignite, fuel shale and other fossil energy raw material fields at the modern level of development of technology, in addition to large-volume physical interferences in space, causes considerable structural changes of functional-economic, socioeconomic and psychological-sociological nature in the direct zone of influence of the mining-energy complex. Improvement in technology of working a lignite field does not guarantee in the near future any solutions in developing the mining-energy complexes, and therefore it is necessary to count on considerable volume of degradation of space which is governed by the existing technology. Under these conditions detailed planning and regulation of space is especially important, if one views them as a component part of long term policy for development of the mining energy complex and the zones of its influence.

  2. Engaging the public with low-carbon energy technologies: Results from a Scottish large group process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rhys; Shackley, Simon; Mabon, Leslie; Ashworth, Peta; Jeanneret, Talia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large group process conducted in Edinburgh, Scotland investigating public perceptions of climate change and low-carbon energy technologies, specifically carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The quantitative and qualitative results reported show that the participants were broadly supportive of efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and that there is an expressed preference for renewable energy technologies to be employed to achieve this. CCS was considered in detail during the research due to its climate mitigation potential; results show that the workshop participants were cautious about its deployment. The paper discusses a number of interrelated factors which appear to influence perceptions of CCS; factors such as the perceived costs and benefits of the technology, and people's personal values and trust in others all impacted upon participants’ attitudes towards the technology. The paper thus argues for the need to provide the public with broad-based, balanced and trustworthy information when discussing CCS, and to take seriously the full range of factors that influence public perceptions of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • We report the results of a Scottish large group workshop on energy technologies. • There is strong public support for renewable energy and mixed opinions towards CCS. • The workshop was successful in initiating discussion around climate change and energy technologies. • Issues of trust, uncertainty, costs, benefits, values and emotions all inform public perceptions. • Need to take seriously the full range of factors that inform perceptions

  3. Compressor-less Hydrogen Transmission Pipelines Deliver Large-scale Stranded Renewable Energy at Competitive Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W Leighty; J Holloway; R Merer; B Somerday; C San Marchi; G Keith; D White

    2006-01-01

    We assume a transmission-constrained world, where large new wind plants and other renewable energies must pay all transmission costs for delivering their energy to distant markets. We modeled a 1,000 MW (1 GW) (name plate) wind plant in the large wind resource of the North America Great Plains, delivering exclusively hydrogen fuel, via a new gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline, to an urban market at least 300 km distant. All renewable electric energy output would be converted, at the source, to hydrogen, via 100 bar output electrolyzers, directly feeding the GH2 transmission pipeline without costly compressor stations at inlet or at midline. The new GH2 pipeline is an alternative to new electric transmission lines. We investigate whether the pipeline would provide valuable energy storage. We present a simple model by which we estimate the cost of wind-source hydrogen fuel delivered to the distant city gate in year 2010, at GW scale. Ammonia, synthetic hydrocarbons, and other substances may also be attractive renewable-source energy carriers, storage media, and fuels; they are not considered in this paper. (authors)

  4. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ 3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  5. Electricity network limitations on large-scale deployment of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.

  6. Behavioral responses of birds of prey to large scale energy development in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    The types of raptorial and semi-raptorial birds that use the Hanford environs are discussed along with the impacts of past operations and the recent WPPSS project on their populations. These findings add to our understanding of the population dynamics of the birds of prey community at the Hanford Site and the expected impacts of the WPPSS energy facilities. The results may have implications toward other large scale energy facilities, and may aid us in management of bird of prey communities throughout the grasslands of the western United States. 110 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Computing the universe: how large-scale simulations illuminate galaxies and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2015-04-01

    High-performance and large-scale computing is absolutely to understanding astronomical objects such as stars, galaxies, and the cosmic web. This is because these are structures that operate on physical, temporal, and energy scales that cannot be reasonably approximated in the laboratory, and whose complexity and nonlinearity often defies analytic modeling. In this talk, I show how the growth of computing platforms over time has facilitated our understanding of astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, focusing primarily on galaxies and large-scale structure in the Universe.

  8. Saving Energy in Industrial Companies: Case Studies of Energy Efficiency Programs in Large U.S. Industrial Corporations and the Role of Ratepayer-Funded Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-08

    This paper is designed for companies looking to cut costs through energy savings, ratepayer-funded program administrators interested in increasing large industrial company participation in energy efficiency program offerings, and state utility commissions.

  9. Energy Efficiency of large Cryogenic Systems: the LHC Case and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Ferlin, G; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    2013-01-01

    Research infrastructures for high-energy and nuclear physics, nuclear fusion and production of high magnetic fields are increasingly based on applied superconductivity and associated cryogenics in their quest for scientific breakthroughs at affordable capital and operation costs, a condition for their acceptance and sustained funding by society. The thermodynamic penalty for operating at low temperature makes energy efficiency a key requirement for their large cryogenic systems, from conceptual design to procurement, construction and operation. Meeting this requirement takes a combined approach on several fronts in parallel: management of heat loads and sizing of cooling duties, distribution of cooling power matching the needs of the superconducting devices, efficient production of refrigeration, optimal control resting on precise instrumentation and diagnostics, as well as a targeted industrial procurement policy. The case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is presented. Potential improvements for fu...

  10. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  11. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  12. Storing of free neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1978-12-01

    The applied method makes use of the interaction between the magnetic moment μ vector of the neutron and a magnetic field B vector. By means of superconducting magnets there can easily be achieved potential walls of μ B approximately 2 x 10 -7 eV. The principle of magnetic storing was first used for the storage ring NESTOR and showed immediate success: the stored neutrons decreased exponentially with a time constant tau = (907 +- 70) sec corresponding to the natural lifetime of the neutrons within the statistical errors. This means that there occurred no measurable additional losses (e.g. by resonance excitation) Neutrons therefore could be observed in the storage ring during about 5 half-lives (in principle of course longer, too). The orbit dynamics for neutrons in the storage ring is smilar to that in circular accelerators for charged particles. It is so well understood that the problem of the storage ring for uncharged particles (with magnetic moment) may be considered to e solved. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Abnormally large energy spread of electron beams extracted from plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1976-07-01

    Intense electron beams extracted from DUOPLASMATRON-plasma cathodes show a high degree of modulation in intensity and an abnormally large energy spread; these facts cannot be explained simply by the temperature of the plasma electrons and the discharge structure. However, an analysis of the discharge stability behaviour and the interaction of source- and extracted beam-plasma leads to an explanation for the observed effects.

  14. DAPHNE: A large-acceptance tracking detector for the study of photoreactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G.; Bloch, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Isbert, V.; Martin, J.; Powers, R.; Sundermann, D.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A.; Bechade, J.; Carton, P.H.; Conat, S.; Foucaud, D.; Goldsticker, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Braghieri, A.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica)

    1991-03-15

    A large-acceptance (94% of 4{pi} sr) hadron detector capable of handling multiparticle final states is described. The track reconstruction capability, energy resolution, particle identification capability and neutral-particle detection efficiency of the detector are discussed and the results of tests shown. Tests have been performed both with cosmic rays and in a realistic experimental situation using a 500 MeV photon beam impinging on hydrogen and deuteron targets. (orig.).

  15. Infinitely many large energy solutions of superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence of infinitely many large energy solutions for the superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations $$displaylines{ -Delta u+V(xu+ phi u=f(x,u quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3,cr -Delta phi=u^2, quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3, }$$ via the Fountain Theorem in critical point theory. In particular, we do not use the classical Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition.

  16. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  17. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  18. Low energy neutrino astrophysics with the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Winter, J.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will cover a broad field of physics. Apart from the detection of terrestrial and artificial neutrinos, and the search for proton decay, important contributions can be made to the astrophysics of stars by high-precision spectroscopy of low-energetic solar neutrinos and by the observation of neutrinos emitted by a galactic supernova. Moreover, the detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in LENA will offer the opportunity of studying both supernova core-collapse models and the supernova rate on cosmological timescales (z e events in an almost background-free energy window from ∼10 to 25 MeV. The search for such rare low-energetic events takes advantage of the high energy resolution and excellent background rejection possible in the LENA detector

  19. A new analysis technique to measure fusion excitation functions with large beam energy dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, P.; Di Pietro, A.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.

    2018-01-01

    Peculiar nuclear structures of two colliding nuclei such has clustering, neutron halo/skin or very low breakup thresholds can affect the reaction dynamics below the Coulomb barrier and this may also have astrophysical consequences. In order to have a better understanding of this topic, in the last decade, several experiments were performed. A typical experimental challenge of such studies is the need to measure excitation functions below the Coulomb barrier, having a strong energy dependence, with rather large beam energy dispersions inside the target. This may easily lead to ambiguities in associating the measured cross section with a proper beam energy. In this paper a discussion on this topic is reported and a new technique to deal with the above problem will be proposed.

  20. First Joint Workshop on Energy Management for Large-Scale Research Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

      CERN, ERF (European Association of National Research Facilities) and ESS (European Spallation Source) announce the first Joint Workshop on Energy Management for Large-Scale Research Infrastructures. The event will take place on 13-14 October 2011 at the ESS office in Sparta - Lund, Sweden.   The workshop will bring together international experts on energy and representatives from laboratories and future projects all over the world in order to identify the challenges and best practice in respect of energy efficiency and optimization, solutions and implementation as well as to review the challenges represented by potential future technical solutions and the tools for effective collaboration. Further information at: http://ess-scandinavia.eu/general-information

  1. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  2. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  3. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.

  4. Composition variations of low energy heavy ions during large solar energetic particle events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, George C., E-mail: George.Ho@jhuapl.edu; Mason, Glenn M., E-mail: Glenn.Mason@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The time-intensity profile of large solar energetic particle (SEP) event is well organized by solar longitude as observed at Earth orbit. This is mostly due to different magnetic connection to the shock that is associated with large SEP event propagates from the Sun to the heliosphere. Earlier studies have shown event averaged heavy ion abundance ratios can also vary as a function of solar longitude. It was found that the Fe/O ratio for high energy particle (>10 MeV/nucleon) is higher for those western magnetically well connected events compare to the eastern events as observed at L1 by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In this paper, we examined the low energy (∼1 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions in 110 isolated SEP events from 2009 to the end of 2014. In addition, the optical and radio signatures for all of our events are identified and when data are available we also located the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) data. Our survey shows a higher Fe/O ratio at events in the well-connected region, while there are no corrections between the event averaged elemental composition with the associated coronal mass ejection speed. This is inconsistent with the higher energy results, but inline with other recent low-energy measurements.

  5. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  6. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  7. Simplified DFT methods for consistent structures and energies of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeweyher, Eike; Gerit Brandenburg, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Kohn–Sham density functional theory (DFT) is routinely used for the fast electronic structure computation of large systems and will most likely continue to be the method of choice for the generation of reliable geometries in the foreseeable future. Here, we present a hierarchy of simplified DFT methods designed for consistent structures and non-covalent interactions of large systems with particular focus on molecular crystals. The covered methods are a minimal basis set Hartree–Fock (HF-3c), a small basis set screened exchange hybrid functional (HSE-3c), and a generalized gradient approximated functional evaluated in a medium-sized basis set (B97-3c), all augmented with semi-classical correction potentials. We give an overview on the methods design, a comprehensive evaluation on established benchmark sets for geometries and lattice energies of molecular crystals, and highlight some realistic applications on large organic crystals with several hundreds of atoms in the primitive unit cell.

  8. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  10. Low energy response calibration of the BATSE large area detectors onboard the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, C.E. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)]. E-mail: Chris.Laird@eku.edu; Harmon, B.A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Wilson, Colleen A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hunter, David [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States); Isaacs, Jason [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The low-energy attenuation of the covering material of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) large area detectors (LADs) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory as well as the small-angle response of the LADs have been studied. These effects are shown to be more significant than previously assumed. The LAD entrance window included layers of an aluminum-epoxy composite (hexel) that acted as a collimator for the lowest energy photons entering the detector just above threshold (20-50 keV). Simplifying assumptions made concerning the entrance window materials and the angular response at incident angles near normal to the detector face in the original BATSE response matrix formalism had little effect on {gamma}-ray burst measurements; however, these assumptions created serious errors in measured fluxes of galactic sources, whose emission is strongest near the LAD energy threshold. Careful measurements of the angular and low-energy dependence of the attenuation due to the hexel plates only partially improved the response. A systematic study of Crab Nebula spectra showed the need for additional corrections: an angular-dependent correction for all detectors and an angular-independent correction for each detector. These corrections have been applied as part of an overall energy and angular-dependent correction to the BATSE response matrices.

  11. Development of large scale wind energy conservation system. Development of large scale wind energy conversion system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of large scale wind energy conversion system. The study on technological development of key components evaluates performance of, and confirms reliability and applicability of, hydraulic systems centered by those equipped with variable pitch mechanisms and electrohydraulic servo valves that control them. The study on blade conducts fatigue and crack-propagation tests, which show that the blades developed have high strength. The study on speed-increasing gear conducts load tests, confirming the effects of reducing vibration and noise by modification of the gear teeth. The study on NACELLE cover conducts vibration tests to confirm its vibration characteristics, and analyzes three-dimensional vibration by the finite element method. Some components for a 500kW commercial wind mill are fabricated, including rotor heads, variable pitch mechanisms, speed-increasing gears, YAW systems, and hydraulic control systems. The others fabricated include a remote supervisory control system for maintenance, system to integrate the wind mill into a power system, and electrical control devices in which site conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and lightening, are taken into consideration.

  12. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  13. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  14. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethe, Martin; Rubi, J. Miguel; Fita, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  15. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethe, Martin, E-mail: martingoethe@ub.edu; Rubi, J. Miguel [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fita, Ignacio [Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  16. Dynamics of the Solar Wind Electromagnetic Energy Transmission Into Magnetosphere during Large Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara; Laptukhov, Alexej; Petrov, Valery

    Causes of the geomagnetic activity (GA) in the report are divided into temporal changes of the solar wind parameters and the changes of the geomagnetic moment orientation relative directions of the solar wind electric and magnetic fields. Based on our previous study we concluded that a reconnection based on determining role of mutual orientation of the solar wind electric field and geomagnetic moment taking into account effects of the Earth's orbital and daily motions is the most effective compared with existing mechanisms. At present a reconnection as paradigma that has applications in broad fields of physics needs analysis of experimental facts to be developed. In terms of reconnection it is important not only mutual orientation of vectors describing physics of interaction region but and reconnection rate which depends from rate of energy flux to those regions where the reconnection is permitted. Applied to magnetosphere these regions first of all are dayside magnetopause and polar caps. Influence of rate of the energy flux to the lobe magnetopause (based on calculations of the Poyting electromagnetic flux component controlling the reconnection rate along the solar wind velocity Pv) on planetary GA (Dst, Kp indices) is investigated at different phases of geomagnetic storms. We study also the rate of energy flux to the polar caps during storms (based on calculations of the Poyting flux vector component along the geomagnetic moment Pm) and its influence on magnetic activity in the polar ionosphere: at the auroral zone (AU,AL indices). Results allow to evaluate contributions of high and low latitude sources of electromagnetic energy to the storm development and also to clear mechanism of the electromagnetic energy transmission from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. We evaluate too power of the solar wind electromagnetic energy during well-known large storms and compare result with power of the energy sources of other geophysical processes (atmosphere, ocean

  17. Many and small or large and few? A comparison of the environmental effects of different strategies for the development of hydropower plants.; Mange og smaa eller store og faa? En sammenligning av miljoevirkningene ved ulike strategier for utvikling av vannkraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Sundt, Haakon; Ruud, Audun

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the cumulative environmental impact of 27 small hydro power plants to the environmental impact of an average of three large hydropower plants, which range from the small farms and the average of the major producing about as much energy. Based on the empirical basis used in this study are the environmental impacts of large hydropower fewer and less severe than the cumulative environmental impacts from the 27 small plants. The results are, however marginal in favor of big hydro power plants and suffers from uncertainties due to lack of precision in the raw data, limitations of the methodic of accumulating environmental effects of many small facilities and extensive use of discretion in the transition between the scientific description of the environmental impacts and impact classes (Statens Vegvesen, 2006). The input data in the study has primarily been published available environmental impact assessment (KU). The results must therefore be said to have limited power statement in order to draw general conclusions. The identified environmental effects are to some extent, different from the type and size, so that an individual valuation and political or administrative priorities will to a large extent determine the preferred strategy for the development of hydropower. From 2012 promoted the production stimulating action as a result of common certificate market with Sweden. Small hydro power plants has so far been a priority in Norway, but when Norway implements EU Water Framework Directive in all areas of precipitation, one should be aware of our findings, especially regarding the potential in expanding of existing hydropower plants. (auth)

  18. Summing the strokes: energy economy in northern elephant seals during large-scale foraging migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, J L; Adachi, T; Takahashi, A; Naito, Y; Crocker, D E; Horning, M; Williams, T M; Costa, D P

    2015-01-01

    The energy requirements of free-ranging marine mammals are challenging to measure due to cryptic and far-ranging feeding habits, but are important to quantify given the potential impacts of high-level predators on ecosystems. Given their large body size and carnivorous lifestyle, we would predict that northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have elevated field metabolic rates (FMRs) that require high prey intake rates, especially during pregnancy. Disturbance associated with climate change or human activity is predicted to further elevate energy requirements due to an increase in locomotor costs required to accommodate a reduction in prey or time available to forage. In this study, we determined the FMRs, total energy requirements, and energy budgets of adult, female northern elephant seals. We also examined the impact of increased locomotor costs on foraging success in this species. Body size, time spent at sea and reproductive status strongly influenced FMR. During the short foraging migration, FMR averaged 90.1 (SE = 1.7) kJ kg(-1)d(-1) - only 36 % greater than predicted basal metabolic rate. During the long migration, when seals were pregnant, FMRs averaged 69.4 (±3.0) kJ kg(-1)d(-1) - values approaching those predicted to be necessary to support basal metabolism in mammals of this size. Low FMRs in pregnant seals were driven by hypometabolism coupled with a positive feedback loop between improving body condition and reduced flipper stroking frequency. In contrast, three additional seals carrying large, non-streamlined instrumentation saw a four-fold increase in energy partitioned toward locomotion, resulting in elevated FMRs and only half the mass gain of normally-swimming study animals. These results highlight the importance of keeping locomotion costs low for successful foraging in this species. In preparation for lactation and two fasting periods with high demands on energy reserves, migrating elephant seals utilize an economical foraging

  19. Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Kozubal, E.; Norton, P.

    2010-08-01

    Walmart opened two experimental stores--one in Colorado and one in Texas--in 2005 to serve as test beds for several advanced building systems. Each embodied more than 50 experiments covering materials, water systems, energy systems, and renewable energy production. Walmart worked for three years with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Colorado Store and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Texas store to monitor, analyze, and report on their performance. HVAC experiments included waste oil boilers, a microturbine/absorption chiller combined heat and power system, evaporative cooling, and a transpired solar collector. The refrigeration systems integrated a medium-temperature secondary loop, evaporatively cooled condenser, doors on medium-temperature cases, and light-emitting diodes on cases. Experiments in the lighting systems included a redesigned roof for clerestory daylighting and T-5 fluorescent lamps. Three photovoltaic systems for a total of 135 kW and a 50-kW wind turbine are also included. The energy system performance was compared to the measured performance of a prototypical Walmart store and to other benchmarks.

  20. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher volatility. A lack of wind that causes high prices is rarely seen because long periods without wind are uncommon. Therefore we focus on the low price effects and the increased value of flexible demand options. On the supply side, there is an increase in the value of other flexible generation technologies and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity for heat production are discussed based on the variability of prices observed from 2006 to 2008.

  1. Using heart rate to predict energy expenditure in large domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, N; Ruoß, C; Dobenecker, B; Reese, S; Starck, J M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish heart rate as a measure of energy expenditure in large active kennel dogs (28 ± 3 kg bw). Therefore, the heart rate (HR)-oxygen consumption (V˙O2) relationship was analysed in Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim-Labrador cross-breds (FBI dogs) at rest and graded levels of exercise on a treadmill up to 60-65% of maximal aerobic capacity. To test for effects of training, HR and V˙O2 were measured in female dogs, before and after a training period, and after an adjacent training pause to test for reversibility of potential effects. Least squares regression was applied to describe the relationship between HR and V˙O2. The applied training had no statistically significant effect on the HR-V˙O2 regression. A general regression line from all data collected was prepared to establish a general predictive equation for energy expenditure from HR in FBI dogs. The regression equation established in this study enables fast estimation of energy requirement for running activity. The equation is valid for large dogs weighing around 30 kg that run at ground level up to 15 km/h with a heart rate maximum of 190 bpm irrespective of the training level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. An analysis of Australia's large scale renewable energy target: Restoring market confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Tim; Nelson, James; Ariyaratnam, Jude; Camroux, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Australia introduced legislation requiring investment in new renewable electricity generating capacity. The legislation was significantly expanded in 2009 to give effect to a 20% Renewable Energy Target (RET). Importantly, the policy was introduced with bipartisan support and is consistent with global policy trends. In this article, we examine the history of the policy and establish that the ‘stop/start’ nature of renewable policy development has resulted in investors withholding new capital until greater certainty is provided. We utilise the methodology from Simshauser and Nelson (2012) to examine whether capital market efficiency losses would occur under certain policy scenarios. The results show that electricity costs would increase by between $51 million and $119 million if the large-scale RET is abandoned even after accounting for avoided renewable costs. Our conclusions are clear: we find that policymakers should be guided by a high level public policy principle in relation to large-scale renewable energy policy: constant review is not reform. -- Highlights: •We examine the history of Australian renewable energy policy. •We examine whether capital market efficiency losses occur under certain policy scenarios. •We find electricity prices increase by up to $119 million due to renewable policy uncertainty. •We conclude that constant review of policy is not reform and should be avoided

  3. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  4. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is given. If we consider the importance of the topics, we can point out the lack of literature about store windows as the communication tool which allow store to communicate with its customers and to create its retailing strategy as well. There is the scientific contribution of this paper. The paper gives theoretical comprehensions completed with the results of the study about the importance of store windows for retailers as well as for customers. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a two-phase research study, including a qualitative and a quantitative approach, was used: 1 the qualitative study among retailers which indicated the most important elements of store windows, the level of financial sources invested in the window design, the basis for the decisions about store window design, etc.; 2 the quantitative study on the sample of consumers conducted with on-line questionnaire. Findings suggest that store window attractiveness is the main motif for store visits. The results of the research confirm that by means of store window and its elements (with special emphasis on price and pricing actions retail store sends messages to its consumers.

  5. Universal transport characteristics of multiple topological superconducting wires with large charging energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashuba, Oleksiy; Trauzettel, Bjoern [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Timm, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The system with multiple Majorana states coupled to the normal lead can potentially support the interaction between Majorana fermions and electrons. Such system can be implemented by several floating topological superconducting wires with large charging energy asymmetrically coupled to two normal leads. The analysis of the renormalization flow shows that there is a single fixed point - the strong coupling limit of isotropic antiferromagnetic Kondo model. The topological Kondo-like interaction leads also to the selective renormalization of the tunneling coefficients, strongly enhancing one component and suppressing others. Thus, charging energy crucially changes the transport properties of the system leading to the universal single-channel conductance independently from the values of the initial leads-wires coupling.

  6. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m 2 , the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s -1 |t| -N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2

  7. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams Generating High-Energy-Density Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, IV; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. This data has been used as input to a sophisticated two--dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1~m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy de...

  8. Engineering design for a large scale renewable energy network installation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Spencer, L.; Brown, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity's current avid consumption of resources cannot be maintained and the use of renewable energy is a significant approach towards sustainable energy future. Alberta is the largest greenhouse gas-producing province in Canada (per capita) and Climate change is expected to impact Alberta with warmer temperatures, intense floods, and earlier snow melting. However, as one of the sunniest and windiest places in Canada, Alberta is poised to become one of Canada's leader provinces in utilizing renewable energies. This research has four main objectives. First, to determine the feasibility of implementing solar and wind energy systems at the University of Lethbridge campus. Second, to quantify rooftop and parking lot solar photovoltaic potential for the city of Lethbridge. Third, to determine the available rooftop area for PV deployment in a large scale region (Province of Alberta). Forth, to investigate different strategies for correlating solar PV array production with electricity demand in the province of Alberta. The proposed work addresses the need for Alberta reductions to fossil fuel pollution that drives climate change, and degrades our air, water and land resources.

  9. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc V; Nguyen, Thuong; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2017-11-29

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  10. Dynamic classification system in large-scale supervision of energy efficiency in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiluk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rough set approximation of classification improves energy efficiency prediction. • Dynamic features of diagnostic classification allow for its precise prediction. • Indiscernibility in large population enhances identification of process features. • Diagnostic information can be refined by dynamic references to local neighbourhood. • We introduce data exploration validation based on system dynamics and uncertainty. - Abstract: Data mining and knowledge discovery applied to the billing data provide the diagnostic instruments for the evaluation of energy use in buildings connected to a district heating network. To ensure the validity of an algorithm-based classification system, the dynamic properties of a sequence of partitions for consecutive detected events were investigated. The information regarding the dynamic properties of the classification system refers to the similarities between the supervised objects and migrations that originate from the changes in the building energy use and loss similarity to their neighbourhood and thus represents the refinement of knowledge. In this study, we demonstrate that algorithm-based diagnostic knowledge has dynamic properties that can be exploited with a rough set predictor to evaluate whether the implementation of classification for supervision of energy use aligns with the dynamics of changes of district heating-supplied building properties. Moreover, we demonstrate the refinement of the current knowledge with the previous findings and we present the creation of predictive diagnostic systems based on knowledge dynamics with a satisfactory level of classification errors, even for non-stationary data

  11. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  12. Consequences of large-scale implementation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Coenen, R.; Conrad, F.; Klein, S.; Paschen, H.

    1979-02-01

    In this part of the study, selected questions concerning the economic aspects of the large-scale implementation of nuclear energy are discussed. First, the future contribution of nuclear energy towards covering total expected energy demand is defined within the framework of model projections designed with a view to fulfilling important overall economic goals. A comparison of these model projections with the present situation regarding reveals discrepancies which might, in the case of prolonged delays, result in shortages of electricity supply in the mid-eighties. The potential impacts of such delays, especially with regard to the situation on the labour market, as well as strategies to avoid difficulties in the supply of electricity, are analysed. This is followed by a comparison of the costs of electricity generation by coal-fired and nuclear power plants and by an analysis of the problem of financing the further implementation of nuclear energy. In a final chapter, the importance of the export of nuclear power plants for the German nuclear industry and for the economy as a whole is discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc V. Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  14. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring. PMID:29186037

  15. Fracture energy of stick-slip events in a large scale biaxial experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, P.G.; Dieterich, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of apparent fracture energy for the shear failure process is employed by many authors in modeling earthquake sources as dynamically extending shear cracks. Using records of shear strain and relative displacement from stick-slip events generated along a simulated, prepared fault surface in a large (1.5m x 1.5m x 0.4m) granite block and a slip-weakening model for the fault, direct estimates of the apparent shear fracture energy of the stick-slip events have been obtained. For events generated on a finely ground fault surface, apparent fracture energy ranges from 0.06 J/m 2 at a normal stress of 1.1 MPa to 0.8 J/m 2 at a normal stress of 4.6 MPa. In contrast to estimates for tensile crack formation, we find that the apparent fracture energy of stick-slip events increases linearly with normal stress. The results for the slip-weakening model for the stick-slip events are generally consistent with constitutive fault models suggested by observations of stable sliding in smaller scale experiments

  16. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10 9 yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  17. Optimal control of energy extraction in LES of large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay; Munters, Wim

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the use of optimal control combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large ``infinite'' wind farms and in finite farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with an actuator-disk representation of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in the actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. In a first infinite wind-farm case, we find that farm power is increases by approximately 16% over one hour of operation. This comes at the cost of a deceleration of the outer layer of the boundary layer. A detailed analysis of energy balances is presented, and a comparison is made between infinite and finite farm cases, for which boundary layer entrainment plays an import role. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Govern.

  18. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  19. The impacts of household retrofit and domestic energy efficiency schemes: A large scale, ex post evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Phil; Gouldson, Andy; Kerr, Niall

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the ability of retrofit schemes to shape domestic energy use in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon emissions. Although much has been written on the topic, there have been few large-scale ex post evaluations of the actual impacts of such schemes. We address this by assessing domestic energy use before and after the Kirklees Warm Zone (KWZ) scheme, which by fitting insulation in 51,000 homes in the 2007–2010 period is one of the largest retrofit schemes completed in the UK to date. To do this, we develop and apply a new methodology that isolates the impacts of retrofit activity from broader background trends in energy use. The results suggest that the actual impacts of the KWZ scheme have been higher than predicted, and that the scale of any performance gaps or rebound effects have been lower than has often been assumed. They also suggest that impacts on energy use in lower income areas are consistent with predictions, but that impacts in middle and higher income areas are higher than predicted. These findings support the case for the wider and/or accelerated adoption of domestic retrofit schemes in other contexts. -- Highlights: •A large scale, ex post evaluation of the impacts of a household retrofit scheme. •A new methodology to separate retrofit impacts from background trends. •Shows impacts of retrofit have been 1.2–1.7 times higher than predicted. •Impacts as predicted in lower income areas, higher in middle and upper income areas. •Findings support the case for the wider and faster adoption of domestic retrofit

  20. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    The scattering amplitude for the four-rung ladder diagram in φ 3 theory is evaluated at high energies and for large momentum transfers. The result takes the form of s -1 vertical stroketvertical stroke -3 multiplied by a homogeneous sixth-order polynomial in ln s and 1nvertical stroketvertical stroke. The novel and unexpected feature is that this polynomial is different depending on whether 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke is larger or less than 1/2 1n s. Thus the asymptotic formula is not analytic at 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke=1/2 1n s, although the first five derivatives are continuous. (orig.)

  1. High-Energy Physics Strategies and Future Large-Scale Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2015-01-01

    We sketch the actual European and international strategies and possible future facilities. In the near term the High Energy Physics (HEP) community will fully exploit the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Post-LHC options include a linear e+e- collider in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), as well as circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with linear and circular acceleration approaches based on crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  2. Dijet asymmetry at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The martini numerical simulation allows for direct comparison of theoretical model calculations and the latest results for dijet asymmetry from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. In this paper, partons are simulated as undergoing radiative and collisional processes throughout the evolution of central lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Using hydrodynamical background evolution determined by a simulation which fits well with the data on charged particle multiplicities from ALICE and a value of α s ≅0.25-0.3, the dijet asymmetry is found to be consistent with partonic energy loss in a hot, strongly interacting medium.

  3. Inverse energy cascade and emergence of large coherent vortices in turbulence driven by Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2013-05-10

    We report the generation of large coherent vortices via inverse energy cascade in Faraday wave driven turbulence. The motion of floaters in the Faraday waves is three dimensional, but its horizontal velocity fluctuations show unexpected similarity with two-dimensional turbulence. The inverse cascade is detected by measuring frequency spectra of the Lagrangian velocity, and it is confirmed by computing the third moment of the horizontal velocity fluctuations. This is observed in deep water in a broad range of wavelengths and vertical accelerations. The results broaden the scope of recent findings on Faraday waves in thin layers [A. von Kameke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 074502 (2011)].

  4. Large-area imaging micro-well detectors for high-energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Hunter, S D; Jahoda, K; Owens, S M

    2002-01-01

    Micro-well detectors are pixelized imaging sensors that can be inexpensively fabricated in very large arrays. Owing to their intrinsic gain and operation at room temperature, they can be instrumented at very low power, per unit area, making them valuable for a variety of space-flight applications where wide-angle X-ray imaging or large-area particle tracking is required. For example, micro-well detectors have been chosen as the focal plane imager for Lobster-ISS, a proposed soft X-ray all-sky monitor. We have fabricated detectors which image X-rays with 200 mu m FWHM resolution at 3 keV. In agreement with other groups using similar geometries, we find nominal proportional counter energy resolution (20% at 6 keV in P-10), and stable operation at gas gains up to 30,000.

  5. The Transition to Large-scale Cosmic Homogeneity in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Morag; Davis, T.; Blake, C.; James, B.; Poole, G. B.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Dark Energy Survey, WiggleZ

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental assumption of the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM) is that the universe is homogeneous on large scales. This is clearly not true on small scales, where clusters and voids exist, and some studies seem to suggest that galaxies follow a fractal distribution up to very large scales 200 h-1 Mpc or more), whereas the ΛCDM model predicts transition to homogeneity at scales of ~100 h-1 Mpc. Any cosmological measurements made below the scale of homogeneity (such as the power spectrum) could be misleading, so it is crucial to measure the scale of homogeneity in the Universe. We have used the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey to make the largest volume measurement to date of the transition to homogeneity in the galaxy distribution. WiggleZ is a UV-selected spectroscopic survey of ~200,000 luminous blue galaxies up to z=1, made with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have corrected for survey incompleteness using random catalogues that account for the various survey selection criteria, and tested the robustness of our results using a suite of fractal mock catalogues. The large volume and depth of WiggleZ allows us to probe the transition of the galaxy distribution to homogeneity on large scales and over several epochs, and see if this is consistent with a ΛCDM prediction.

  6. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of new technologies for storing farm products utilizing low-temperature energy (2nd fiscal year); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Teion energy wo riyoshita nosanbutsu no shinki chozo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the work was to create new industrial technologies utilizing low-temperature energy satisfying local needs through developing new technologies, including air conditioning technologies high in reliability and excellent in energy efficiency. The objectives of the effort were to elucidate the behavior of moisture in the atmosphere below the freezing point and to develop farm product preserving technologies, to develop highly efficient energy conversion technologies for use in the low-temperature zone, latent heat storing cold heat technologies, and system evaluation. Constructed in connection with the last-said system evaluation were three technologies, which were a below-zero high-humidity air conditioning technology based on the outcome of agricultural verification of farm product storage, energy-efficient low-temperature storage of farm products which was a combination of a low-temperature oriented energy-efficient energy conversion technology and a clathrate hydrate-aided cold heat storing technology, and a technology applicable to business in the low-temperature processing field accessorial to the said technologies. They were compared with the conventional technologies, and then it was found that the most energy-efficient system, as endorsed by a 40-50% reduction it caused in electricity rate, was a combination of a low-temperature storage, frozen food storage, hydrate cold heat storage tank, recovery facility for farm waste incineration-produced waste heat, and a pulse tube freezer. (NEDO)

  8. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  9. Large-angle theory for pion-nucleus scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoock, D.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An approximate solution for high-energy, projectile-nucleus, multiple scattering is developed from the exact Watson series and applied to pion scattering for 12 C and 4 He. Agreement with measured differential cross sections available from the literature for the range 150 to 260 MeV pion laboratory energies is surprisingly good. The approximation method expands the propagators of the Watson series about the transverse component of the momentum transfer. Contributions of each of the first two terms to double scattering from a Gaussian potential are compared to the exact solution. The purely plane-wave propagation produces a scattering amplitude that agrees to order (k 0 a) -1 with the exact solution at the forward and backward directions at high energies. The second (off-axis) propagation term produces an amplitude that is one order smaller at forward angles and two orders smaller at 180 0 than the exact amplitude. At intermediate angles it is of the same order. The general multiple-scattering series is approximated with selection of plane-wave propagation as the fundamental process at large and small angles. This model suggests that a single nucleon accepts most of the momentum transfer for backward scattering. The resulting multiple-scattering formula agrees with the well-known high-energy eikonal theory at small angles and the backward-angle scattering formula of Chen at exactly 180 0 . A lowest-order formula that includes off-axis propagation is also derived. Predicted differential cross sections are found to be sensitive to nucleon motion and binding. For 4 He the effect of the nuclear potential on the pion kinetic energy is also examined and found to produce significant changes in the predicted cross sections

  10. Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumvoulakis, Emmanouil; Asimakopoulou, Georgia; Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George; Tsakanikas, Aggelos

    2012-01-01

    As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO 2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ► Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ► RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ► Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ► New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ► Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

  11. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  12. Need for new effect based on large-scale development of renewable energy in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grinden, Bjoern; Fuchs, Ida

    2007-02-01

    Changes in the effect balance in Northern Europe between 2005 and 2020 are evaluated. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands are the countries included in the analysis. Scenarios from studies conducted in the different countries have been used as starting points. Some scenarios give explicit figures for effect installations, but most only provide estimations on the energy balance. In these cased it has been necessary to estimate how much effect there is behind the energy figures. Utilization time analyses have been employed for this, primarily. Moreover, emphasis has been put on the modelling of wind power's effect contribution, and a method based on the reliability of the production system has been employed, giving an effect varying between 18 and 24 percent in the different scenarios. Also, the need for regulation reserves has been considered. Four scenarios have been outlined along the axes growth in consumption (high/low) and share of renewable energy (high/low). All scenarios show considerable reductions in the effect balance from 2005 to 2020, varying from about 15.000 MW to 22.000 MW. The largest reduction is in Germany, but Sweden too has large reductions in each of the scenarios. The most important underlying causes are the reduction or dismantling of nuclear power and the development of large amounts of wind power, and in Germany also the development of solar power. In Norway too, the effect balance is weakened with the existing scenarios. Here, wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power contribute with relatively much energy, but little effect. The biggest insecurity in the analysis is how much thermal capacity there will be in operation in 2020, especially in Germany. In a system with much wind power, the utilization time for some of the thermal production may be short, and it may be phased out if no support schemes for effect reserves are set up. Thermal capacity as short term backup for wind power will have to compete with

  13. UTILIZING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN A LARGE, FAST, IMAGING SURVEY TO CONSTRAIN DARK ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentner, Andrew R.; Bhattacharya, Suman

    2009-01-01

    We study the utility of a large sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that might be observed in an imaging survey that rapidly scans a large fraction of the sky for constraining dark energy. We consider both the information contained in the traditional luminosity distance test as well as the spread in Ia SN fluxes at fixed redshift induced by gravitational lensing. As would be required from an imaging survey, we include a treatment of photometric redshift uncertainties in our analysis. Our primary result is that the information contained in the mean distance moduli of SNe Ia and the dispersion of SN Ia distance moduli complement each other, breaking a degeneracy between the present dark energy equation of state and its time variation without the need for a high-redshift (z ∼> 0.8) SN sample. Including lensing information also allows for some internal calibration of photometric redshifts. To address photometric redshift uncertainties, we present dark energy constraints as a function of the size of an external set of spectroscopically observed SNe that may be used for redshift calibration, N spec . Depending upon the details of potentially available, external SN data sets, we find that an imaging survey can constrain the dark energy equation of state at the epoch where it is best constrained w p , with a 1σ error of σ(w p ) ∼ 0.03-0.09. In addition, the marginal improvement in the error σ(w p ) from an increase in the spectroscopic calibration sample drops once N spec ∼ a few x 10 3 . This result is important because it is of the order of the size of calibration samples likely to be compiled in the coming decade and because, for samples of this size, the spectroscopic and imaging surveys individually place comparable constraints on the dark energy equation of state. In all cases, it is best to calibrate photometric redshifts with a set of spectroscopically observed SNe with relatively more objects at high redshift (z ∼> 0.5) than the parent sample of

  14. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Tack

    Full Text Available Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  15. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-08

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  16. Large area APDs for low energy X-ray detection in intense magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, M.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.E.; Ludhova, L.; Mulhauser, F.; Schaller, L.A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Kottmann, F.; Antognini, A.; Pohl, R.; Taqqu, D.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment to measure the energy difference between the 2S-2P atomic levels (Lamb shift) in muonic hydrogen is being prepared at PSI. Since the energy levels of muonic hydrogen are a factor of 186 more energetic than those of hydrogen, according to the ratio of reduced masses, the transitions lie in the soft X-ray region. The experiment needs long-lived muonic hydrogen in the 2S state. This is achieved by stopping a low energy muon beam in a small volume of low pressure hydrogen in a 5 T magnetic field. A pulsed beam from a tunable laser induces the 2S-2P transition and the 1.9 keV X-ray photons resulting from the 2P-1S deexcitation will be detected. Measuring the coincidences between the laser pulse and the X-ray as a function of the laser wavelength allows us to determine the Lamb shift. In this presentation we will discuss the perspectives of using large area avalanche photodiodes for the direct detection of the X-rays. Compared to gaseous detectors, they are more compact and simpler in operation. They are also insensitive to magnetic fields

  17. Large area APDs for low energy X-ray detection in intense magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, M.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.E.; Ludhova, L.; Mulhauser, F. E-mail: francoise.mulhauser@unifr.ch; Schaller, L.A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Kottmann, F.; Antognini, A.; Pohl, R.; Taqqu, D

    2003-06-01

    An experiment to measure the energy difference between the 2S-2P atomic levels (Lamb shift) in muonic hydrogen is being prepared at PSI. Since the energy levels of muonic hydrogen are a factor of 186 more energetic than those of hydrogen, according to the ratio of reduced masses, the transitions lie in the soft X-ray region. The experiment needs long-lived muonic hydrogen in the 2S state. This is achieved by stopping a low energy muon beam in a small volume of low pressure hydrogen in a 5 T magnetic field. A pulsed beam from a tunable laser induces the 2S-2P transition and the 1.9 keV X-ray photons resulting from the 2P-1S deexcitation will be detected. Measuring the coincidences between the laser pulse and the X-ray as a function of the laser wavelength allows us to determine the Lamb shift. In this presentation we will discuss the perspectives of using large area avalanche photodiodes for the direct detection of the X-rays. Compared to gaseous detectors, they are more compact and simpler in operation. They are also insensitive to magnetic fields.

  18. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  19. Dark energy and modified gravity in the Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusin, Giulia; Lewandowski, Matthew; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2018-04-01

    We develop an approach to compute observables beyond the linear regime of dark matter perturbations for general dark energy and modified gravity models. We do so by combining the Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy and Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure approaches. In particular, we parametrize the linear and nonlinear effects of dark energy on dark matter clustering in terms of the Lagrangian terms introduced in a companion paper [1], focusing on Horndeski theories and assuming the quasi-static approximation. The Euler equation for dark matter is sourced, via the Newtonian potential, by new nonlinear vertices due to modified gravity and, as in the pure dark matter case, by the effects of short-scale physics in the form of the divergence of an effective stress tensor. The effective fluid introduces a counterterm in the solution to the matter continuity and Euler equations, which allows a controlled expansion of clustering statistics on mildly nonlinear scales. We use this setup to compute the one-loop dark-matter power spectrum.

  20. Electromagnetic Weible Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T perpendi c ular b /T parallelb >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r w . The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Weibel >> (T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Harris ) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability

  1. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  2. Solar total energy: large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia Site. Annual report, June 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, E.J.

    1979-07-01

    A background summary and a complete description of the progress and current status of activities relative to the Cooperative Agreement for the Solar Total Energy - Large Scale Experiment at the Bleyle Knitwear Plant at Shenandoah, Georgia are presented. A statement of objectives and an abstract of progress to date are included. This is followed by a short introduction containing a project overview, a summary of the participants and their respective roles, a brief description of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) design concept, and a chronological summary of progress to date. A general description of the site is given, a detailed report of progress is reported, and drawings and equipment lists are included. The closed-loop solar energy system planned for Shenandoah begins with circulation of Syltherm 800, a heat transfer fluid of the Dow-Corning Corporation, through the receiver tubes of a parabolic dish solar collector field. As solar energy is focused on the receivers, the heat transfer fluid is heated to approximately 399/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F) and is pumped to a heat exchanger for immediate use, or to a thermal storage system for later use. Once in the heat exchanger, the fluid heats a working fluid that produces the steam required for operating the turbine. After performing this task, the heat transfer fluid returns to the collectors to repeat the cycle, while the steam turbine-generator system supplies the electrical demands for the knitwear plant and the STES. During STES operation, maximum thermal and electrical requirements of the application are expected to be at 1.08 MWth and 161 kWe, respectively. During the power generation phase, some of the steam is extracted for use as process steam in the knitwear manufacturing process, while exhaust steam from the turbine is passed through a condenser to produce hot water for heating, domestic use, and absorption air conditioning. (WHK)

  3. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  4. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  5. A Kind of Energy Storage Technology: Metal Organic Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Zeynel; Kose, D. A.; Asan, A.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    For last fifteen years energy has been transferred by using electricity and as an energy carrier media electricity has some disadvantages like its wire need for transportation and its being non-storable for large amounts. To store more energy safely and for transportation it easily, new storing medias and devices are needed. For easy and safe energy transport there are many technologies and some of these contain hydrogen energy. Metal hydrides, carbon nanotubes, metal organic frameworks (MOFs...

  6. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  7. Radiation Therapy of Large Intact Breasts Using a Beam Spoiler or Photons with Mixed Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene P.; Hunt, Margie A.; Hong, Linda X.; Amols, Howard I.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation treatment of large intact breasts with separations of more than 24 cm is typically performed using x-rays with energies of 10 MV and higher, to eliminate high-dose regions in tissue. The disadvantage of the higher energy beams is the reduced dose to superficial tissue in the buildup region. We evaluated 2 methods of avoiding this underdosage: (1) a beam spoiler: 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate positioned in the blocking tray 35 cm from the isocenter, with 15-MV x-rays; and (2) combining 6- and 15-MV x-rays through the same portal. For the beam with the spoiler, we measured the dose distribution for normal and oblique incidence using a film and ion chamber in polystyrene, as well as a scanning diode in a water tank. In the mixed-energy approach, we calculated the dose distributions in the buildup region for different proportions of 6- and 15-MV beams. The dose enhancement due to the beam spoiler exhibited significant dependence upon the source-to-skin distance (SSD), field size, and the angle of incidence. In the center of a 20 x 20-cm 2 field at 90-cm SSD, the beam spoiler raises the dose at 5-mm depth from 77% to 87% of the prescription, while maintaining the skin dose below 57%. Comparison of calculated dose with measurements suggested a practical way of treatment planning with the spoiler-usage of 2-mm 'beam' bolus-a special option offered by in-house treatment planning system. A second method of increasing buildup doses is to mix 6- and 15-MV beams. For example, in the case of a parallel-opposed irradiation of a 27-cm-thick phantom, dose to D max for each energy, with respect to midplane, is 114% for pure 6-, 107% for 15-MV beam with the spoiler, and 108% for a 3:1 mixture of 15- and 6-MV beams. Both methods are practical for radiation therapy of large intact breasts

  8. Large-Scale Cubic-Scaling Random Phase Approximation Correlation Energy Calculations Using a Gaussian Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jan; Seewald, Patrick; Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg

    2016-12-13

    We present an algorithm for computing the correlation energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) in a Gaussian basis requiring [Formula: see text] operations and [Formula: see text] memory. The method is based on the resolution of the identity (RI) with the overlap metric, a reformulation of RI-RPA in the Gaussian basis, imaginary time, and imaginary frequency integration techniques, and the use of sparse linear algebra. Additional memory reduction without extra computations can be achieved by an iterative scheme that overcomes the memory bottleneck of canonical RPA implementations. We report a massively parallel implementation that is the key for the application to large systems. Finally, cubic-scaling RPA is applied to a thousand water molecules using a correlation-consistent triple-ζ quality basis.

  9. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)

  10. Dorte Nors "Den store tomat"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jimmi

    2017-01-01

    Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling......Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling...

  11. Consumers’ preferences regarding department stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, W.; Borgers, A.W.J.; van den Berg, P.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for this research was the bankruptcy of one the Dutch oldest and largest chain of department stores at the end of 2015. The main goal of this research is to find what, from a consumers’ perspective, a department store should look like. A four storey (1500 m2 each) building was

  12. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  13. Large-area printed supercapacitor technology for low-cost domestic green energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Z.; Thomas, D.J.; Korochkina, T.; Phillips, C.O.; Lupo, D.; Lehtimäki, S.; O'Mahony, J.; Gethin, D.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate that a flexible ultra-thin supercapacitor can be fabricated using high volume screen printing process. This has enabled the sequential deposition of current collector, electrode, electrolyte materials and adhesive onto a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in order to form flexible electrodes for reliable energy storage applications. The electrodes were based on an activated carbon ink and gel electrolyte each of which were formulated for this application. Supercapacitors that have surface areas from 100 to 1600 mm"2 and an assembled device thickness of 375 μm were demonstrated. The capacitance ranged from 50 to 400 mF. Capacitance of printed carbon electrodes is rarely reported in literature and no references were found. The chemistry developed during this study displayed long-term cycling potential and demonstrated the stability of the capacitor for continued usage. The gel electrolyte developed within this work showed comparable performance to that of a liquid counterpart. This improvement resulted in the reduction in gel resistance from 90Ω to 0.5Ω. Significant reduction was observed for all resistances. The solid-state supercapacitors with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors that used a liquid electrolyte. This large area printed device can be used in future houses for reliable green energy storage. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that a flexible supercapacitors with large area storage has been developed. • The simplified architecture has the potential to lead to a new class of printable, thin storage devices. • The specific capacitance of 21 F/g was measured.

  14. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  15. How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriero, Daniel; Das, Subinoy; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H 0 tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H 0 value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys

  16. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  17. Prototype drift chamber for high energy heavy ions with a large dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Bieser, F.; Crawford, H.; Lindstrom, P.; Baumgartner, M.; Greiner, D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a small prototype drift chamber designed for high energy heavy ions. When a drift chamber is used as a tracking detector for heavy projectile fragments from high energy nucleus-nucleus reactions, the major problem comes from the many spurious hits due to delta-rays. Three methods have been developed to solve this problem. The first one is to use a constant fraction discriminator to pick up the timing signal from the core ionization under the large background of delta-rays. The second one is to use pulse height information from the drift chamber to find the cell hit by the heavy ion. The last one is the idea of distributed planes. Modular planes (12 in this case) are distributed 10 cm apart on a rigid base plate to provide accurate relative positioning of the wires. The performance of the prototype chamber has been measured as a function of the high voltage bias and of the charge of the heavy ion from protons up to uranium at around 1 GeV/nucleon

  18. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  19. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Department de Fisica de PartIculas, University de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago, SPAIN (Spain); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19}eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  20. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  2. High-energy fibered amplification for large-scale laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a double-clad ytterbium-doped single-mode micro-structured flexible fiber-based amplifier, in the nanosecond, multi-kilohertz and milli-Joule regime, for large-scale laser facilities seeding. We have used a multi-stage master oscillator power amplifier fibered architecture. A numerical model of ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber-based amplification, including amplified spontaneous emission, was developed in order to study the behaviour of such amplifier and to correctly design the experimental set-up. This model was completed by a feed-back algorithm to numerically predict the optimal temporal shape to compensate the gain saturation process. We demonstrated experimental results in good agreement with numerical simulations, with the following performances: 0.5 mJ pulse energy, at a frequency repetition from 1 kHz to 10 kHz, with a narrow bandwidth spectrum centred at 1053 nm wavelength, with 10 ns pulse duration on a perfect super-Gaussian temporal profile, an optical signal-to-noise ratio better than 50 dB and a polarization extinction ratio of 20 dB. We checked that the beam quality was diffraction limited, with an M 2 measurement of 1.1. Moreover, the system can deliver energies up to 1.5 mJ. Then, we took the advantage of such results to amplify chirped pulses. We demonstrated 0.7 mJ pulse energy, with 570 fs duration at 10 kHz repetition frequency. (author) [fr

  3. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  4. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  5. Simulated Performances of a Very High Energy Tomograph for Non-Destructive Characterization of large objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Marc; Estre, Nicolas; Merle, Elsa

    2018-01-01

    As part of its R&D activities on high-energy X-ray imaging for non-destructive characterization, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory has started an upgrade of its imaging system currently implemented at the CEA-Cadarache center. The goals are to achieve a sub-millimeter spatial resolution and the ability to perform tomographies on very large objects (more than 100-cm standard concrete or 40-cm steel). This paper presentsresults on the detection part of the imaging system. The upgrade of the detection part needs a thorough study of the performance of two detectors: a series of CdTe semiconductor sensors and two arrays of segmented CdWO4 scintillators with different pixel sizes. This study consists in a Quantum Accounting Diagram (QAD) analysis coupled with Monte-Carlo simulations. The scintillator arrays are able to detect millimeter details through 140 cm of concrete, but are limited to 120 cm for smaller ones. CdTe sensors have lower but more stable performance, with a 0.5 mm resolution for 90 cm of concrete. The choice of the detector then depends on the preferred characteristic: the spatial resolution or the use on large volumes. The combination of the features of the source and the studies on the detectors gives the expected performance of the whole equipment, in terms of signal-over-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution and acquisition time.

  6. Nesting Large-Eddy Simulations Within Mesoscale Simulations for Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Chow, F. K.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES) account for complex terrain and resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades. These small-domain high-resolution simulations are possible with a range of commercial and open- source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to "local" sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecating model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosoviæ (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  8. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  9. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  10. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.B.; Finman, L.C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J.E.; Lin, Y.C.; Mattox, J.R.; Nolan, P.L.; Parks, R.; Walker, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(T1) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described

  11. Storing Data Flow Monitoring in Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The on-line data flow monitoring for the CMS data acquisition system produces a large amount of data. Only 5% of data is stored permanently in a relational database due to performance issues and the cost for using dedicated infrastructure (e.g. Oracle systems). In a commercial environment, companies and organizations need to find new innovative approaches to process such big volumes of data, known as “big data”. The Big Data approach is trying to address the problem of a large and complex collection of data sets that become difficult to handle using traditional data processing applications. Using these new technologies, it should be possible to store all the monitoring information for a time window of months or a year. This report contains an initial evaluation of Hadoop for storage of data flow monitoring and subsequent data mining.

  12. Calibration of a large multi-element neutron counter in the energy range 85-430 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, J A; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jane, M R; Jobes, M; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Thomas, D H

    1978-01-01

    Describes the calibration of a large 60 element neutron counter with a threshold of 2.7 MeV equivalent electron energy. The performance of the counter has been measured in the neutron kinetic energy range 8.5-430 MeV using a neutron beam at the CERN Synchrocyclotron. The results obtained for the efficiency as a function of energy are in reasonable agreement with a Monte Carlo calculation. (7 refs).

  13. From manager’s emotional intelligence to objective store performance : Through store cohesiveness and sales-directed employee behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; Hur, Y.; Wiersma, U.J.; van den Berg, Petrus; Lee, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among manager's emotional intelligence, store cohesiveness, sales-directed employee behavior, and objective store performance were investigated. Non-managerial sales employees of a large retail electronics chain in South Korea (N = 1611) rated the emotional intelligence of their

  14. From manager's emotional intelligence to objective store performance: Through store cohesiveness and sales-directed employee behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Hur, YounHee; Wiersma, Uco J.; van den Berg, Peter T.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among manager's emotional intelligence, store cohesiveness, sales-directed employee behavior, and objective store performance were investigated. Non-managerial sales employees of a large retail electronics chain in South Korea (N = 1611) rated the emotional intelligence of their

  15. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van Den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as

  16. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  17. A sandwiched piezoelectric transducer with flex end-caps for energy harvesting in large force environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yang; Daniels, Alice; Zhu, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a sandwiched piezoelectric transducer (SPT) for energy harvesting in large force environments with increased load capacity and electric power output. The SPT uses (1) flex end-caps to amplify the applied load force so as to increase its power output and (2) a sandwiched piezoelectric-substrate structure to reduce the stress concentration in the piezoelectric material so as to increase the load capacity. A coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model (CPC-FEM) was developed, which is able to directly predict the electric power output of the SPT connected to a load resistor. The CPC-FEM was used to study the effects of various parameters of the SPT on the performance to obtain an optimal design. These parameters included the substrate thickness, the end-cap material and thickness, the electrode length, the joint length, the end-cap internal angle and the PZT thickness. A prototype with optimised parameters was tested on a loading machine, and the experimental results were compared with simulation. A good agreement was observed between simulation and experiment. When subjected to a 1 kN 2 Hz sinusoidal force applied by the loading machine, the SPT produced an average power of 4.68 mW. The application of the SPT as a footwear energy harvester was demonstrated by fitting the SPT into a boot and performing the tests on a treadmill, and the SPT generated an average power of 2.5 mW at a walking speed of 4.8 km h −1 . (paper)

  18. How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriero, Daniel [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstr. 25, Bielefeld (Germany); Das, Subinoy [Indian Institute of Astrophisics, Bangalore, 560034 (India); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: boriero@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-07-01

    We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H{sub 0} value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys.

  19. Dynamic Control of Facts Devices to Enable Large Scale Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Govind Sahadeo

    This thesis focuses on some of the problems caused by large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Resources within EHV transmission networks, and investigates some approaches in resolving these problems. In chapter 4, a reduced-order model of the 500 kV WECC transmission system is developed by estimating its key parameters from phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. The model was then implemented in RTDS and was investigated for its accuracy with respect to the PMU data. Finally it was tested for observing the effects of various contingencies like transmission line loss, generation loss and large scale penetration of wind farms on EHV transmission systems. Chapter 5 introduces Static Series Synchronous Compensators (SSSC) which are seriesconnected converters that can control real power flow along a transmission line. A new application of SSSCs in mitigating Ferranti effect on unloaded transmission lines was demonstrated on PSCAD. A new control scheme for SSSCs based on the Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter configuration was proposed and was demonstrated using PSCAD and RTDS. A new centralized controller was developed for the distributed SSSCs based on some of the concepts used in the CHB-based SSSC. The controller's efficacy was demonstrated using RTDS. Finally chapter 6 introduces the problem of power oscillations induced by renewable sources in a transmission network. A power oscillation damping (POD) controller is designed using distributed SSSCs in NYPA's 345 kV three-bus AC system and its efficacy is demonstrated in PSCAD. A similar POD controller is then designed for the CHB-based SSSC in the IEEE 14 bus system in PSCAD. Both controllers were noted to have significantly damped power oscillations in the transmission networks.

  20. High-Energy X-Ray Imaging Applied to Nondestructive Characterization of Large Nuclear Waste Drums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estre, Nicolas; Eck, Daniel; Pettier, Jean-Luc; Payan, Emmanuel; Roure, Christophe; Simon, Eric

    2015-12-01

    As part of its R&D programs on non-destructive testing of nuclear waste drums, CEA is commissioning an irradiation cell named CINPHONIE, at Cadarache. This cell allows high-energy imaging (radiography and tomography) on large volumes (up to 5 m3) and heavy weights (up to 5 tons). A demonstrator has been finalized, based on existing components. The X-ray source is a 9 MeV LINAC which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays (up to 23 Gy/min at 1 meter in the beam axis). The mechanical bench is digitally controlled on three axes (translation, rotation, elevation) and can handle objects up to 2 t. This bench performs trajectories necessary for acquisition of projections (sinograms) according to different geometries: Translation-Rotation, Fan-Beam and Cone-Beam. Two detection systems both developed by CEA-Leti are available. The first one is a large GADOX scintillating screen ( 800 ×600 mm2) coupled to a low-noise pixelated camera. The second one is a multi-CdTe semiconductor detector, offering measurements up to 5 decades of attenuation (equivalent to 25 cm of lead or 180 cm of standard concrete). At the end of the acquisition, a Filtered Back Projection-based algorithm is performed. Then, a density slice (fan-beam tomography) or a density volume (cone-beam tomography or helical tomography) is produced and used to examine the waste. Characterization of LINAC, associated detectors as well as the full acquisition chain, are presented. Experimental performances on phantoms and real drum are discussed and expected limits on defect detectability are evaluated by simulation. The final system, designed to handle objects up to 5 tons is then presented.

  1. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) x 10 -8 ph cm -2 s -1 . Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ∼3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  2. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  3. Search for large extra dimensions in the exclusive photon + missing energy channel in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazoflores, Jose A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A search was conducted for evidence of large extra dimensions (LED) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's Tevatron using the D0 detector. The Tevatron is a p$\\bar{p}$ collider at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Events with particles escaping into extra dimensions will have large missing energy. The search was carried out using data from a total luminosity of 197 ± 13 pb-1 with an observable high transverse momentum photon and a large transverse missing energy. The 70 observed events are consistent with photons produced by standard known reactions plus other background processes produced by cosmic muons. The mass limits on the fundamental mass scale at 95% confidence level for large extra dimensions of 2, 4, 6 and 8 are 500 GeV, 581 GeV, 630 GeV, and 668 GeV respectively.

  4. Effects of large scale integration of wind and solar energy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi

    2010-05-01

    results for the country as a whole are considered it is still substantial. The results are greatly dependant on the mix between the proposed renewables (solar and wind), and by comparing different distributions and mixes, the optimum composition for the target country can be established. The methodology proposed is able to obtain the optimum mix of solar and wind power for a given system, provided that adequate storage capacity exists to allow for excess capacity to be used at times of low electricity production (at the comparatively rare times when there is neither enough sun nor wind throughout the country). This highlights the challenges of large-scale integration of renewable technologies into the electricity grid, and the necessity to combine such a system with other renewables such as hydro or ocean energy to further even out the peaks and lows in the demand.

  5. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  6. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  7. Do Kenya's climate change mitigation ambitions necessitate large-scale renewable energy deployment and dedicated low-carbon energy policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalla Longa, F.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper Kenya's climate change mitigation ambitions are analysed from an energy system perspective, with a focus on the role of renewable and other low-carbon energy technologies. At COP-21 in 2015 in Paris, Kenya has committed to a `nationally determined contribution' of reducing domestic

  8. Calculating p-values and their significances with the Energy Test for large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, W.; Burr, C.; Parkes, C.

    2018-04-01

    The energy test method is a multi-dimensional test of whether two samples are consistent with arising from the same underlying population, through the calculation of a single test statistic (called the T-value). The method has recently been used in particle physics to search for samples that differ due to CP violation. The generalised extreme value function has previously been used to describe the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis that the two samples are drawn from the same underlying population. We show that, in a simple test case, the distribution is not sufficiently well described by the generalised extreme value function. We present a new method, where the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis when comparing two large samples can be found by scaling the distribution found when comparing small samples drawn from the same population. This method can then be used to quickly calculate the p-values associated with the results of the test.

  9. Particle production at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider within an evolutionary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Shapoval, V. M.

    2018-06-01

    The particle yields and particle number ratios in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy √{sN N}=2.76 TeV are described within the integrated hydrokinetic model (iHKM) at two different equations of state (EoS) for quark-gluon matter and the two corresponding hadronization temperatures T =165 MeV and T =156 MeV. The role of particle interactions at the final afterburner stage of the collision in the particle production is investigated by means of comparison of the results of full iHKM simulations with those where the annihilation and other inelastic processes (except for resonance decays) are switched off after hadronization/particlization, similarly as in the thermal models. An analysis supports the picture of continuous chemical freeze-out in the sense that the corrections to the sudden chemical freeze-out results, which arise because of the inelastic reactions at the subsequent evolution times, are noticeable and improve the description of particle number ratios. An important observation is that, although the particle number ratios with switched-off inelastic reactions are quite different at different particlization temperatures which are adopted for different equations of state to reproduce experimental data, the complete iHKM calculations bring very close results in both cases.

  10. On the properties of energy stable flux reconstruction schemes for implicit large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, B. C.; Vincent, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    We begin by investigating the stability, order of accuracy, and dispersion and dissipation characteristics of the extended range of energy stable flux reconstruction (E-ESFR) schemes in the context of implicit large eddy simulation (ILES). We proceed to demonstrate that subsets of the E-ESFR schemes are more stable than collocation nodal discontinuous Galerkin methods recovered with the flux reconstruction approach (FRDG) for marginally-resolved ILES simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex. These schemes are shown to have reduced dissipation and dispersion errors relative to FRDG schemes of the same polynomial degree and, simultaneously, have increased Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) limits. Finally, we simulate turbulent flow over an SD7003 aerofoil using two of the most stable E-ESFR schemes identified by the aforementioned Taylor-Green vortex experiments. Results demonstrate that subsets of E-ESFR schemes appear more stable than the commonly used FRDG method, have increased CFL limits, and are suitable for ILES of complex turbulent flows on unstructured grids.

  11. Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Zou, Zhijun; Li, Meiling; Wang, Xin; Huang, Wugang; Yang, Jiangang [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Wei; Xiao, Xueqin [Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium is the selected object for site-measurement. The site-measurements have been carried out during summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Their indoor thermal environments were controlled by continuous air-conditioning, intermittent air-conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. The site-measurement includes outdoor environment (the weather conditions and peripheral hallway), indoor air temperature distribution (the occupant zone temperature, radial temperature near upper openings and the vertical temperature distributions, etc.), and the heat balance of air-conditioning system, etc. It is found that temperature stratification in winter with air-conditioning is most obvious. The maximum difference of vertical temperature is 15{sup o}C in winter. The second largest one is 12{sup o}C in summer, and less than 2{sup o}C in the transitional season. The results of measurements indicate that it is different in the characteristics on energy saving of upper openings during the different seasons. With heat balance measurements, it is discovered that the roof load and ventilated and infiltrated load account for larger percentages in terms of cooling and heating load. In this paper, many discussions on the results of site measurements show some characteristics and regulations of indoor thermal environment in large space building. (author)

  12. Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simaciu, I.; Dumitrescu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic electrodynamics states that zero-point fluctuation of the vacuum (ZPF) is an electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral density ρ(ω)=ℎω 3 / 2π 2 C 3 . Protons, free electrons and atoms are sources for this radiation. Each of them absorbs and emits energy by interacting with ZPF. At equilibrium ZPF radiation is scattered by dipoles.Scattered radiation spectral density is ρ(ω,r) ρ(ω).c.σ(ω) / 4πr 2 . Radiation of dipole spectral density of Universe is ρ ∫ 0 R nρ(ω,r)4πr 2 dr. But if σ atom P e σ=σ T then ρ ρ(ω)σ T R.n. Moreover if ρ=ρ(ω) then σ T Rn = 1. With R = G M/c 2 and σ T ≅(e 2 /m e c 2 ) 2 ∝ r e 2 then σ T .Rn 1 is equivalent to R/r e = e 2 /Gm p m e i.e. the cosmological coincidence discussed in the context of Dirac's large-numbers hypothesis. (Author)

  13. CORPORATE REBRANDING OF GRAMEDIA STORE (CORPORATE REBRANDING DI GRAMEDIA STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Helena Kairupan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purposes of this research are to determine the stages of analysis, planning, and evaluation of corporate rebranding process of Gramedia Book Store to be Gramedia Store to rise stakeholder’s awareness. The method used is descriptive qualitative with positivism paradigm. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interview, observation, and literature study. The result of this research showed the analysis stage by analyzing the market through insights and foresights, brand audit through SWOT analysis, and identifying opportunities. The planning stage is by determine the purpose of the planning process and then determine the target audience, consist of external and internal customer. The planning of external customer by renaming and change of corporate identity, and marketing planning using communication channel (above the line and below the line. The planning of internal customer by Brand Induction, training, inspiration briefing at store, and innovation competition. The evaluation of rebranding process of Gramedia Store is having a focus group discussion with customer, media monitoring, and presentation to BOD. Keywords : Process, Corporate Rebranding, Stakeholder Awareness, Corporate Identity, Gramedia Store Abstrak.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana tahapan analisis, perencanaan, dan evaluasi proses corporate rebranding Gramedia Book Store menjadi Gramedia Store untuk meningkatkan stakeholder awareness. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan paradigma positivisme dan jenis studi deksriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi pustaka. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, tahapan analisis dilakukan dengan menganalisis pasar melalui insights dan foresights, audit merek dengan analisis SWOT, dan mengidentifikasi peluang. Dalam tahapan perencanaan dengan menentukan tujuan kemudian menentukan target audiens, yaitu eksternal dan internal. Perencanaan

  14. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  15. Para I Famagu'on-Ta: Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Food Store Environment, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity in the Children's Healthy Living Program on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanane, Lenora; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Silva, Joshua; Li, Fenfang; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the: (1) association between food store environment (FSE), fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and access, and prevalence of early childhood overweight/obesity (COWOB); and (2) influence of young child actual FV intake on the relationship between the FSE and early COWOB prevalence. Anthropometric and socio-demographic data of children (2 to 8 years; N=466) in baseline communities on Guam participating in the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program community trial were included. CDC year 2000 growth charts were used to calculate BMI z-scores and categories. FSE factors (fresh FV scores, store type) were assessed using the CX3 Food Availability and Marketing Survey amended for CHL. ArcGIS maps were constructed with geographic coordinates of participant residences and food stores to calculate food store scores within 1 mile of participant's residences. A sub-sample of participants (n = 355) had Food and Activity Log data to calculate FV and energy intakes. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression evaluated associations. Of 111 stores surveyed, 73% were small markets, 16% were convenience stores, and 11% were large grocery/supermarkets. Supermarkets/large grocery stores averaged the highest FV scores. Most participants did not meet FV intake recommendations while nearly half exceeded energy intake recommendations. Living near a small market was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = - 0.129, P associations. The high density of small markets may be an opportunity for FSE intervention but further investigation of Guam's FSE influence on health is needed.

  16. FOREWORD: 3rd Symposium on Large TPCs for Low Energy Event Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, Igor G.; Colas, Paul; Gorodetzky, Phillippe

    2007-05-01

    The Third International Symposium on large TPCs for low-energy rare-event detection was held at Carré des sciences, Poincaré auditorium, 25 rue de la Montagne Ste Geneviève in Paris on 11 12 December 2006. This prestigious location belonging to the Ministry of Research is hosted in the former Ecole Polytechnique. The meeting, held in Paris every two years, gathers a significant community of physicists involved in rare event detection. Its purpose is an extensive discussion of present and future projects using large TPCs for low energy, low background detection of rare events (low-energy neutrinos, dark matter, solar axions). The use of a new generation of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) appears to be a promising way to reach this goal. The program this year was enriched by a new session devoted to the detection challenge of polarized gamma rays, relevant novel experimental techniques and the impact on particle physics, astrophysics and astronomy. A very particular feature of this conference is the large variety of talks ranging from purely theoretical to purely experimental subjects including novel technological aspects. This allows discussion and exchange of useful information and new ideas that are emerging to address particle physics experimental challenges. The scientific highlights at the Symposium came on many fronts: Status of low-energy neutrino physics and double-beta decay New ideas on double-beta decay experiments Gamma ray polarization measurement combining high-precision TPCs with MPGD read-out Dark Matter challenges in both axion and WIMP search with new emerging ideas for detection improvements Progress in gaseous and liquid TPCs for rare event detection Georges Charpak opened the meeting with a talk on gaseous detectors for applications in the bio-medical field. He also underlined the importance of new MPGD detectors for both physics and applications. There were about 100 registered participants at the symposium. The successful

  17. The analysis of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a large-scale commercial building in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable test, diagnosis, and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of a large-scale commercial building are described in this article. Basic information about energy consumption equipment is included in the investigation. Further diagnoses about the operational state of air-conditioning water systems, and ducted systems were implemented. Energy consumption decreased 200 kWh/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009 after energy-saving reconstruction in 2006. Next, a carbon audit was carried out; this comprised CO2 emission statistics associated with the energy use and categorization and structural analysis (categorization refers to energy categorization and structural analysis means the composition and its proportion relationship of all kinds of primary energy and secondary energy in energy production or consumption. Greenhouse gas emissions could be less than 150 kg/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of the correlation between CO2 emissions, building gross domestic product, and energy efficiency is also presented. This article makes an analysis on the energy utilization and energy-saving reconstruction of a public commercial building in Shanghai and then makes an analysis of carbon audit about greenhouse gas emissions related to energy utilization (it analyzes the status of building’s energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions, to have a more comprehensive understanding on the internal relationship between energy consumption and its greenhouse gas emissions and provide researchful reference data for the development with reduction strategies of greenhouse gas emission in future building.

  18. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site

  19. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  20. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

  1. Cost Optimization of Mooring Solutions for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at a stage that is considere...

  2. TruStore: Implementing a Trusted Store for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Yury, Zhauniarovich; Olga, Gadyatskaya; Bruno, Crispo

    2013-01-01

    In the Android ecosystem, the process of verifying the integrity of downloaded apps is left to the user. Different from other systems, e.g., Apple, App Store, Google does not provide any certified vetting process for the Android apps. This choice has a lot of advantages but it is also the open door to possible attacks as the recent one shown by Bluebox. To address this issue, we present how to enable the deployment of application certification service, we called TruStores, for the Android pla...

  3. Hybrid Large Eddy Simulation / Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling in Directed Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberter, Ilya Alexandrovich

    In this work, a hybrid Large Eddy Simulation / Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (LES/RANS) turbulence model is applied to simulate two flows relevant to directed energy applications. The flow solver blends the Menter Baseline turbulence closure near solid boundaries with a Lenormand-type subgrid model in the free-stream with a blending function that employs the ratio of estimated inner and outer turbulent length scales. A Mach 2.2 mixing nozzle/diffuser system representative of a gas laser is simulated under a range of exit pressures to assess the ability of the model to predict the dynamics of the shock train. The simulation captures the location of the shock train responsible for pressure recovery but under-predicts the rate of pressure increase. Predicted turbulence production at the wall is found to be highly sensitive to the behavior of the RANS turbulence model. A Mach 2.3, high-Reynolds number, three-dimensional cavity flow is also simulated in order to compute the wavefront aberrations of an optical beam passing thorough the cavity. The cavity geometry is modeled using an immersed boundary method, and an auxiliary flat plate simulation is performed to replicate the effects of the wind-tunnel boundary layer on the computed optical path difference. Pressure spectra extracted on the cavity walls agree with empirical predictions based on Rossiter's formula. Proper orthogonal modes of the wavefront aberrations in a beam originating from the cavity center agree well with experimental data despite uncertainty about in flow turbulence levels and boundary layer thicknesses over the wind tunnel window. Dynamic mode decomposition of a planar wavefront spanning the cavity reveals that wavefront distortions are driven by shear layer oscillations at the Rossiter frequencies; these disturbances create eddy shocklets that propagate into the free-stream, creating additional optical wavefront distortion.

  4. Energy Analysis of Cascade Heating with High Back-Pressure Large-Scale Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the exergy loss that is caused by the high-grade extraction steam of traditional heating mode of combined heat and power (CHP generating unit, a high back-pressure cascade heating technology for two jointly constructed large-scale steam turbine power generating units is proposed. The Unit 1 makes full use of the exhaust steam heat from high back-pressure turbine, and the Unit 2 uses the original heating mode of extracting steam condensation, which significantly reduces the flow rate of high-grade extraction steam. The typical 2 × 350 MW supercritical CHP units in northern China were selected as object. The boundary conditions for heating were determined based on the actual climatic conditions and heating demands. A model to analyze the performance of the high back-pressure cascade heating supply units for off-design operating conditions was developed. The load distributions between high back-pressure exhaust steam direct supply and extraction steam heating supply were described under various conditions, based on which, the heating efficiency of the CHP units with the high back-pressure cascade heating system was analyzed. The design heating load and maximum heating supply load were determined as well. The results indicate that the average coal consumption rate during the heating season is 205.46 g/kWh for the design heating load after the retrofit, which is about 51.99 g/kWh lower than that of the traditional heating mode. The coal consumption rate of 199.07 g/kWh can be achieved for the maximum heating load. Significant energy saving and CO2 emission reduction are obtained.

  5. Energy-efficient electrical machines by new materials. Superconductivity in large electrical machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenhofer, Joachim; Arndt, Tabea; Grundmann, Joern

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of superconducting materials in high-power electrical machines results in significant advantages regarding efficiency, size and dynamic behavior when compared to conventional machines. The application of HTS (high-temperature superconductors) in electrical machines allows significantly higher power densities to be achieved for synchronous machines. In order to gain experience with the new technology, Siemens carried out a series of development projects. A 400 kW model motor for the verification of a concept for the new technology was followed by a 4000 kV A generator as highspeed machine - as well as a low-speed 4000 kW propeller motor with high torque. The 4000 kVA generator is still employed to carry out long-term tests and to check components. Superconducting machines have significantly lower weight and envelope dimensions compared to conventional machines, and for this reason alone, they utilize resources better. At the same time, operating losses are slashed to about half and the efficiency increases. Beyond this, they set themselves apart as a result of their special features in operation, such as high overload capability, stiff alternating load behavior and low noise. HTS machines provide significant advantages where the reduction of footprint, weight and losses or the improved dynamic behavior results in significant improvements of the overall system. Propeller motors and generators,for ships, offshore plants, in wind turbine and hydroelectric plants and in large power stations are just some examples. HTS machines can therefore play a significant role when it comes to efficiently using resources and energy as well as reducing the CO 2 emissions.

  6. Large-scale stability and astronomical constraints for coupled dark-energy models

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W; Pan, S; Barrow, John David

    2018-01-01

    The physics of the dark energy and the dark matter is still an open issue in cosmology. The dark energy occupies about 68.5% of the total energy density of the universe today [1], and is believed to accelerate its observed expansion, but the physical nature, origin, and time evolution of this dark energy remain unknown. On the other hand, the dark matter sector (occupying almost 27.5% of the total energy density of the present-day universe) appears to be the principal gravitationa...

  7. Experiments on hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system using large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility: test facility and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka; Kumamaru, Hiroshige.

    1996-07-01

    JAERI, the University of Tokyo, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and Shimizu Corporation jointing performed and experimental study on two-phase flow in the hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system with a large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility from 1993 to 1995. A hydraulically-compensated CAES system is a proposed, conceptual energy storage system where energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern which is sealed by a deep (several hundred meters) water shaft. The shaft water head maintains a constant pressure in the cavern, of several mega Pascals, even during loading or unloading of the cavern with air. The dissolved air in the water, however, may create voids in the shaft when the water rises through the shaft during the loading, being forced by the air flow into the cavern. The voids may reduce the effective head of the shaft, and thus the seal may fail, if significant bubbling should occur in the shaft. This bubbling phenomenon (termed 'Champaign effect') and potential failure of the water seal ('blowout') are simulated in a scaled-height, scaled-diameter facility. Carbon dioxide is used to simulate high solubility of air in the full-height, full-pressure system. This report describes the expected and potential two-phase flow phenomena in a hydraulically-compensated CAES system, the test facility and the test procedure, a method to estimate quantities which are not directly measured by using measured quantities and hydrodynamic basic equations, and desirable additional instrumentation. (author)

  8. User's manual for computer code SOLTES-1 (simulator of large thermal energy systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.E.; Grandjean, N.R.; Dunn, J.C.; Edenburn, M.W.

    1978-09-01

    SOLTES simulates the steady-state response of thermal energy systems to time-varying data such as weather and loads. Thermal energy system models of both simple and complex systems can easily be modularly constructed from a library of routines. These routines mathematically model solar collectors, pumps, switches, thermal energy storage, thermal boilers, auxiliary boilers, heat exchangers, extraction turbines, extraction turbine/generators, condensers, regenerative heaters, air conditioners, heating and cooling of buildings, process vapor, etc.; SOLTES also allows user-supplied routines. The analyst need only specify fluid names to obtain readout of property data for heat-transfer fluids and constants that characterize power-cycle working fluids from a fluid property data bank. A load management capability allows SOLTES to simulate total energy systems that simultaneously follow heat and power loads and demands. Generalized energy accounting is available, and values for system performance parameters may be automatically determined by SOLTES. Because of its modularity and flexibility, SOLTES can be used to simulate a wide variety of thermal energy systems such as solar power/total energy, fossil fuel power plants/total energy, nuclear power plants/total energy, solar energy heating and cooling, geothermal energy, and solar hot water heaters

  9. Large-scale integration of wind power into the existing Chinese energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    stability, the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing Chinese energy system is approximately 26% from both technical and economic points of view. A fuel efficiency decrease occurred when increasing wind power penetration in the system, due to its rigid power supply structure and the task......This paper presents the ability of the existing Chinese energy system to integrate wind power and explores how the Chinese energy system needs to prepare itself in order to integrate more fluctuating renewable energy in the future. With this purpose in mind, a model of the Chinese energy system has...... been constructed by using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which has then been used for investigating three issues. Firstly, the accuracy of the model itself has been examined and then the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing energy system has been identified. Finally, barriers...

  10. Method of storing solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently and satisfactorily cool and store solidification products of liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process by a simple facility. Method: Liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process are caused to flow from the upper opening to the inside of a spherical canistor. The opening of the spherical canistor is welded with a lid by a remote control and the liquid wastes are tightly sealed within the spherical canistor as glass solidification products. Spherical canistors having the solidification products tightly sealed therein are sent into and stored in a hopper by the remote control. Further, a blower is driven upon storing to suck cooling air from the cooling air intake port to the inside of the hopper to absorb the decay heat of radioactive materials in the solidification products and the air is discharged from the duct and through the stack to the atmosphere. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Implementing effect of energy efficiency supervision system for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese central government released a document to initiate a task of energy efficiency supervision system construction for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in 2007, which marks the overall start of existing buildings energy efficiency management in China with the government office buildings and large-scale public buildings as a breakthrough. This paper focused on the implementing effect in the demonstration region all over China for less than one year, firstly introduced the target and path of energy efficiency supervision system, then described the achievements and problems during the implementing process in the first demonstration provinces and cities. A certain data from the energy efficiency public notice in some typical demonstration provinces and cities were analyzed statistically. It can be concluded that different functional buildings have different energy consumption and the average energy consumption of large-scale public buildings is too high in China compared with the common public buildings and residential buildings. The obstacles need to be overcome afterward were summarized and the prospects for the future work were also put forward in the end.

  12. Implementing effect of energy efficiency supervision system for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: zhaojing@tju.edu.cn; Wu Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Zhu Neng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The Chinese central government released a document to initiate a task of energy efficiency supervision system construction for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in 2007, which marks the overall start of existing buildings energy efficiency management in China with the government office buildings and large-scale public buildings as a breakthrough. This paper focused on the implementing effect in the demonstration region all over China for less than one year, firstly introduced the target and path of energy efficiency supervision system, then described the achievements and problems during the implementing process in the first demonstration provinces and cities. A certain data from the energy efficiency public notice in some typical demonstration provinces and cities were analyzed statistically. It can be concluded that different functional buildings have different energy consumption and the average energy consumption of large-scale public buildings is too high in China compared with the common public buildings and residential buildings. The obstacles need to be overcome afterward were summarized and the prospects for the future work were also put forward in the end.

  13. Implementing effect of energy efficiency supervision system for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Neng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu, Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The Chinese central government released a document to initiate a task of energy efficiency supervision system construction for government office buildings and large-scale public buildings in 2007, which marks the overall start of existing buildings energy efficiency management in China with the government office buildings and large-scale public buildings as a breakthrough. This paper focused on the implementing effect in the demonstration region all over China for less than one year, firstly introduced the target and path of energy efficiency supervision system, then described the achievements and problems during the implementing process in the first demonstration provinces and cities. A certain data from the energy efficiency public notice in some typical demonstration provinces and cities were analyzed statistically. It can be concluded that different functional buildings have different energy consumption and the average energy consumption of large-scale public buildings is too high in China compared with the common public buildings and residential buildings. The obstacles need to be overcome afterward were summarized and the prospects for the future work were also put forward in the end. (author)

  14. Method of storing fissile mateiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshita, Toshio; Ishitobi, Masuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Upon storing nuclear fissile materials in a storing building, vessels packed with fissile materials are inserted into a containing chamber divided with partition walls comprising neutron absorbers and neutron moderators. Thus, released neutrons permeating the vessel are moderated by the neutron moderators and then absorbed by the neutron absorbers. Accordingly, the neutron absorbing effect by the neutron absorbers is improved, and irradiation of neutrons released from one of vessels to the other of vessels can be suppressed. Accordingly, it is possible to shorten the distance between the vessels in a contained state as much as possible, while securing the critical safety, to improve the containing density during storage. (T.M.)

  15. Effect of energy distribution of laser facula on shafting aligning detection of large assembling set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guohua; Su, Chengzhi; Xu, Hongji

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of Shafting correction In heavy mechanical manufacturing industry, shipping industry and Nuclear industry, analyzes the effect of distribution of laser light beam spot energy to PSD measure precision. With experiment, we analyze the relation between the different distribution of laser light beam spot energy and PSD measure precision, discuss the method to compensate of shafting correction error caused by the distribution of laser light beam spot energy.

  16. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  17. Large Higgs energy region in Higgs associated top pair production at the Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Cailin; Hoang, Andre H.

    2005-01-01

    The process e + e - →ttH is considered in the kinematic end point region where the Higgs energy is close to its maximal energy. In perturbative QCD, using the loop expansion, the amplitudes are plagued by Coulomb singularities that need to be resummed. We show that the QCD dynamics in this end point region is governed by nonrelativistic heavy quarkonium dynamics, and we use a nonrelativistic effective theory to compute the Higgs energy distribution at leading and next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation in the nonrelativistic expansion. Updated numbers for the total cross section including the summations in the Higgs energy end point region are presented

  18. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  19. HVDC interrupter experiments for large Magnetic Energy Transfer and Storage (METS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, C.E.; Haarman, R.A.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Weldon, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed fusion-test reactors will require energy storage systems of hundreds of megajoules with transfer times of the order of one millisecond. The size of the energy storage submodule (and hence, the overall system cost and complexity) is directly determined by the voltage and current limits of the switch used for the energy transfer. Experiments are being conducted on high voltage dc circuit breakers as a major part of the energy storage, pulsed power program. DC circuit interruption characteristics of a commercially available ac power vacuum interrupter are discussed. Preliminary data of interruption characteristics are reported for an interrupter developed specifically to match a present METS circuit requirement

  20. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)