WorldWideScience

Sample records for large storage capacity

  1. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  2. Large capacity storage of integrated objects before change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Spekreijse, Henk; Lamme, Victor A F

    2003-01-01

    Normal people have a strikingly low ability to detect changes in a visual scene. This has been taken as evidence that the brain represents only a few objects at a time, namely those currently in the focus of attention. In the present study, subjects were asked to detect changes in the orientation of rectangular figures in a textured display across a 1600 ms gray interval. In the first experiment, change detection improved when the location of a possible change was cued during the interval. The cue remained effective during the entire interval, but after the interval, it was ineffective, suggesting that an initially large representation was overwritten by the post-change display. To control for an effect of light intensity during the interval on the decay of the representation, we compared performance with a gray or a white interval screen in a second experiment. We found no difference between these conditions. In the third experiment, attention was occasionally misdirected during the interval by first cueing the wrong figure, before cueing the correct figure. This did not compromise performance compared to a single cue, indicating that when an item is attentionally selected, the representation of yet unchosen items remains available. In the fourth experiment, the cue was shown to be effective when changes in figure size and orientation were randomly mixed. At the time the cue appeared, subjects could not know whether size or orientation would change, therefore these results suggest that the representation contains features in their 'bound' state. Together, these findings indicate that change blindness involves overwriting of a large capacity representation by the post-change display.

  3. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  4. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  5. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  6. Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2001-01-01

    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered

  7. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Large sensitivity in land carbon storage due to geographical and temporal variation in the thermal response of photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina M; Medlyn, Belinda E; Huntingford, Chris; Oliver, Rebecca J; Clark, Douglas B; Sitch, Stephen; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Kattge, Jens; Harper, Anna B; Cox, Peter M

    2018-06-01

    Plant temperature responses vary geographically, reflecting thermally contrasting habitats and long-term species adaptations to their climate of origin. Plants also can acclimate to fast temporal changes in temperature regime to mitigate stress. Although plant photosynthetic responses are known to acclimate to temperature, many global models used to predict future vegetation and climate-carbon interactions do not include this process. We quantify the global and regional impacts of biogeographical variability and thermal acclimation of temperature response of photosynthetic capacity on the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle between 1860 and 2100 within a coupled climate-carbon cycle model, that emulates 22 global climate models. Results indicate that inclusion of biogeographical variation in photosynthetic temperature response is most important for present-day and future C uptake, with increasing importance of thermal acclimation under future warming. Accounting for both effects narrows the range of predictions of the simulated global land C storage in 2100 across climate projections (29% and 43% globally and in the tropics, respectively). Contrary to earlier studies, our results suggest that thermal acclimation of photosynthetic capacity makes tropical and temperate C less vulnerable to warming, but reduces the warming-induced C uptake in the boreal region under elevated CO 2 . © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-21

    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  11. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  12. Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1985-04-01

    The rainwater interception storage capacities of mature canopy trees in a tropical rainforest site in northeast Queensland, Australia, were approximated using a combination of field and laboratory measurements. The above-ground vegetative surfaces of five selected species (three flaky-barked; two smooth-barked) were saturated under laboratory conditions in order to establish their maximum interception storage capacities. Average leaf surface interception storages ranged from 112 to 161 ml m -2. The interception storages of bark ranged from 0.51 to 0.97 ml cm -3. These standardized interception storages were applied to estimates of leaf surface area and bark volume for 51 mature canopy trees representing the selected species in the field site. The average whole tree interception storage capacities of the five species ranged from 110 to 5281 per tree and 2.2 to 8.3 mm per unit projected crown area. The highly significant interspecific differences in interception storage capacity suggest that both floristic and demographic data are needed in order to accurately calculate a forest-wide interception storage capacity for species-rich tropical rainforest vegetation. Species with large woody surface areas and small projected crown areas are capable of storing the greatest depth equivalents of rainwater under heavy rainfall conditions. In the case of both the flaky-barked and the smooth-barked species, bark accounted for > 50% of the total interception storage capacity under still-air conditions, and > 80% under turbulent air conditions. The emphasis in past interception studies on the role of leaf surfaces in determining the interception storage capacity of a vegetative cover must be modified for tropical rainforests to include the storage capacity provided by the bark tissue on canopy trees.

  13. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  14. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  15. Storage capacity of ultrametric committee machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, J P

    2014-01-01

    The problem of computing the storage capacity of a feed-forward network, with L hidden layers, N inputs, and K units in the first hidden layer, is analyzed using techniques from statistical mechanics. We found that the storage capacity strongly depends on the network architecture α-hat c ∼(log K) 1−1/2 L and that the number of units K limits the number of possible hidden layers L through the relationship 2 L − 1 < 2log K. (paper)

  16. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  17. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  18. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  19. Large-capacity current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding superconducting magnets with reliable low-loss devices is a key issue for any cryo-electrical system. Conventional or HTS current leads can be used, and cooling methods, materials, and geometries can be chosen to optimize the thermo-electrical performance of the system. The LHC magnets are powered via more than 3000 current leads transporting altogether about 3 MA of current. With thousands of leads, the LHC lead project represents today the largest project of its kind ever undertaken. Following a review of the LHC lead project, an overview of the choices that can be made for the optimization of large capacity current leads is presented. Examples are given of other leads for large scale magnet systems for which the use of HTS is being envisaged

  20. RAPID NITRATE UPTAKE RATES AND LARGE SHORT-TERM STORAGE CAPACITIES MAY EXPLAIN WHY OPPORTUNISTIC GREEN MACROALGAE DOMINATE SHALLOW EUTROPHIC ESTUARIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennison, Rachel L; Kamer, Krista; Fong, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    We quantified the effects of initial macroalgal tissue nitrogen (N) status (depleted and enriched) and varying pulses of nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentration on uptake and storage of nitrogen in Ulva intestinalis L. and Ulva expansa (Setch.) Setch. et N. L. Gardner using mesocosms modeling shallow coastal estuaries in Mediterranean climates. Uptake of NO 3 - (μmol · g dry weight [dwt] -1  · h -1 ) was measured as loss from the water after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and storage as total tissue nitrogen (% dwt) and nitrate (ppm). Both species of algae exhibited a high affinity for NO 3 - across all N pulses and initial tissue contents. There was greater NO 3 - removal from the water for depleted than enriched algae across all time intervals. In the low-N-pulse treatment, U. intestinalis and U. expansa removed all measurable NO 3 - within 8 and 12 h, respectively, and in the medium and high treatments, removal was high and then decreased over time. Maximum mean uptake rates of nitrate were greater for U. expansa (∼300 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ) than U. intestinalis (∼100 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ); however, uptake rates were highly variable over time. Overall, U. expansa uptake rates were double those of U. intestinalis. Maximum tissue NO 3 - for U. expansa was >1,000 ppm, five times that of U. intestinalis, suggesting that U. expansa has a greater storage capacity in this cellular pool. These results showed that opportunistic green algae with differing tissue nutrient histories were able to efficiently remove nitrate from the water across a wide range of N pulses; thus, both are highly adapted to proliferate in estuarine environments with pulsed nutrient supplies. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  1. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  2. On a Model of Associative Memory with Huge Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircigil, Mete; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Upgang, Sven; Vermet, Franck

    2017-07-01

    In Krotov et al. (in: Lee (eds) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, 2016) Krotov and Hopfield suggest a generalized version of the well-known Hopfield model of associative memory. In their version they consider a polynomial interaction function and claim that this increases the storage capacity of the model. We prove this claim and take the "limit" as the degree of the polynomial becomes infinite, i.e. an exponential interaction function. With this interaction we prove that model has an exponential storage capacity in the number of neurons, yet the basins of attraction are almost as large as in the standard Hopfield model.

  3. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  4. Have We Overestimated Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibeau, S.; Mucha, V.

    2011-01-01

    During future, large scale CO 2 geological storage in saline aquifers, fluid pressure is expected to rise as a consequence of CO 2 injection, but the pressure build up will have to stay below specified values to ensure a safe and long term containment of the CO 2 in the storage site. The pressure build up is the result of two different effects. The first effect is a local overpressure around the injectors, which is due to the high CO 2 velocities around the injectors, and which can be mitigated by adding CO 2 injectors. The second effect is a regional scale pressure build up that will take place if the storage aquifer is closed or if the formation water that flows away from the pressurised area is not large enough to compensate volumetrically the CO 2 injection. This second effect cannot be mitigated by adding additional injectors. In the first section of this paper, we review some major global and regional assessments of CO 2 storage capacities in deep saline aquifers, in term of mass and storage efficiency. These storage capacities are primarily based on a volumetric approach: storage capacity is the volumetric sum of the CO 2 that can be stored through various trapping mechanisms. We then discuss in Section 2 storage efficiencies derived from a pressure build up approach, as stated in the CO2STORE final report (Chadwick A. et al. (eds) (2008) Best Practice for the Storage of CO 2 in Saline Aquifers, Observations and Guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE Projects, Keyworth, Nottingham, BGS Occasional Publication No. 14) and detailed by Van der Meer and Egberts (van der Meer L.G.H., Egberts P.J.P. (2008) A General Method for Calculating Subsurface CO 2 Storage Capacity, OTC Paper 19309, presented at the OTC Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 5-8 May). A quantitative range of such storage efficiency is presented, based on a review of orders of magnitudes of pore and water compressibilities and allowable pressure increase. To illustrate the relevance of this

  5. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  6. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all...

  7. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  8. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  9. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.

    2000-01-01

    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed--high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 10 14 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance--fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity

  10. Methods for expanding the capacity of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    At the beginning of 1989 more than 55,000 metric tonnes of heavy metal (MTHM) of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) fuel had been discharged worldwide from nuclear power plants. Only a small fraction of this fuel has been reprocessed. The majority of the spent fuel assemblies are currently held at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) in storage awaiting either chemical processing or final disposal depending on the fuel concept chosen by individual countries. Studies made by NEA and IAEA have projected that annual spent fuel arising will reach about 10,000 t HM in the year 2000 and cumulative arising will be more than 200,000 t HM. Taking into account the large quantity of spent fuel discharged from NPP and that the first demonstrations of the direct disposal of spent fuel or HLW are expected only after the year 2020, long-term storage will be the primary option for management of spent fuel until well into the next century. There are several options to expand storage capacity: (1) to construct new away-from-reactor storage facilities, (2) to transport spent fuel from a full at-reactor pool to another site for storage in a pool that has sufficient space to accommodate it, (3) to expand the capacity of existing AR pools by using compact racks, double-tierce, rod consolidation and by increasing the dimensions of existing pools. The purpose of the meeting was: to exchange new information on the international level on the subject connected with the expansion of storage capacities for spent fuel; to elaborate the state-of-the-art of this problem; to define the most important areas for future activity; on the basis of the above information to give recommendations to potential users for selection and application of the most suitable methods for expanding spent fuel facilities taking into account the relevant country's conditions. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  12. Influence of Synaptic Depression on Memory Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Oizumi, Masafumi; Okada, Masato

    2011-08-01

    Synaptic efficacy between neurons is known to change within a short time scale dynamically. Neurophysiological experiments show that high-frequency presynaptic inputs decrease synaptic efficacy between neurons. This phenomenon is called synaptic depression, a short term synaptic plasticity. Many researchers have investigated how the synaptic depression affects the memory storage capacity. However, the noise has not been taken into consideration in their analysis. By introducing ``temperature'', which controls the level of the noise, into an update rule of neurons, we investigate the effects of synaptic depression on the memory storage capacity in the presence of the noise. We analytically compute the storage capacity by using a statistical mechanics technique called Self Consistent Signal to Noise Analysis (SCSNA). We find that the synaptic depression decreases the storage capacity in the case of finite temperature in contrast to the case of the low temperature limit, where the storage capacity does not change.

  13. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  14. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  15. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  16. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  17. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blázquez, N.; Alegre, J.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryTo predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35-3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66 ml g -1 and ranged from 0.23 ml g -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26 ml g -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the

  18. Influence of Distributed Residential Energy Storage on Voltage in Rural Distribution Network and Capacity Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tong, Yibin; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Xuefen

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale access of distributed residential photovoltaic (PV) in rural areas has solved the voltage problem to a certain extent. However, due to the intermittency of PV and the particularity of rural residents’ power load, the problem of low voltage in the evening peak remains to be resolved. This paper proposes to solve the problem by accessing residential energy storage. Firstly, the influence of access location and capacity of energy storage on voltage distribution in rural distribution network is analyzed. Secondly, the relation between the storage capacity and load capacity is deduced for four typical load and energy storage cases when the voltage deviation meets the demand. Finally, the optimal storage position and capacity are obtained by using PSO and power flow simulation.

  19. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.

    1999-01-01

    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  20. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  2. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  3. Consensus based scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a distributed, decentralized method for coordinated scheduling of charge/discharge intervals of storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid. The decentralized algorithm is based on a consensus scheme and solves an optimisation problem with the objective of minimising......, by use of storage capacities, the power flow over a transformer substation from/to the utility grid integrated microgrid. It is shown that when using this coordinated scheduling algorithm, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility grid is achieved. Additionally, mutual charge...

  4. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  5. Storage capacity of attractor neural networks with depressing synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Joaquin J.; Pantic, Lovorka; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2002-01-01

    We compute the capacity of a binary neural network with dynamic depressing synapses to store and retrieve an infinite number of patterns. We use a biologically motivated model of synaptic depression and a standard mean-field approach. We find that at T=0 the critical storage capacity decreases with the degree of the depression. We confirm the validity of our main mean-field results with numerical simulations

  6. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  7. Distributed coordination of energy-storage capacities in virtual microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Ramezani, Hossein; Jouffroy, Jerome

    cooperation is incorported, storage capacities can be operated as a virtual microgrid. The cooperation between nodes is based on the formulation of a simple objective function for coordination. The cooperation objective is then combined with each node’s local objective, which is the increase of self...

  8. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  9. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  10. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  11. Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity for Environmental Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable techniques must be developed to predict phosphorus (P storage and release from soils of uplands, ditches, streams, and wetlands in order to better understand the natural, anthropogenic, and legacy sources of P and their impact on water quality at a field/plot as well as larger scales. A concept called the “safe” soil phosphorus storage capacity (SPSC that is based on a threshold phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR has been developed; the PSR is the molar ratio of P to Fe and Al, and SPSC is a PSR-based calculation of the remaining soil P storage capacity that captures risks arising from previous loading as well as inherently low P sorption capacity of a soil. Zero SPSC amounts to a threshold value below which P runoff or leaching risk increases precipitously. In addition to the use of the PSR/SPSC concept for P risk assessment and management, and its ability to predict isotherm parameters such as the Langmuir strength of bonding, KL, and the equilibrium P concentration, EPC0, this simple, cost-effective, and quantitative approach has the potential to be used as an agronomic tool for more precise application of P for plant uptake.

  12. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  13. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  14. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

  15. Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.

  16. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  17. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  18. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  19. Expansion of storage capacity of interim spent fuel storage (MSVP) Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, P.; Fridrich, V.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes modifications of Interim spent fuel storage, performed with aim of storage capacity expansion, seismic stability enhancement, and overall increase of service life as well as assuring of MSVP safe operation. Uniqueness of adopted technical solutions is based upon the fact that mentioned innovations and modifications were performed without any changes, neither in ground plan nor architecture of MSVP structure. It also important to mention that all modifications were performed during continual operation of MSVP without any breaks of limits or operational regulations. Reconstruction and innovation of existing construction and technological systems of MSVP has assured required quality standard comparable with actual trends. (authors)

  20. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  1. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  2. Analysis of the Storage Capacity in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages connected to the power grid will be of great importance in the near future. A pilot project has investigated more than 100 single family houses with heat pumps all connected to the internet. The houses have large heat capacities and it is possible to move energy consumption to sui...... (scheduling) algorithm. The properties of this scheduling are investigated in the paper especially the flexibility and ability to trade on the intra-day regulating market is in focus....

  3. The storage capacity of Potts models for semantic memory retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, Emilio; Treves, Alessandro

    2005-08-01

    We introduce and analyse a minimal network model of semantic memory in the human brain. The model is a global associative memory structured as a collection of N local modules, each coding a feature, which can take S possible values, with a global sparseness a (the average fraction of features describing a concept). We show that, under optimal conditions, the number cM of modules connected on average to a module can range widely between very sparse connectivity (high dilution, c_{M}/N\\to 0 ) and full connectivity (c_{M}\\to N ), maintaining a global network storage capacity (the maximum number pc of stored and retrievable concepts) that scales like pc~cMS2/a, with logarithmic corrections consistent with the constraint that each synapse may store up to a fraction of a bit.

  4. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  5. First experiences with large SAN storage and Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezel, Jos van; Marten, Holger; Verstege, Bernhard; Jaeger, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The use of a storage area network (SAN) with Linux opens possibilities for scalable and affordable large data storage and poses a new challenge for cluster computing. The GridKa center uses a commercial parallel file system to create a highly available high-speed data storage using a combination of Fibre Channel (SAN) and Ethernet (LAN) to optimize between data throughput and costs. This article describes the design, implementation and optimizations of the GridKa storage solution which will offer over 400 TB online storage for 600 nodes. Presented are some throughput measurements of one of the largest Linux-based parallel storage systems in the world

  6. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  7. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  8. Photodimerization in dipeptides for high capacity optical digital storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed peptide materials with chromophores that undergo cycloaddition, suitable for terabit optical digital storage in a 5.25 in. disc. The rationale behind this design is that the length and rigidity of the backbone can be adjusted to facilitate the formation of a photodimer without...... large physical movements of the chromophores on exposure to UV light. Initially strongly absorbing films transmit up to 50% of light on irradiation at dimerizing wavelengths. This property can be utilized to record grey levels. An intensity-dependent transmission behavior has been observed that may...

  9. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  10. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics: Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-12

    Opportunities to provide peaking capacity with low-cost energy storage are emerging. But adding storage changes the ability of subsequent storage additions to meet peak demand. Increasing photovoltaic (PV) deployment also affects storage's ability to provide peak capacity. This study examines storage's potential to replace conventional peak capacity in California.

  11. On Independence for Capacities with Law of Large Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weihuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces new notions of Fubini independence and Exponential independence of random variables under capacities to fit Ellsberg's model, and finds out the relationships between Fubini independence, Exponential independence, MacCheroni and Marinacci's independence and Peng's independence. As an application, we give a weak law of large numbers for capacities under Exponential independence.

  12. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1996-01-01

    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  13. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  14. The storage capacity of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao L.) through giving Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) in the various of storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahay, R. R.; Misrun, S.; Sipayung, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa is plant which it’s seed character is recalcitrant. Giving PEG and using various of storage containers was hoped to increase storage capacity of cocoa seeds as long as period of saving. The reseach was aimed to identify the storage capacity of cocoa seeds through giving PEG in the various of storage containers. Research took place in Hataram Jawa II, Kabupaten Simalungun, Propinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. The method of this research is spit-split plot design with 3 replication. Storage period was put on main plot which was consisted of 4 level, PEG concentration was put on sub plot, consisted of 4 level and storage container was put on the sub sub plot consisted of 3 types. The results showed that until 4 days at storage with 45 % PEG concentration at all storage container, percentage of seed germination at storage can be decreased to be 2.90 %, and can be defensed until 16 days with 45 % PEG concentration at perforated plastic storage container. Percentage of molded seeds and seed moisture content were increased with added period of storage but seed moisture content was increased until 12 days at storage and was decreased at 16 days in storage.

  15. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  16. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  17. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  18. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  19. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  20. Research on Improved VSG Control Algorithm Based on Capacity-Limited Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A large scale of renewable energy employing grid connected electronic inverters fail to contribute inertia or damping to power systems, and, therefore, may bring negative effects to the stability of power system. As a solution, an advanced Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG control technology based on Hamilton approach is introduced in this paper firstly to support the frequency and enhance the suitability and robustness of the system. The charge and discharge process of power storage devices forms the virtual inertia and damping of VSG, and, therefore, limits on storage capacity may change the coefficients of VSG. To provide a method in keeping system output in an acceptable level with the capacity restriction in a transient period, an energy control algorithm is designed for VSG adaptive control. Finally, simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm. The demonstration shows: (1 the proposed control model aims at better system robustness and stability; and (2 the model performs in the environment closer to practical engineering by fitting the operation state of storage system.

  1. Long term storage of finished gasolines in large salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.W.J. [German Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Strategic oil stocking requires large low cost storage facilities. Crude oil has been held in very large salt mines and/or artificially made salt caverns for many years, notably in Europe and the USA. Following crude oil, gasoils and refinery light feed stocks have been tried also. Military organisations tried jet fuel and early cases of underground aviation gasoline storage in steel tanks have been reported.

  2. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2014-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  3. Storage Capacity and Sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Harmon, Jerry G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a bathymetric survey was done to determine the storage capacity and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. Results of the survey indicate that the maximum capacity of the reservoir is 8,991 acre-feet in November 1998. The results of previous investigations indicate that storage capacity of the reservoir is less than 8,991 acre-feet. The storage capacity determined from those investigations probably were underestimated because of limitations of the methods and the equipment used. The volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in storage capacity. To determine sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir, change in storage capacity was estimated for an upstream reach of the reservoir. The change in storage capacity was determined by comparing a 1998 thalweg profile (valley floor) of the reservoir with thalweg profiles from previous investigations; results of the comparison indicate that sedimentation is occurring in the upstream reach. Cross sections for 1998 and 1982 were compared to determine the magnitude of sedimentation in the upstream reach of the reservoir. Results of the comparison, which were determined from changes in the cross-sectional areas, indicate that the capacity of the reservoir decreased by 55 acre-feet.

  4. Flower-like SnO2/graphene composite for high-capacity lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongdong; Huang Jiamu; Li Xinlu; Liu Jia; Zhang Yuxin; Du Kun

    2012-01-01

    Flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method for high-capacity lithium storage. The as-prepared products are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM, TGA and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. The electrochemical performance of the flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The results show that the flower-like SnO 2 nanorod clusters are 800 nm in size and homogeneously adhere on graphene sheets. The flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite displays superior Li-battery performance with large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability.

  5. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  6. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...... and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...

  7. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  8. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  9. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  10. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  11. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  12. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  13. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues...... and fuel that can also fulfill a storage function....

  14. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2008-09-23

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images and indicated which of the two they had seen. The previously viewed item could be paired with either an object from a novel category, an object of the same basic-level category, or the same object in a different state or pose. Performance in each of these conditions was remarkably high (92%, 88%, and 87%, respectively), suggesting that participants successfully maintained detailed representations of thousands of images. These results have implications for cognitive models, in which capacity limitations impose a primary computational constraint (e.g., models of object recognition), and pose a challenge to neural models of memory storage and retrieval, which must be able to account for such a large and detailed storage capacity.

  15. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume

  16. Surface water storage capacity of twenty tree species in Davis, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory. McPherson

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage...

  17. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  18. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  19. Large capacity storage of integrated objects before change blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Spekreijse, H.; Landman, R.

    2003-01-01

    Normal people have a strikingly low ability to detect changes in a visual scene. In the present study, Ss were asked to detect changes in the orientation of rectangular figures in a textured display across a 1600 ms gray interval. In the first experiment, change detection improved when the location

  20. Generalization and capacity of extensively large two-layered perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Kanter, Ido; Engel, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The generalization ability and storage capacity of a treelike two-layered neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension is examined. The mapping from the input to the hidden layer is via Boolean functions; the mapping from the hidden layer to the output is done by a perceptron. The analysis is within the replica framework where an order parameter characterizing the overlap between two networks in the combined space of Boolean functions and hidden-to-output couplings is introduced. The maximal capacity of such networks is found to scale linearly with the logarithm of the number of Boolean functions per hidden unit. The generalization process exhibits a first-order phase transition from poor to perfect learning for the case of discrete hidden-to-output couplings. The critical number of examples per input dimension, α c , at which the transition occurs, again scales linearly with the logarithm of the number of Boolean functions. In the case of continuous hidden-to-output couplings, the generalization error decreases according to the same power law as for the perceptron, with the prefactor being different

  1. Estimates of Storage Capacity of Multilayer Perceptron with Threshold Logic Hidden Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Adam

    1997-11-01

    We estimate the storage capacity of multilayer perceptron with n inputs, h(1) threshold logic units in the first hidden layer and 1 output. We show that if the network can memorize 50% of all dichotomies of a randomly selected N-tuple of points of R(n) with probability 1, then Nmemory capacity (in the sense of Cover) between nh(1)+1 and 2(nh(1)+1) input patterns and for the most efficient networks in this class between 1 and 2 input patterns per connection. Comparing these results with the recent estimates of VC-dimension we find that in contrast to a single neuron case, the VC-dimension exceeds the capacity for a sufficiently large n and h(1). The results are based on the derivation of an explicit expression for the number of dichotomies which can be implemented by such a network for a special class of N-tuples of input patterns which has a positive probability of being randomly chosen.

  2. Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)

  3. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity...... of onedimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition was applied to quantify the dynamic heat storage capacity of a particular building element. The impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated, as well......In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable...

  4. Canopy storage capacity and wettability of leaves and needles: The effect of water temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus-Iwan, Anna; Błońska, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    The canopy storage capacity (S) is a major component of the surface water balance. We analysed the relationship between the tree canopy water storage capacity and leaf wettability under changing simulated rainfall temperature. We estimated the effect of the rain temperature change on the canopy storage capacity and contact angle of leave and needle surfaces based on two scenarios. Six dominant forest trees were analysed: English oak (Quercus roburL.), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill), silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.),and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Twigs of these species were collected from Krynica Zdrój, that is, the Experimental Forestry unit of the University of Agriculture in Cracow (southern Poland). Experimental analyses (simulations of precipitation) were performed in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The canopy storage capacity and leaf wettability classification were determined at 12 water temperatures and a practical calculator to compute changes of S and contact angles of droplets was developed. Among all species, an increase of the rainfall temperature by 0.7 °C decreases the contact angle between leave and needle surfaces by 2.41° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 0.74 g g-1; an increase of the rain temperature by 2.7 °C decreases the contact angle by 9.29° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 2.85 g g-1. A decreased contact angle between a water droplet and leaf surface indicates increased wettability. Thus, our results show that an increased temperature increases the leaf wettability in all examined species. The comparison of different species implies that the water temperature has the strongest effect on spruce and the weakest effect on oak. These data indicate that the rainfall temperature influences the canopy storage capacity.

  5. What limits working memory capacity? Evidence for modality-specific sources to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, René

    2011-11-01

    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of auditory and visual arrays (e.g., Cocchini, Logie, Della Sala, MacPherson, & Baddeley, 2002; Fougnie & Marois, 2006; Saults & Cowan, 2007). However, studies have yielded widely different dual-task costs, which have been taken to support both modality-specific and central capacity-limit accounts of WM storage. Here, we demonstrate that the controversies regarding such costs mostly stem from how these costs are measured. Measures that compare combined dual-task capacity with the higher single-task capacity support a single, central WM store when there is a large disparity between the single-task capacities (Experiment 1) but not when the single-task capacities are well equated (Experiment 2). In contrast, measures of the dual-task cost that normalize for differences in single-task capacity reveal evidence for modality-specific stores, regardless of single-task performance. Moreover, these normalized measures indicate that dual-task cost is much smaller if the tasks do not involve maintaining bound feature representations in WM (Experiment 3). Taken together, these experiments not only resolve a discrepancy in the field and clarify how to assess the dual-task cost but also indicate that WM capacity can be constrained both by modality-specific and modality-independent sources of information processing.

  6. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  7. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity over Electro-synthesized HKUST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-BTC2] (BTC = benzene-tri-carboxylate was synthesized using an electrochemical method and tested for hydrogen storage. The obtained material showed a remarkably higher hydrogen uptake over reported HKUST-1 and reached until 4.75 wt% at room temperature and low pressure up to 1.2 bar. This yield was compared to HKUST-1 obtained from the solvothermal method, which showed a hydrogen uptake of only 1.19 wt%. Enhancement of hydrogen sorption of the electro-synthesized product was due to the more appropriate surface area and pore size, effected by the preferable physical interaction between the hydrogen gasses and the copper ions as unsaturated metal centers in the frameworks of HKUST-1.

  8. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  9. Properties and uses of storage for enhancing the grid penetration of very large photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this third paper, which studies the hourly generation data for the year 2006 from the Israel Electric Corporation, with a view to incorporating very large photovoltaic (PV) power plants, we address the question: What properties should storage have in order to enhance the grid penetration of large PV systems in an efficient and substantial manner? We first impose the constraint that no PV energy losses are permitted other than those due to storage inefficiency. This constraint leads to powerful linkages between the energy capacity and power capacity of storage, and PV system size, and their combined effect on grid penetration. Various strategies are then examined for enhancing grid penetration, based upon this newfound knowledge. Specific strategies examined include PV energy dumping and baseload rescheduling both on a seasonal basis and shorter time periods. We found, inter alia, that at high grid flexibilities (in the range ff=0.8-1), PV grid penetration levels could be possible in the range 60-90% of annual requirements. Moreover, with appropriately designed storage and accurate forecasting, a future grid could be operated at ff=1.

  10. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of large concrete storage tank under seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Jingyuan; Cui, Hongcheng; He, Qiang; Ju, Jinsan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); You, Xiaochuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-01-15

    This study adopted the finite element software ABAQUS to trace the dynamic response history of large reinforced concrete storage tank during different seismic excitations. The dynamic characteristics and failure modes of the tank's structure were investigated by considering the rebar's effect. Calculation results show that the large concrete storage tank remains in safe working conditions under a seismic acceleration of 55 cm/s{sup 2}. The joint of the concrete wall and dome begins to crack when seismic acceleration reaches 250 cm/s{sup 2}. As the earthquake continues, cracks spread until the top of the wall completely fails and stops working. The maximum displacement of the concrete tank and seismic acceleration are in proportion. Peak displacement and stress of the tank always appear behind the maximum acceleration.

  12. The magical number 4 in short-term memory: a reconsideration of mental storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, N

    2001-02-01

    Miller (1956) summarized evidence that people can remember about seven chunks in short-term memory (STM) tasks. However, that number was meant more as a rough estimate and a rhetorical device than as a real capacity limit. Others have since suggested that there is a more precise capacity limit, but that it is only three to five chunks. The present target article brings together a wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit is real. Capacity limits will be useful in analyses of information processing only if the boundary conditions for observing them can be carefully described. Four basic conditions in which chunks can be identified and capacity limits can accordingly be observed are: (1) when information overload limits chunks to individual stimulus items, (2) when other steps are taken specifically to block the recording of stimulus items into larger chunks, (3) in performance discontinuities caused by the capacity limit, and (4) in various indirect effects of the capacity limit. Under these conditions, rehearsal and long-term memory cannot be used to combine stimulus items into chunks of an unknown size; nor can storage mechanisms that are not capacity-limited, such as sensory memory, allow the capacity-limited storage mechanism to be refilled during recall. A single, central capacity limit averaging about four chunks is implicated along with other, noncapacity-limited sources. The pure STM capacity limit expressed in chunks is distinguished from compound STM limits obtained when the number of separately held chunks is unclear. Reasons why pure capacity estimates fall within a narrow range are discussed and a capacity limit for the focus of attention is proposed.

  13. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network

  14. Spent fuel storage capacities. An update of DOE/RL-84-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Spent fuel storage capacities at some commercial light water reactors (LWRs) are inadequate to handle projected spent fuel discharges. This report presents estimates of potential near-term requirements for additional LWR spent fuel storage capacity, based on information supplied by utilities operating commercial nuclear power plants. These estimates provide information needed for planning the Department of Energy's (DOE) activities to be carried out under the DOE's Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program, in conjunction with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The estimates in this report cover the period from the present through the year 2000. Although the DOE objective is to begin accepting spent fuel for final disposal in 1998, types of fuel and the receipt rates to be shipped are not yet known. Hence, this report makes no assumption regarding such fuel shipments. The resport also assesses the possible impacts of increased fuel exposure and spent fuel transhipment on the requirements for additional storage capacity

  15. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  16. Oxygen storage capacity and structural properties of Ni-doped LaMnO3 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Rui; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic OSC of (a) fresh and (b) aged LaMn 1−x Ni x O 3 perovskites (0.1 Hz). Aged condition: 1050 °C, 5 h, 7% steam in air. The LaMn 1−x Ni x O 3 perovskites exhibit considerable dynamic OSC in comparison to CeO 2 –ZrO 2 (CZ), even after 1050 °C hydrothermal ageing for 5 h. Highlights: •Ni-doped LaMnO 3 perovskites exhibit very large dynamic OSC and high oxygen storage rate. •Mn 4+ is favourable to the releasable oxygen. •Doping of Ni ions increase the Mn 4+ content and the oxygen vacancies. •Doping of Ni ions reduce the BO 6 distortion in the LaMnO 3 perovskites. -- Abstract: A series of Ni doped LaMnO 3 perovskites were prepared by a sol–gel method as oxygen storage materials. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray adsorption fine structure (XAFS), oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and H 2 -temperature program reduction (TPR) measurements were performed to investigate the OSC of the perovskites as well as the effects of Ni on the structural properties. The results showed that the Ni-doped LaMnO 3 perovskite exhibited very large dynamic OSC and high oxygen release rate, which provided a possibility to serve as an oxygen storage material candidate in three-way catalysts. The available oxygen species below 500 °C primarily originated from the redox reaction between Mn 4+ and Mn 3+ , and the more Mn 4+ were favourable to the releasable oxygen. The doping of appropriate Ni ions promoted the OSC of the LaMnO 3 perovskites by increasing the Mn 4+ content and adjusting the structural defects. On the other hand, the doped Ni ions could make the BO 6 distortion disappearing in the LaMnO 3 perovskites to reduce the lattice oxygen activity

  17. A first-principles study of hydrogen storage capacity based on Li-Na-decorated silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhe; Wu, Shujing; Dai, Xianying; Zhao, Tianlong; Hao, Yue

    2018-05-23

    Surface decoration with alkali metal adatoms has been predicted to be promising for silicene to obtain high hydrogen storage capacity. Herein, we performed a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Na co-decorated silicene (Li-Na-decorated silicene) based on first-principles calculations using van der Waals correction. The hydrogen adsorption behaviors, including the adsorption order, the maximum capacity, and the corresponding mechanism were analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that up to three hydrogen molecules can firmly bind to each Li atom and six for each Na atom, respectively. The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated to be as high as 6.65 wt% with a desirable average adsorption energy of 0.29 eV/H2. It is confirmed that both the charge-induced electrostatic interaction and the orbital hybridizations play a great role in hydrogen storage. Our results may enhance our fundamental understanding of the hydrogen storage mechanism, which is of great importance for the practical application of Li-Na-decorated silicene in hydrogen storage.

  18. Research on SOC Calibration of Large Capacity Lead Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W. Q.; Guo, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    Large capacity lead-acid battery is used in track electric locomotive, and State of Charge (SOC) is an important quantitative parameter of locomotive power output and operating mileage of power emergency recovery vehicle. But State of Charge estimation has been a difficult part in the battery management system. In order to reduce the SOC estimation error better, this paper uses the linear relationship of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and State of Charge to fit the SOC-OCV curve equation by MATLAB. The method proposed in this paper is small, easy to implement and can be used in the battery non-working state SOC estimation correction, improve the estimation accuracy of SOC.

  19. Separate Poles Mode for Large-Capacity HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel connection mode, separate poles mode (SPM), for large-capacity HVDC systems. The proposed mode focuses on the core issues of HVDC connection in interconnected power grids and principally aims at increasing effective electric distance between poles, which helps to mitigate the interaction problems between AC system and DC system. Receiving end of bipolar HVDC has been divided into different inverter stations under the mode, and thus significantly alleviates difficulties in power transmission and consumption of receiving-end AC grids. By investigating the changes of multi-feed short-circuit ratio (MISCR), finding that HVDC with SPM shows critical impacts upon itself and other HVDC systems with conventional connection mode, which demonstrates that SPM can make balance between MISCR increase and short-circuit current limit.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Ng, Kim Choon; Кaltayev, Aidarkhan

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper

  1. Engineering program in order to increase the irradiated fuel storage capacity in pool facilities of Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, a technical program in the spent fuel storage area of Nuclear Plant Juragua was launched. Such a program tries to carry out an engineering assessment of the possibility of increasing the spent fuel storage capacity in pool storage facilities by using high density racks (re-racking) instead of the original (non-compact) ones. The purpose of the above-mentioned program is to evaluate possible solutions that can be applied to the construction works prior to plant operation. The first stage of the program for the 1994-95 period is an ongoing Engineering-Economic Feasibility Study (EEFS), which endeavors to examine the capabilities of the reloading pool in Unit-1 Reactor building and long-term storage pool in auxiliary building in high density storage conditions. Technical details of the EEFS and reached results and difficulties are described. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning):

  3. Energy efficiency and capacity retention of Ni–MH batteries for storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu, Ying; Davis, Zenda; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni–MH battery energy efficiency was evaluated at full and partial state-of-charge. ► State-of-charge and state-of-recharge were studied by voltage changes and capacity measurement. ► Capacity retention of the NiMH-B2 battery was 70% after fully charge and 1519 h of storage. ► The inefficient charge process started at ca. 90% of rated capacity when charged at ⩽0.2 C rate. ► Battery durability and low self-discharge strategies are analyzed and discussed for energy storage needs. - Abstract: The Ni–MH batteries were tested for battery energy storage characteristics, including the effects of battery charge or discharge at different rates. The battery energy efficiency and capacity retention were evaluated through measuring the charge/discharge capacities and energies during full and partial state-of-charge (SoC) operations. Energy efficiency results were obtained at various charge input levels and different charge and discharge rates. The inefficient charging process started to take place at ca. 90% state-of-recharge (SoR) when charged at no more than 0.2 C rate. For the NiMH-B2 battery after an approximately full charge (∼100% SoC at 120% SoR and a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate), the capacity retention was obtained as 83% after 360 h of storage, and 70% after 1519 h of storage. The energy efficiency was decreased from 74.0% to 50% after 1519 h of storage time. The Coulomb efficiency was initially 83.34%, and was reduced to 57.95% after 1519 h of storage. The battery has relatively higher energy efficiency at approximately 50% SoC. The energy efficiency was calculated to be more than 92% when the NiMH-C3 battery was charged to 30–70% SoC then discharged to 0% SoC at a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate. In consideration of energy efficiency, charge acceptance, capacity retention rate, and power output needs, as well as Nelson’s analysis on HEV power requirements, the Ni–MH battery is appropriate to work at ca. 50 ± 10% SoC with an

  4. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  5. Energy density and storage capacity cost comparison of conceptual solid and liquid sorption seasonal heat storage systems for low-temperature space heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scapino, L.; Zondag, H.A.; Van Bael, J.; Diriken, J.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    Sorption heat storage can potentially store thermal energy for long time periods with a higher energy density compared to conventional storage technologies. A performance comparison in terms of energy density and storage capacity costs of different sorption system concepts used for seasonal heat

  6. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions

  8. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-2406 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions. (author)

  9. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  10. A central capacity limit to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saults, J Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-11-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array comparison task in 5 experiments. Participants were to remember only the visual, only the auditory (unimodal memory conditions), or both arrays (bimodal memory conditions). Experiments 1 and 2 showed significant dual-task tradeoffs for visual but not for auditory capacity. In Experiments 3-5, the authors eliminated modality-specific memory by using postperceptual masks. Dual-task costs occurred for both modalities, and the number of auditory and visual items remembered together was no more than the higher of the unimodal capacities (visual: 3-4 items). The findings suggest a central capacity supplemented by modality- or code-specific storage and point to avenues for further research on the role of processing in central storage. 2007 APA

  11. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Schymanski, S.J.; Fenicia, F.F.; Sriwongsitanon, N.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response, and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly

  12. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  13. Principal considerations in large energy-storage capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Capacitor banks storing one or more megajoules and costing more than one million dollars have unique problems not often found in smaller systems. Two large banks, Scyllac at Los Alamos and Shiva at Livermore, are used as models of large, complex systems. Scyllac is a 10-MJ, 60-kV theta-pinch system while Shiva is a 20-MJ, 20-kV energy system for laser flash lamps. A number of design principles are emphasized for expediting the design and construction of large banks. The sensitive features of the charge system, the storage system layout, the switching system, the transmission system, and the design of the principal bank components are presented. Project management and planning must involve a PERT chart with certain common features for all the activities. The importance of the budget is emphasized

  14. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Due to large pores in the sheet of γ-graphyne, it should be a potential materials for energy storage applications. Our calculations might motivate active experimental efforts in designing high-efficiency hydrogen storage media. • For the first time, we use an applied external electric field to prevent Mg atoms from clustering using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. • The results demonstrate that, for Mg-G after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, ten H_2 molecules per Mg atom can be adsorbed and the hydrogen storage capacities reach to 10.64 wt%, with the average binding energies of 0.28 eV/H_2. - Abstract: In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H_2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H_2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  15. NOSQL FOR STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF LARGE LIDAR DATA COLLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boehm

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Developments in LiDAR technology over the past decades have made LiDAR to become a mature and widely accepted source of geospatial information. This in turn has led to an enormous growth in data volume. The central idea for a file-centric storage of LiDAR point clouds is the observation that large collections of LiDAR data are typically delivered as large collections of files, rather than single files of terabyte size. This split of the dataset, commonly referred to as tiling, was usually done to accommodate a specific processing pipeline. It makes therefore sense to preserve this split. A document oriented NoSQL database can easily emulate this data partitioning, by representing each tile (file in a separate document. The document stores the metadata of the tile. The actual files are stored in a distributed file system emulated by the NoSQL database. We demonstrate the use of MongoDB a highly scalable document oriented NoSQL database for storing large LiDAR files. MongoDB like any NoSQL database allows for queries on the attributes of the document. As a specialty MongoDB also allows spatial queries. Hence we can perform spatial queries on the bounding boxes of the LiDAR tiles. Inserting and retrieving files on a cloud-based database is compared to native file system and cloud storage transfer speed.

  16. Nosql for Storage and Retrieval of Large LIDAR Data Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.

    2015-08-01

    Developments in LiDAR technology over the past decades have made LiDAR to become a mature and widely accepted source of geospatial information. This in turn has led to an enormous growth in data volume. The central idea for a file-centric storage of LiDAR point clouds is the observation that large collections of LiDAR data are typically delivered as large collections of files, rather than single files of terabyte size. This split of the dataset, commonly referred to as tiling, was usually done to accommodate a specific processing pipeline. It makes therefore sense to preserve this split. A document oriented NoSQL database can easily emulate this data partitioning, by representing each tile (file) in a separate document. The document stores the metadata of the tile. The actual files are stored in a distributed file system emulated by the NoSQL database. We demonstrate the use of MongoDB a highly scalable document oriented NoSQL database for storing large LiDAR files. MongoDB like any NoSQL database allows for queries on the attributes of the document. As a specialty MongoDB also allows spatial queries. Hence we can perform spatial queries on the bounding boxes of the LiDAR tiles. Inserting and retrieving files on a cloud-based database is compared to native file system and cloud storage transfer speed.

  17. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  18. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-05

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  19. Moisture buffer capacity of cement-lime plasters with enhanced thermal storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Indoor air temperature and relative humidity represent important parameters for health and working efficiency of buildings occupants. Beside the moderation of temperature, investigation of hygric properties of building materials with connection to indoor relative humidity variation became recognized as a relevant factor for energy efficient building maintenance. The moisture buffer value introduced in the Nordtest protocol can be used for estimation of moisture buffer capacity of building materials or their multi-layered systems. In this paper, both the ideal and real moisture buffer values are examined on the basis of simulation of diurnal relative humidity fluctuations in plasters with incorporated PCM admixture. Retrieved data points to a complex effect of the tested plasters on possible moderation of buildings interior climate.

  20. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ''Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste'', (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators

  1. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are among the renewable sources that electrical energy systems are adopting with increasing frequency. The majority of already-installed PV systems are decentralized units that are usually connected to lowvoltage (LV) distribution grids. The PV hosting capacity of an LV...... hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...

  2. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  3. Large entropy derived from low-frequency vibrations and its implications for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-02-01

    Adsorption and desorption are driven by the energy and entropy competition, but the entropy effect is often ignored in hydrogen storage and the optimal adsorption strength for the ambient storage is controversial in the literature. This letter investigated the adsorption states of the H2 molecule on M-B12C6N6 (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca, and Sc) and analyzed the correlation among the zero point energy (ZPE), the entropy change, and the adsorption energy and their effects on the delivery capacities. The ZPE has large correction to the adsorption energy due to the light mass of hydrogen. The computations show that the potential energies along the spherical surface centered at the alkali metals are very flat and it leads to large entropy (˜70 J/mol.K) of the adsorbed H2 molecules. The entropy change can compensate the enthalpy change effectively, and the ambient storage can be realized with relatively weak adsorption of ΔH = -12 kJ/mol. The results are encouraging and instructive for the design of hydrogen storage materials.

  4. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M

    2015-08-04

    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  5. Synthesis of NiPS3 and CoPS and its hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, N.; Madian, M.; El-Meligi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of NiPS 3 and CoPS using solid state reaction. • Characterization of compounds using XRD, TEM, SEM and IR. • Measuring the compounds thermal stability. • Estimation of the hydrogen storage capacity. -- Abstract: Prepared CoPS and NiPS 3 are studied as new materials for hydrogen energy storage. Single phase of CoPS and NiPS 3 were grown separately in evacuated silicatube via solid state reaction at 650 °C with controlled heating rate 1 °C/min. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of the desired compounds. Both CoPS and NiPS 3 exhibited high thermal stability up to 700 °C and 630 °C, respectively. The morphology of the prepared samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and folded sheets appeared in the transmission electron microscopy. The samples were exposed to 20 bar applied hydrogen pressure at 80 K. Both compounds appear to have feasible hydrogen storage capacity. CoPS was capable to adsorb 1.7 wt% while NiPS 3 storage capacity reached 1.2 wt%

  6. Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity.

  7. Performance of phase change materials on storage capacity of trombe wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.A.; Mujally, L.

    2006-01-01

    Two types of phase change materials were used as storage media in a Trombe Wall; namely paraffin wax (N-Eicoseue C 20 H 42 ) and Glaubers Salt (Na 2 SO 4 10H 2 O). To investigate the performance of these materials, a theoretical model and a simulation programme were developed. The wall temperature, the amount of heat stored, and the optimum wall thickness were calculated for both types. The study found that using two sheets of glass on the outside wall increased the surface wall temperature by around 50 degree C. It also found that Glauber salt was a much better storage material than paraffin wax. For a selected winter day at a location of 32 o N latitude, the storage capacity of the salt was more than twice that of the paraffin wax. The salt storage capacity was 32816 kJ/m 3 at an optimum wall thickness of 16 cm. this value for paraffin was 14464 kJ/m 3 at 13 cm optimum thickness. The study also concluded that according to this high heating value the wall uses, Glauber salt as a storage medium could supply its heat to the surrounding for a much longer period at night

  8. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  9. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...... by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities...

  10. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California Under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-14

    In this report, we examine the potential for replacing conventional peaking capacity in California with energy storage, including analysis of the changing technical potential with increased storage deployment and the effect of PV deployment. We examine nine years of historic load data, a range of storage durations (2-8 hours), and a range of PV penetration levels (0%-30%). We demonstrate how PV increases the ability of storage to reduce peak net demand. In the scenarios analyzed, the expected penetration of PV in California in 2020 could more than double the potential for 4-hour energy storage to provide capacity services.

  11. The H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-01-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C_6_0 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H_2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H_2 molecules can be stored inside the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H_2@H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  12. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences

  13. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  14. Estimation of Potential Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacities of Onshore Sedimentary Basins in Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of the five main onshore sedimentary basins (Chungnam, Gyeongsang, Honam, Mungyeong, and Taebaeksan Basins) in Republic of Korea are estimated based on the methods suggested by the United States National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The target geologic formations considered for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the sedimentary basins are sandstone and coal beds. The density of carbon dioxide is set equal to 446.4 kg/m3. The adsorption capacity and density of coal (anthracite) are set equal to 2.71 × 10-2 kg/kg and 1.82 × 103 kg/m3, respectively. The average storage efficiency factors for sandstone and coal are set equal to 2.5% and 34.0%, respectively. The Chungnam Basin has the sandstone volume of 72 km3 and the coal volume of 1.24 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Chungnam Basin is 3.8%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Chungnam Basin are estimated to be 31 Mton and 21 Mton, respectively. The Gyeongsang Basin has the sandstone volume of 1,960 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is 4.6%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is estimated to be 1,011 Mton. The Honam Basin has the sandstone volume of 8 km3 and the coal volume of 0.27 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Honam Basin is 1.9%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Honam Basin are estimated to be 2 Mton and 5 Mton, respectively. The Mungyeong Basin has the sandstone volume of 60 km3 and the coal volume of 0.66 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Mungyeong Basin is 2.0%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Mungyeong Basin are estimated to be 13 Mton and 11 Mton, respectively. The Taebaeksan Basin has the sandstone volume of 71 km3 and the coal volume of 0.73 km3. The

  15. Soluble Supercapacitors: Large and Reversible Charge Storage in Colloidal Iron-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Carl K; Zhou, Dongming; Liu, Hongbin; Li, Xiaosong; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    Colloidal ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals have previously been shown to accumulate multiple delocalized conduction-band electrons under chemical, electrochemical, or photochemical reducing conditions, leading to emergent semimetallic characteristics such as quantum plasmon resonances and raising prospects for application in multielectron redox transformations. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the capacitance of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals through aliovalent Fe 3+ -doping. Very high areal and volumetric capacitances (33 μF cm -2 , 233 F cm -3 ) are achieved in Zn 0.99 Fe 0.01 O nanocrystals that rival those of the best supercapacitors used in commercial energy-storage devices. The redox properties of these nanocrystals are probed by potentiometric titration and optical spectroscopy. These data indicate an equilibrium between electron localization by Fe 3+ dopants and electron delocalization within the ZnO conduction band, allowing facile reversible charge storage and removal. As "soluble supercapacitors", colloidal iron-doped ZnO nanocrystals constitute a promising class of solution-processable electronic materials with large charge-storage capacity attractive for future energy-storage applications.

  16. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  17. Analysis of the influence of input data uncertainties on determining the reliability of reservoir storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a sensitivity analysis of the influence of uncertainties in input hydrological, morphological and operating data required for a proposal for active reservoir conservation storage capacity and its achieved values. By introducing uncertainties into the considered inputs of the water management analysis of a reservoir, the subsequent analysed reservoir storage capacity is also affected with uncertainties. The values of water outflows from the reservoir and the hydrological reliabilities are affected with uncertainties as well. A simulation model of reservoir behaviour has been compiled with this kind of calculation as stated below. The model allows evaluation of the solution results, taking uncertainties into consideration, in contributing to a reduction in the occurrence of failure or lack of water during reservoir operation in low-water and dry periods.

  18. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  19. Absorptive capacity: Relevancy for large and small enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R. Ndiege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the years, there has been a growing interest in organisational research inthe absorptive capacity (AC construct, but only a few theoretical and empirical studies onthis topic have been carried out over the last decade. However, a number of scholars andpractitioners have continued to cite AC as a significant factor in determining the success orfailure of organisations. With the dramatic changes in business environments, there has beena growing rise in the use of knowledge by organisations to help improve and maintain theircompetitiveness and consequently their survival. AC is a fundamental element that helpsorganisations to gain competitive advantage by producing commercial products or servicesthrough the transformation of knowledge.Objective: The purpose of this article is thus to provide a review of the literature on this subjectwith the aim of finding out how both large and small enterprises stand to benefit from AC. Weintend to affirm that, by successfully carrying out a learning process that is characterised by theexploration and exploitation of external knowledge and the organisation’s current knowledgebase, organisations can realise competitive advantage irrespective of their size.Method: In the literature search, three approaches were employed, namely academic databases,online search engines and a review of references of related studies which led to more relevantarticles and works whose references were further reviewed and analysed. Content analysiswas done on all collected articles for quality appraisal and synthesis, the results of which wepresent as discussions on various sections of this paper leading to answering of our studyobjective. Only peer-reviewed articles were used.Results: Our findings reveal that, irrespective of the organisation’s size, it can benefitsignificantly from AC. The study further reveal that AC is a strong predictor of an organisation’sperformance and hence a strategic asset for the

  20. Storage capacity of multi-layered neural networks with binary weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowski, W.; Hemmen, J.L. van

    1997-01-01

    Using statistical physics methods we investigate two-layered perceptrons which consist of N binary input neurons, K hidden units and a single output node. Four basic types of such networks are considered: the so-called Committee, Parity, and AND Machines which makes a decision based on a majority, parity, and the logical AND rules, respectively (for these cases the weights that connect hidden units and output node are taken to be equal to one), and the General Machine where one allows all the synaptic couplings to vary. For these kinds of network we examine two types of architecture: fully connected and three-connected ones (with overlapping and non-overlapping receptive fields, respectively). All the above mentioned machines heave binary weights. Our basic interest is focused on the storage capabilities of such networks which realize p= αN random, unbiased dichotomies (α denotes the so-called storage ratio). The analysis is done using the annealed approximation and is valid for all values of K. The critical (maximal) storage capacity of the fully connected Committee Machine reads α c =K, while in the case of the three-structure one gets α c =1, independent of K. The results obtained for the Parity Machine are exactly the same as those for the Committee network. The optimal storage of the AND Machine depends on distribution of the outputs for the patterns. These associations are studied in detail. We have found also that the capacity of the General Machines remains the same as compared to systems with fixed weights between intermediate layer and the output node. Some of the findings (especially those concerning the storage capacity of the Parity Machine) are in a good agreement with known numerical results. (author)

  1. Subgrid Parameterization of the Soil Moisture Storage Capacity for a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this paper, the scale effect on the Grid-Xinanjiang model was examined. The bias of the estimation of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture at the different grid scales, along with the scale-dependence of the effective parameters, highlights the importance of well representing the subgrid variability. This paper presents a subgrid parameterization method to incorporate the subgrid variability of the soil storage capacity, which is a key variable that controls runoff generation and partitioning in the Grid-Xinanjiang model. In light of the similar spatial pattern and physical basis, the soil storage capacity is correlated with the topographic index, whose spatial distribution can more readily be measured. A beta distribution is introduced to represent the spatial distribution of the soil storage capacity within the grid. The results derived from the Yanduhe Basin show that the proposed subgrid parameterization method can effectively correct the watershed soil storage capacity curve. Compared to the original Grid-Xinanjiang model, the model performances are quite consistent at the different grid scales when the subgrid variability is incorporated. This subgrid parameterization method reduces the recalibration necessity when the Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution is changed. Moreover, it improves the potential for the application of the distributed model in the ungauged basin.

  2. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  3. Social exclusion weakens storage capacity and attentional filtering ability in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Qiao, Lei; Qi, Senqing; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Social exclusion has been found to impair visual working memory (WM), while the underlying neural processes are currently unclear. Using two experiments, we tested whether the poor WM performance caused by exclusion was due to reduced storage capacity, impaired attentional filtering ability or both. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion. Seventy-four female participants performed WM tasks while event-related potentials were recorded. In Experiment 1, participants were made to remember the orientations of red rectangles while ignoring salient green rectangles. Results showed that exclusion impaired the ability to filter out irrelevant items from WM, as reflected by the similar contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitudes for one-target-one-distractor condition and two-targets condition, as well as the similar CDA amplitudes for two-targets-two-distractors condition and four-targets condition in excluded individuals. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to remember 1-5 colored squares. Results showed that exclusion reduced storage capacity, as the CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of two items for exclusion group and at loads of three items for inclusion group. Together, these two experiments provided complementary evidence that WM deficits caused by social exclusion were due to reduced storage capacity and impaired attentional filtering ability. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lihua; Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Cairong

    2017-08-02

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG). It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H₂ molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of -0.429 eV/H₂. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of -0.296 eV/H₂. The adsorption of H₂ molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H₂ molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  5. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generalized gradient approximation (GGA function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG. It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H2 molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of −0.429 eV/H2. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of −0.296 eV/H2. The adsorption of H2 molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H2 molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  6. DNA MemoChip: Long-Term and High Capacity Information Storage and Select Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Wang, Fuzhou; Kream, Richard M

    2018-02-26

    Over the course of history, human beings have never stopped seeking effective methods for information storage. From rocks to paper, and through the past several decades of using computer disks, USB sticks, and on to the thin silicon "chips" and "cloud" storage of today, it would seem that we have reached an era of efficiency for managing innumerable and ever-expanding data. Astonishingly, when tracing this technological path, one realizes that our ancient methods of informational storage far outlast paper (10,000 vs. 1,000 years, respectively), let alone the computer-based memory devices that only last, on average, 5 to 25 years. During this time of fast-paced information generation, it becomes increasingly difficult for current storage methods to retain such massive amounts of data, and to maintain appropriate speeds with which to retrieve it, especially when in demand by a large number of users. Others have proposed that DNA-based information storage provides a way forward for information retention as a result of its temporal stability. It is now evident that DNA represents a potentially economical and sustainable mechanism for storing information, as demonstrated by its decoding from a 700,000 year-old horse genome. The fact that the human genome is present in a cell, containing also the varied mitochondrial genome, indicates DNA's great potential for large data storage in a 'smaller' space.

  7. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  8. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P extenders, except on Day 2, when Androhep Plus maintained better viability. Differences in the percentage of motile (total) sperm due to extender were evident on Days 2, 4, 5, and 6, when Androhep Plus was superior to BTS (P extender as early as Day 2; storage in Androhep Plus induced higher levels of pattern B sperm (P extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  9. Determinants of the energy storage capacity of electric vehicles; Determinanten des Energiespeicherpotentials von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S.; Westermann, D. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). FG EEV; Agsten, M. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST)

    2012-07-01

    Future power systems have to meet the challenge of uncontrollable, decentralized generation through increasing renewable. Utilize energy storage to harmonize the load with fluctuating generation is an option. On the other hand in today's markets large scale energy storage systems are hard to find. The reason is assumed in the high costs. Electric vehicle utilization with smart charging could be an alternative solution, due to the secondary use of the electric vehicles battery when not used for driving. This paper will describe the electric vehicle storage capability which determinants influence the storage potential Therefore a model based approach will be provided, which is based on the experiences of a field test (''MINI-E-Berlin powered by Vattenfall''). (orig.)

  10. A consistent approach to CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimation for deep saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dose, T. [DEA Mineraloel AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    Whereas the methodology of assessing pore volume is well established, a consistent methodology for calculating the pore volume efficiency (PVE) needs to be applied, e.g., as proposed in this paper. (1) Numerical simulations show, that CO{sub 2} storage sites are not restricted to geologic traps like anticlines. Also synclines and flat structures provide feasible storage structures, as long as no shortcut to the surface like leaking faults or wells exist. (2) Among active forces induced by CO{sub 2} injection, differential injection pressure and static pressure increase may turn out to be critical. This can lead to overlap with capillary displacement pressure, fracturing pressure, and exceeding the fault friction limit. (3) If differential injection pressure turns out to be critical, this can be balanced technically. Fault slippage can be avoided by selecting appropriate sites. (4) For the CO{sub 2} storage system to stay in balance, it is required that the static pressure increase stays below the capillary displacement pressure. (5) With this limiting conditions, scenarios show PVEs of 0.1-0.65% for a hydraulic system, mostly dependant on caprock quality and total compressibility. (6) Likely several possible storage sites exist for a hydraulic system. It is almost sure that the sum of the local storage potential will exceed the storage potential of the hydraulic system. (7) Regional pressure effects of CO{sub 2} storage can be significant. Different storage sites injecting at high rates into the same hydraulic system will need large distances between them. (9) Due to likely interference of storage sites and other fluid operations within a hydraulic system, close cooperations between operators may become necessary. (orig.)

  11. Capacity Decline and Characteristics Changes of Lithium-ion Cells with Large Capacity during Trickle Charge at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Large-scale 40-Ah Li-ion cells have been developed for use in industrial applications. To contribute to techniques for ascertaining the state of these cells and detecting deterioration during actual use, we produce a cell whose capacity is reduced by trickle charging at high temperature, and we determine the relationship between the cell's properties such as its capacity and charging/discharging characteristics when the capacity is reduced. When the capacity of a Li-ion cell is reduced, the discharge voltage also decreases. We show that the residual capacity is well correlated to the discharge voltage and to the duration of continuous discharge before reaching a fixed end-voltage. We also show that the constant-current constant-voltage charging characteristics are maintained even when the capacity is degraded, and that the constant-current charging time and discharge voltage are closely related to the residual capacity. We confirm that the reaction coefficient of the capacity degradation formula can be calculated from the capacity change characteristics at multiple temperatures, and that an 8°C change in temperature causes the lifetime to decrease by half.

  12. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries.......In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  13. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  14. High storage capacity in the Hopfield model with auto-interactions—stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Jacopo; Saad, David; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies point to the potential storage of a large number of patterns in the celebrated Hopfield associative memory model, well beyond the limits obtained previously. We investigate the properties of new fixed points to discover that they exhibit instabilities for small perturbations and are therefore of limited value as associative memories. Moreover, a large deviations approach also shows that errors introduced to the original patterns induce additional errors and increased corruption with respect to the stored patterns. (paper)

  15. High storage capacity in the Hopfield model with auto-interactions—stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Jacopo; Saad, David; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies point to the potential storage of a large number of patterns in the celebrated Hopfield associative memory model, well beyond the limits obtained previously. We investigate the properties of new fixed points to discover that they exhibit instabilities for small perturbations and are therefore of limited value as associative memories. Moreover, a large deviations approach also shows that errors introduced to the original patterns induce additional errors and increased corruption with respect to the stored patterns.

  16. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  17. Optimization of MIMO Systems Capacity Using Large Random Matrix Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Loubaton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive introduction of large random matrix methods for input covariance matrix optimization of mutual information of MIMO systems. It is first recalled informally how large system approximations of mutual information can be derived. Then, the optimization of the approximations is discussed, and important methodological points that are not necessarily covered by the existing literature are addressed, including the strict concavity of the approximation, the structure of the argument of its maximum, the accuracy of the large system approach with regard to the number of antennas, or the justification of iterative water-filling optimization algorithms. While the existing papers have developed methods adapted to a specific model, this contribution tries to provide a unified view of the large system approximation approach.

  18. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Taner [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  19. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  20. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yali; Ren Ling; He Yao; Cheng Haiping

    2010-01-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H 2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H 2 . It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  1. What Limits Working Memory Capacity? Evidence for Modality-Specific Sources to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of…

  2. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element....

  3. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  4. Collocated Dataglyphs for large-message storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Rakhi C.; Breidenbach, Jeff A.; Black, John R.

    2004-06-01

    In contrast to the security and integrity of electronic files, printed documents are vulnerable to damage and forgery due to their physical nature. Researchers at Palo Alto Research Center utilize DataGlyph technology to render digital characteristics to printed documents, which provides them with the facility of tamper-proof authentication and damage resistance. This DataGlyph document is known as GlyphSeal. Limited DataGlyph carrying capacity per printed page restricted the application of this technology to a domain of graphically simple and small-sized single-paged documents. In this paper the authors design a protocol motivated by techniques from the networking domain and back-up strategies, which extends the GlyphSeal technology to larger-sized, graphically complex, multi-page documents. This protocol provides fragmentation, sequencing and data loss recovery. The Collocated DataGlyph Protocol renders large glyph messages onto multiple printed pages and recovers the glyph data from rescanned versions of the multi-page documents, even when pages are missing, reordered or damaged. The novelty of this protocol is the application of ideas from RAID to the domain of DataGlyphs. The current revision of this protocol is capable of generating at most 255 pages, if page recovery is desired and does not provide enough data density to store highly detailed images in a reasonable amount of page space.

  5. Aluminum and silicon based phase change materials for high capacity thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhengyun; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Dezhi; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Six compositions of aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) based materials: 87.8Al-12.2Si, 80Al–20Si, 70Al–30Si, 60Al–40Si, 45Al–40Si–15Fe, and 17Al–53Si–30Ni (atomic ratio), were investigated for potentially high thermal energy storage (TES) application from medium to high temperatures (550–1200 °C) through solid–liquid phase change. Thermal properties such as melting point, latent heat, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and laser flash apparatus. The results reveal that the thermal storage capacity of the Al–Si materials increases with increasing Si concentration. The melting point and latent heat of 45Al–40Si–15Fe and 17Al–53Si–30Ni are ∼869 °C and ∼562 J g −1 , and ∼1079 °C and ∼960 J g −1 , respectively. The measured thermal conductivity of Al–Si binary materials depend on Si concentration and is higher than 80 W m −1  K −1 from room temperature to 500 °C, which is almost two orders of magnitude higher than those of salts that are commonly used phase change material for thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • Six kinds of materials were investigated for thermal energy storage (550–1200 °C). • Partial melting of Al–Si materials show progressively changing temperatures. • Studied materials can be used in three different working temperature ranges. • Materials are potentially good candidates for thermal energy storage applications.

  6. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshoy, Shokufeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram; Behpour, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully deposited on the surface of Ni substrate. On the other hand, a field-emission scanning electron microscopy technique revealed the morphology of resulting Ni foam, Ni-Sn and Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes. In order to measure the hydrogen adsorption performed in a three electrode cell, the Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/MWCNT and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes were used as working electrodes whereas Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes were employed as counter and reference electrodes, respectively. Our results on the discharge capacity in different electrodes represent that the Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT has a maximum discharge capacity of ˜30 000 mAh g-1 for 20 cycles compared to that of Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes for 15 cycles (˜9500 mAh g-1). By increasing the number of cycles in a constant current, the corresponding capacity increases, thereby reaching a constant amount for 20 cycles.

  7. Assessing the value of storage services in large-scale multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Arjoon, D.; Guilherme, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    Following three decades of rather low investment in dams, many regions throughout the world are now seeking to further develop new storage capacity in order to meet exploding demands for water and to hedge against the risk posed by climate change. Storage capacity is indee perceived as a key element of climate change adaptation strategies, while at the same time contributing to socioeconomic development through irrigation, energy generation, fish production, and municipal and industrial water supply. The benefits provided by dams must be balanced with the associated environmental and social costs, which can take various forms such as the degradation of ecosystems due to altered flow regimes, the relocation of people from the impoundment area, etc. The benefits of storage essentially come from the ability to move water in time, making it available during the low flow season when it becomes more valuable. As river basins develop and new dams are constructed, it may be important for planning and operational purposes to assess the individual contribution of each reservoir to the benefits of storage. We present a methodology to determine the economic value of storage in multireservoir systems based on the marginal net benefit functions of storage. In economics, the marginal net benefit function for water represents the user's willingness to pay for various quantities of water, i.e. the demand for water. Here, we will concentrate on the marginal net benefit of storing raw water in a particular reservoir for later use by different users/sectors. Based on this function, one can determine the economic value associated with changes in storage from the reservoir operating policies and the marginal value of water stored in the reservoirs. This information can nowadays be obtained from multireservoir optimization models. A cascade of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Euphrates river basin (Turkey/Syria) is used to illustrate the methodology. To water resources planners in

  8. Facile ultrasonic synthesis of CoO quantum dot/graphene nanosheet composites with high lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengxin; Chen, Bingdi; Qin, Yao; Yang, Shihe; Li, Chunzhong; Zuo, Yuanhui; Liu, Siyang; Yang, Jinhu

    2012-02-28

    In this paper, we report a facile ultrasonic method to synthesize well-dispersed CoO quantum dots (3-8 nm) on graphene nanosheets at room temperature by employing Co(4)(CO)(12) as cobalt precursor. The prepared CoO/graphene composites displayed high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, such as high reversible lithium storage capacity (1592 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (over 95%), excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability (1008 mAh g(-1) with a total retention of 77.6% after 50 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), dramatically increased from the initial 50 mA g(-1)). The extraordinary performance arises from the structure advantages of the composites: the nanosized CoO quantum dots with high dispersity on conductive graphene substrates supply not only large quantity of accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for lithium ions, which are beneficial for high capacity and rate capability. Meanwhile, the isolated CoO quantum dots anchored tightly on the graphene nanosheets can effectively circumvent the volume expansion/contraction associated with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, which is good for high capacity as well as cycling stability. Moreover, regarding the anomalous behavior of capacity increase with cycles (activation effect) observed, we proposed a tentative hypothesis stressing the competition between the conductivity increase and the amorphorization of the composite electrodes during cycling in determining the trends of the capacity, in the hope to gain a fuller understanding of the inner working of the novel nanostructured electrode-based lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Theoretical storage capacity for solar air pretreatment liquid collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Donggen; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2008-08-15

    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. At T{sub r} = 60{sup o}C and X{sub in} 2.33 kg/kg, theoretical calculation discovers when Y{sub in} drops from 29 to 14 g/kg, the SC{sub max} increase 50% compared with ASMR{sup *} being around 26-27. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str.sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (author)

  10. Storage at -80°C preserves the antioxidant capacity of preterm human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Arzu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Isikoglu, Semra; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2014-09-01

    It is essential to establish optimum parameters for maintaining the quality of stored milk until the moment of consumption with minimal deterioration of its properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidation status (TOS) of fresh and freeze-stored samples (at -80°C) of preterm human milk (HM). Samples of colostrum were collected from 98 healthy women within the first 4 days after delivery. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for three months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of TAC and TOS levels. The mean gestational age and the birth weight of the infants were 31.26 ± 2.93 weeks and 1620 ± 581.91 g; respectively. There were no significant correlations between maternal age, route of delivery and milk oxidative stress. There was no significant difference between the levels of TAC, TOS and the oxidative stress index in fresh and freeze-stored samples of colostrum in preterm HM (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of preterm HM at -80°C for three months preserves the antioxidant capacity without changing oxidative status of HM, which could be noteworthy for the preterm infant nutrition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reducing a cortical network to a Potts model yields storage capacity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Michelangelo; Boboeva, Vezha; Kang, Chol Jun; Treves, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    An autoassociative network of Potts units, coupled via tensor connections, has been proposed and analysed as an effective model of an extensive cortical network with distinct short- and long-range synaptic connections, but it has not been clarified in what sense it can be regarded as an effective model. We draw here the correspondence between the two, which indicates the need to introduce a local feedback term in the reduced model, i.e. in the Potts network. An effective model allows the study of phase transitions. As an example, we study the storage capacity of the Potts network with this additional term, the local feedback w, which contributes to drive the activity of the network towards one of the stored patterns. The storage capacity calculation, performed using replica tools, is limited to fully connected networks, for which a Hamiltonian can be defined. To extend the results to the case of intermediate partial connectivity, we also derive the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis for the Potts network; and finally we discuss the implications for semantic memory in humans.

  12. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  13. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H 2 storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH) 3 ) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH 4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11 B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH) 4 . When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11 B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB 3 H 8 , can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB 3 H 8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH) 3 and releases >8 eq of H 2 . By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B 3 O 3 (OH) 5 2− , B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 2− , B 3 O 3 (OH) 4 − , B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 − and B(OH) 3 , can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB 3 H 8 can provide a 40% increase in H 2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate

  14. Modelling rainfall interception by forests: a new method for estimating the canopy storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernando; Valente, Fernanda; Nóbrega, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forests is usually an important part of a catchment water balance. Recognizing the importance of interception loss, several models of the process have been developed. A key parameter of these models is the canopy storage capacity (S), commonly estimated by the so-called Leyton method. However, this method is somewhat subjective in the selection of the storms used to derive S, which is particularly critical when throughfall is highly variable in space. To overcome these problems, a new method for estimating S was proposed in 2009 by Pereira et al. (Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149: 680-688), which uses information from a larger number of storms, is less sensitive to throughfall spatial variability and is consistent with the formulation of the two most widely used rainfall interception models, Gash analytical model and Rutter model. However, this method has a drawback: it does not account for stemflow (Sf). To allow a wider use of this methodology, we propose now a revised version which makes the estimation of S independent of the importance of stemflow. For the application of this new version we only need to establish a linear regression of throughfall vs. gross rainfall using data from all storms large enough to saturate the canopy. Two of the parameters used by the Gash and the Rutter models, pd (the drainage partitioning coefficient) and S, are then derived from the regression coefficients: pd is firstly estimated allowing then the derivation of S but, if Sf is not considered, S can be estimated making pd= 0. This new method was tested using data from a eucalyptus plantation, a maritime pine forest and a traditional olive grove, all located in Central Portugal. For both the eucalyptus and the pine forests pd and S estimated by this new approach were comparable to the values derived in previous studies using the standard procedures. In the case of the traditional olive grove, the estimates obtained by this methodology

  15. Enriching the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nanotube doped with polylithiated molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P.; Naqvi, S. R.; Hankel, M.; Ahuja, R.; Hussain, T.

    2018-06-01

    In a quest to find optimum materials for efficient storage of clean energy, we have performed first principles calculations to study the structural and energy storage properties of one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with polylithiated molecules (PLMs). Van der Waals corrected calculations disclosed that various PLMs like CLi, CLi2, CLi3, OLi, OLi2, OLi3, bind strongly to CNTs even at high doping concentrations ensuring a uniform distribution of dopants without forming clusters. Bader charge analysis reveals that each Li in all the PLMs attains a partial positive charge and transform into Li+ cations. This situation allows multiple H2 molecules adsorbed with each Li+ through the polarization of incident H2 molecules via electrostatic and van der Waals type of interaction. With a maximum doping concentration, that is 3CLi2/3CLi3 and 3OLi2/3OLi3 a maximum of 36 H2 molecules could be adsorbed that corresponds to a reasonably high H2 storage capacity with the adsorption energies in the range of -0.33 to -0.15 eV/H2. This suits the ambient condition applications.

  16. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. First-principles investigation of hydrogen storage capacity of Y-decorated porous graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lihua, E-mail: yuanlh@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Chen, Yuhong, E-mail: chenyh@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Kang, Long [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang, Cairong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wang, Daobin; Wang, Chunni [School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang, Meiling [School of Sciences, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou university, 73000 (China); Wu, Xiaojuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The bridge of C–C bond is favorable site for a Y atom on the single side of PG and six H{sub 2} can be absorbed around it. • Two Y atoms can be stably adsorbed on the same side of one unit cell of PG, but there isn’t sufficient space for H{sub 2} absorbing around each Y atom. • The maximum number of absorbed Y atoms is two for double side of PG unit cell. • Fourteen H{sub 2} can be absorbed on the both sides of PG, and the hydrogen storage capacity is 7.87 wt.%. - Abstract: Based on first-principles method, the electron structure of porous graphene (PG) and adsorption ability of H{sub 2} molecular on Y-decorated porous graphene are investigated using CASTEP code. It is found that the bridge of C–C bond which connects two C hexagons is favorable site for a Y atom adsorbed on the single side of PG, and six H{sub 2} molecules can be absorbed around a Y atom with average adsorption energy of −0.297 eV/H{sub 2} computed by GGA-PBE functional. Though two Y atoms can be stably adsorbed on the same side of one unit cell of PG, there isn’t sufficient space for H{sub 2} absorbing around each Y atom. To improve capability of hydrogen storage, the unit cell of PG with single side should only contain one Y atom. For the case of double side of porous graphene, two Y atoms are preferably located above the center of the different C hexagon. Fourteen H{sub 2} molecules can be absorbed on both sides of PG, and the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity is 7.87 wt.% with the average adsorption energy of −0.23 eV/H{sub 2}.

  19. Large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.; Suehiro, S.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK8600 2048K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron x-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources

  20. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  1. Predicting capacities of runways serving new large aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gopalakrishnan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified approach for predicting the allowable load repetitions of New Large Aircraft (NLA loading for airfield runways based on Non-Destructive Test (NDT data. Full-scale traffic test results from the Federal Aviation Administration’s National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF were used to develop the NDT-based evaluation methodology. Four flexible test pavement sections with variable (unbound layer thicknesses were trafficked using six-wheel and four-wheel NLA test gears until the test pavements were deemed failed. Non-destructive tests using a Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD were conducted prior to the initiation of traffic testing to measure the pavement surface deflections. In the past, pavement surface deflections have been successfully used as an indicator of airport pavement life. In this study, the HWD surface deflections and the derived Deflection Basin Parameters (DBPs were related to functional performance of NAPTF flexible pavements through simple regression analysis. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NDT data for predicting the performance of airport flexible pavements serving the next generation of aircrafts.

  2. A large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.; Suehiro, S.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK 8600 2048 K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources. Modules which have been developed to date include a buffer for two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, a mapper for high-speed coordinate transformations, a buffered time-of-flight clock, a time-correlator for synchronized diffraction experiments, and a display unit for data bus diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. Large Survey Database: A Distributed Framework for Storage and Analysis of Large Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures. An LSD database consists of a set of vertically and horizontally partitioned tables, physically stored as compressed HDF5 files. Vertically, we partition the tables into groups of related columns ('column groups'), storing together logically related data (e.g., astrometry, photometry). Horizontally, the tables are partitioned into partially overlapping ``cells'' by position in space (lon, lat) and time (t). This organization allows for fast lookups based on spatial and temporal coordinates, as well as data and task distribution. The design was inspired by the success of Google BigTable (Chang et al., 2006). Our programming model is a pipelined extension of MapReduce (Dean and Ghemawat, 2004). An SQL-like query language is used to access data. For complex tasks, map-reduce ``kernels'' that operate on query results on a per-cell basis can be written, with the framework taking care of scheduling and execution. The combination leverages users' familiarity with SQL, while offering a fully distributed computing environment. LSD adds little overhead compared to direct Python file I/O. In tests, we sweeped through 1.1 Grows of PanSTARRS+SDSS data (220GB) less than 15 minutes on a dual CPU machine. In a cluster environment, we achieved bandwidths of 17Gbits/sec (I/O limited). Based on current experience, we believe LSD should scale to be useful for analysis and storage of LSST-scale datasets. It can be downloaded from http://mwscience.net/lsd.

  4. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  5. Rejuvenation capacity of red blood cells in additive solutions over long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin K; Dumont, Deborah F; Baker, Sharry; Dumont, Larry J

    2011-07-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for 42-day storage with the use of additive solutions (ASs). However, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in the RBCs decline over this time. These constituents may be restored by treatment with rejuvenation (REJ) solutions. This study was done to assess the response capability of RBCs from 30 to 120 days of storage in three FDA-licensed RBC storage solutions after incubation with a rejuvenating solution of pyruvate, inosine, phosphate, and adenine. Three units each of RBCs in approved AS (AS-1 [Adsol, Fenwal, Inc.], AS-3 [Nutricel, Medsep Corp.], and AS-5 [Optisol, Terumo Corp.]) were stored under standard conditions at 1 to 6°C for up to 120 days. Aliquots (4 mL) on Days 30, 42, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (± 2 days) were REJ by incubating with Rejuvesol (Encyte Corp.). Control untreated and REJ aliquots were extracted using perchloric acid and stored at -80°C until assayed for 2,3-DPG and ATP. RBCs responded to REJ by increasing DPG and ATP contents. The response declined linearly at 0.070 ± 0.008 µmol DPG/g hemoglobin (Hb)/day and 0.035 ± 0.004 µmol ATP/g Hb/day with no differences between ASs. We conclude that Rejuvesol is able to restore ATP and 2,3-DPG levels in RBCs stored up to 120 days in AS. The response diminishes as storage time increases. This rejuvenation (REJ) capability does not seem useful for routine assessment of RBC anabolic capacity in research programs, but may be useful to the investigator when studying unique and novel treatment methods. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Absorptive capacity: Relevancy for large and small enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R. Ndiege

    2012-06-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is thus to provide a review of the literature on this subject with the aim of finding out how both large and small enterprises stand to benefit from AC. We intend to affirm that, by successfully carrying out a learning process that is characterised by the exploration and exploitation of external knowledge and the organisation’s current knowledge base, organisations can realise competitive advantage irrespective of their size. Method: In the literature search, three approaches were employed, namely academic databases, online search engines and a review of references of related studies which led to more relevant articles and works whose references were further reviewed and analysed. Content analysis was done on all collected articles for quality appraisal and synthesis, the results of which we present as discussions on various sections of this paper leading to answering of our study objective. Only peer-reviewed articles were used. Results: Our findings reveal that, irrespective of the organisation’s size, it can benefit significantly from AC. The study further reveal that AC is a strong predictor of an organisation’s performance and hence a strategic asset for the organisation. Organisations with high AC are able to learn how to utilise new knowledge within their processes and come up with changes that improve their competitive advantage. Conclusion: We submit that, because AC is a strong predictor of an organisation’s performance, it is imperative that the necessary measures are taken to improve the levels of AC for all firms, irrespective of their size.

  7. Self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis of the statistical behavior of analog neural networks and enhancement of the storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Masatoshi; Fukai, Tomoki

    1993-08-01

    Based on the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA) capable of dealing with analog neural networks with a wide class of transfer functions, enhancement of the storage capacity of associative memory and the related statistical properties of neural networks are studied for random memory patterns. Two types of transfer functions with the threshold parameter θ are considered, which are derived from the sigmoidal one to represent the output of three-state neurons. Neural networks having a monotonically increasing transfer function FM, FM(u)=sgnu (||u||>θ), FM(u)=0 (||u||memory patterns), implying the reduction of the number of spurious states. The behavior of the storage capacity with changing θ is qualitatively the same as that of the Ising spin neural networks with varying temperature. On the other hand, the nonmonotonic transfer function FNM, FNM(u)=sgnu (||u||=θ) gives rise to remarkable features in several respects. First, it yields a large enhancement of the storage capacity compared with the Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky (AGS) value: with decreasing θ from θ=∞, the storage capacity αc of such a network is increased from the AGS value (~=0.14) to attain its maximum value of ~=0.42 at θ~=0.7 and afterwards is decreased to vanish at θ=0. Whereas for θ>~1 the storage capacity αc coincides with the value αc~ determined by the SCSNA as the upper bound of α ensuring the existence of retrieval solutions, for θr≠0 (i.e., finite width of the local field distribution), which is implied by the order-parameter equations of the SCSNA, disappears at a certain critical loading rate α0, and for αr=0+). As a consequence, memory retrieval without errors becomes possible even in the saturation limit α≠0. Results of the computer simulations on the statistical properties of the novel phase with αstorage capacity is also analyzed for the two types of networks. It is conspicuous for the networks with FNM, where the self-couplings increase the stability of

  8. Technique for positioning hologram for balancing large data capacity with fast readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Hosaka, Makoto; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Onoe, Shinsuke; Ide, Tatsuro

    2017-09-01

    The technical difficulty of balancing large data capacity with a high data transfer rate in holographic data storage systems (HDSSs) is significantly high because of tight tolerances for physical perturbation. From a system margin perspective in terabyte-class HDSSs, the positioning error of a holographic disc should be within about 10 µm to ensure high readout quality. Furthermore, fine control of the positioning should be accomplished within a time frame of about 10 ms for a high data transfer rate of the Gbps class, while a conventional method based on servo control of spindle or sled motors can rarely satisfy the requirement. In this study, a new compensation method for the effect of positioning error, which precisely controls the positioning of a Nyquist aperture instead of a holographic disc, has been developed. The method relaxes the markedly low positional tolerance of a holographic disc. Moreover, owing to the markedly light weight of the aperture, positioning control within the required time frame becomes feasible.

  9. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  10. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  11. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng; Rao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars

  12. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  13. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  14. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  15. Infection capacity of the pathogens Penicillium italicum and P. Expansum in orange during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Sonja P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium italicum and P. expansum are important pathogens causing decay in most fruits and vegetables. In this study, orange fruits were inoculated with these two species of fungus and stored 14 days with or without bagging, in a cold room for 11 days and 3 days at room temperature to determine the effect of bagging and infection capacities of both molds on oranges during storage. The results indicated that P. expansum can grow on orange peel with smaller colony diameter than P. italicum in bagged and unbagged fruits. Total soluble solids (TSS and firmness were not affected by bag. Gas composition of the bags showed low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentration after fourteen days of storage. Bagged fruits decreased decay caused by P. italicum and weight loss, and delayed changes in firmness, TSS and acidity compared with control fruits. The study suggests that bagging may be a promising option for controlling decay, maintaining fruit quality and extending shelf-life of oranges.

  16. Solvothermal and electrochemical synthetic method of HKUST-1 and its methane storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Lestari, Witri; Adreane, Marisa; Purnawan, Candra; Fansuri, Hamzah; Widiastuti, Nurul; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot

    2016-02-01

    A comparison synthetic strategy of Metal-Organic Frameworks, namely, Hongkong University of Techhnology-1 {HKUST-1[Cu3(BTC)]2} (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylate) through solvothermal and electrochemical method in ethanol:water (1:1) has been conducted. The obtained material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). While the voltage in the electrochemical method are varied, ranging from 12 to 15 Volt. The results show that at 15 V the texture of the material has the best degree of crystallinity and comparable with solvothermal product. This indicated from XRD data and supported by the SEM image to view the morphology. The thermal stability of the synthesized compounds is up to 320 °C. The shape of the nitrogen sorption isotherm of the compound corresponds to type I of the IUPAC adsorption isotherm classification for microporous materials with BET surface area of 629.2 and 324.3 m2/g (for solvothermal and electrochemical product respectively) and promising for gas storage application. Herein, the methane storage capacities of these compounds are also tested.

  17. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Li-adsorbed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianfeng; Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping, E-mail: mrhpwu@njust.edu.cn; Kan, Erjun, E-mail: ekan@njust.edu.cn

    2016-09-01

    Since hydrogen is a kind of potential source of efficient and pollution-free energy, it has attracted great research interests in recent years. However, the lack of safe and efficient hydrogen storage materials has blocked the rapid development of hydrogen energy. Here, we explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage materials based on first-principles calculations. Our results demonstrated that the adsorption energy of Li atoms on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is much larger than the cohesive energy of bulk Li. Importantly, we find that the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is about 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage. Furthermore, the estimated hydrogen storage capacity is around 9.2 wt %, which beyonds the goal of DOE. Thus, we predicted that Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} may act as the potential hydrogen storage materials. - Highlights: • We explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage material. • We demonstrated the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage materials. • The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated around 9.2 wt %.

  19. Hawaii Compliant Large Capacity Cesspools (LCC), Hawaii, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LCC Compliant: Large Capacity Cesspools that have been properly abandoned or converted to a seepage pit that is associated with a State approved IWS. These LCCs are...

  20. Large Capacity Cesspool Program Enforcements, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains points indicating the 281 Large Capacity Cesspools (LCCs) with enforcement actions across the state of Hawaii according to the US EPA...

  1. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  2. DISCHARGE OXIDE STORAGE CAPACITY AND VOLTAGE LOSS IN LI-AIR BATTERY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Zhe; Yuan, Hao; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Air cathodes, where oxygen reacts with Li ions and electrons with discharge oxide stored in their pore structure, are often considered as the most challenging component in nonaqueous Lithium-air batteries. In non-aqueous electrolytes, discharge oxides are usually insoluble and hence precipitate at local reaction site, raising the oxygen transport resistance in the pore network. Due to their low electric conductivity, their presence causes electrode passivation. This study aims to investigate the air cathode’s performance through analytically obtaining oxygen profiles, modeling electrode passivation, evaluating the transport polarization raised by discharge oxide precipitate, and developing analytical formulas for insoluble Li oxides storage capacity. The variations of cathode quantities, including oxygen content and temperature, are evaluated and related to a single dimensionless parameter — the Damköhler Number (Da). An approximate model is developed to predict discharge voltage loss, along with validation against two sets of experimental data. Air cathode properties, including tortuosity, surface coverage factor and the Da number, and their effects on the cathode’s capacity of storing Li oxides are formulated and discussed.

  3. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  4. The Analysis of RDF Semantic Data Storage Optimization in Large Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Can

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of information technology and network technology in China, the Internet has also ushered in the era of large data. In order to obtain the effective acquisition of information in the era of large data, it is necessary to optimize the existing RDF semantic data storage and realize the effective query of various data. This paper discusses the storage optimization of RDF semantic data under large data.

  5. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  6. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilek Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  7. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An

  8. Cryogenic systems for large superconducting accelerators/storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Particle accelerators and storage rings which utilize superconducting magnets have presented cryogenic system designers, as well as magnet designers, with many new challenges. When such accelerators were first proposed, little operational experience existed to guide the design. Two superconducting accelerators, complete with cryogenic systems, have been designed and are now under construction. These are the Fermilab Doubler Project and the Brookhaven National Laboratory ISABELLE Project. The cryogenic systems which developed at these two laboratories share many common characteristics, especially as compared to earlier cryogenic systems. Because of this commonality, these characteristics can be reasonably taken as also being representative of future systems. There are other areas in which the two systems are dissimilar. In those areas, it is not possible to state which, if either, will be chosen by future designers. Some of the design parameters for the two systems are given

  9. Improving Large-scale Storage System Performance via Topology-aware and Balanced Data Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of big data, the I/O subsystems of large-scale compute clusters are becoming a center of focus, with more applications putting greater demands on end-to-end I/O performance. These subsystems are often complex in design. They comprise of multiple hardware and software layers to cope with the increasing capacity, capability and scalability requirements of data intensive applications. The sharing nature of storage resources and the intrinsic interactions across these layers make it to realize user-level, end-to-end performance gains a great challenge. We propose a topology-aware resource load balancing strategy to improve per-application I/O performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on an extreme-scale compute cluster, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Our experiments with both synthetic benchmarks and a real-world application show that, even under congestion, our proposed algorithm can improve large-scale application I/O performance significantly, resulting in both the reduction of application run times and higher resolution simulation runs.

  10. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-06-01

    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  11. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  12. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  13. Reservoir operations under climate change: Storage capacity options to mitigate risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Nima; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Fekete, Balázs M.; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    2017-12-01

    Observed changes in precipitation patterns, rising surface temperature, increases in frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, widespread melting of ice, and reduced snow cover are some of the documented hydrologic changes associated with global climate change. Climate change is therefore expected to affect the water supply-demand balance in the Northeast United States and challenge existing water management strategies. The hydrological implications of future climate will affect the design capacity and operating characteristics of dams. The vulnerability of water resources systems to floods and droughts will increase, and the trade-offs between reservoir releases to maintain flood control storage, drought resilience, ecological flow, human water demand, and energy production should be reconsidered. We used a Neural Networks based General Reservoir Operation Scheme to estimate the implications of climate change for dams on a regional scale. This dynamic daily reservoir module automatically adapts to changes in climate and re-adjusts the operation of dams based on water storage level, timing, and magnitude of incoming flows. Our findings suggest that the importance of dams in providing water security in the region will increase. We create an indicator of the Effective Degree of Regulation (EDR) by dams on water resources and show that it is expected to increase, particularly during drier months of year, simply as a consequence of projected climate change. The results also indicate that increasing the size and number of dams, in addition to modifying their operations, may become necessary to offset the vulnerabilities of water resources systems to future climate uncertainties. This is the case even without considering the likely increase in future water demand, especially in the most densely populated regions of the Northeast.

  14. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  15. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  16. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  17. Channel Capacity Calculation at Large SNR and Small Dispersion within Path-Integral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznichenko, A. V.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the optical fiber channel modelled by the nonlinear Shrödinger equation with additive white Gaussian noise. Using Feynman path-integral approach for the model with small dispersion we find the first nonzero corrections to the conditional probability density function and the channel capacity estimations at large signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate that the correction to the channel capacity in small dimensionless dispersion parameter is quadratic and positive therefore increasing the earlier calculated capacity for a nondispersive nonlinear optical fiber channel in the intermediate power region. Also for small dispersion case we find the analytical expressions for simple correlators of the output signals in our noisy channel.

  18. A comparative study of all-vanadium and iron-chromium redox flow batteries for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.

    2015-12-01

    The promise of redox flow batteries (RFBs) utilizing soluble redox couples, such as all vanadium ions as well as iron and chromium ions, is becoming increasingly recognized for large-scale energy storage of renewables such as wind and solar, owing to their unique advantages including scalability, intrinsic safety, and long cycle life. An ongoing question associated with these two RFBs is determining whether the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) or iron-chromium redox flow battery (ICRFB) is more suitable and competitive for large-scale energy storage. To address this concern, a comparative study has been conducted for the two types of battery based on their charge-discharge performance, cycle performance, and capital cost. It is found that: i) the two batteries have similar energy efficiencies at high current densities; ii) the ICRFB exhibits a higher capacity decay rate than does the VRFB; and iii) the ICRFB is much less expensive in capital costs when operated at high power densities or at large capacities.

  19. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  20. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United states). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Automotive catalytic converters that reduce engine exhaust emissions are subject to transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also highly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). This paper examined the influence of OSC on the catalyst dynamic behavior. The transient conditions were simulated by considering the catalyst subjected to temporal modulation in air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas composition and temperature. The paper presented the mathematical formulation including the development of governing equations. The governing equations were developed by considering the conservation of mass, energy and chemical species. It also presented the results and discussed the effect of sinusoidal modulation in the air-fuel ratio as well as the effect of sinusoidal modulation in exhaust composition. It was concluded that the presence of the OSC sensitivity influenced its response to the imposed modulation. The specific effect was dependent on the operating conditions and the type of the imposed modulations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, Camilo [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Pérez, Alejandro [Grupo de Investigación Fitoquímica (GIFUJ), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No. 43-82, Bogotá D.C (Colombia); Molina, Rafael [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Moreno, Sonia, E-mail: smorenog@unal.edu.co [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Ce addition to the catalysts improves the availability of oxygen in the materials. • Mixed oxide with Co and Cu exhibits the best oxygen transport properties. • Co presence improves O{sub 2} mobility in the catalysts. • The presence of Cu in the solids improves redox properties. - Abstract: The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce–MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, {sup 18}O{sub 2} isotopic exchange and O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  2. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce addition to the catalysts improves the availability of oxygen in the materials. • Mixed oxide with Co and Cu exhibits the best oxygen transport properties. • Co presence improves O 2 mobility in the catalysts. • The presence of Cu in the solids improves redox properties. - Abstract: The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce–MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18 O 2 isotopic exchange and O 2 -H 2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  3. Assessment of Future Whole-System Value of Large-Scale Pumped Storage Plants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impacts and benefits of the pumped storage plant (PSP and its upgrade to variable speed on generation and transmission capacity requirements, capital costs, system operating costs and carbon emissions in the future European electricity system. The combination of a deterministic system planning tool, Whole-electricity System Investment Model (WeSIM, and a stochastic system operation optimisation tool, Advanced Stochastic Unit Commitment (ASUC, is used to analyse the whole-system value of PSP technology and to quantify the impact of European balancing market integration and other competing flexible technologies on the value of the PSP. Case studies on the Pan-European system demonstrate that PSPs can reduce the total system cost by up to €13 billion per annum by 2050 in a scenario with a high share of renewables. Upgrading the PSP to variable-speed drive enhances its long-term benefits by 10–20%. On the other hand, balancing market integration across Europe may potentially reduce the overall value of the variable-speed PSP, although the effect can vary across different European regions. The results also suggest that large-scale deployment of demand-side response (DSR leads to a significant reduction in the value of PSPs, while the value of PSPs increases by circa 18% when the total European interconnection capacity is halved. The benefit of PSPs in reducing emissions is relatively negligible by 2030 but constitutes around 6–10% of total annual carbon emissions from the European power sector by 2050.

  4. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibres for defence applications : the influence of growth parameters on graphitic quality and storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, M.; Mellor, I. [Morgan Materials Technology Ltd., Worcestershire (United Kingdom); Shatwell, R.A.; Prentice, C. [QinetiQ Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Browning, D.J. [QinetiQ Haslar, Gosport, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Lakeman, J.B. [Dstl Portsdown, Cosham, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Gerrard, M.L.; Mortimer, R.J. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study on hydrogen storage in carbon or graphite nanofibres (GNFs) were presented. Graphite nanofibres used in hydrogen storage treatment were synthesized at 600 degrees C by passing ethylene over a series of Fe:Ni:Cu catalysts. It was shown that while hydrogen storage can occur for up to 6.5 wt per cent, this number can vary depending on the method of preparation and heat treatment. Hydrogen storage requires an effective method, such as Raman spectroscopy, for characterising the product. Transmission Electron Microscopy also helped in the optimisation of the process to produce highly graphitic nanofibres. The main role of heat treatment is to remove carbon from the surface of the GNFs, allowing access to the graphene planes. Hydrogen storage experiments were conducted at 120 bar, using a bespoke apparatus with differential pressure. A detailed error analysis was performed on the uptake measurement system. The rate of penetration by hydrogen into a layer of carbon capping graphene planes is found to be negligible. It is concluded that hydrogen adsorption will not be observed unless the layer is removed. A maximum uptake of 4.2 wt per cent was achieved, increasing to more than 6.5 wt per cent following heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Valuation framework for large scale electricity storage in a case with wind curtailment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Mercier, Arnaud; Gatzen, Christoph; Elms, Nick; Petric, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the value of large scale applications of electricity storage in selected European power systems in the context of wind generation confronted with a grid bottleneck. It analyzes the market value to 2030 of two storage technologies, assuming the market situation projected for Germany and France. The analysis assesses the evolution of storage economics based on the net present value of cash flows. Sensitivities to market and regulatory drivers of value are assessed, e.g. electricity price spreads, ancillary services revenues, wind curtailment and the level of carbon prices. The paper concludes by suggesting possible ways to improve the competitiveness of electricity storage, such as research and development and deployment programmes, and changes to the design of power markets and regulatory arrangements to enable storage owners to better capture the benefits of storage. Such changes would allow electricity storage, where economically viable, to play a critical role in establishing a future sustainable European power system. - Research highlights: →CAES and PHS are not cost-effective for current market design in France and Germany → Market reforms are run to reward bottleneck avoiding and ancillary reserves → Storage is profitable when all potential socio-economic benefits are aggregated → R and D and D programs for storage improvement are economically and socially justified.

  6. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  7. Concept of a large-capacity irradiated-fuel-reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, C.; Couture, J.; Issel, W.; Mamelle, J.

    The processing of LWR fuels in recent years has run into difficulties due to the adaptation of the Purex process to these fuels with a high irradiation rate. This has led to development of new technological techniques. High-capacity plants should, in the future, limit their discharge of liquid and gaseous effluents to values comparable to those of nuclear electric stations. Investment costs necessary for processing the effluents and for temporary storage of the wastes are part of the total cost of these plants. However, the investments remain within acceptable limits. The 1500-ton/year plant presented is an example of what can be done in the 1980's

  8. A large-capacity sample-changer for automated gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andeweg, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic sample-changer has been developed at the National Institute for Metallurgy for use in gamma-ray spectroscopy with a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The sample-changer features remote storage, which prevents cross-talk and reduces background. It has a capacity for 200 samples and a sample container that takes liquid or solid samples. The rotation and vibration of samples during counting ensure that powdered samples are compacted, and improve the precision and reproducibility of the counting geometry [af

  9. Impact of sea-level rise on Everglades carbon storage capacity in the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Wingard, G. L. L.; Keller, K.; Stackhouse, B.; Landacre, B.

    2017-12-01

    storage capacity of the Florida Everglades could decrease significantly if the freshwater Everglades accretion rate cannot outpace SLR. Further, the expansion and persistence of high-accumulating Rhizophora peat is limited by elevated SLR, impacting coastline stability and wildlife habitat.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan

    2017-07-08

    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper, influence of thermal management on storage capacity of the ANG vessel was studied experimentally and numerically. 3D numerical model was considered in order to understand heat transfer phenomena and analyze influence of thermal control comprehensively. In addition, a detailed 2D axisymmetric unit cell model of adsorbent layer with heat exchanger was developed, followed by optimization of heat exchanging device design to minimize volume occupied by fins and tubes. Heat transfer, mass transfer and adsorption kinetics, which occur in ANG vessel during charging process, are accounted for in models. Nelder-Mead method is implemented to obtain the geometrical parameters, which lead to the optimal characteristics of heat exchange. A new optimized configuration of ANG vessel was developed with compact heat exchanger. Results show that storage capacity of the ANG vessel increased significantly due to lowering of heat exchanger volume for 3 times from 13.5% to 4.3% and effective temperature control.

  11. Conductive Boron-Doped Graphene as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable and High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2016-12-07

    Electrocatalytic, switchable hydrogen storage promises both tunable kinetics and facile reversibility without the need for specific catalysts. The feasibility of this approach relies on having materials that are easy to synthesize, possessing good electrical conductivities. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 4 N 3 ) has been predicted to display charge-responsive binding with molecular hydrogen-the only such conductive sorbent material that has been discovered to date. As yet, however, this conductive variant of graphitic carbon nitride is not readily synthesized by scalable methods. Here, we examine the possibility of conductive and easily synthesized boron-doped graphene nanosheets (B-doped graphene) as sorbent materials for practical applications of electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we find that the adsorption energy of H 2 molecules on B-doped graphene can be dramatically enhanced by removing electrons from and thereby positively charging the adsorbent. Thus, by controlling charge injected or depleted from the adsorbent, one can effectively tune the storage/release processes which occur spontaneously without any energy barriers. At full hydrogen coverage, the positively charged BC 5 achieves high storage capacities up to 5.3 wt %. Importantly, B-doped graphene, such as BC 49 , BC 7 , and BC 5 , have good electrical conductivity and can be easily synthesized by scalable methods, which positions this class of material as a very good candidate for charge injection/release. These predictions pave the route for practical implementation of electrocatalytic systems with switchable storage/release capacities that offer high capacity for hydrogen storage.

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  13. A new probability density function for spatial distribution of soil water storage capacity leads to SCS curve number method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dingbao

    2018-01-01

    Following the Budyko framework, soil wetting ratio (the ratio between soil wetting and precipitation) as a function of soil storage index (the ratio between soil wetting capacity and precipitation) is derived from the SCS-CN method and the VIC type of model. For the SCS-CN method, soil wetting ratio approaches one when soil storage index approaches infinity, due to the limitation of the SCS-CN method in which the initial soil moisture condition is not explicitly represented. However, for the ...

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  15. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  16. Protons and heavy ions induced stuck bits on large capacity RAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duzellier, S; Falguere, D; Ecoffet, R [Centre National d` Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A semi-permanent imprint effect has been observed, on large capacity memories (static and dynamic), during heavy ion and proton irradiations. The experimental circumstances of stuck bits occurrence are described and the influence of irradiation conditions discussed. A total dose testing complete the investigation. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shenyang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents an overview on the production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China. The document approaches general aspects, production capability and testing facilities related to Francis, Kaplan, tubular and impulse hydroelectric generating sets, and the introduction of main manufacturers as well.

  18. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  19. The H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Yongliang, E-mail: ylyong@haust.edu.cn [College of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie [College of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2016-07-15

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C{sub 60} fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H{sub 2} molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H{sub 2} molecules can be stored inside the H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H{sub 2}@H{sub 60}Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si{sub 6}C{sub 54} heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  20. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO2 Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godec, Michael [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO2 in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO2 storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO2 storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO2 injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO2 injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO2 injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO2 storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints

  1. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  2. Advances in Large-Scale Solar Heating and Long Term Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    According to (the) information from the European Large-Scale Solar Heating Network, (See http://www.hvac.chalmers.se/cshp/), the area of installed solar collectors for large-scale application is in Europe, approximately 8 mill m2, corresponding to about 4000 MW thermal power. The 11 plants...... the last 10 years and the corresponding cost per collector area for the final installed plant is kept constant, even so the solar production is increased. Unfortunately large-scale seasonal storage was not able to keep up with the advances in solar technology, at least for pit water and gravel storage...... of the total 51 plants are equipped with long-term storage. In Denmark, 7 plants are installed, comprising of approx. 18,000-m2 collector area with new plants planned. The development of these plants and the involved technologies will be presented in this paper, with a focus on the improvements for Danish...

  3. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  4. Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Save, Himanshu; Sun, Alexander Y.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Wiese, David N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Döll, Petra; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing reliability of global models is critical because of increasing reliance on these models to address past and projected future climate and human stresses on global water resources. Here, we evaluate model reliability based on a comprehensive comparison of decadal trends (2002–2014) in land water storage from seven global models (WGHM, PCR-GLOBWB, GLDAS NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC, CLM, and CLSM) to trends from three Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite solutions in 186 river basins (∼60% of global land area). Medians of modeled basin water storage trends greatly underestimate GRACE-derived large decreasing (≤−0.5 km3/y) and increasing (≥0.5 km3/y) trends. Decreasing trends from GRACE are mostly related to human use (irrigation) and climate variations, whereas increasing trends reflect climate variations. For example, in the Amazon, GRACE estimates a large increasing trend of ∼43 km3/y, whereas most models estimate decreasing trends (−71 to 11 km3/y). Land water storage trends, summed over all basins, are positive for GRACE (∼71–82 km3/y) but negative for models (−450 to −12 km3/y), contributing opposing trends to global mean sea level change. Impacts of climate forcing on decadal land water storage trends exceed those of modeled human intervention by about a factor of 2. The model-GRACE comparison highlights potential areas of future model development, particularly simulated water storage. The inability of models to capture large decadal water storage trends based on GRACE indicates that model projections of climate and human-induced water storage changes may be underestimated. PMID:29358394

  5. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail: jbzhao@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  6. Features and applications of the large capacity Li-MnO/sub 2/ cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Koichi; Takeuchi, Ken' ichi

    1987-04-10

    Recently, Litium cells are used for power source of wristwatches, pocket-computors and cameras. The large capacity Li-MnO/sub 2/ primary cell developed by Yuasa Battery Company features its prismatic shape with a completely-sealed construction and a large capacity up to 1300Ah in addition to its high energy density and small self-discharge inherent to this type of cell, and is used in various application where a maintenance-free property is required for a long period of time. This paper deals with characteristecs, structure, safety and application examples of this Li-MnO/sub 2/ cell. As application examples, power supplies for head lamps for mountaineering, buoys for oceanographic survey, back-up for computor-memories and back-up for emergency alarm, are mentioned. (10 figs, 1 tab, 3 photos)

  7. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  8. Dynamical Origin of the Effective Storage Capacity in the Brain's Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    2009-11-01

    The capacity of working memory (WM), a short-term buffer for information in the brain, is limited. We suggest a model for sequential WM that is based upon winnerless competition amongst representations of available informational items. Analytical results for the underlying mathematical model relate WM capacity and relative lateral inhibition in the corresponding neural network. This implies an upper bound for WM capacity, which is, under reasonable neurobiological assumptions, close to the “magical number seven.”

  9. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  10. Short-term storage capacity for visual objects depends on expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has traditionally been thought to have a very limited capacity of around 3–4 objects. However, recently several researchers have argued that VSTM may be limited in the amount of information retained rather than by a specific number of objects. Here we present a study...... of the effect of long-term practice on VSTM capacity. We investigated four age groups ranging from pre-school children to adults and measured the change in VSTM capacity for letters and pictures. We found a clear increase in VSTM capacity for letters with age but not for pictures. Our results indicate that VSTM...

  11. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2017-11-22

    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  12. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    The density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society increases by a factor of four every three years, while the rate at which this data can be migrated to viable long-term storage has been increasing by a factor of only four every nine years. Meanwhile, older data stored on increasingly obsolete media, are at considerable risk. When the systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers (many of whom are out of business), the data will no longer be accessible. In some cases, older media suffer from a physical breakdown of components - tapes simply lose their magnetic properties after a long time in storage. The scale of the crisis is compatible to that facing the Social Security System. Greater financial and intellectual resources to the development and refinement of new storage media and migration technologies in order to preserve as much data as possible.

  13. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    of syngas throughput that could be maintained over a full year by 74%, to 5.9 kmol/day. Importantly, a larger heliostat field collection area was calculated to reduce the required storage capacity to approximately halve 35 days, which in absolute terms corresponds to 3.0 tons of syngas. Nevertheless, a requirement for this capacity of storage suggests that the use of the packed bed solar gasification reactor for FT liquids production is unlikely to be viable without substantial changes to the design and operation of the reactor and/or downstream processing plant.

  15. Stability Analysis of Buffer Storage Large Basket and Temporary Storage Pre-packaging Basket Used in the Type B Radwaste Process Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The ITER radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment and storage systems are currently being designed to manage Type B, Type A and dust radwastes generated during the ITER machine operation. The Type B management system is to be in the hot cell building basement with temporary storage and the modular type storages outside the hot cell building for the pre-packed Type B radwaste during the ITER operation of 20 years. In order to store Type B radwaste components in onsite storage, the waste treatment chain process for Type B radwastes was developed as follows. First, Type B full components filled in a large basket are imported from Tokamak to the hot cell basement and they are stored in the buffer storage before treatment. Second, they are cut properly with a laser cutting machine or band saw machine and sliced waste parts are filled in a pre-packaging basket. Third, the sampling of Type B components is performed and then the tritium removal treatment is done in an oven to remove tritium from the waste surface and then the sampling is performed again. Forth, the characterization is performed by using a gamma spectrometry. Fifth, the pre-packaging operation is done to ensure the final packaging of the radwaste. Sixth, the pre-packaging baskets are stored in the temporary storage for 6 months and then they are sent to the extension storage and stored until export to host country. One of issues in the waste treatment scheme is to analyze the stacking stability of a stack of large baskets and pre-packaging baskets in the storage system. The baseline plan is to stack the large baskets in two layers in the buffer storage and to stack the pre-packaging baskets in three layers in the temporary storage and extension storage. In this study, the stacking stability analysis for the buffer storage large basket and temporary storage pre-packaging basket was performed for various stack failure modes

  16. Extensive optimisation analyses of the piping of two large underground gas storage ariel compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Korst, H.J.C.; Ploumen, G.; Heyer, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 compressors of each 7.5 Mw, are used for the underground gas storage (UGS) plant of Essent in Epe, Germany. The compressors can be operated at a wide range of operating conditions, e.g. variable suction and discharge pressures, 2-stage mode during gas

  17. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  18. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  19. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  20. Optimal Capacity Estimation Method of the Energy Storage Mounted on a Wireless Railway Train for Energy-Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although electric railway systems have gone through many technological innovations in their electrical, mechanical and structural engineering since the energy paradigm conversion to electrical energy, the conventional feeding system based on the catenary contact is still being applied. In order to solve the problems of the contact-based feeding system that arise and to build up the energy-sustainable electric railway system simultaneously, this paper considers the wireless railway train (WRT, which is fed by storages mounted on the board without catenary contact during driving and charged at a platform during a stop. In order to maximize the energy improvement of WRTs’ operation, the optimal power and storage capacity estimation method considering the increased weight of the additional storage devices is proposed. Through case studies of the electrical and topographical conditions of the actual operating railway route, compared with the electrical performance of the existing railway trains, it is verified that the application of WRTs leads to facility capacity margin enlargement through the peak power reduction, and cost-effectiveness improvement through the reduction of catenary loss and driving energy.

  1. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water

  2. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  3. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  4. Correction: Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-08-02

    Correction for 'Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities' by Rodion V. Belosludov et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13503-13518.

  5. A Novel Method for Fast Configuration of Energy Storage Capacity in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data.

  6. Wastewater minimisation using inherent storage capacity in multipurpose batch plants: an unexplored dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available that are idle at some point during a given time horizon. In essence, any processing vessel standing idle can be used as a storage vessel. Under correct conditions, the idle processing vessels can be used as storage for wastewater. This would mean... P = {p | p = time point} J = {j | j = unit} Sin = {sin | sin = input state into any unit} Sout = {sout | sout = output state from any unit} Sin,j = {sin,j | sin,j = input state into unit j} inS⊆ Sout,j = {sout,j | sout,j = output state from...

  7. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-01-01

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor

  8. Functional morphology of the female reproductive system of a crab with highly extensible seminal receptacles and extreme sperm storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Nahuel E; Spivak, Eduardo D; Luppi, Tomas A

    2017-07-01

    We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores. Different sperm masses are likely from different mates and their stratified disposition within the seminal receptacles is compatible with rival sperm displacement and last sperm precedence. Additionally, the anatomical structure of the vulva and vagina suggest active female control over copula. We discuss our results in the general context of sperm storage in brachyurans and the implications for the mating system of this species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Effects of Topology on Throughput Capacity of Large Scale Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuming Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we jointly consider the inhomogeneity and spatial dimension in large scale wireless networks. We study the effects of topology on the throughput capacity. This problem is inherently difficult since it is complex to handle the interference caused by simultaneous transmission. To solve this problem, we, according to the inhomogeneity of topology, divide the transmission into intra-cluster transmission and inter-cluster transmission. For the intra-cluster transmission, a spheroidal percolation model is constructed. The spheroidal percolation model guarantees a constant rate when a power control strategy is adopted. We also propose a cube percolation mode for the inter-cluster transmission. Different from the spheroidal percolation model, a constant transmission rate can be achieved without power control. For both transmissions, we propose a routing scheme with five phases. By comparing the achievable rate of each phase, we get the rate bottleneck, which is the throughput capacity of the network.

  10. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  11. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Lipeng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Feiyi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cao, Qing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  12. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  13. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  14. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  15. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  16. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  17. Large storage operations under climate change: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Vu, Phuong Nam; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    In a changing climate and society, large storage systems can play a key role for securing water, energy, and food, and rebalancing their cross-dependencies. In this letter, we study the role of large storage operations as flexible means of adaptation to climate change. In particular, we explore the impacts of different climate projections for different future time horizons on the multi-purpose operations of the existing system of large dams in the Red River basin (China-Laos-Vietnam). We identify the main vulnerabilities of current system operations, understand the risk of failure across sectors by exploring the evolution of the system tradeoffs, quantify how the uncertainty associated to climate scenarios is expanded by the storage operations, and assess the expected costs if no adaptation is implemented. Results show that, depending on the climate scenario and the time horizon considered, the existing operations are predicted to change on average from -7 to +5% in hydropower production, +35 to +520% in flood damages, and +15 to +160% in water supply deficit. These negative impacts can be partially mitigated by adapting the existing operations to future climate, reducing the loss of hydropower to 5%, potentially saving around 34.4 million US year-1 at the national scale. Since the Red River is paradigmatic of many river basins across south east Asia, where new large dams are under construction or are planned to support fast growing economies, our results can support policy makers in prioritizing responses and adaptation strategies to the changing climate.

  18. Centralized manure digestion. Selection of locations and estimation of costs of large-scale manure storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A study to assess the possibilities and the consequences of the use of existing Dutch large scale manure silos at centralised anaerobic digestion plants (CAD-plants) for manure and energy-rich organic wastes is carried out. Reconstruction of these large scale manure silos into digesters for a CAD-plant is not self-evident due to the high height/diameter ratio of these silos and the extra investments that have to be made for additional facilities for roofing, insulation, mixing and heating. From the results of an inventory and selection of large scale manure silos with a storage capacity above 1,500 m 3 it appeared that there are 21 locations in The Netherlands that can be qualified for realisation of a CAD plant with a processing capacity of 100 m 3 biomass (80% manure, 20% additives) per day. These locations are found in particular at the 'shortage-areas' for manure fertilisation in the Dutch provinces Groningen and Drenthe. Three of these 21 locations with large scale silos are considered to be the most suitable for realisation of a large scale CAD-plant. The selection is based on an optimal scale for a CAD-plant of 300 m 3 material (80% manure, 20% additives) to be processed per day and the most suitable consuming markets for the biogas produced at the CAD-plant. The three locations are at Middelharnis, Veendam, and Klazinaveen. Applying the conditions as used in this study and accounting for all costs for transport of manure, additives and end-product including the costs for the storage facilities, a break-even operation might be realised at a minimum income for the additives of approximately 50 Dutch guilders per m 3 (including TAV). This income price is considerably lower than the prevailing costs for tipping or processing of organic wastes in The Netherlands. This study revealed that a break-even exploitation of a large scale CAD-plant for the processing of manure with energy-rich additives is possible. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Study on external reactor vessel cooling capacity for advanced large size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Di; Liu Xiaojing; Cheng Xu; Li Fei

    2014-01-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is widely adopted as a part of in- vessel retention (IVR) in severe accident management strategies. In this paper, some flow parameters and boundary conditions, eg., inlet and outlet area, water inlet temperature, heating power of the lower head, the annular gap size at the position of the lower head and flooding water level, were considered to qualitatively study the effect of them on natural circulation capacity of the external reactor vessel cooling for an advanced large size PWR by using RELAP5 code. And the calculation results provide some basis of analysis for the structure design and the following transient response behavior of the system. (authors)

  20. Analysis of output power and capacity reduction in electrical storage facilities by peak shift control of PV system with bifacial modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin’ya; Konno, Daisuke; Utsugi, Yuta; Morel, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of a large-scale power plant using bifacial solar cell is described. • Conversion efficiency of bifacial photovoltaics obtained using 3D-CAD modeling. • Power supply of bifacial PV can be matched with demand by adjusting the orientation. - Abstract: Bifacial photovoltaics are widely investigated with the aim of reducing the amount of silicon used and increasing conversion efficiencies. The output power of bifacial photovoltaics depends on the quantity of solar radiation incident on the reverse face. Furthermore, controlling the orientation can distribute the times of peak power output in the morning and afternoon to better match the demand. In this study, the demand patterns of individual houses or the whole Hokkaido region were analyzed assuming the substitution of a conventional large-scale electric power system with one using bifacial photovoltaics. The supply–demand balances and electrical storage capacities were investigated. When comparing a large scale solar power plant (mega-solar power plant) using monofacial photovoltaics or vertical bifacial photovoltaics (in which the orientation could be adjusted), the supply–demand could be better balanced for individual houses in the latter case, thereby allowing the storage capacity to be reduced. A bifacial solar module was modeled by 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) and thermal fluid analysis. The module temperature distribution of bifacial photovoltaics was calculated with respect to the environmental conditions (wind flow, direct and diffuse solar radiation, etc.) and internal heat generation, as well as the orientation of the solar panels. Furthermore, the output power of bifacial photovoltaics can be easily obtained from the analysis result of modular temperature distribution and the relation between temperature and output power

  1. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  2. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (Ppineapple was significantly (Ppineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Study of storage capacity in various carbon/graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, C. K.; Boopalan, G.

    2014-09-01

    Solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor (SEDLC) forms excellent energy storage device for high-power applications. They are highly reliable, with no electrolyte leaks, and can be packaged to suit various applications. The electrode material can be activated carbon to graphene. These can have a range of particle size, surface area, pore size and pore distribution for charge storage. The emphasis will be to optimize the graphene to carbon blend in the electrodes which would provide appreciable storage density of the SEDLC. We can use perfluorosulfonic acid polymer as the solid electrolyte in the SEDLC assembly. They have high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, and mechanical strength. They also have excellent long-term chemical stability. Carbon is widely used for many practical applications, especially for the adsorption of ions and molecules, as it is possible to synthesize one-, two- or three-dimensional (1-, 2-, or 3-D) carbons. Some of the problems in activated carbon like varying micro or mesopores, poor ion mobility due to varying pore distribution, low electrical conductivity, can be overcome using graphene and blends of graphene with carbon of the right pore dimension and distribution. Graphene in various structural nomenclatures have been used by various groups for charge storage. Graphene nanoplates (GNP), with narrow mesopore distributions have been effectively used for SEDLCs. SEDLCs assembled with GNP and blends of GNP with Vulcan XC and solid polymer electrolyte like Nafion show exceptional performance. The cyclic voltammetric studies show that they support high scan rates with substantial smaller capacitance drop as we increase scan rates. Optimization of the electrode structure in terms of blend percentage, binder content and interface character in the frequency and time domain provides excellent insight into the double-layer interface.

  4. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Philipp; Cockerill, Tim; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  5. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  6. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  7. Self-assembly synthesis of 3D graphene-encapsulated hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flower architecture with high lithium storage capacity and excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yating; Huang, Jian; Lin, Liang; Xie, Qingshui; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-encapsulated hierarchical metal oxides architectures can efficiently combine the merits of graphene and hierarchical metal oxides, which are deemed as the potential anode material candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to the synergistic effect between them. Herein, a cationic surfactant induced self-assembly method is developed to construct 3D Fe3O4@reduction graphene oxide (H-Fe3O4@RGO) hybrid architecture in which hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flowers (H-Fe3O4) are intimately encapsulated by 3D graphene network. Each H-Fe3O4 particle is constituted of rod-shaped skeletons surrounded by petal-like nano-flakes that are made up of enormous nanoparticles. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 2270 mA h g-1 after 460 cycles is achieved under a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More impressively, even tested at a large current density of 10 A g-1, a decent reversible capacity of 490 mA h g-1 can be retained, which is still higher than the theoretical capacity of traditional graphite anode, demonstrating the remarkable lithium storage properties. The reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of H-Fe3O4@RGO electrode have been discussed in detail.

  8. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant (AO capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75 % cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II complex (HPMC in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical. Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay, flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay. During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.

  9. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types. PMID:27904388

  10. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  11. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; University of California, Riverside, CA; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this paper, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance–voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Finally, our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  12. Capacity of the circular plate condenser: analytical solutions for large gaps between the plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T V

    2005-01-01

    A solution of Love's integral equation (Love E R 1949 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 2 428), which forms the basis for the analysis of the electrostatic field due to two equal circular co-axial parallel conducting plates, is considered for the case when the ratio, τ, of distance of separation to radius of the plates is greater than 2. The kernel of the integral equation is expanded into an infinite series in odd powers of 1/τ and an approximate kernel accurate to O(τ -(2N+1) ) is deduced therefrom by terminating the series after an arbitrary but finite number of terms, N. The approximate kernel is rearranged into a degenerate form and the integral equation with this kernel is reduced to a system of N linear equations. An explicit analytical solution is obtained for N = 4 and the resulting analytical expression for the capacity of the circular plate condenser is shown to be accurate to O(τ -9 ). Analytical expressions of lower orders of accuracy with respect to 1/τ are deduced from the four-term (i.e., N 4) solution and predictions (of capacity) from the expressions of different orders of accuracy (with respect to 1/τ) are compared with very accurate numerical solutions obtained by solving the linear system for large enough N. It is shown that the O(τ -9 ) approximation predicts the capacity extremely well for any τ ≥ 2 and an O(τ -3 ) approximation gives, for all practical purposes, results of adequate accuracy for τ ≥ 4. It is further shown that an approximate solution, applicable for the case of large distances of separation between the plates, due to Sneddon (Sneddon I N 1966 Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Potential Theory (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 230-46) is accurate to O(τ -6 ) for τ ≥ 2

  13. Conceptual design of hydrogen isotopes chromatographic separation system with super large capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Liu Yunnu; Hou Jianping

    2012-01-01

    A super large capacity hydrogen isotopes separation system, including total plan, unit (including making and purification of gas, three-grade chromatographic columns, gas loop and auto-control, and carrier recovery) and experimental scheme, had been designed on the basis of a series of hydrogen-deuterium experiments by temperature programmed de- sorption. The characteristic of the system was that desorption kinetic parameters could be directly calculated from the hydrogen isotope separation desorption spectra information. In other words, the complicated dynamic process of separation could be described by the desorption rate equation, shape parameter and desorption activation energy calculation on the condition of the experimental data and appropriate assumptions (equilibrium and adsorption, uniform surface). In previous work, an experimental series of operation to verify the successive enrichment of D 2 from a H 2 -D 2 mixture, the production of the deuterium from natural hydrogen and the recovery of tritium such as from the nuclear heavy-water were carried out using MS5A at 77 K. This work was only conceptual design, so it was necessary to identify the availability of super large capacity system by experiment. (authors)

  14. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  15. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-11-06

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ'E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ'E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models.

  16. Development of large scale fusion plasma simulation and storage grid on JAERI Origin3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xin

    2003-01-01

    Under the Numerical EXperiment of Tokamak (NEXT) research project, various fluid, particle, and hybrid codes have been developed. These codes require a computational environment which consists of high performance processors, high speed storage system, and high speed parallelized visualization system. In this paper, the performance of the JAERI Origin3800 system is examined from a point of view of these requests. In the performance tests, it is shown that the representative particle and fluid codes operate with 15 - 40% of processing efficiency up to 512 processors. A storage area network (SAN) provides high speed parallel data transfer. A parallel visualization system enables order to magnitude faster visualization of a large scale simulation data compared with the previous graphic workstations. Accordingly, an extremely advanced simulation environment is realized on the JAERI Origin3800 system. Recently, development of a storage grid is underway in order to improve a computational environment of remote users. The storage grid is constructed by a combination of SAN and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The preliminary tests show that compared with the existing data transfer methods, it enables dramatically high speed data transfer ∼100 Gbps over a wide area network. (author)

  17. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained...... with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides...

  18. Mobility and Congestion in Dynamical Multilayer Networks with Finite Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, S.; Di Tucci, E.; Latora, V.

    2018-02-01

    Multilayer networks describe well many real interconnected communication and transportation systems, ranging from computer networks to multimodal mobility infrastructures. Here, we introduce a model in which the nodes have a limited capacity of storing and processing the agents moving over a multilayer network, and their congestions trigger temporary faults which, in turn, dynamically affect the routing of agents seeking for uncongested paths. The study of the network performance under different layer velocities and node maximum capacities reveals the existence of delicate trade-offs between the number of served agents and their time to travel to destination. We provide analytical estimates of the optimal buffer size at which the travel time is minimum and of its dependence on the velocity and number of links at the different layers. Phenomena reminiscent of the slower is faster effect and of the Braess' paradox are observed in our dynamical multilayer setup.

  19. Title:Distributed Generation Storage, Demand Response, and Energy Efficiency as Alternatives to Grid Capacity Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Poudineh, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economics and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business mode...

  20. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they...

  1. Development of large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Claudet, G

    1996-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, is working towards the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a high-energy, high-luminosity particle accelerator and collider [1] of 26.7 km circumference, due to start producing frontier physics, by bringing into collision intense proton and ion beams with centre-of-mass energies in the TeV-per-constituent range, at the beginning of the next century. The key technology for achieving this ambitious scientific goal at economically acceptable cost is the use of high-field superconducting magnets using Nb-Ti conductor operating in superfluid helium [2]. To maintain the some 25 km of bending and focusing magnets at their operating temperature of 1.9 K, the LHC cryogenic system will have to produce an unprecedented total refrigeration capacity of about 20 kW at 1.8 K, in eight cryogenic plants distributed around the machine circumference [3]. This has requested the undertaking of an industrial development programme, in the form of a collaboration betwe...

  2. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  3. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Nagano, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the spent fuel storage away from reactor, economical comparison was carried out between metal cask and water pool storage technology. The economic index was defined by levelized cost (Unit storage cost) calculated on the assumption that the storage cost is paid at the receipt of the spent fuel at the storage facility. It is found that the cask storage is economical for small and large storage capacity. Unit storage cost of pool storage, however, is getting close to that of cask storage in case of storage capacity of 10,000 ton. Then, the unit storage cost is converted to power generation cost using data of the burn up of the fuel, etc. The cost is obtained as yen 0.09/kWh and yen 0. 15/kWh for cask storage and pool storage, respectively in case of the capacity of 5,000 tonU and the cooling time of 5 years. (author)

  4. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.L.; Johnson, M.; Mims, C.; Powell, J.; Hoesen, D. van

    1998-05-01

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex

  5. Large-area printed supercapacitor technology for low-cost domestic green energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Z.; Thomas, D.J.; Korochkina, T.; Phillips, C.O.; Lupo, D.; Lehtimäki, S.; O'Mahony, J.; Gethin, D.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate that a flexible ultra-thin supercapacitor can be fabricated using high volume screen printing process. This has enabled the sequential deposition of current collector, electrode, electrolyte materials and adhesive onto a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in order to form flexible electrodes for reliable energy storage applications. The electrodes were based on an activated carbon ink and gel electrolyte each of which were formulated for this application. Supercapacitors that have surface areas from 100 to 1600 mm"2 and an assembled device thickness of 375 μm were demonstrated. The capacitance ranged from 50 to 400 mF. Capacitance of printed carbon electrodes is rarely reported in literature and no references were found. The chemistry developed during this study displayed long-term cycling potential and demonstrated the stability of the capacitor for continued usage. The gel electrolyte developed within this work showed comparable performance to that of a liquid counterpart. This improvement resulted in the reduction in gel resistance from 90Ω to 0.5Ω. Significant reduction was observed for all resistances. The solid-state supercapacitors with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors that used a liquid electrolyte. This large area printed device can be used in future houses for reliable green energy storage. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that a flexible supercapacitors with large area storage has been developed. • The simplified architecture has the potential to lead to a new class of printable, thin storage devices. • The specific capacitance of 21 F/g was measured.

  6. Assessing the adequacy of water storage infrastructure capacity under hydroclimatic variability and water demands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Devineni, N.; Cook, E. R.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    As populations and associated economic activity in the US evolve, regional demands for water likewise change. For regions dependent on surface water, dams and reservoirs are critical to storing and managing releases of water and regulating the temporal and spatial availability of water in order to meet these demands. Storage capacities typically range from seasonal storage in the east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. However, most dams in the US were designed with limited knowledge regarding the range, frequency, and persistence of hydroclimatic extremes. Demands for water supplied by these dams have likewise changed. Furthermore, many dams in the US are now reaching or have already exceeded their economic design life. The converging issues of aging dams, improved knowledge of hydroclimatic variability, and evolving demands for dam services result in a pressing need to evaluate existing reservoir capacities with respect to contemporary water demands, long term hydroclimatic variability, and service reliability into the future. Such an effort is possible given the recent development of two datasets that respectively address hydroclimatic variability in the conterminous United States over the past 555 years and human water demand related water stress over the same region. The first data set is a paleoclimate reconstruction of streamflow variability across the CONUS region based on a tree-ring informed reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. This streamflow reconstruction suggested that wet spells with shorter drier spells were a key feature of 20th century streamflow compared with the preceding 450 years. The second data set in an annual cumulative drought index that is a measure of water balance based on water supplied through precipitation and water demands based on evaporative demands, agricultural, urban, and industrial demands. This index identified urban and regional hotspots that were particularly dependent on water

  7. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-04-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  8. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  9. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialy, Agata [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark); Jensen, Peter B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej 311, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Blanchard, Didier [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Vegge, Tejs, E-mail: teve@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Quaade, Ulrich J., E-mail: ujq@amminex.com [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  10. Large-Capacity Three-Party Quantum Digital Secret Sharing Using Three Particular Matrices Coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Hong; Tao Li; Liu Zhi-Ming; Luo Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a large-capacity quantum digital secret sharing (QDSS) scheme, combined the Fibonacci- and Lucas-valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement with the recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. To be exact, Alice prepares pairs of photons in the Fibonacci- and Lucas-valued OAM entangled states, and then allocates them to two participants, say, Bob and Charlie, to establish the secret key. Moreover, the available Fibonacci and Lucas values from the matching entangled states are used as the seed for generating the Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. This is achieved because the entries of the Fibonacci and Lucas matrices are recursive. The secret key can only be obtained jointly by Bob and Charlie, who can further recover the secret. Its security is based on the facts that nonorthogonal states are indistinguishable, and Bob or Charlie detects a Fibonacci number, there is still a twofold uncertainty for Charlie' (Bob') detected value. (paper)

  11. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  13. Economic analysis of a new class of vanadium redox-flow battery for medium- and large-scale energy storage in commercial applications with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new class of the vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) is developed. • The new class of VRB is more economic. It is simple process and easy to scale-up. • There are three levels of cell stacks and electrolytes with different qualities. • The economic analysis of the VRB system for renewable energy bases is carried out. • Related polices and suggestions based on the result are provided. - Abstract: Interest in the implement of vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) for energy storage is growing, which is widely applicable to large-scale renewable energy (e.g. wind energy and solar photo-voltaic), developing distributed generation, lowering the imbalance and increasing the usage of electricity. However, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for energy storage is obscured for various commercial applications, yet it is fundamental for implementation of the VRB in commercial electricity markets. In this study, based on a new class of the VRB that was developed by our team, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for large-scale energy storage is carried out. The results illustrate the economy of the VRB applications for three typical energy systems: (1) The VRB storage system instead of the normal lead-acid battery to be the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) battery for office buildings and hospitals; (2) Application of vanadium battery in household distributed photo-voltaic power generation systems; (3) The wind power and solar power stations equipped with the VRB storage systems. The economic perspectives and cost-benefit analysis of the VRB storage systems may underpin optimisation for maximum profitability. In this case, two findings are concluded. First, with the fixed capacity power or fixed discharging time, the greater profit ratio will be generated from the longer time or the larger capacity power. Second, when the profit ratio, discharging time and capacity power are all variables, it is necessary to find out the best optimisation

  14. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  15. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  16. Circuit engineering principles for construction of bipolar large-scale integrated circuit storage devices and very large-scale main memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, A. A.; Savenkov, V. N.; Sergeyez, A. G.

    1984-06-01

    Memories are improved by increasing speed or the memory volume on a single chip. The most effective means for increasing speeds in bipolar memories are current control circuits with the lowest extraction times for a specific power consumption (1/4 pJ/bit). The control current circuitry involves multistage current switches and circuits accelerating transient processes in storage elements and links. Circuit principles for the design of bipolar memories with maximum speeds for an assigned minimum of circuit topology are analyzed. Two main classes of storage with current control are considered: the ECL type and super-integrated injection type storage with data capacities of N = 1/4 and N 4/16, respectively. The circuits reduce logic voltage differentials and the volumes of lexical and discharge buses and control circuit buses. The limiting speed is determined by the antiinterference requirements of the memory in storage and extraction modes.

  17. Working through the pain: working memory capacity and differences in processing and storage under pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that pain perception and attention are closely linked at both a neural and a behavioural level. If pain and attention are so linked, it is reasonable to speculate that those who vary in working memory capacity (WMC) should be affected by pain differently. This study compares the performance of individuals who differ in WMC as they perform processing and memory span tasks while under mild pain and not. While processing performance under mild pain does not interact with WMC, the ability to store information for later recall does. This suggests that pain operates much like an additional processing burden, and that the ability to overcome this physical sensation is related to differences in WMC. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  18. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-01-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  19. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  20. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  1. Large Scale Production of Densified Hydrogen Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William U.; Swanger, Adam Michael; Jumper, Kevin M.; Fesmire, James E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Johnson, Wesley L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent demonstration of advanced liquid hydrogen storage techniques using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) technology at NASA Kennedy Space Center led to the production of large quantities of solid densified liquid and slush hydrogen in a 125,000 L tank. Production of densified hydrogen was performed at three different liquid levels and LH2 temperatures were measured by twenty silicon diode temperature sensors. System energy balances and solid mass fractions are calculated. Experimental data reveal hydrogen temperatures dropped well below the triple point during testing (up to 1 K), and were continuing to trend downward prior to system shutdown. Sub-triple point temperatures were seen to evolve in a time dependent manner along the length of the horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Twenty silicon diode temperature sensors were recorded over approximately one month for testing at two different fill levels (33 67). The phenomenon, observed at both two fill levels, is described and presented detailed and explained herein., and The implications of using IRAS for energy storage, propellant densification, and future cryofuel systems are discussed.

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessameud, S.; Mezbahul-Islam, M.; Medraj, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  4. Relational database hybrid model, of high performance and storage capacity for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Neto, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the relational database, named FALCAO. It was created and implemented to support the storage of the monitored variables in the IEA-R1 research reactor, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP. The data logical model and its direct influence in the integrity of the provided information are carefully considered. The concepts and steps of normalization and de normalization including the entities and relations involved in the logical model are presented. It is also presented the effects of the model rules in the acquisition, loading and availability of the final information, under the performance concept since the acquisition process loads and provides lots of information in small intervals of time. The SACD application, through its functionalities, presents the information stored in the FALCAO database in a practical and optimized form. The implementation of the FALCAO database occurred successfully and its existence leads to a considerably favorable situation. It is now essential to the routine of the researchers involved, not only due to the substantial improvement of the process but also to the reliability associated to it. (author)

  5. Addition of titanium as a potential catalyst for a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium (abstract only)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuliani, F; Baerends, E J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the characterization of titanium as a catalyst for high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. A first-principles study (Yildirim and Ciraci 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 175501) demonstrated that a single Ti atom coated on a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) binds up to four hydrogen molecules. The bonding was claimed to be an 'unusual combination of chemisorption and physisorption'. We report an ab initio study by means of the ADF program, which provides a complete insight into the donation/back-donation mechanism characterizing the bond between the Ti atom and the four H 2 molecules, and a full understanding of the catalytic role played by the Ti atom. In addition, we found that the same amount of adsorbed hydrogen can be stored using benzene support for Ti in place of the SWNT, due to the dominant local contribution of the hexagonal carbon ring surrounding the Ti atom. The benzene-Ti-H 2 bonding is discussed on the basis of molecular orbital interaction schemes as provided by ADF. This result advances our insight into the role of titanium as a catalyst and suggests new routes to better storage through different combinations of supports and catalysts

  6. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-04

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  7. Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulović, Vladimir

    2012-03-14

    Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  9. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  10. Large-scale electrophysiology: acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-05-30

    The use of large-scale electrophysiology to obtain high spatiotemporal resolution brain recordings (>100 channels) capable of probing the range of neural activity from local field potential oscillations to single-neuron action potentials presents new challenges for data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Our group is currently performing continuous, long-term electrophysiological recordings in human subjects undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery using hybrid intracranial electrodes composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays. DC-capable amplifiers, sampling at 32kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution are capable of resolving extracellular voltages spanning single-neuron action potentials, high frequency oscillations, and high amplitude ultra-slow activity, but this approach generates 3 terabytes of data per day (at 4 bytes per sample) using current data formats. Data compression can provide several practical benefits, but only if data can be compressed and appended to files in real-time in a format that allows random access to data segments of varying size. Here we describe a state-of-the-art, scalable, electrophysiology platform designed for acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of large-scale data. Data are stored in a file format that incorporates lossless data compression using range-encoded differences, a 32-bit cyclically redundant checksum to ensure data integrity, and 128-bit encryption for protection of patient information.

  11. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  12. The recycling of domestic waste water. A study of the factors influencing the storage capacity and the simulation of the usage patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewkes, A; Ferris, S A

    1982-01-01

    The flushing of toilets with recycled domestic waste water makes a significant saving in the use of potable water. The size of the storage tank is a critical factor in the design of such a system; the inputs to the storage, which are random, are influenced by the size of family and individual washing and bathing habits. The demand from the storage tank is random in time but the volume is constant at each occurrence. A method of generating these waste water time series, with their inherent stochastic nature, is described. These simulated event patterns are then used to investigate the operation of a single-tank waste water storage system. The computer model determines the percentage of water conserved for several combinations of storage capacity and family size: the effect of changes in design parameters and operating conditions on the system performance is also assessed.

  13. Possibility of the market expansion of large capacity optical cold archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ikuo; Sakata, Emiko

    2017-08-01

    The field, IoT and Big data, which is activated by the revolution of ICT, has caused rapid increase of distribution data of various business application. As a result, data with low access frequency has been rapidly increasing into a huge scale that human has never experienced before. This data with low access frequency is called "cold data", and the storage for cold data is called "cold storage". In this situation, the specifications of storage including access frequency, response speed and cost is determined by the application's request.

  14. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  15. Final Project Report for DOE/EERE High-Capacity and Low-Cost Hydrogen-Storage Sorbents for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong-Cai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Liu, Di-Jia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report provides a review of the objectives, progress, and milestones of the research conducted during this project on the topic of developing innovative metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic polymers (POPs) for high-capacity and low-cost hydrogen-storage sorbents in automotive applications.1 The objectives of the proposed research were to develop new materials as next-generation hydrogen storage sorbents that meet or exceed DOE’s 2017 performance targets of gravimetric capacity of 0.055 kg H2/kgsystem and volumetric capacity of 0.040 kg H2/Lsystem at a cost of $400/kg H2 stored. Texas A&M University (TAMU) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated in developing low-cost and high-capacity hydrogen-storage sorbents with appropriate stability, sorption kinetics, and thermal conductivity. The research scope and methods developed to achieve the project’s goals include the following: Advanced ligand design and synthesis to construct MOF sorbents with optimal hydrogen storage capacities, low cost and high stability; Substantially improve the hydrogen uptake capacity and chemical stability of MOF-based sorbents by incorporating high valent metal ions during synthesis or through the post-synthetic metal metathesis oxidation approach; Enhance sorbent storage capacity through material engineering and characterization; Generate a better understanding of the H2-sorbent interaction through advanced characterization and simulation. Over the course of the project 5 different MOFs were developed and studied: PCN-250, PCN-12, PCN-12’, PCN-608 and PCN-609.2-3 Two different samples were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in order to validate their hydrogen adsorption capacity, PCN-250 and PCN-12. Neither of these samples reached the project’s Go/No-Go requirements but the data obtained did further prove the hypothesis that the presence of open metal

  16. Large diameter boreholes (LDB) for low and intermediate radioactive waste storage/disposal in clay deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, A.V.; Litinsky, Y.V.; Guskov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    shortage of free area after 30-40 years of operation or because of ecological and radiological safety reasons. To minimize these effects and increase ecological safety of near-surface RAW storage facilities as well as to use operating territory in more effective manner the new type of long term storage/disposal facility has been developed on the basis of Large Diameter Borehole (LDB), drilled in clayey sediments. In the case of LDB applications for LILW storage the waste are removed from the scope of human activity into a stable geological medium. Wastes are placed below the frost zone where damage to engineered barriers due to climatic factors is practically impossible. Construction of the repository by means of drilling prevents large disturbances of the host rock, as happens during excavation work for trenches. When using an LDB-type repositories, the usage factor (ratio of repository surface area, protected with natural barrier, to total repository surface area) of the geological barrier (host rocks) is about 1, as almost all the surface of the repository is protected with not disturbed host rock. This helps to draw the conclusion that, even in the case of total destruction of all engineered barriers, which is very unlikely, radionuclides will still be constrained in a small volume of the host rock and their release to the human activity sphere is virtually impossible. Two LDB-type repositories (LDB-1 and LDB-2) with the internal diameter of 1.5 m and the depth near 40 m have been constructed at the site of SUE MosSIA 'Radon'. In October 2003 LDB-2 for the first time has been loaded with low and intermediate level radioactive waste, conditioned in 36 standard steel drums. In May 2006 LDB-1 has been loaded with 90 similar drums. Later on both Large Diameter Boreholes were licensed for RAW storage. Since 2003 a complex of manual observations within the repository, in engineered barriers and in near field was carried out to assess the tightness of construction, its

  17. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  18. The large superconducting solenoids for the g-2 muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.; Cullen, J.; Danby, G.

    1994-01-01

    The g-2 muon storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory consists of four large superconducting solenoids. The two outer solenoids, which are 15.1 meters in diameter, share a common cryostat. The two inner solenoids, which are 13.4 meters in diameter, are in separate cryostats. The two 24 turn inner solenoids are operated at an opposite polarity from the two 24 turn outer solenoids. This generates a dipole field between the inner and outer solenoids. The flux between the solenoids is returned through a C shaped iron return yoke that also shapes the dipole field. The integrated field around the 14 meter diameter storage ring must be good to about 1 part in one million over the 90 mm dia. circular cross section where the muons are stored, averaged over the azimuth. When the four solenoids carry their 5300 A design current, the field in the 18 centimeter gap between the poles is 1.45 T. When the solenoid operates at its design current 5.5 MJ is stored between the poles. The solenoids were wound on site at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cryostats were built around the solenoid windings which are indirectly cooled using two-phase helium

  19. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  1. Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance

  2. Shear Capacity of Large-Scale RC Beams Affected by ASR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......) and Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1). The analysis shows that three experiments were highly affected by the preparation of the experimental setup. Only one experiment contained useful information about the shear capacity. The analysis of this experiment shows that the shear capacity is not reduced as much...

  3. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  4. How to correct for long-term externalities of large-scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of recent renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply: it necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development in the presence of either subsidized or market driven development scenarios. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on prices and reliability of supply. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalised for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. - Highlights: • We model power market players’ investment decisions incorporating wind power. • We examine two market designs: an energy-only market and a capacity mechanism. • We test two types of wind power development paths: subsidised and market-driven. • Capacity mechanisms compensate for the externalities of wind power developments

  5. Experimental use of large diameter boreholes in clay deposits for radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.; Guskov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Application of radioactive substances in industry, medicine and scientific research leads to generation of radioactive waste. The problem of improving reliability of isolation of the radioactive waste is becoming more acute with each passing year, and requirements for ecological safety are getting more and more stringent. Near surface repositories are usually considered to be acceptable for storage of waste with short lived radionuclides of low and intermediate activity level (LILW). However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers, and in case of traditional near surface repositories can cause failure of the isolation and discharge of radionuclides into near field. Operation of the old repositories with already contaminated surroundings and construction of similar new facilities require more and more area. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' from early 60-s was responsible for development of new approaches for waste treatment and long term storage. In accordance with this direction, research and experimental work is carried out both in field of upgrading safety for typical near surface repository constructions and in developing new repository types. Significant increase of LILW isolation reliability and land saving could be achieved by use of large diameter boreholes (LDB) drilled in clayey deposits for waste storage. Due to the depth of the borehole and depth of waste package emplacement, this type of facility can be considered as near surface facility. To date technology of LDB construction and its experimental use is being conducted in SUE Mos SIA 'Radon'. The diameter of a LDB type repository may range from 1 to 6 m depending on drilling rig capabilities and parameters of the repository in whole. The depth of the boreholes should depend on geological and hydro-geological conditions

  6. SECARB Commercial Scale CO2 Injection and Optimization of Storage Capacity in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George J. [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Walsh, Peter [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The Commercial Scale Project is a US DOE/NETL funded initiative aimed at enhancing the knowledge-base and industry’s ability to geologically store vast quantities of anthropogenic carbon. In support of this goal, a large-scale, stacked reservoir geologic model was developed for Gulf Coast sediments centered on the Citronelle Dome in southwest Alabama, the site of the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test. Characterization of regional geology to construct the model consists of an assessment of the entire stratigraphic continuum at Citronelle Dome, from surface to the depth of the Donovan oil-bearing formation. This project utilizes all available geologic data available, which includes: modern geophysical well logs from three new wells drilled for SECARB’s Anthropogenic Test; vintage logs from the Citronelle oilfield wells; porosity and permeability data from whole core and sidewall cores obtained from the injection and observation wells drilled for the Anthropogenic Test; core data obtained from the SECARB Phase II saline aquifer injection test; regional core data for relevant formations from the Geological Survey of Alabama archives. Cross sections, isopach maps, and structure maps were developed to validate the geometry and architecture of the Citronelle Dome for building the model, and assuring that no major structural defects exist in the area. A synthetic neural network approach was used to predict porosity using the available SP and resistivity log data for the storage reservoir formations. These data are validated and applied to extrapolate porosity data over the study area wells, and to interpolate permeability amongst these data points. Geostatistical assessments were conducted over the study area. In addition to geologic characterization of the region, a suite of core analyses was conducted to construct a depositional model and constrain caprock integrity. Petrographic assessment of core was conducted by OSU and analyzed to build a depositional framework

  7. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  9. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  10. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  11. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  12. Remediation and recycling of oil-contaminated soil beneath a large above-ground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1994-01-01

    While retrofitting a large 30-year-old, above-ground petroleum storage tank, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) discovered that soil beneath the fixed-roof, single-bottom tank was contaminated with 40,000 gallons of number-sign 6 fuel oil. The steel tank was left in place during the excavation and remediation of the contaminated soil to retain the operating permit. The resulting 2,000 tons of contaminated aggregate was recycled to make asphalt concrete for paving the tank basin and the remaining 5,600 tons of oily soil was thermally treated on site for use as engineered fill at another location. This successful operation provided an economical cleanup solution for a common leakage problem of single-lined tanks and eliminated the long-term liability of Class 1 landfill disposal. As a pro-active environmental effort, this paper shares SCE's site assessment procedure, reveals the engineering method developed to stabilize the tank, discusses the soil treatment technologies used, describes the problems encountered and lessons learned during the cleanup, discloses the costs of the operation, and offers guidelines and recommendations for similar tank remediation. This paper does not describe the work or costs for removing or replacing the tank bottom

  13. Very large virtual compound spaces: construction, storage and utility in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Recent activities in the construction, storage and exploration of very large virtual compound spaces are reviewed by this report. As expected, the systematic exploration of compound spaces at the highest resolution (individual atoms and bonds) is intrinsically intractable. By contrast, by staying within a finite number of reactions and a finite number of reactants or fragments, several virtual compound spaces have been constructed in a combinatorial fashion with sizes ranging from 10(11)11 to 10(20)20 compounds. Multiple search methods have been developed to perform searches (e.g. similarity, exact and substructure) into those compound spaces without the need for full enumeration. The up-front investment spent on synthetic feasibility during the construction of some of those virtual compound spaces enables a wider adoption by medicinal chemists to design and synthesize important compounds for drug discovery. Recent activities in the area of exploring virtual compound spaces via the evolutionary approach based on Genetic Algorithm also suggests a positive shift of focus from method development to workflow, integration and ease of use, all of which are required for this approach to be widely adopted by medicinal chemists.

  14. A conceptual study on large-capacity safety relief valve (SRV) for future BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Katsumi; Tokunaga, Takashi; Iwanaga, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual study of Safety Relief Valve (SRV) which has larger flow capacity than that of the conventional one and a new structure. Maintenance work of SRVs is one of the main concerns for next-generation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants whose thermal power is planned to be increased. Because the number of SRVs increases with the thermal power, their maintenance would become critical during periodic inspections. To decrease the maintenance work, reduction of the number by increasing the nominal flow rate per SRV and a new structure suitable for easier treatment have been investigated. From a parameter survey of the initial and maintenance cost, the optimum capacity has been estimated to be between 180 and 200 kg/s. Primarily because the number of SRVs decreases in inversely proportional to the capacity, the total maintenance work decreases. The new structure of SRV, with an internally mounted actuator, decreases the number of the connecting parts and will make the maintenance work easier. A 1/4-scale model of the new SRV has been manufactured and performance tests have been conducted. The test results satisfied the design target, which shows the feasibility of the new structure. (author)

  15. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature.

  16. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated...

  17. Techno-economic Modeling of the Integration of 20% Wind and Large-scale Energy Storage in ERCOT by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldick, Ross; Webber, Michael; King, Carey; Garrison, Jared; Cohen, Stuart; Lee, Duehee

    2012-12-21

    This study's objective is to examine interrelated technical and economic avenues for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid to incorporate up to and over 20% wind generation by 2030. Our specific interests are to look at the factors that will affect the implementation of both high level of wind power penetration (> 20% generation) and installation of large scale storage.

  18. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke

  19. Oxygen Storage Capacity and Oxygen Mobility of Co-Mn-Mg-Al Mixed Oxides and Their Relation in the VOC Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Haidy Castaño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity and oxygen mobility were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR, oxygen storage capacity (OSC, oxygen storage complete capacity (OSCC and isotopic exchange, respectively. The catalytic behavior of the oxides was evaluated in the total oxidation of a mixture of 250 ppm toluene and 250 ppm 2-propanol. The synthesis methodology affected the crystallite size, redox properties, OSC and oxide oxygen mobility, which determined the catalytic behavior. The co-precipitation method got the most active oxide in the oxidation of the volatile organic compound (VOC mixture because of the improved mobility of oxygen and ability to favor redox processes in the material structure.

  20. Surface analytical investigations of the interaction between the getter material ZrCo and hydrogen and the influence of different contamination gases on the hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbrenner, H.

    1991-11-01

    In this work the results of surface analytical investigations of the alloy ZrCo used for hydrogen storage as well as of the interaction of the alloy with hydrogen and various contamination gases present in a nuclear fusion reactor will be presented and discussed with respect to the application of ZrCo as getter material for tritium. The characterization of the ZrCo alloy showed that on the surface a stable ZrO 2 -layer is formed, which is, however, inhomogeneous. On the phase boundary solid / gas of samples exposed to hydrogen up to the stoichiometrical composition ZrCoH 2.8 a Co enrichment was observed. If the alloy ZrCo is activated before hydrogen take-up in the same way as other getter materials by heating under vacuum, the hydrogenation occurs faster and nearly complete. Zirconium is the alloy component responsible for the hydrogen storage. If a gas reacts nearly exclusively with the alloy component Co, a smaller decrease in the hydrogen storage capacity will be noticed. By exposition to CO and CO 2 mainly compounds with cobalt are formed. However, if the gas produces compounds with Zr like carbide, nitride, or oxide, the result is a strong decrease of the hydrogen storage capacity of the getter. (orig./MM) [de

  1. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  2. Results of geo-radio-monitoring for radioactive waste storage in large diameter boreholes in clayey ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main purpose of the work carried out at the site of SUE MosSIA 'Radon' is to develop the system of geo-radio-monitoring for new type of storage facility (large diameter borehole) integrated into existing monitoring system of the whole site, check its effectiveness and improve the system, obtain initial results on safety aspects for using large diameter boreholes for RAW storage. Technology of large diameter boreholes (LDB) construction for low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) isolation in moraine loams is being under development at SUE MosSIA 'Radon' site since the end of the last century. A project for construction of a demonstration unit for LILW storage in large diameter boreholes at the SUE MosSIA 'Radon' site in Sergiev Posad region has been developed taking into account specific site conditions. The main aim of the project is to develop the technology of LDB repository construction, operational procedures such as loading and retrieval, to develop and improve monitoring system for the new repository type, to get practical data on safety of radioactive wastes storage in new repositories, hermeticity of construction, and behavior of waste, waste packages, construction materials and near-field. In the case of LDB applications for LILW storage, the waste are removed from the scope of human activity into a stable geological medium. Waste are placed below the frost zone where damage of engineered barriers due to climatic factors is practically impossible. Two boreholes with 1.5 m internal diameter and 38 m depth have been drilled in 1997, equipped with engineering barriers including bentonite-concrete stone, licensed as storage facilities in 2003 and are in use now for solid and solidified RAW storage. Specific automated system of geo-radio-monitoring has been developed especially for the LDB-type repository, covering both the interior and the

  3. Building Capacity: Challenges and Opportunities in Large Class Pedagogy (LCP) in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Alan R.; Masingila, Joanna O.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years most countries, particularly developing countries, have seen a large increase in the number of students seeking higher education. A consequence of this growth is increasing pressure on teaching staff and institutions, usually resulting in, among other effects, increased class size. Large classes of between 300 and 1,000, and…

  4. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  5. HVDC interrupter experiments for large Magnetic Energy Transfer and Storage (METS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, C.E.; Haarman, R.A.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Weldon, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed fusion-test reactors will require energy storage systems of hundreds of megajoules with transfer times of the order of one millisecond. The size of the energy storage submodule (and hence, the overall system cost and complexity) is directly determined by the voltage and current limits of the switch used for the energy transfer. Experiments are being conducted on high voltage dc circuit breakers as a major part of the energy storage, pulsed power program. DC circuit interruption characteristics of a commercially available ac power vacuum interrupter are discussed. Preliminary data of interruption characteristics are reported for an interrupter developed specifically to match a present METS circuit requirement

  6. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  7. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  8. Ordered one-component plasmas: Phase transitions, normal modes, large systems, and experiments in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The property of cold one-component plasmas, confined by external forces, to form an ordered array has been known for some time both from simulations and from experiment. The purpose of this talk is to summarize some recent work on simulations and some new experimental results. The author discusses some experimental work on real storage rings, magnetic storage devices in which partials circulate with large kinetic energies and for which laser cooling is used on partially ionized ions to attain temperatures ten or more orders of magnitude lower than their kinetic energies

  9. How to correct long-term system externality of large scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply. It necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development either in the presence of either subsidised wind production or in market-driven development. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for the long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on the system reliability. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalized for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. (authors)

  10. Very High Load Capacity Air Bearing Spindle for Large Diamond Turning Machines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diamond turning is able to produce highly aspheric visible quality optics which can be easily aligned. Very large optical systems such as OWL and EUSO are impossible...

  11. Modelling study, efficiency analysis and optimisation of large-scale Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage systems with low-temperature thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Yong; Li, Jian; Xu, Yujie; Wang, Dan; Miao, Shihong; Chen, Haisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an A-CAES system thermodynamic model with low temperature thermal energy storage integration. • The initial parameter value ranges for A-CAES system simulation are identified from the study of a CAES plant in operation. • The strategies of system efficiency improvement are investigated via a parametric study with a sensitivity analysis. • Various system configurations are discussed for analysing the efficiency improvement potentials. - Abstract: The key feature of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) is the reuse of the heat generated from the air compression process at the stage of air expansion. This increases the complexity of the whole system since the heat exchange and thermal storage units must have the capacities and performance to match the air compression/expansion units. Thus it raises a strong demand in the whole system modelling and simulation tool for A-CAES system optimisation. The paper presents a new whole system mathematical model for A-CAES with simulation implementation and the model is developed with consideration of lowing capital cost of the system. The paper then focuses on the study of system efficiency improvement strategies via parametric analysis and system structure optimisation. The paper investigates how the system efficiency is affected by the system component performance and parameters. From the study, the key parameters are identified, which give dominant influences in improving the system efficiency. The study is extended onto optimal system configuration and the recommendations are made for achieving higher efficiency, which provides a useful guidance for A-CAES system design.

  12. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  13. Factors affecting the sporulation capacity during long-term storage of the aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis grown on broomcorn millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Hua, Li

    2005-04-15

    Aphid-pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis, grown on broomcorn millet possesses greater sporulation capacity (C(s)) than aphid cadavers. The most sporulating cultures (32.0x10(4) spores millet(-1) grain) with water content (C(w)) of 48.7% were prepared by incubation at 20 degrees C for 15 days and used to study the effect of temperature and humidity on C(s) during long-term storage. Cultures were sealed with paper to retain ambient humidity, with parafilm for saturated humidity, or kept in 85% and 98% RH chambers. The C(w) and C(s) were monitored during 200-day storage at 5-20 degrees C. The paper-sealed cultures at 5 degrees C, associated with 21-25% of C(w), were best preserved and their 120-day C(s) was similar to that of the fresh cadavers. Consistently or variably high RH at 5 degrees C resulted in significantly higher C(w) and lower C(s) despite longer viability. The regimes at 10 degrees C preserved the cultures for 40 days. The observations fit well to the logistic model C(s)=35.28/{1+exp[-2.36+(-0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T)t]} (r(2)=0.95) for all regimes of temperature (T) or C(s)=35.55/[1+exp(-2.33+0.001C(w)t)] (r(2)=0.93) at 5 degrees C only. The rate of decline of C(s) of -0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T or 0.001 C(w) over days (t) highlights the primary effect of C(w). The daily C(s)-decline rates obtained for the best-stored cultures and air-dried cadavers stored at 5 degrees C were surprisingly identical. The results suggest a possible cheap method for preparing and storing large quantities of P. neoaphiodis inocula.

  14. Experimental analysis of large capacity MR dampers with short- and long-stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, René; De la Llera, Juan Carlos; Weber, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and characterize experimentally two magneto-rheological dampers with short- and long-stroke, denoted hereafter as MRD-S and MRD-L. The latter was designed to improve the Earthquake performance of a 21-story reinforced concrete building equipped with two 160 ton tuned pendular masses. The MRD-L has a nominal force capacity of 300 kN and a stroke of ±1 m; the MRD-S has a nominal force capacity of 150 kN, and a stroke of ±0.1 m. The MRD-S was tested with two different magneto-rheological and one viscous fluid. Due to the presence of Eddy currents, both dampers show a time lag between current intensity and damper force as the magnetization on the damper changes in time. Experimental results from the MRD-L show a force drop-off behavior. A decrease in active-mode forces due to temperature increase is also analyzed for the MRD-S and the different fluids. Moreover, the observed increase in internal damper pressure due to energy dissipation is evaluated for the different fluids in both dampers. An analytical model to predict internal pressure increase in the damper is proposed that includes as a parameter the concentration of magnetic particles inside the fluid. Analytical dynamic pressure results are validated using the experimental tests. Finally, an extended Bingham fluid model, which considers compressibility of the fluid, is also proposed and validated using damper tests. (paper)

  15. Experimental analysis of large capacity MR dampers with short- and long-stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, René; de la Llera, Juan Carlos; Weber, Felix

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and characterize experimentally two magneto-rheological dampers with short- and long-stroke, denoted hereafter as MRD-S and MRD-L. The latter was designed to improve the Earthquake performance of a 21-story reinforced concrete building equipped with two 160 ton tuned pendular masses. The MRD-L has a nominal force capacity of 300 kN and a stroke of ±1 m; the MRD-S has a nominal force capacity of 150 kN, and a stroke of ±0.1 m. The MRD-S was tested with two different magneto-rheological and one viscous fluid. Due to the presence of Eddy currents, both dampers show a time lag between current intensity and damper force as the magnetization on the damper changes in time. Experimental results from the MRD-L show a force drop-off behavior. A decrease in active-mode forces due to temperature increase is also analyzed for the MRD-S and the different fluids. Moreover, the observed increase in internal damper pressure due to energy dissipation is evaluated for the different fluids in both dampers. An analytical model to predict internal pressure increase in the damper is proposed that includes as a parameter the concentration of magnetic particles inside the fluid. Analytical dynamic pressure results are validated using the experimental tests. Finally, an extended Bingham fluid model, which considers compressibility of the fluid, is also proposed and validated using damper tests.

  16. Facile synthesis of nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles with large surface-controlled pseudocapacitive and fast sodium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hepeng; Cao, Yijun; Ma, Zilong; Li, Shulei

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal sulfides are considered to be promising candidates as anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). However, their further applications are limited by poor electrical conductivity and sluggish electrochemical kinetics. We report, for the first time, nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles as SIB anodes with enhanced electrical conductivity and a large pseudocapacitive effect, leading to fast kinetics. This compound exhibits excellent sodium storage performance, including a high capacity of 556.7 mA h g-1, a high rate capability of 2000 mA g-1 and an excellent stability up to 200 cycles. The results demonstrate that nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles are a promising anode material for SIBs.

  17. Using Linear Spectral Method when Calculating Seismic Resistance of Large-Capacity Vertical Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at determining the possibility of applying the simplified method proposed by the authors to calculate the tank seismic resistance in compliance with current regulations and scientific provisions. The authors propose a highly detailed numerical model for a common oil storage tank RVSPK-50000 that enables static operational loads and dynamic action of earthquakes to be calculated. Within the modal analysis the natural oscillation frequencies in the range of 0-10 Hz were calculated; the results are given for the first ten modes. The model takes into account the effect of impulsive and convective components of hydrodynamic pressure during earthquakes. Within the spectral analysis by generalized response spectra was calculated a general stress-strain state of a structure during earthquakes of 7, 8, 9 intensity degrees on the MSK-64 scale for a completely filled up, a half-filled up to the mark of 8.5 m and an empty RVSPK-50000 tank. The developed finite element model can be used to perform calculations of seismic resistance by the direct dynamic method, which will give further consideration to the impact of individual structures (floating roof, support posts, adjoined elements of added stiffness on the general stress-strain state of a tank.

  18. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  19. The HYDROMED model and its application to semi-arid Mediterranean catchments with hill reservoirs 3: Reservoir storage capacity and probability of failure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ragab

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of "what reservoir storage capacity is required to maintain a yield with a given probability of failure?". It is an important issue in terms of construction and cost. HYDROMED offers a solution based on the modified Gould probability matrix method. This method has the advantage of sampling all years data without reference to the sequence and is therefore particularly suitable for catchments with patchy data. In the HYDROMED model, the probability of failure is calculated on a monthly basis. The model has been applied to the El-Gouazine catchment in Tunisia using a long rainfall record from Kairouan together with the estimated Hortonian runoff, class A pan evaporation data and estimated abstraction data. Generally, the probability of failure differed from winter to summer. Generally, the probability of failure approaches zero when the reservoir capacity is 500,000 m3. The 25% probability of failure (75% success is achieved with a reservoir capacity of 58,000 m3 in June and 95,000 m3 in January. The probability of failure for a 240,000 m3 capacity reservoir (closer to storage capacity of El-Gouazine 233,000 m3, is approximately 5% in November, December and January, 3% in March, and 1.1% in May and June. Consequently there is no high risk of El-Gouazine being unable to meet its requirements at a capacity of 233,000 m3. Subsequently the benefit, in terms of probability of failure, by increasing the reservoir volume of El-Gouazine to greater than the 250,000 m3 is not high. This is important for the design engineers and the funding organizations. However, the analysis is based on the existing water abstraction policy, absence of siltation rate data and on the assumption that the present climate will prevail during the lifetime of the reservoir. Should these conditions change, a new analysis should be carried out. Keywords: HYDROMED, reservoir, storage capacity, probability of failure, Mediterranean

  20. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  1. High efficiency-large capacity circulating water pump for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station unit No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Sasamuro, Takemi; Takeda, Hirohisa.

    1988-01-01

    No.3 plant in the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chube Electric Power Co., Inc. is the latest plant of 1100 MW class BWR type, which began the commercial operation in August, 1987. The seawater intake and discharge system of this plant is composed of the channel exceeding 2 km in the total length from the intake tower to the discharge port. The circulating water pump installed in this system has the capacity of 1620 m 3 /min and the total head of 16.5 m, which are the largest in the world. It attained the efficiency as high as more than 90%. Three pumps supply seawater to three-body condensers. The design of the impeller and the casing for obtaining high efficiency, the structural design for facilitating maintenance, the manufacture of a model pump and the performance test using it and so on are reported. The most important item in the manufacture was the form of the onebody impeller weighing 4.5t. The confirmation of the performance of the actual machines was carried out as a part of the synthetic function confirmation test at the power station, and the flow rate was measured with Pitot tubes and ultrasonic flowmeters. (Kako, I.)

  2. Advanced large-capacity commercial technology for multi-pollutant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, R.E. [Wulff Deutschland GmbH, Rosbach (Germany); Seitz, A. [Teplama Strakonice, a.s. (Czech Republic); Xia Fan Gao [Guangzhou Hengyun Enterprises Holiday, Ltd. (China)

    2003-09-01

    The presentation describes the application in commercial installations in Europe and China of circulating fluid bed (CFB) scrubbers of advanced GRAF/WULFF technology design, retrofitted to coal-fired steam boilers. Details are presented of design and operating experience with installations of CFB scrubbers that efficiently remove diverse pollutants down to and below the required and permitted levels. The paper describes successful solutions to substantial operating problems encountered at a CFB scrubbing plant. The described flue gas scrubbing plants of this simple system design clean the flue gases from boilers comprising units of a capacity of 100 to 300 MW using a single-train scrubbing system arrangement. Specifically, the simultaneous high rates of removal of multipollutants are, e.g., SO{sub 2}>98%, SO{sub 3}>99%, HF > 99%, HCl > 98%, mercury > 95%, and particulate matter > 99.99%. These pollutants are removed in a single scrubber module in combination, downstream, with baghouse or electrostatic precipitator means of dedusting. Information is given on rates and design of a single-module, 660 MW system as would be applied to a coal-fired power plant facility. (orig.)

  3. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  4. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2017-12-01

    The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for

  5. 基于韦伯模型的风场储能容量计算%Storage Capacity Calculation of Wind Power Based on Weibull Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树超

    2013-01-01

    Wind speed model and wind generator output model are analyzed by applying Weibull function to set up wind speed distribution model and the concept of probability theory to calculate the power capacity of energy storage system . The ratio of wind energy and storage capacity is reasonable and meets requirement of energy system by means of stimula -tion experiment .Under the condition of satisfying China ’ s wind power grid standard , the energy storage scale should be minimized and be verified by actual wind farm data .%分析了风电场风速的模型、风力发电机输出模型,运用韦伯函数建立风速分布模型,采用概率论期望的思想,计算储能系统功率容量。通过模拟仿真实验,得出满足电力系统要求的合理风储比。在满足我国风电并网标准的条件下,尽可能地减小储能系统规模,并利用实际风电场数据加以分析验证。

  6. A study on the characteristics of the decay heat removal capacity for a large thermal rated LMR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, J. H.; Kim, E. K.; Kim, S. O.

    2003-01-01

    The design characteristics and the decay heat removal capacity according to the type of DHR (Decay Heat Removal) system in LMR are quantitatively analyzed, and the general relationship between the rated core thermal power and decay heat removal capacity is created in this study. Based on these analyses results, a feasibility of designing a larger thermal rating KALIMER plant is investigated in view of decay heat removal capacity, and DRC (Direct Reactor Cooling) type DHR system which rejects heat from the reactor pool to air is proper to satisfy the decay heat removal capacity for a large thermal rating plant above 1,000 MWth. Some defects, however, including the heat loss under normal plant operation and the lack of reliance associated with system operation should be resolved in order to adopt the total passive concept. Therefore, the new concept of DHR system for a larger thermal rating KALIMER design, named as PDRC (passive decay heat removal circuit), is established in this study. In the newly established concept of PDRC, the Na-Na heat exchanger is located above the sodium cold pool and is prevented from the direct sodium contact during normal operation. This total passive feature has the superiority in the aspect of the minimizing the normal heat loss and the increasing the operation reliance of DHR system by removing either any operator action or any external operation signal associated with system operation. From this study, it is confirmed that the new concept of PDRC is useful to the designing of a large thermal rating power plant of KALIMER-600 in view of decay heat removal capability

  7. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  8. Capacity market design and renewable energy: Performance incentives, qualifying capacity, and demand curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Levin, Todd; Byers, Conleigh

    2018-01-01

    A review of capacity markets in the United States in the context of increasing levels of variable renewable energy finds substantial differences with respect to incentives for operational performance, methods to calculate qualifying capacity for variable renewable energy and energy storage, and demand curves for capacity. The review also reveals large differences in historical capacity market clearing prices. The authors conclude that electricity market design must continue to evolve to achieve cost-effective policies for resource adequacy.

  9. Line Capacity Expansion and Transmission Switching in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Bronmo, Geir; Philpott, Andy B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2020 electricity production from wind power should constitute nearly 50% of electricity demand in Denmark. In this paper we look at optimal expansion of the transmission network in order to integrate 50% wind power in the system, while minimizing total fixed investment cost and expected cost...... of power generation. We allow for active switching of transmission elements to reduce congestion effects caused by Kirchhoff's voltage law. Results show that actively switching transmission lines may yield a better utilization of transmission networks with large-scale wind power and increase wind power...

  10. A large capacity time division multiplexed (TDM) laser beam combining technique enabled by nanosecond speed KTN deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Stuart (Shizhuo); Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Chen, Chang-Jiang; Campbell, Adrian; Henry, Michael; Dubinskiy, Mark; Hoffman, Robert C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel large capacity (a 1000+ channel) time division multiplexing (TDM) laser beam combining technique by harnessing a state-of-the-art nanosecond speed potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) electro-optic (EO) beam deflector as the time division multiplexer. The major advantages of TDM approach are: (1) large multiplexing capability (over 1000 channels), (2) high spatial beam quality (the combined beam has the same spatial profile as the individual beam), (3) high spectral beam quality (the combined beam has the same spectral width as the individual beam, and (4) insensitive to the phase fluctuation of individual laser because of the nature of the incoherent beam combining. The quantitative analyses show that it is possible to achieve over one hundred kW average power, single aperture, single transverse mode solid state and/or fiber laser by pursuing this innovative beam combining method, which represents a major technical advance in the field of high energy lasers. Such kind of 100+ kW average power diffraction limited beam quality lasers can play an important role in a variety of applications such as laser directed energy weapons (DEW) and large-capacity high-speed laser manufacturing, including cutting, welding, and printing.

  11. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Duguid, Andrew [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  12. Prospects for Large-Scale Energy Storage in Decarbonised Power Grids. Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-21

    This report describes the development of a simplified algorithm to determine the amount of storage that compensates for short-term net variation of wind power supply and assesses its role in light of a changing future power supply mix. It also examines the range of options available to power generation and transmission operators to deal with variability.

  13. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN and default mode network (DMN. Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation.

  14. Carbon nanotubes for energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity: state of the art and perspectives; Nanotubos de carbono para estocagem de energia por adsorcao de hidrogenio: estado da arte e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, Luis Fernando; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos], e-mail: lmaestro@ifi.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    It is presented an updated scope of the research in carbon nanotubes synthesis, their purification and a discussion of recent results in energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity. The GCA activities in this area are also discussed. (author)

  15. The uses of electrostatic bending and focussing elements for auxiliary storage rings in large proton collider tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibility of using electrostatic elements, instead of magnets, for bending and focusing in auxiliary electron storage rings in the tunnels of large proton accelerators. For example, in the proposed SSC tunnel, electron beam energies of --100 GeV appear to be possible. Benefits of electrostatic systems over conventional magnets in cost, aperture, beam dynamics, radiation hardness, and power are presented. Electrostatic element designs are discussed, as are applications to electron, anti-proton and heavy ion beams

  16. Outdoor Storage Characteristics of Single-Pass Large Square Corn Stover Bales in Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-round operation of biorefineries can be possible only if the continuous flow of cellulosic biomass is guaranteed. If corn (Zea mays stover is the primary cellulosic biomass, it is essential to recognize that this feedstock has a short annual harvest window (≤1–2 months and therefore cost effective storage techniques that preserve feedstock quality must be identified. This study evaluated two outdoor and one indoor storage strategies for corn stover bales in Iowa. High- and low-moisture stover bales were prepared in the fall of 2009, and stored either outdoors with two different types of cover (tarp and breathable film or within a building for 3 or 9 months. Dry matter loss (DML, changes in moisture and biomass compositions (fiber and ultimate analyses were determined. DML for bales stored outdoor with tarp and breathable film covers were in the ranges of 5–11 and 14–17%, respectively. More than half of the total DML occurred early during the storage. There were measurable differences in carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and acid detergent lignin for the different storage treatments, but the changes were small and within a narrow range. For the bale storage treatments investigated, cellulose content increased by as much as 4%s from an initial level of ~41%, hemicellulose content changed by −2 to 1% from ~34%, and acid detergent lignin contents increased by as much as 3% from an initial value of ~5%. Tarp covered bales stored the best in this study, but other methods, such as tube-wrapping, and economics need further investigation.

  17. A Method for Increasing the Operating Limit Capacity of Wind Farms Using Battery Energy Storage Systems with Rate of Change of Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Son

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the appropriate rated power of battery energy storage system (BESS and the operating limit capacity of wind farms are determined considering power system stability, and novel output control methods of BESS and wind turbines are proposed. The rated power of BESS is determined by correlation with the kinetic energy that can be released from wind turbines and synchronous generators when a disturbance occurs in the power system. After the appropriate rated power of BESS is determined, a novel control scheme for quickly responding to disturbances should be applied to BESS. It is important to compensate the insufficient power difference between demand and supply more quickly after a disturbance, and for this purpose, BESS output is controlled using the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF. Generally, BESS output is controlled by the frequency droop control (FDC, however if ROCOF falls below the threshold, BESS output increases sharply. Under this control for BESS, the power system’s stability can be improved and the operating limit capacity of wind farms can be increased. The operating limit capacity is determined as the smaller of technical limit and dynamic limit capacity. The technical limit capacity is calculated by the difference between the maximum power of the generators connected to the power system and the magnitude of loads, and the dynamic limit capacity is determined by considering dynamic stability of a power system frequency when the wind turbines drop out from a power system. Output of the dynamic model developed for wind turbine is based on the operating limit capacity and is controlled by blade pitch angle. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method, different case studies are conducted, with simulations for BESS and wind turbine using Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E.

  18. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  19. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  20. Metal-clad switchgear with large capacity vacuum circuit breaker in two-tier arrangement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Watanabe, Hideo; Sugitani, Shinji

    1982-01-01

    Accompanying the increase of main machinery capacity in nuclear power stations, the short-circuit capacity for 6.9 kV in-house auxiliary machinery circuit has increased, and a 63 kA circuit breaker has become necessary. Although magnetic breakers have been used as large capacity breakers so far, vacuum breakers which are more suitable for the recent environmental conditions of power stations have become employed. Hitachi Ltd. has developed the metal-clad switchboard with vacuum breakers of 7.2 kV, 1,200 to 3,000 A, and breaking current of 63 kA in two-tier arrangement. The main features of this breaker are small size, light weight, long life, labour-saving in maintenance and inspection, simple construction, easy handling, high reliability and safety. In addition, in this paper, the construction of the breaker and switchboard, aseismic property, and test results are described. The tests include the withstand voltage test, elevated temperature test, short period current test, short-circuit test, low current breaking test, continuous on-off test, on-off surge combination test and short-circuit breaking test under the condition of vacuum failure in one phase. The aseismic property is guaranteed by analyzing the vibration characteristics and the strength using computer-aided finite element method so that the performance required is satisfied. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide nanosheets assembled on carbon nanotubes for long-life lithium storage: Unusual electrochemical behaviors and ascending capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodan, E-mail: xiaodan_li@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Wu, Gaoxiang, E-mail: wgxjimmy@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chen, Jiewei, E-mail: kzscjw@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chongqing Materials Research Institute, Chongqing 400707 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wei.li@inl.int [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Wang, Tianyue, E-mail: 1355796015@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Jiang, Bing, E-mail: BingJiang@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); He, Yue, E-mail: 947667748@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide coated on carbon nanotubes were synthesized. • This anode material has unusual electrochemical behaviors compared to typical MoS{sub 2}. • It exhibits noticable ascending trends in capacity and superior rate performance. • The ascending performance can effectively extend the circulation life of batteries. - Abstract: Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide (LCMS, Mo:S = 1:2.75) nanosheets synthesized by a facile and low temperature solvothermal method is now reported. The as-prepared LCMS anode material is composited of MoS{sub 2} layers mixed with amorphous MoS{sub 3}, which leads to an unusual electrochemical process for lithium storage compared to typical MoS{sub 2} anode. The existence of MoS{sub 3} and Mo (VI) provide strong adsorption and binding sites for polar polysulphides, which compels abundant sulfur to turn into new-formed MoS{sub 3} rather than diffuse into electrolyte. To fully utilize this novel electrochemical process, LCMS is decorated on carbon nanotubes, obtaining well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. As electrode material for lithium storage, CNTs@LCMS exhibits a noticable ascending trend in capacity from 820 mA h g{sup −1} to 1350 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} during 130 cycles. The persistent ascending capacity is ascribed to the increasing lithium storage caused by new-formed MoS{sub 3}, combined with the reduced volume change benifiting from well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. Furthermore, the ascending performance is proved to be able to effectively extend the circulation life (up to 200%) for lithium-ion batteries by mathematical modeling and calculation. Accordingly, the CNTs@LCMS composite is a promising anode material for long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Pair Distribution Function Analysis of Structural Disorder by Nb5+ Inclusion in Ceria: Evidence for Enhanced Oxygen Storage Capacity from Under-Coordinated Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiley, Craig I; Playford, Helen Y; Fisher, Janet M; Felix, Noelia Cortes; Thompsett, David; Kashtiban, Reza J; Walton, Richard I

    2018-02-07

    Partial substitution of Ce 4+ by Nb 5+ is possible in CeO 2 by coinclusion of Na + to balance the charge, via hydrothermal synthesis in sodium hydroxide solution. Pair distribution function analysis using reverse Monte Carlo refinement reveals that the small pentavalent substituent resides in irregular coordination positions in an average fluorite lattice, displaced away from the ideal cubic coordination toward four oxygens. This results in under-coordinated oxygen, which explains significantly enhanced oxygen storage capacity of the materials of relevance to redox catalysis used in energy and environmental applications.

  3. Capacity-oriented curriculum system of optoelectronics in the context of large category cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Hu, Zhangfang; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    In order to cultivate the innovative talents with the comprehensive development to meet the talents demand for development of economic society, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications implements cultivation based on broadening basic education and enrolment in large category of general education. Optoelectronic information science and engineering major belongs to the electronic engineering category. The "2 +2" mode is utilized for personnel training, where students are without major in the first and second year and assigned to a major within the major categories in the end of the second year. In the context of the comprehensive cultivation, for the changes in the demand for professionals in the global competitive environment with the currently rapid development, especially the demand for the professional engineering technology personnel suitable to industry and development of local economic society, the concept of CDIO engineering ability cultivation is used for reference. Thus the curriculum system for the three-node structure optoelectronic information science and engineering major is proposed, which attaches great importance to engineering practice and innovation cultivation under the background of the comprehensive cultivation. The conformity between the curriculum system and the personnel training objectives is guaranteed effectively, and the consistency between the teaching philosophy and the teaching behavior is enhanced. Therefore, the idea of major construction is clear with specific characteristics.

  4. Analysis on applicable error-correcting code strength of storage class memory and NAND flash in hybrid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Reika; Takeuchi, Ken

    2018-04-01

    A hybrid of storage class memory (SCM) and NAND flash is a promising technology for high performance storage. Error correction is inevitable on SCM and NAND flash because their bit error rate (BER) increases with write/erase (W/E) cycles, data retention, and program/read disturb. In addition, scaling and multi-level cell technologies increase BER. However, error-correcting code (ECC) degrades storage performance because of extra memory reading and encoding/decoding time. Therefore, applicable ECC strength of SCM and NAND flash is evaluated independently by fixing ECC strength of one memory in the hybrid storage. As a result, weak BCH ECC with small correctable bit is recommended for the hybrid storage with large SCM capacity because SCM is accessed frequently. In contrast, strong and long-latency LDPC ECC can be applied to NAND flash in the hybrid storage with large SCM capacity because large-capacity SCM improves the storage performance.

  5. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A; Belkin, A; Ilin, E; Pak, M; Colla, Eugene V; Hubler, A

    2017-12-08

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm -1 (i.e., 1 GV m -1 ), which is much larger than the table value of the Al 2 O 3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  6. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A.; Belkin, A.; Ilin, E.; Pak, M.; Colla, Eugene V.; Hubler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al2O3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm-1 (i.e., 1 GV m-1), which is much larger than the table value of the Al2O3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  7. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  8. Design and fabrication of transport/storage packaging for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Hayao; Kakunai, Haruo

    1989-01-01

    Dry storage in containers is one of several methods for storing spent fuel dischaged from nuclear power plants. Kobe Steel and Transnucleaire (France) have jointly developed large-capacity, safe transport/storage packaging for use in this storage method. This paper outlines the packaging, the manufacturing of a prototype model, and an active storage demonstration test involving the prototype model. (author)

  9. Establishment of design concept of large capacity passive reactor KP1000 and performance evaluation of safety system for LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O.; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-03-01

    This study was performed to establish the design concepts and to evaluate the performance of safety features of large capacity passive reactor (1000 MWe grade). The design concepts of the large capacity passive reactor `KP1000` were established to generate 1000 MW electric power based on the AP600 of Westinghouse by increasing the number of reactor coolant loop and by increasing the size of reactor internals/core. To implement the analysis of the LBLOCA for KP1000, various kinds of computer codes being considered, it was concluded that RELAP5 was the most appropriate one in availability and operations in present situation. By the analysis of the computer code `RELAP5/Mod3.2.1.2`, following conclusions were derived as described below. First, by spectrum analysis of the discharge factor of the berak part, the most conservative discharge factor C{sub D}=1.2 and the PCT value of KP1000 was 1254F, which is slightly higher than the value of AP600 but is much less than the existing active reactor `Kori 3 and 4` where blowdown PCT value is 1693.4 deg F and reflooding PCT is 1918.4 deg F. Second, after the 200 seconds from the initiation of LBLOCA, IRWST water was supplied in a stable state and the maximum temperature of clad were maintained in a saturated condition. Therefore, it was concluded that the passive safety features of KP1000 keep reactor core from being damaged for large break LOCA. (author). 11 refs., 28 tabs., 37 figs.

  10. Chlorine Doping of Amorphous TiO2 for Increased Capacity and Faster Li+-Ion Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitzheim, S.; Balder, J.E.; Poodt, P.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Gendt, S. de; Vereecken, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) offers a high theoretical capacity of 336 mAh g-1 with the insertion of one Li per Ti unit. Unfortunately, the poor ionic and electronic conductivity of bulk TiO2 electrodes limits its practical implementation. Nanosizing titania below ∼20 nm has shown to increase the rate performance

  11. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Antioxidant Capacity in Pepper “Kulai” during Low-Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Keat Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the effect of a postharvest treatment on the pepper's antioxidant content and its ability to retain its economical value during the postharvest period. The fruits were pretreated by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP with or without treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP before cold storage at 10°C. Changes in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, including the total phenolic, ascorbic acid levels and the total glutathione level, as well as enzymatic antioxidants, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR, and catalase (CAT, were determined. Both treatments successfully extended the shelf life of the fruit for up to 25 days, and a high level of antioxidant capacity was maintained throughout the storage period. However, 1-MCP treatment maintained the high antioxidant capacity for a longer period of time. The 1-MCP-treated peppers maintained high levels of phenolic content, a high reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio, decreased levels of ascorbic acid and CAT activity, and increased levels of APX and GR compared with the peppers that were not treated with 1-MCP. The overall results suggested that a combination of 1-MCP and MAP was the most effective treatment for extending shelf life while retaining the nutritional benefits.

  12. Electron-beam irradiation effects on phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Lozoya, Jose E; Lombardini, Leonardo; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-11-25

    Pecans kernels (Kanza and Desirable cultivars) were irradiated with 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy using electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation and stored under accelerated conditions [40 degrees C and 55-60% relative humidity (RH)] for 134 days. Antioxidant capacity (AC) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, phenolic (TP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) phenolic profile, tocopherol content, peroxide value (PV), and fatty acid profiles were determined during storage. Irradiation decreased TP and CT with no major detrimental effects in AC. Phenolic profiles after hydrolysis were similar among treatments (e.g., gallic and ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin). Tocopherol content decreased with irradiation (>21 days), and PV increased at later stages (>55 days), with no change in fatty acid composition among treatments. Color lightness decreased, and a reddish brown hue developed during storage. A proposed mechanism of kernel oxidation is presented, describing the events taking place. In general, E-beam irradiation had slight effects on phytochemical constituents and could be considered a potential tool for pecan kernel decontamination.

  13. Structure and oxygen storage capacity of Pr-doped Ce0.26Zr0.74O2 mixed oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Rui; WENG Duan; WU Xiaodong; FAN Jun; WANG Lei; WU Xiaodi

    2011-01-01

    Binary Ce-Zr (CZ),Pr-Zr (PZ) and ternary Ce-Zr-Pr (CZP) mixed oxides were prepared by an ammonia-aided co-precipitation method,and were aged in a steam/air flow at 1050 ℃.X-my diffraction (XRD),Raman spectra,X-photon spectra (XPS) and CO temperature programmed reduction (TPR) were carried out to characterize the micro-structure and reducibility of catalysts.The oxygen storage capacity (OSC) was evaluated with CO serving as probe gas.The results showed that a pseudo cubic structure was formed for the Zr-rich ceria-zirconia mixed oxides with Pr doping.The insertion of Pr prevented the phase segregation of the mixed oxides during the hydrothermal ageing.The Pr doped samples showed better redox performances in comparison with CZ,and the sample doped with 5 wt.% Pr showed the most remarkably promoted dynamic oxygen storage capacity.This phenomenon was closely related to both the reducibility and oxygen mobility of the mixed oxides.The introduction of praseodymium into ceria-zirconia could accelerate the oxygen migration by increasing the amount of oxygen vacancies,although it was difficult for Pr3+ ions themselves to participate in the oxygen exchange process.

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  15. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  16. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  17. Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions need to be implemented

  18. Monitoring of large-scale federated data storage: XRootD and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Beche, A; Arias, D Diguez; Giordano, D; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Belov, S; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Tadel, M; Vukotic, I

    2014-01-01

    The computing models of the LHC experiments are gradually moving from hierarchical data models with centrally managed data pre-placement towards federated storage which provides seamless access to data files independently of their location and dramatically improve recovery due to fail-over mechanisms. Construction of the data federations and understanding the impact of the new approach to data management on user analysis requires complete and detailed monitoring. Monitoring functionality should cover the status of all components of the federated storage, measuring data traffic and data access performance, as well as being able to detect any kind of inefficiencies and to provide hints for resource optimization and effective data distribution policy. Data mining of the collected monitoring data provides a deep insight into new usage patterns. In the WLCG context, there are several federations currently based on the XRootD technology. This paper will focus on monitoring for the ATLAS and CMS XRootD federations implemented in the Experiment Dashboard monitoring framework. Both federations consist of many dozens of sites accessed by many hundreds of clients and they continue to grow in size. Handling of the monitoring flow generated by these systems has to be well optimized in order to achieve the required performance. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the XRootD monitoring architecture is sufficiently generic to be easily adapted for other technologies, such as HTTP/WebDAV dynamic federations.

  19. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  20. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  1. Large solar heating system with seasonal storage for buld drying in Lisse, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, T.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design

  2. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  3. Aquifer thermal energy storage - A feasibility study for large scale demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, W. V.; Supkow, D. J.

    Engineering procedures necessary for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), based on studies of the Magothy Aquifer on Long Island, NY, are presented, with chilled winter water pumped into the aquifer and reclaimed in summer months for air conditioning. The choice of aquifer involves necessary volume, flow rate, efficiency of thermal recovery, and avoidance of conflict with other users; utilization depends on choice of appropriate piping, heat exchangers, and well construction to prevent degradation of the aquifer. The methods employed to probe the Magothy for suitability are described, including drilling an asymmetric well cluster for observation, and 48 hr pumping and 8 hr recovery. Transmissivity was found to vary from 8,000 to 29,000 sq ft/day. A doublet well was then drilled and water withdrawn, chilled, and returned. Later withdrawal indicated a 46% thermal recovery, with computer models projecting 80% with additional cycling. The study verified the feasibility of ATES, which can be expanded with additional demand.

  4. On-line Observation Of Electron Beam Bunches In The Large Storage Ring Of Kurchatov Srs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioudin, L I; Krylov, Y V; Rezvov, V A; Stirin, A I; Valentinov, A G; Yupinov, Y L

    2004-01-01

    A complex of instrumentation for visual quantitative estimation of electron beam bunches in the big storage ring of Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Centre (KSRC) is tested. The bunches pass through a cylindrical electrostatic sensor whose signal is recorded by a wide-band oscillograph. The TV camera reads the optical image of the signal from the oscillograph screen. The TV signal numbering board inputs the video image to the computer memory. The monitor displays the beam bunch structure. A special program provides on-line visualisation of bunch behaviour on the beam orbit. The images of beam structure and a series of images showing the beam behaviour in the regimes of accumulation, acceleration and in the stationary regime a full power are numbered and stored.

  5. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  6. CNTs in situ attached to α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres for enhancing lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid α-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (α-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ∼37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ∼116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ∼220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ∼326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite.

  7. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  8. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. It includes a new protection technique for renewable generators along with the inclusion of current status of smart grid.

  9. Latent heat increases storage capacity. Heat transport by truck; Latente warmte vergroot opslagcapaciteit. Warmtetransport per vrachtauto is soms heel slim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, K.

    2012-11-15

    The project-group Biomass CHP (combined production of heat and power) organized a tour with a workshop in Dortmund, Germany, September 26, 2012, on storage and transport of heat and biogas. There are several projects in Germany involving road transport of heat by means of containers. A swimming pool in Dortmund already is using this option since 2008. Waste heat from a CHP-installation for landfill gas is collected from a waste dump [Dutch] De projectgroep Biomassa en WKK organiseerde 26 September een excursie met workshop in Dortmund over opslag en transport van warmte en biogas. Er zijn in Duitsland al meerdere projecten waarbij warmte per container over de weg wordt vervoerd. Een Dortmunds zwembad werkt hier al sinds 2008 mee. De restwarmte van een wkk op stortgas wordt opgehaald bij een afvalstortplaats.

  10. Air-stable magnesium nanocomposites provide rapid and high-capacity hydrogen storage without using heavy-metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Joon; Moon, Hoi Ri; Ruminski, Anne M.; Jiang, Bin; Kisielowski, Christian; Bardhan, Rizia; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy carrier that can potentially facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to sources of clean energy because of its prominent advantages such as high energy density (142 MJ kg-1 ref. 1), great variety of potential sources (for example water, biomass, organic matter), light weight, and low environmental impact (water is the sole combustion product). However, there remains a challenge to produce a material capable of simultaneously optimizing two conflicting criteria—absorbing hydrogen strongly enough to form a stable thermodynamic state, but weakly enough to release it on-demand with a small temperature rise. Many materials under development, including metal-organic frameworks, nanoporous polymers, and other carbon-based materials, physisorb only a small amount of hydrogen (typically 1-2 wt%) at room temperature. Metal hydrides were traditionally thought to be unsuitable materials because of their high bond formation enthalpies (for example MgH2 has a ΔHf˜75 kJ mol-1), thus requiring unacceptably high release temperatures resulting in low energy efficiency. However, recent theoretical calculations and metal-catalysed thin-film studies have shown that microstructuring of these materials can enhance the kinetics by decreasing diffusion path lengths for hydrogen and decreasing the required thickness of the poorly permeable hydride layer that forms during absorption. Here, we report the synthesis of an air-stable composite material that consists of metallic Mg nanocrystals (NCs) in a gas-barrier polymer matrix that enables both the storage of a high density of hydrogen (up to 6 wt% of Mg, 4 wt% for the composite) and rapid kinetics (loading in <30 min at 200 °C). Moreover, nanostructuring of the Mg provides rapid storage kinetics without using expensive heavy-metal catalysts.

  11. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    In the recent years, the electric vehicles (EVs) have drawn great attention world wide as a feasible solution for clean transportation. The electric vehicle technology is not new as it was introduced in the mid 19th century. The low battery capacity, driving range and superior gasoline cars had...... resulted in the demise of electric cars in the 1930s. However, with the advancement of new high density battery technologies and power electronic converters, it is now viable to produce electric cars of higher efficiency and driving range. The performance and durability of the battery technology...... is improving on a rapid scale and the battery cost is also reducing which could enable the electric cars to be competitive in the market. The electric vehicles could also benefit the electricity sector in supporting more renewable energy which is also one of the most important driving forces in its promotion...

  12. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p memory performance (p > .05). We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings.

  13. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mette

    Full Text Available Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals.We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs. We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale.The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05, with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s (p .05.We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings.

  14. Contamination immobilization by polymer coating of large-sized radioactive wastes for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassigny, C. de; Signoret, C.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the research work is the development of new techniques to fix contamination and the containment of radioactive waste by using polyurethane paints. The following main work steps have been carried out: . Determination of the polyurethane paint most suited for this application based on water diffusion tests and diffusion of radio-elements . Choice of the spraying technique with respect to conditions of an ionizing environment . Pilot application of the technique on a dismantling site. The polyurethane paint selected is a solventless bicomponent paint manufactured by Bayer. The spraying device chosen (Isotherm PMS 70) and fitted with a Gusmer-Getrasur spray gun is able to operate in an ionizing environment under satisfactory conditions (tested on two pilot work sites). The process generates no contaminated aerosols, but ensures perfect fixation of the ionizing particles. ANDRA has given its agreement for storage in one of its sites of 12 alpha contaminated cast iron slabs (total weight: 60 tons) on which one ton of polyurethane has been applied

  15. A Method for Preparation, Storage and Activation of Large Populations of Immotile Sea Urchin Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Fritch, Jennifer J.; Tash, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is associated with initiation and modulation of sperm flagellar motility. Many studies aimed at examining the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the expression of motility have relied on detergent-permeabilized sperm reactivated with exogenous 32 P-ATP. However, the reactivation conditions allow variable levels of motility to be expressed and phosphorylation of many proteins that appear to be unrelated to sperm motility. Thus, identification of the few relevant proteins is difficult. We have developed a method to collect and keep sperm immotile until reactivated for analysis to normal motility levels. Artificial sea water (ASW) buffered with 5 mM 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.0 and containing 50 mM KCI, allows collection and storage of immotile sea urchin sperm for up to 96 h at 4-5 C. Motility under these conditions is essentially zero, but sperm is rapidly reactivated to normal motility by diluting with ASW to standard pH (8.0) and KCI concentration (10 mM).

  16. Reliability of high-voltage pulse capacitors operating in large energy storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, G.S.; Fedorova, V.S.; Shilin, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the reliability of pulse capacitors operating in capacitive energy storages, processes, resulting in break-down of capacitor insulation were investigated. A statistic model of failures was constructed and reliability of real capacitors, functioning at operating electric intensity Usub(oper) equal 70 kV/mm and at elevated intensity 90 kV/mm was calculated. Results of testing the IK50-ZU4 capacitor are given. The form of the capacitor service life distribution function was specified. To provide and confirm the assigned capacitor reliability, it is necessary to speed up tests at a higher voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper). To improve the capacitor reliability, it is advisable to conduct acceptance tests, which include hold at increased constant voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper) during 1-3 min and the effect of pulses of increased voltage (1.2-1.3) Usub(oper) with the pulse shape corresponding to operating conditions

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  18. Design of a large remote seismic exploration data acquisition system, with the architecture of a distributed storage area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Ping; Song, Ke-zhu; Yang, Jun-feng; Ruan, Fu-ming

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, seismic exploration data acquisition (DAQ) systems have been developed into remote forms with a large-scale coverage area. In this kind of application, some features must be mentioned. Firstly, there are many sensors which are placed remotely. Secondly, the total data throughput is high. Thirdly, optical fibres are not suitable everywhere because of cost control, harsh running environments, etc. Fourthly, the ability of expansibility and upgrading is a must for this kind of application. It is a challenge to design this kind of remote DAQ (rDAQ). Data transmission, clock synchronization, data storage, etc must be considered carefully. A fourth-hierarchy model of rDAQ is proposed. In this model, rDAQ is divided into four different function levels. From this model, a simple and clear architecture based on a distributed storage area network is proposed. rDAQs with this architecture have advantages of flexible configuration, expansibility and stability. This architecture can be applied to design and realize from simple single cable systems to large-scale exploration DAQs

  19. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  20. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  1. Derived data storage and exchange workflow for large-scale neuroimaging analyses on the BIRN grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Keator

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizing and annotating biomedical data in structured ways has gained much interest and focus in the last 30 years. Driven by decreases in digital storage costs and advances in genetics sequencing, imaging, electronic data collection, and microarray technologies, data is being collected at an alarming rate. The need to store and exchange data in meaningful ways in support of data analysis, hypothesis testing and future collaborative use is pervasive. Because trans-disciplinary projects rely on effective use of data from many domains, there is a genuine interest in informatics community on how best to store and combine this data while maintaining a high level of data quality and. The difficulties in sharing and combining raw data become amplified after post-processing and/or data analysis in which the new dataset of interest is a function of the original data and may have been collected by multiple collaborating sites. Simple meta-data, documenting which subject and version of data were used for a particular analysis, becomes complicated by the heterogeneity of the collecting sites yet is critically important to the interpretation and reuse of derived results. This manuscript will present a case study of using the XML-Based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE schema and the Human Imaging Database (HID in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network’s (BIRN distributed environment to document and exchange derived data. The discussion includes an overview of the data structures used in both the XML and the database representations, insight into the design considerations, and the extensibility of the design to support additional analysis streams.

  2. Using Large-Scale Cooperative Control to Manage Operational Uncertainties for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Rostampour, V.; Kwakkel, J. H.; Bloemendal, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) technology can help reduce the demand of energy for heating and cooling in buildings, and has become a popular option for larger buildings in northern Europe. However, the larger-scale deployment of this technology has evidenced some issues of concern for policymakers; in particular, recent research shows that operational uncertainties contribute to inefficient outcomes under current planning methods for ATES. For instance, systems in the Netherlands typically use less than half of their permitted pumping volume on an annual basis. This overcapacity gives users more flexibility to operate their systems in response to the uncertainties which drive building energy demand; these include short-term operational factors such as weather and occupancy, and longer-term, deeply uncertain factors such as changes in climate and aquifer conditions over the lifespan of the buildings. However, as allocated subsurface volume remains unused, this situation limits the adoption of the technology in dense areas. Previous work using coupled agent-based/geohydrological simulation has shown that the cooperative operation of neighbouring ATES systems can support more efficient spatial planning, by dynamically managing thermal interactions in response to uncertain operating conditions. An idealized case study with centralized ATES control thus showed significant improvements in the energy savings which could obtained per unit of allocated subsurface volume, without degrading the recovery performance of systems. This work will extend this cooperative approach for a realistic case study of ATES planning in the city of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. This case was previously simulated under different scenarios for individual ATES operation. The poster will compare these results with a cooperative case under which neighbouring systems can coordinate their operation to manage interactions. Furthermore, a cooperative game-theoretical framework will be

  3. Numerical simulations of enhanced gas recovery at the Zalezcze gas field in Poland confirm high CO2 storage capacity and mechanical integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimkowski, Lukasz; Nagy, Stanislaw; Papiernik, Bartosz; Orlic, Bogdan; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas from the Zalecze gas field located in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline of the Southern Permian Basin has been produced since November 1973, and continuous gas production led to a decrease in the initial reservoir pressure from 151 bar to about 22 bar until 2010. We investigated a prospective enhanced gas recovery operation at the Zalecze gas field by coupled numerical hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the CO 2 storage capacity, trapping efficiency and mechanical integrity of the reservoir, cap-rock and regional faults. Dynamic flow simulations carried out indicate a CO 2 storage capacity of 106.6 Mt with a trapping efficiency of about 43% (45.8 Mt CO 2 ) established after 500 years of simulation. Two independent strategies on the assessment of mechanical integrity were followed by two different modeling groups resulting in the implementation of field- to regional-scale hydro-mechanical simulation models. The simulation results based on application of different constitutive laws for the lithological units show deviations of 31% to 93% for the calculated maximum vertical displacements at the reservoir top. Nevertheless, results of both simulation strategies indicate that fault reactivation generating potential leakage pathways from the reservoir to shallower units is very unlikely due to the low fault slip tendency (close to zero) in the Zechstein cap-rocks. Consequently, our simulation results also emphasise that the supra- and sub-saliferous fault systems at the Zalecze gas field are independent and very likely not hydraulically connected. Based on our simulation results derived from two independent modeling strategies with similar simulation results on fault and cap-rock integrity, we conclude that the investigated enhanced gas recovery scheme is feasible, with a negligibly low risk of relevant fault reactivation or formation fluid leakage through the Zechstein cap-rocks. (authors)

  4. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song

    2009-01-01

    In this work, uniform SnO2 hollow nanospheres with large void space have been synthesized by a modified facile method. The void space can be easily controlled by varying the reaction time. The formation of interior void space is based on an inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated. It is found that α-Fe2O3@SnO 2 nanorattles manifest a much lower initial irreversible loss and higher reversible capacity compared to SnO2 hollow spheres. This interesting finding supports a general hypothesis that a synergistic effect between functional core and shell materials can lead to improved lithium storage capabilities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  5. Effects of reduction in porosity and permeability with depth on storage capacity and injectivity in deep saline aquifers: A case study from the Mount Simon Sandstone aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.; Barnes, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is recognized as a deep saline reservoir that has significant potential for geological sequestration in the Midwestern region of the United States. Porosity and permeability values collected from core analyses in rocks from this formation and its lateral equivalents in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio indicate a predictable relationship with depth owing to a reduction in the pore structure due to the effects of compaction and/or cementation, primarily as quartz overgrowths. The regional trend of decreasing porosity with depth is described by the equation: ??(d)=16.36??e-0.00039*d, where ?? is the porosity and d is the depth in m. The decrease of porosity with depth generally holds true on a basinwide scale. Bearing in mind local variations in lithologic and petrophysical character within the Mount Simon Sandstone, the source data that were used to predict porosity were utilized to estimate the pore volume available within the reservoir that could potentially serve as storage space for injected CO2. The potential storage capacity estimated for the Mount Simon Sandstone in the study area, using efficiency factors of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, is 23,680, 118,418, 236,832, and 355,242 million metric tons of CO2, respectively. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  7. International long-term interim storage for spent fuel. An independent storage service investor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thinking globally the obvious world-wide demands for large storage capacities for spent fuel within the next decades and the newly arising demands for long-term interim storage of spent fuel urges to respond by international interim storage facilities of high capacity. Low cost storage can be achieved only by arranging the storage facility underground in a suitable host rock formation and by selecting the geographical are by an international competition under those countries, who are willing to offer their land. The investor and operator of an international storage facility selected and realised by a competition on the free market as well as the country where the storage is built are both bound by two different kinds of contacts. The main contract is between the offering country/region and the independent operator. The independent operator has in addition a series of contracts with various utilities, which are interested to have their spent fuel stored for a longer period

  8. A stochastic model of depolarization enhancement due to large energy spread in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1988-10-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of isolated spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA and LEP, at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  9. Analytic calculation of depolarization due to large energy spread in high-energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1989-08-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA, TRISTAN, and LEP at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  10. Oxygen storage capacity and structural flexibility of LuFe2O4+x (0≤x≤0.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervieu, M.; Guesdon, A.; Bourgeois, J.; Elkaïm, E.; Poienar, M.; Damay, F.; Rouquette, J.; Maignan, A.; Martin, C.

    2014-01-01

    Combining functionalities in devices with high performances is a great challenge that rests on the discovery and optimization of materials. In this framework, layered oxides are attractive for numerous purposes, from energy conversion and storage to magnetic and electric properties. We demonstrate here the oxygen storage ability of ferroelectric LuFe2O4+x within a large x range (from 0 to 0.5) and its cycling possibility. The combination of thermogravimetric analyses, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy evidences a complex oxygen intercalation/de-intercalation process with several intermediate metastable states. This topotactic mechanism is mainly governed by nanoscale structures involving a shift of the cationic layers. The ferrite is highly promising because absorption begins at a low temperature (), occurs in a low oxygen pressure and the uptake of oxygen is reversible without altering the quality of the crystals. The storage/release of oxygen coupled to the transport and magnetic properties of LnFe2O4 opens the door to new tunable multifunctional applications.

  11. Large and stable reversible lithium-ion storages from mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets with ultralong lifespan over 1000 cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Jinxue; Xie, Yaping; Tang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    The major challenge to promote the commercialization of SnO2 anode materials is to construct unique structures and/or composites that could alleviate the volume effect and extend the lifespan. This study develops an efficient synthetic solution for the preparation of mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets, which involves an evaporation-induced selfassembly process and the following thermal treatment. Surfactant F127 is used as the soft template to form abundant cores. The as-prepared sample intrinsically inherits flexible sheet-like structure and porous features, as characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. Based on these combining structural benefits, the sample is utilized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibits excellent Li+ storage performance such as large and stable reversible capacity, good rate capability, and especially the outstanding durable cycling life of over 1000 cycles, which meets the demands of practical applications. The structural changes of SnO2 nanosheets are observed from the decomposed electrodes after different electrochemical cycles. Moreover, this synthesis strategy may offer an alternative and universal approach for synthesis of other transitional metal oxides or their binary composites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  13. Control of field uniformity for a large superconducting storage ring magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.45 Tesla, 14.2 meter diameter ''superferric'' magnet is in an advanced stage of construction at BNL. This magnet will be used to store muons for a planned ultra-precise measurement of their anomalous magnetic moment g-2. This measurement requires a magnetic field uniformity of 1 PPM with a knowledge of the field over the muon orbits to 0.1 PPM. The methods built into the design to produce ultra-high field uniformity will be described. Large deviations from the ideal circularly symmetric uniform shape of the iron flux path are required to accommodate transfer lines and superconducting current leads, as well as apparatus for beam injection. Shimming methods to correct for the perturbations due to these large holes will be presented. The pole pieces consist of 36 closely fitting 10 degree arc sections butted together to produce a very good approximation to a continuous 360 degree ring magnet. However, in the cast of a possible quench of the superconducting coils, significant eddy currents will be induced which will circulate within the confines of each 10 degree pole piece. At the great precision required, these eddy currents may leave very small but significant aberrations in the field even after they decay away, because of slight changes in the orientation of the magnetization. Surface coil possibilities to correct for this effect will be described

  14. Nature-Inspired 2D-Mosaic 3D-Gradient Mesoporous Framework: Bimetal Oxide Dual-Composite Strategy toward Ultrastable and High-Capacity Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wang, Yanlei; Mou, Lihui; Fang, Daliang; Chen, Shimou; Zhang, Suojiang

    2018-02-27

    In allusion to traditional transition-metal oxide (TMO) anodes for lithium-ion batteries, which face severe volume variation and poor conductivity, herein a bimetal oxide dual-composite strategy based on two-dimensional (2D)-mosaic three-dimensional (3D)-gradient design is proposed. Inspired by natural mosaic dominance phenomena, Zn 1-x Co x O/ZnCo 2 O 4 2D-mosaic-hybrid mesoporous ultrathin nanosheets serve as building blocks to assemble into a 3D Zn-Co hierarchical framework. Moreover, a series of derivative frameworks with high evolution are controllably synthesized, based on which a facile one-pot synthesis process can be developed. From a component-composite perspective, both Zn 1-x Co x O and ZnCo 2 O 4 provide superior conductivity due to bimetal doping effect, which is verified by density functional theory calculations. From a structure-composite perspective, 2D-mosaic-hybrid mode gives rise to ladder-type buffering and electrochemical synergistic effect, thus realizing mutual stabilization and activation between the mosaic pair, especially for Zn 1-x Co x O with higher capacity yet higher expansion. Moreover, the inside-out Zn-Co concentration gradient in 3D framework and rich oxygen vacancies further greatly enhance Li storage capability and stability. As a result, a high reversible capacity (1010 mA h g -1 ) and areal capacity (1.48 mA h cm -2 ) are attained, while ultrastable cyclability is obtained during high-rate and long-term cycles, rending great potential of our 2D-mosaic 3D-gradient design together with facile synthesis.

  15. Enhanced cyclic performance and lithium storage capacity of SnO2/graphene nanoporous electrodes with three-dimensionally delaminated flexible structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung-Min; Yoo, EunJoo; Honma, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    To fabricate nanoporous electrode materials with delaminated structure, the graphene nanosheets (GNS) in the ethylene glycol solution were reassembled in the presence of rutile SnO(2) nanoparticles. According to the TEM analysis, the graphene nanosheets are homogeneously distributed between the loosely packed SnO(2) nanoparticles in such a way that the nanoporous structure with a large amount of void spaces could be prepared. The obtained SnO(2)/GNS exhibits a reversible capacity of 810 mAh/g; furthermore, its cycling performance is drastically enhanced in comparison with that of the bare SnO(2) nanoparticle. After 30 cycles, the charge capacity of SnO(2)/GNS still remained 570 mAh/g, that is, about 70% retention of the reversible capacity, while the specific capacity of the bare SnO(2) nanoparticle on the first charge was 550 mAh/g, dropping rapidly to 60 mAh/g only after 15 cycles. The dimensional confinement of tin oxide nanoparticles by the surrounding GNS limits the volume expansion upon lithium insertion, and the developed pores between SnO(2) and GNS could be used as buffered spaces during charge/discharge, resulting in the superior cyclic performances.

  16. Zero boil-off methods for large-scale liquid hydrogen tanks using integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; E Fesmire, J.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  17. Design of a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks for burn mass casualties at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Davis, Matthew M; Sankar, Pratap; Wong, Andrew C; Wang, Stewart C

    2013-02-01

    To design and test a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks at a large academic medical center in response to a mass-casualty incident (MCI) involving multiple burn victims. Using the simulation software ProModel, a model of patient flow and anticipated resource use, according to principles of disaster management, was developed based upon historical data from the University Hospital of the University of Michigan Health System. Model inputs included: (a) age and weight distribution for casualties, and distribution of size and depth of burns; (b) rate of arrival of casualties to the hospital, and triage to ward or critical care settings; (c) eligibility for early discharge of non-MCI inpatients at time of MCI; (d) baseline occupancy of intensive care unit (ICU), surgical step-down, and ward; (e) staff availability-number of physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, and the expected ratio of each group to patients; (f) floor and operating room resources-anticipating the need for mechanical ventilators, burn care and surgical resources, blood products, and intravenous fluids; (g) average hospital length of stay and mortality rate for patients with inhalation injury and different size burns; and (h) average number of times that different size burns undergo surgery. Key model outputs include time to bottleneck for each limiting resource and average waiting time to hospital bed availability. Given base-case model assumptions (including 100 mass casualties with an inter-arrival rate to the hospital of one patient every three minutes), hospital utilization is constrained within the first 120 minutes to 21 casualties, due to the limited number of beds. The first bottleneck is attributable to exhausting critical care beds, followed by floor beds. Given this limitation in number of patients, the temporal order of the ensuing bottlenecks is as follows: Lactated Ringer's solution (4 h), silver sulfadiazine/Silvadene (6 h), albumin (48 h), thrombin topical (72 h), type

  18. The allocation of fast core storage in large computer programs: design and use of the VARY package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, A.G.

    1975-12-01

    In the design of a large computer program which will be used to solve a wide range of problems, consideration must be given to more than just the processing algorithms in the program. For example, such programs must be flexible, readable, easily modified and must make efficient use of fast storage. A subroutine package written in Fortran IV is described here which formalises the demands and eases the job of the programmer in meeting them. In the design of programs for modular code schemes it is found that the extra demands of standardisation of programming practices where possible makes obligatory the use of such a subroutine. The use of the subroutine in a modular code scheme is specfically exemplified. (author)

  19. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine

  20. Morphology-controllable synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composites and their hydrogen storage capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okan, Burcu Saner, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Zanjani, Jamal Seyyed Monfared [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Letofsky-Papst, Ilse [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010, Graz (Austria); Cebeci, Fevzi Çakmak; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z. [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    oxidized CNT. • CNT/polypyrrole composite has the highest hydrogen adsorption capacity (1.66 wt%). • Polymer coating and chemical oxidation affects hydrogen sorption isotherms.

  1. LOD-based clustering techniques for efficient large-scale terrain storage and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohong; Pajarola, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Large multi-resolution terrain data sets are usually stored out-of-core. To visualize terrain data at interactive frame rates, the data needs to be organized on disk, loaded into main memory part by part, then rendered efficiently. Many main-memory algorithms have been proposed for efficient vertex selection and mesh construction. Organization of terrain data on disk is quite difficult because the error, the triangulation dependency and the spatial location of each vertex all need to be considered. Previous terrain clustering algorithms did not consider the per-vertex approximation error of individual terrain data sets. Therefore, the vertex sequences on disk are exactly the same for any terrain. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering algorithm which introduces the level-of-detail (LOD) information to terrain data organization to map multi-resolution terrain data to external memory. In our approach the LOD parameters of the terrain elevation points are reflected during clustering. The experiments show that dynamic loading and paging of terrain data at varying LOD is very efficient and minimizes page faults. Additionally, the preprocessing of this algorithm is very fast and works from out-of-core.

  2. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  3. Very large refrigerant capacity at room temperature with reproducible magnetocaloric effect in Fe0.975Ni0.025Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Roy, S B

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) measurements on Fe 0.975 Ni 0.025 Rh. The MCE is estimated using both the isothermal field-dependent magnetization and the temperature-dependent magnetization in constant magnetic fields. We find a very large effective refrigerant capacity of nearly 492.8 J kg -1 , with the hot end at about 307 K, which is reproducible over many field cycles. We compare this refrigerant capacity with those of two well known systems, namely Gd 5 Ge 1.9 Si 2 Fe 0.1 and MnFeP 0.45 As 0.55 , which show a large MCE near room temperature, and also with our earlier results on the parent Fe-Rh alloy. The large effective refrigerant capacity in our sample is one of the largest achieved yet at room temperature with a significant improvement over the parent Fe-Rh system. (fast track communication)

  4. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  5. SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on vertically aligned graphene with a high rate, high capacity, and long life for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Sonsg, Huawei; Cui, Hao; Wang, Chengxin

    2014-01-01

    As a high-theoretical-capacity (782 mA hg-1), low-cost and low-toxicity material, SnO2 has attracted intense interest for use as an anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Despite intensive study, the practical use of SnO2-based anodes is hindered by their poor capacity retention and low rate capacity resulting from their large specific-volume changes and kinetic limitations in ion/electron transfer during the lithium ion insertion/extraction process. Improving the performance of SnO2-based electrodes has become one of the most popular scientific and industrial efforts. Herein, we present a type of SnO2-graphene composite anode in which SnO2 nanoparticles are uniformly anchored on both sides of vertically aligned graphene nanosheets (SnO2-VAGN-SnO2). The VAGNs sandwiched by the nanoparticles can supply rapid ion and electron transport pathways for Li+ and e-. Such integrated electrodes exhibit high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability, even at high current densities. The cells can cycle more than 5,000 times and retain a reversible capacity of 210 mA h g-1 at 9 A g-1. A high current density of up to 20 A g-1 is achieved, and the power and energy density can reach 1576.75 W kg-1 and 110.14 Wh kg-1, respectively. These performances indicate that the composite could offer the advantages of both LIBs (high energy density) and supercapacitors (high power density)

  6. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  7. Large funding inflows, limited local capacity and emerging disease control priorities: a situational assessment of tuberculosis control in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Schwanke-Khilji, Sara; Yoong, Joanne; Tun, Zaw Myo; Watson, Samantha; Coker, Richard James

    2017-10-01

    There are numerous challenges in planning and implementing effective disease control programmes in Myanmar, which is undergoing internal political and economic transformations whilst experiencing massive inflows of external funding. The objective of our study-involving key informant discussions, participant observations and linked literature reviews-was to analyse how tuberculosis (TB) control strategies in Myanmar are influenced by the broader political, economic, epidemiological and health systems context using the Systemic Rapid Assessment conceptual and analytical framework. Our findings indicate that the substantial influx of donor funding, in the order of one billion dollars over a 5-year period, may be too rapid for the country's infrastructure to effectively utilize. TB control strategies thus far have tended to favour medical or technological approaches rather than infrastructure development, and appear to be driven more by perceived urgency to 'do something' rather informed by evidence of cost-effectiveness and sustainable long-term impact. Progress has been made towards ambitious targets for scaling up treatment of drug-resistant TB, although there are concerns about ensuring quality of care. We also find substantial disparities in health and funding allocation between regions and ethnic groups, which are related to the political context and health system infrastructure. Our situational assessment of emerging TB control strategies in this transitioning health system indicates that large investments by international donors may be pushing Myanmar to scale up TB and drug-resistant TB services too quickly, without due consideration given to the health system (service delivery infrastructure, human resource capacity, quality of care, equity) and epidemiological (evidence of effectiveness of interventions, prevention of new cases) context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  8. Storage in alluvial deposits controls the timing of particle delivery from large watersheds, filtering upland erosional signals and delaying benefits from watershed best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of suspended sediment and sediment-borne constituents (here termed fluvial particles) through large river systems can be significantly influenced by episodic storage in floodplains and other alluvial deposits. Geomorphologists quantify the importance of storage using sediment budgets, but these data alone are insufficient to determine how storage influences the routing of fluvial particles through river corridors across large spatial scales. For steady state systems, models that combine sediment budget data with "waiting time distributions" (to define how long deposited particles remain stored until being remobilized) and velocities during transport events can provide useful predictions. Limited field data suggest that waiting time distributions are well represented by power laws, extending from 104 years, while the probability of storage defined by sediment budgets varies from 0.1 km-1 for small drainage basins to 0.001 km-1 for the world's largest watersheds. Timescales of particle delivery from large watersheds are determined by storage rather than by transport processes, with most particles requiring 102 -104 years to reach the basin outlet. These predictions suggest that erosional "signals" induced by climate change, tectonics, or anthropogenic activity will be transformed by storage before delivery to the outlets of large watersheds. In particular, best management practices (BMPs) implemented in upland source areas, designed to reduce the loading of fluvial particles to estuarine receiving waters, will not achieve their intended benefits for centuries (or longer). For transient systems, waiting time distributions cannot be constant, but will vary as portions of transient sediment "pulses" enter and are later released from storage. The delivery of sediment pulses under transient conditions can be predicted by adopting the hypothesis that the probability of erosion of stored particles will decrease with increasing "age" (where age is defined as the

  9. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U{sup VI} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng, E-mail: ecitluofeng@163.com

    2016-07-05

    Graphical abstract: Table of content Herein, through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples afforded ultra-high adsorption capacity for UVI ions from water with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g. - Highlights: • This work shows the record uptake capability of U{sup VI} (360 mg/g) in MOFs. • This work shows, for the first time, photo-switching behaviour towards U{sup VI} in aqueous solution. • This work demonstrates a simple and effective method to largely enhance uptake capability of U{sup VI}. • This work demonstrates a distinct method to prepare photo-sensitive MOFs for photo-switching behaviour towards guest molecules. - Abstract: Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U{sup VI} ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U{sup VI} ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U{sup VI} ions from water at pH value of 4 with

  10. Dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N-EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Affret, Aurélie; Dow, Courtney; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diet, and especially fruit and vegetables, contains a variety of compounds with antioxidant activity, which may have cumulative/synergistic antioxidant effects. The total antioxidant capacity, an index derived from dietary intake, is a single estimate of antioxidant capacity from all dietary antioxidants. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes. Among 64,223 women (mean age 52 ± 7 years) from the French E3N-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, 1751 women had validated type 2 diabetes during 15 years of follow-up. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated with the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the associations between total antioxidant capacity and type 2 diabetes risk, adjusted for potential confounders. In multivariable models, higher levels of total antioxidant capacity were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with women in the lowest quintile, women in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for total antioxidant capacity had HRs of 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.86), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59, 0.83) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.60, 0.89), respectively. The inverse association between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes was linear up to values of 15 mmol/day, after which the effect reached a plateau. Our findings suggest that the total antioxidant capacity may play an important role in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. More studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying this inverse association.

  11. Feasibility study on superconducting energy storages for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. Final report; Machbarkeitsuntersuchung von supraleitenden Energiespeichern zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockl, V [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Koetschau, S [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Nick, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Peschel, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Prescher, K [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Rzezonka, B [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Thiel, C [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Voelzke, R [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Zaviska, O [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Kleimaier, M [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Uttich, R [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present integrated research project conducted by Siemens AG in cooperation with the power supply companies PreussenElektra AG and RWE Energie AG was started in March 1994 and finally concluded in March 1996 after a run time of 25 months. On the strength of their know-how as manufacturers of electrotechnical installations and power plants the cooperating partners were fully equipped to examine the technical and economic conditions relevant to the practical application of superconducting energy storages. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility and economic efficiency of superconducting magnetic energy storages (SMES) for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. The SMES is also to provide the power for primary regulation, a function effected by slight throttling of live steam valves in conventional thermal power plants. A basic cost estimation was made for economic assessment purposes. The estimated cost of the first plant (including development costs and component testing) and subsequent (series produced) plants is to serve as a basis for the ensuing decision on prototype construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1994 wurde das vorliegende Forschungsverbundprojekt von der Siemens AG in Zusammenarbeit mit den Energieversorgungsunternehmen PreussenElektra AG und RWE Energie AG begonnen und nach einer Laufzeit von 25 Monaten im Maerz 1996 abgeschlossen. Die beteiligten Unternehmen bringen durch ihr Know-how als Hersteller von elektrotechnischen Anlagen und Kraftwerken und als Betreiber von Stromversorgungsnetzen und Kraftwerken alle Voraussetzungen mit, die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen fuer den Anwendungsfall zu untersuchen. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war, die technische Machbarkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit eines supraleitenden magnetischen Energiespeichers (SMES) fuer den Einsatz zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung zu untersuchen. Hierbei soll der SMES die Primaerregelleistung liefern, die bisher in thermischen

  12. Coupling of Large Eddy Simulations with Meteorological Models to simulate Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Storage Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric transport is usually performed with weather models, e.g., the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics generated by the flow around buildings and features comprising a large city. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model that utilizes large eddy simulation methods to model flow around buildings at length scales much smaller than is practical with models like WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex topography on near-field dispersion and mixing that is difficult to simulate with a mesoscale atmospheric model. A methodology has been developed to couple the FDS model with WRF mesoscale transport models. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards that computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. This approach allows the FDS model to operate as a sub-grid scale model with in a WRF simulation. To test and validate the coupled FDS - WRF model, the methane leak from the Aliso Canyon underground storage facility was simulated. Large eddy simulations were performed over the complex topography of various natural gas storage facilities including Aliso Canyon, Honor Rancho and MacDonald Island at 10 m horizontal and vertical resolution. The goal of these simulations included improving and validating transport models as well as testing leak hypotheses. Forward simulation results were compared with aircraft and tower based in-situ measurements as well as methane plumes observed using the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the next generation instrument AVIRIS-NG. Comparison of simulation results with measurement data demonstrate the capability of the coupled FDS-WRF models to accurately simulate the transport and dispersion of methane plumes over urban domains. Simulated integrated methane enhancements will be presented and

  13. Inferring Large-Scale Terrestrial Water Storage Through GRACE and GPS Data Fusion in Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, C. M.; Li, J. D.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.; Pankratius, V.

    2016-12-01

    Surface subsidence due to depletion of groundwater can lead to permanent compaction of aquifers and damaged infrastructure. However, studies of such effects on a large scale are challenging and compute intensive because they involve fusing a variety of data sets beyond direct