WorldWideScience

Sample records for large size pieces

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis of Archaeological Pottery Samples of Large Size, Including Pieces of Low Symmetry Shape: How to Get Accurate Analytical Results in a Practical Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.S.; Montoya, E.H.; Mendoza, P.; Ubillús, M.; Baltuano, O.; Hernández, Y.; Gago, J.; Cohen, I.M.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery, using low thermal neutron fluxes, is examined and a new approach for the non-destructive analysis of entire pottery objects by INAA, using the conventional relative method, is described. The proposed method relies in the preparation of a comparison standard, which is a nominally identical replicate of the original object to be studied. INAA of small samples taken from that replicate allows determining its composition for the elements to be analyzed. Then the intact sample and intact standard are irradiated together with the neutrons from a nuclear reactor neutron beam, using a suitable turntable facility and monitored by neutron flux monitors. Finally, after proper decay times, the induced activities in sample, standard and flux monitors, are successively measured, by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, using a high-efficiency germanium detector. In this way, several complicating effects such geometrical efficiency, neutron self-shielding and gamma ray attenuation are avoided and the need of complicated mathematical corrections is not needed. A potential advantage of the method is that it can be fully validated. Quantitative experiments using 7 - 13 hours of irradiation of pairs of 750 grams replicates, at low neutron fluxes of 3.9 x10 6 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by 100000 to 200000 seconds of counting in front of a 70% relative efficiency HPGe detector, led to recoveries between 90% and 110% for Sc and La. Another experiment, using pairs of replicates of small solid mud anthropomorphic objects, (weighing about 100 grams each), irradiated by 8 hours at a neutron flux of 10 9 n cm -2 s -1 , led to recoveries better than 90% and 110% for As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and U, showing that the proposed method is suitable for LSNAA of entire pottery or mud archaeological objects. (author)

  2. Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The report presents results from the SIP project (System Representation in Process Control). PIECES is a graphical, interactive user interface system designed and programmed as a tool for building, manipulating and using a Multilevel Flow Model (MFM - Morten Lind, Tecnical University of Denmark)....

  3. Product management of making large pieces through Rapid Prototyping PolyJet® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiu, G.; Cărăuşu, C.; Şerban, D.; Turc, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid prototyping process has already become a classic manufacturing process for parts and assemblies, either polymeric or metal parts. Besides the well-known advantages and disadvantages of the process, the use of 3D printers has a great inconvenience: the overall dimensions of the parts are limited. Obviously, there is a possibility to purchase a larger (and more expensive) 3D printer, but there are always larger pieces to be manufactured. One solution to this problem is the splitting of parts into several components that can be manufactured. The component parts can then be assembled in a single piece by known methods such as welding, gluing, screwing, etc. This paper shows our experience in making large pieces on the Strarasys® Objet24 printer, pieces larger than the tray sizes. The results obtained are valid for any 3D printer using the PolyJet® process.

  4. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  5. Rehabilitation of large maxillary defect with two-piece maxillary obturators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan P Dholam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The insertion and removal of an obturator in large maxillary defects with or without trismus is difficult. Fabrication of a two-piece obturator in such cases overcomes this problem. This article describes rehabilitation of large maxillary defects with two piece maxillary obturator of three types. All these obturators have a maxillary plate and a bulb component, which are approximated together by various techniques namely, silicone cover, embedded magnets, and press studs. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large maxillary defects with two-piece obturators offers the possibility of adequate oral rehabilitation by fabricating light weight prosthesis, which is easy to use. The bulb covers the undercut areas of the defect enhancing the facial contour and retention. It facilitates easy examination of underlying tissues, recreation of the anatomic barrier between the oral and nasal cavities and restoration of the function and esthetics. Thus, it adds to the quality of life.

  6. The large sample size fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Leaching of metals from large pieces of printed circuit boards using citric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh; Su, C; Hocheng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the leaching of metals from large pieces of computer printed circuit boards (CPCBs) was studied. A combination of citric acid (0.5 M) and 1.76 M hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was used to leach the metals from CPCB piece. The influence of system variables such as H 2 O 2 concentration, concentration of citric acid, shaking speed, and temperature on the metal leaching process was investigated. The complete metal leaching was achieved in 4 h from a 4 × 4 cm CPCB piece. The presence of citric acid and H 2 O 2 together in the leaching solution is essential for complete metal leaching. The optimum addition amount of H 2 O 2 was 5.83 %. The citric acid concentration and shaking speed had an insignificant effect on the leaching of metals. The increase in the temperature above 30 °C showed a drastic effect on metal leaching process.

  8. Effect of pieces size of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) on composting of EFB mixed with activated liquid organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    This research was to determine the effect of pieces sizes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) on the composting of EFB mixed with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) in a basket composter in order to obtain high quality compost. The composting process was started by cutting the EFB into pieces with varies sizes, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The sizes of the EFB pieces were varied into <1, 1-3, 4-7, 8-11, and 12-15 cm. The parameters analysed during the composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at EFB pieces size was 1-3 cm with compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  9. Exposure to texture of foods for 8-month-old infants : Does the size of the pieces matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa, Saakje P.; Remijn, Lianne; Weenen, Hugo; Vereijken, Carel; van der Schans, Cees

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of meals varying in amount, size, and hardness of food pieces on the development of the chewing capabilities of 8-month-old infants. The study also examined changes in shivering, gagging, coughing, choking, and their ability to eat from a spoon. In an in-home setting

  10. Value Recovery from Waste Liquid Crystal Display Glass Cullet through Leaching: Understanding the Correlation between Indium Leaching Behavior and Cullet Piece Size

    OpenAIRE

    Basudev Swain; Chan Gi Lee; Hyun Seon Hong

    2018-01-01

    For hydrometallurgical recovery of indium from glass cullet after dismantling a waste liquid crystal display (LCD), leaching is the rudimentary stage. Though size reduction of the cullet pieces adds convenience for recycling, from an efficiency and cost-effectiveness perspective regarding leaching process development, determining the proper cullet piece size is essential. Hence, in this study, leaching efficiency of indium as a function of cullet piece size was investigated, wherein the prope...

  11. Use of large pieces of printed circuit boards for bioleaching to avoid 'precipitate contamination problem' and to simplify overall metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhapure, N N; Dhakephalkar, P K; Dhakephalkar, A P; Tembhurkar, V R; Rajgure, A V; Deshmukh, A M

    2014-01-01

    Very recently bioleaching has been used for removing metals from electronic waste. Most of the research has been targeted to using pulverized PCBs for bioleaching where precipitate formed during bioleaching contaminates the pulverized PCB sample and making the overall metal recovery process more complicated. In addition to that, such mixing of pulverized sample with precipitate also creates problems for the final separation of non metallic fraction of PCB sample. In the present investigation we attempted the use of large pieces of printed circuit boards instead of pulverized sample for removal of metals. Use of large pieces of PCBs for bioleaching was restricted due to the chemical coating present on PCBs, the problem has been solved by chemical treatment of PCBs prior to bioleaching. In short,•Large pieces of PCB can be used for bioleaching instead of pulverized PCB sample.•Metallic portion on PCBs can be made accessible to bacteria with prior chemical treatment of PCBs.•Complete metal removal obtained on PCB pieces of size 4 cm × 2.5 cm with the exception of solder traces. The final metal free PCBs (non metallic) can be easily recycled and in this way the overall recycling process (metallic and non metallic part) of PCBs becomes simple.

  12. Use of large pieces of printed circuit boards for bioleaching to avoid ‘precipitate contamination problem’ and to simplify overall metal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhapure, N.N.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Dhakephalkar, A.P.; Tembhurkar, V.R.; Rajgure, A.V.; Deshmukh, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Very recently bioleaching has been used for removing metals from electronic waste. Most of the research has been targeted to using pulverized PCBs for bioleaching where precipitate formed during bioleaching contaminates the pulverized PCB sample and making the overall metal recovery process more complicated. In addition to that, such mixing of pulverized sample with precipitate also creates problems for the final separation of non metallic fraction of PCB sample. In the present investigation we attempted the use of large pieces of printed circuit boards instead of pulverized sample for removal of metals. Use of large pieces of PCBs for bioleaching was restricted due to the chemical coating present on PCBs, the problem has been solved by chemical treatment of PCBs prior to bioleaching. In short,•Large pieces of PCB can be used for bioleaching instead of pulverized PCB sample.•Metallic portion on PCBs can be made accessible to bacteria with prior chemical treatment of PCBs.•Complete metal removal obtained on PCB pieces of size 4 cm × 2.5 cm with the exception of solder traces. The final metal free PCBs (non metallic) can be easily recycled and in this way the overall recycling process (metallic and non metallic part) of PCBs becomes simple. PMID:26150951

  13. Large area spark chamber and support, and method of recording and analyzing the information on a radioactive work piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Novel large area spark chamber having a support for carrying a generally planar, radioactive work piece. The spark chamber has a thin window which is either a rigid plastic sheet carrying a thin layer of an electrically conductive material on the surface thereof, or a thin planar piece or film of electrically conductive metal. There is positioned in superposed relationship to the thin window, a layer of semi-conducting glass in spaced-apart relationship from the thin window by a resilient insulating seal to form an enclosed gas retaining chamber. An electrically conducting surface is adhered to the upper surface of the layer of semi-conducting glass. An electrically conductive path is provided between the thin layer of electrically conductive material on the thin window and the electrically conducting surface on said semi-conducting glass. The electrically conductive path includes a high voltage supply and TDCs and ADCs. There are also means for detecting the location of sites of impingement of radiation on the electrically conducting surface of the semi-conducting glass, and means for recording and analyzing the information present on the work piece

  14. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  15. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) x 10 -8 ph cm -2 s -1 . Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ∼3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  16. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  17. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  18. Investigation with automatic ultrasonic equipment to trace flaws in a large test piece, and experience gained in carrying out inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Based on the FRG codes providing guide lines for the Reactor Safety Commission regarding the size and location of flaws to be detected during in-service inspections, investigations were carried out into the possibility of detecting defects in thick-walled reactor pressure vessel components with the aid of ultrasonic inspection systems. A large test rig was used and, in a similar manner to the in-service inspections on a reactor, the tests were carried out with remote-controlled, automatically guided inspection equipment. For this purpose, a test specimen weighing about 10 tons was produced and provided with two weld seams having a large number of artificial defects. Essential parameters for the various reflectors in the test specimen were the size, location, angle and roughness or structure of the reflecting surfaces. As it is known that austenitic cladding has a considerable influence on flaw detection, the tests were undertaken first without cladding and then with cladding. A manipulator was designed for automatic remote-controlled inspection with which the inspection system travels on a meandering route over the area to be inspected. The inspection system employed was of the same type as the one used for baseline tests during external inspections of reactor vessel walls with parallel surfaces. Digital data collection was by a magnetic tape recorder designed to store both the data of the ultrasonic inspection system as well as the allied position data. The data stored on the tape are evaluated with electronic data processing programmes especially developed for this purpose. These programmes allow locally coherent indication patterns to be prepared, thus simplifying the interpretation of the data obtained. The author initially describes the equipment with the aid of which the studies were undertaken. A detailed discussion is then presented on the design of the test specimen and the inspection systems employed. Following this, the results obtained are explained and

  19. Investigation of holder pressure and size effects in micro deep drawing of rectangular work pieces driven by piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzahed, Iman; Mashhadi, Mahmoud Mosavi; Sereshk, Mohammad Reza Vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Micro forming is a manufacturing process to fabricate micro parts with high quality and a cost effective manner. Deep drawing could be a favorable method for production of complicated parts in macro and micro sizes. In this paper piezoelectric actuator is used as a novel approach in the field of micro manufacturing. Also, in current work, investigations are conducted with four rectangular punches and blanks with various thicknesses. Blank holder pressure effects on thickness distributions, punch force, and springback are studied. According to the results of this work, increasing of blank holder pressure in scaled deep drawing, in contrast to thickness of drawn part, leads to decrease in the punch forces and springback. Furthermore, it is shown that in micro deep drawing, the effects of holder pressure on mentioned parameters can be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Okane, Shogo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  1. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi; Okane, Shogo

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  2. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  3. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  4. A large piece of a small pie: Minimum wages and unemployment benefits in an assignment model with search frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMost empirical studies on the minimum wage find a spike at the minimum wage, compression of wage differentials at a large interval above the minimum wage and small employment losses. This paper offers a search model which is consistent with these facts. We consider a continuum of worker

  5. Experimental study on propagation properties of large size TEM antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Wang Haiyang; Chen Weiqing; Wang Wei; Zhu Xiangqin; Xie Linshen

    2014-01-01

    The propagation properties of large size TEM antennas were studied by experiment. The size of the TEM antennas is 60 m × 20 m × 10 m and the character Impedance is 120 Ω. A kind of dielectric foil switch is designed compactly with TEM antennas which can generate double exponential waveform with altitude of 10 kV and rise time of l.2 ns. The radiated field distribution was measured. The relationship between rise time/altitude and distance were provided, and the propagation properties of large size TEM antennas were summarized. (authors)

  6. "History had taken such a large piece out of my life" - Neuroscientist refugees from Hamburg during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; von Villiez, Anna; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 9,000 physicians were uprooted for so-called "racial" or "political" reasons by the Nazi regime and 6,000 fled Germany. These refugees are often seen as survivors who contributed to a "brain drain" from Germany. About 432 doctors (all specialties, private and academic) were dismissed from the major German city of Hamburg. Of these, 16 were Hamburg University faculty members dismissed from their government-supported positions for "racial" reasons, and, of these, five were neuroscientists. In a critical analysis, not comprehensively done previously, we will demonstrate that the brain drain did not equal a "brain gain." The annihilation of these five neuroscientists' careers under different but similar auspices, their shameful harassment and incarceration, financial expropriation by Nazi ransom techniques, forced migration, and roadblocks once reaching destination countries stalled and set back any hopes of research and quickly continuing once-promising careers. A major continuing challenge is finding ways to repair an open wound and obvious vacuum in the German neuroscience community created by the largely collective persecution of colleagues 80 years ago.

  7. Estimated spatial requirements of the medium- to large-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a recognised world plant diversity hotspot, required information on the estimated spatial requirements of selected medium- to large-sized mammals within each of 102 Broad Habitat Units (BHUs) delineated according to key biophysical parameters.

  8. Thorough Chemical Decontamination with the MEDOC Process : Batch Treatment of Dismantled Pieces or Loop Treatment of Large Components Such as the BR3 Steam Generator and Pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnet, M.; Klein, M.; Massaut, V.; Davain, H.; Aleton, G.

    2003-01-01

    The dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor leads to the production of large masses of contaminated metallic pieces, including structural materials, primary pipings, tanks and heat exchangers. One of our main objectives is to demonstrate that we can minimize the volume of radioactive waste in an economical way, by the use of alternative waste routes, such as the clearance of materials after thorough decontamination. The SCKoCEN uses its own developed chemical decontamination process, so-called MEDOC (Metal Decontamination by Oxidation with Cerium), based on the use of cerium IV as strong oxidant in sulphuric acid with continuous regeneration using ozone. An industrial installation has been designed and constructed in close collaboration with Framatome-ANP (France). This installation started operation in September 1999 for the treatment of the metallic pieces arising from the dismantling of the BR3 reactor. Since then, more than 25 tons of contaminated material including primary pipes have been treated batchwise with success. 75 % of material could be directly cleared after treatment (Activity lower than 0.1 Bq/g for 60Co) and the other 25% free released after melting activity. The SCKoCEN performed in April 2002 the closed loop decontamination of the BR3 Steam Generator by connection of the MEDOC plant after few adaptations. The decontamination was done within 30 cycles in 3 weeks with consecutive steps like decontamination steps (injection of the solution into the SG) and regeneration steps with ozone. In total, 60 hours of decontamination at 70 C and 130 hours of regeneration were needed to reach the objectives. The tube bundle (600 m2) was attacked and about 10 (micro)m representing more than 41 kg of stainless steel and 2.06 GBq of 60Co was dissolved into the solution. The residual contamination measurements made directly into the water box are still going on, however it seems that the objective to reach the free release criteria after melting is achieved. The next

  9. Large exon size does not limit splicing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I T; Chasin, L A

    1994-03-01

    Exon sizes in vertebrate genes are, with a few exceptions, limited to less than 300 bases. It has been proposed that this limitation may derive from the exon definition model of splice site recognition. In this model, a downstream donor site enhances splicing at the upstream acceptor site of the same exon. This enhancement may require contact between factors bound to each end of the exon; an exon size limitation would promote such contact. To test the idea that proximity was required for exon definition, we inserted random DNA fragments from Escherichia coli into a central exon in a three-exon dihydrofolate reductase minigene and tested whether the expanded exons were efficiently spliced. DNA from a plasmid library of expanded minigenes was used to transfect a CHO cell deletion mutant lacking the dhfr locus. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from the pooled stable cotransfectant populations displayed a range of DNA insert sizes from 50 to 1,500 nucleotides. A parallel analysis of the RNA from this population by reverse transcription followed by PCR showed a similar size distribution. Central exons as large as 1,400 bases could be spliced into mRNA. We also tested individual plasmid clones containing exon inserts of defined sizes. The largest exon included in mRNA was 1,200 bases in length, well above the 300-base limit implied by the survey of naturally occurring exons. We conclude that a limitation in exon size is not part of the exon definition mechanism.

  10. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  11. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  12. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  13. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm{sup 2} and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm 2 and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  15. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  16. Higher albedos and size distribution of large transneptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Mukai, Tadashi

    2005-11-01

    Transneptunian objects (TNOs) orbit beyond Neptune and do offer important clues about the formation of our solar system. Although observations have been increasing the number of discovered TNOs and improving their orbital elements, very little is known about elementary physical properties such as sizes, albedos and compositions. Due to TNOs large distances (>40 AU) and observational limitations, reliable physical information can be obtained only from brighter objects (supposedly larger bodies). According to size and albedo measurements available, it is evident the traditionally assumed albedo p=0.04 cannot hold for all TNOs, especially those with approximately absolute magnitudes H⩽5.5. That is, the largest TNOs possess higher albedos (generally >0.04) that strongly appear to increase as a function of size. Using a compilation of published data, we derived empirical relations which can provide estimations of diameters and albedos as a function of absolute magnitude. Calculations result in more accurate size/albedo estimations for TNOs with H⩽5.5 than just assuming p=0.04. Nevertheless, considering low statistics, the value p=0.04 sounds still convenient for H>5.5 non-binary TNOs as a group. We also discuss about physical processes (e.g., collisions, intrinsic activity and the presence of tenuous atmospheres) responsible for the increase of albedo among large bodies. Currently, all big TNOs (>700 km) would be capable to sustain thin atmospheres or icy frosts composed of CH 4, CO or N 2 even for body bulk densities as low as 0.5 g cm -3. A size-dependent albedo has important consequences for the TNOs size distribution, cumulative luminosity function and total mass estimations. According to our analysis, the latter can be reduced up to 50% if higher albedos are common among large bodies. Lastly, by analyzing orbital properties of classical TNOs ( 42AUbodies. For both populations, distinct absolute magnitude distributions are maximized for an inclination threshold

  17. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  18. Transition piece for joining together tubular pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holko, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    A transition piece for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy containing at least 16% chromium includes a plurality of tubular parts welded together and formed from materials of selected composition with a maximum chromium content difference of 5% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of each part is below 10% and a maximum chromium difference of 7% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of either part is above 10%. The transition parts are also graded as to such characteristics as thermal expansion coefficient. The transition parts at opposite ends of the transition joint have chromium percentages similar to the tubular pieces to which they are to be joined. The parts may be joined by fusion and/or friction welding and parts may be formed by fusion weld deposition. (author)

  19. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  20. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Wilson

    Full Text Available Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  1. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  2. BAND STRUCTURE OF NON-STEIOCHIOMETRIC LARGE-SIZED NANOCRYSTALLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V.Kityk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A band structure of large-sized (from 20 to 35nm non-steichiometric nanocrystallites (NC of the Si2-xCx (1.04 < x < 1.10 has been investigated using different band energy approaches and a modified Car-Parinello molecular dynamics structure optimization of the NC interfaces. The non-steichiometric excess of carbon favors the appearance of a thin prevailingly carbon-contained layer (with thickness of about 1 nm covering the crystallites. As a consequence, one can observe a substantial structure reconstruction of boundary SiC crystalline layers. The numerical modeling has shown that these NC can be considered as SiC reconstructed crystalline films with thickness of about 2 nm covering the SiC crystallites. The observed data are considered within the different one-electron band structure methods. It was shown that the nano-sized carbon sheet plays a key role in a modified band structure. Independent manifestation of the important role played by the reconstructed confined layers is due to the experimentally discovered excitonic-like resonances. Low-temperature absorption measurements confirm the existence of sharp-like absorption resonances originating from the reconstructed layers.

  3. An alternative method for determining particle-size distribution of forest road aggregate and soil with large-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakjun Rhee; Randy B. Foltz; James L. Fridley; Finn Krogstad; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of particle-size distribution (PSD) of soil with large-sized particles (e.g., 25.4 mm diameter) requires a large sample and numerous particle-size analyses (PSAs). A new method is needed that would reduce time, effort, and cost for PSAs of the soil and aggregate material with large-sized particles. We evaluated a nested method for sampling and PSA by...

  4. New Sequences with Low Correlation and Large Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxin

    In direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication systems and direct-sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radios, sequences with low correlation and large family size are important for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) and accepting more active users, respectively. In this paper, a new collection of families of sequences of length pn-1, which includes three constructions, is proposed. The maximum number of cyclically distinct families without GMW sequences in each construction is φ(pn-1)/n·φ(pm-1)/m, where p is a prime number, n is an even number, and n=2m, and these sequences can be binary or polyphase depending upon choice of the parameter p. In Construction I, there are pn distinct sequences within each family and the new sequences have at most d+2 nontrivial periodic correlation {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,dpm-1}. In Construction II, the new sequences have large family size p2n and possibly take the nontrivial correlation values in {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(3d-4)pm-1}. In Construction III, the new sequences possess the largest family size p(d-1)n and have at most 2d correlation levels {-pm-1, -1,pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(2d-2)pm-1}. Three constructions are near-optimal with respect to the Welch bound because the values of their Welch-Ratios are moderate, WR_??_d, WR_??_3d-4 and WR_??_2d-2, respectively. Each family in Constructions I, II and III contains a GMW sequence. In addition, Helleseth sequences and Niho sequences are special cases in Constructions I and III, and their restriction conditions to the integers m and n, pm≠2 (mod 3) and n≅0 (mod 4), respectively, are removed in our sequences. Our sequences in Construction III include the sequences with Niho type decimation 3·2m-2, too. Finally, some open questions are pointed out and an example that illustrates the performance of these sequences is given.

  5. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  6. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossa, L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-sized ceramic slabs – with dimensions up to 360x120 cm2 and thickness down to 2 mm – are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites. Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD and microstructural (SEM viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated façades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling, indoor furnitures (table tops, doors, support for photovoltaic ceramic panels.

    Se han fabricado piezas de gran formato, con dimensiones de hasta 360x120 cm, y menos de 2 mm, de espesor, empleando métodos innovadores de fabricación, partiendo de composiciones de gres porcelánico y utilizando, molienda con bolas por vía húmeda, atomización, prensado a baja velocidad sin boquilla de extrusión, secado y cocción rápido en una sola etapa, y un acabado que incluye la adhesión de fibra de vidrio al soporte cerámico y el rectificado de la pieza final. Se han

  7. High voltage distribution scheme for large size GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Kumar, A.; Dubey, A.K.; Negi, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detector modules in the Muon chambers are of the order of 1 metre x 0.5 metre. For construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are used per chamber. These foils are made by two layered 50μm thin kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. In such a large scale manufacturing of the foils, even after stringent quality controls, some of the holes may still have defects or defects might develop over the time with operating conditions. These defects may result in short-circuit of the entire GEM foil. A short even in a single hole will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, high voltage (HV) segmentation within the foils has been introduced. These segments are powered either by individual HV supply per segment or through an active HV distribution to manage such a large number of segments across the foil. Individual supplies apart from being costly, are highly complex to implement. Additionally, CBM will have high intensity of particles bombarding on the detector causing the change of resistive chain current feeding the GEM detector with the variation in the intensity. This leads to voltage fluctuations across the foil resulting in the gain variation with the particle intensity. Hence, a low cost active HV distribution is designed to take care of the above discussed issues

  8. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  9. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  10. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Last piece of ATLAS takes the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday 29 February the second small wheel was lowered 100 metres underground into the ATLAS cavern in front of a captivated audience. Although called the "small wheels" they are small in name only - each wheel is 9.3 metres in diameter and weighs 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. This piece completes ATLAS’ muon spectrometer, which has the ability to accurately track particles to the width of a human hair. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and, five years later, this small wheel is the final large piece of the detector to take the subterranean voyage to its final resting place.

  12. Embrittlement and decrease of apparent strength in large-sized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In fact, the dimensional disparity between tensile stress σ([F][L]. −2) and ..... they work only in a limited range. This is the case of the ...... ACI 1992 American Concrete Institute: Building Code 318R-89 (Detroit: ACI Press). Ba˘zant Z P 1984 Size ...

  13. Size matters: large objects capture attention in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2010-12-23

    Can objects or events ever capture one's attention in a purely stimulus-driven manner? A recent review of the literature set out the criteria required to find stimulus-driven attentional capture independent of goal-directed influences, and concluded that no published study has satisfied that criteria. Here visual search experiments assessed whether an irrelevantly large object can capture attention. Capture of attention by this static visual feature was found. The results suggest that a large object can indeed capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner and independent of displaywide features of the task that might encourage a goal-directed bias for large items. It is concluded that these results are either consistent with the stimulus-driven criteria published previously or alternatively consistent with a flexible, goal-directed mechanism of saliency detection.

  14. Aerodynamic Limits on Large Civil Tiltrotor Sizing and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (2nd generation, or LCTR2) is a useful reference design for technology impact studies. The present paper takes a broad view of technology assessment by examining the extremes of what aerodynamic improvements might hope to accomplish. Performance was analyzed with aerodynamically idealized rotor, wing, and airframe, representing the physical limits of a large tiltrotor. The analysis was repeated with more realistic assumptions, which revealed that increased maximum rotor lift capability is potentially more effective in improving overall vehicle efficiency than higher rotor or wing efficiency. To balance these purely theoretical studies, some practical limitations on airframe layout are also discussed, along with their implications for wing design. Performance of a less efficient but more practical aircraft with non-tilting nacelles is presented.

  15. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  16. Remote aerosol testing of large size HEPA filter banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, B.; Pasha, M.; Bronger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Different methods of testing HEPA filter banks are described. Difficulties in remote testing of large banks of HEPA filters in series with minimum distances between banks, and with no available access upstream and downstream of the filter house, are discussed. Modifications incorporated to make the filter system suitable for remote testing without personnel re-entry into the filter house are described for a 51,000 m/sup 3//hr filter unit at the WIPP site

  17. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  18. Mine cross piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belik, I P; Gorbatenko, A Ye

    1982-01-01

    The mine cross piece includes main and supplementary parachute-formed cupolas made of air-impermeable fabric, resources for attachment made in the form of shroud lines. In order to improve its reliability with prolonged localization of an underground fire, the cavity between the cupolas connects to the source of fast-hardening material. In this case the cupolas are arranged co-directionally in relation to each other, while the shroud lines of the main are attached to the cupola of the supplemental which is made with perforations.

  19. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  20. Small size modular fast reactors in large scale nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, U.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    The report presents an innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on usage of modular type fast reactors (FR) (SVBR-75/100) with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) i. e. eutectic lead-bismuth alloy mastered for Russian nuclear submarines' (NS) reactors. Use of this NPT makes it possible to eliminate a conflict between safety and economic requirements peculiar to the traditional reactors. Physical features of FRs, an integral design of the reactor and its small power (100 MWe), as well as natural properties of lead-bismuth coolant assured realization of the inherent safety properties. This made it possible to eliminate a lot of safety systems necessary for the reactor installations (RI) of operating NPPs and to design the modular NPP which technical and economical parameters are competitive not only with those of the NPP based on light water reactors (LWR) but with those of the steam-gas electric power plant. Multipurpose usage of transportable reactor modules SVBR-75/100 of entirely factory manufacture assures their production in large quantities that reduces their fabrication costs. The proposed NPT provides economically expedient change over to the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). When the uranium-plutonium fuel is used, the breeding ratio is over one. Use of proposed NPT makes it possible to considerably increase the investment attractiveness of nuclear power (NP) with fast neutron reactors even today at low costs of natural uranium. (authors)

  1. Large size self-assembled quantum rings: quantum size effect and modulation on the surface diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Wang, Lijun

    2012-09-24

    We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.

  2. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  3. Ductile fracture evaluation of ductile cast iron and forged steel by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Pt. 1. Tensile test by large scaled test pieces with surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ajima, Tatsuro; Inohara, Yasuto

    1999-01-01

    The ductile fracture tests of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under a tensile stress condition were conducted using large-scaled flat test specimens with a surface crack and were evaluated by the J-integral values, in order to propose an evaluation method of initiation of ductile fracture of a cask body with crack by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Following results were obtained. 1) 1 -strain relations of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under the tensile stress condition were obtained, which is necessary for the development of J-integral design curves for evaluating the initiation of ductile fracture of the cask body. 2) In case of Ductile Cast Iron, the experimental J-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman at room temperature, in both elastic and plastic regions. But, at 70degC in plastic region, the experimental i-integral values showed middle values between those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory and by the non- linear-elastic- theory (based on the fully plastic solution by Yagawa et al.). 3) In case of Forged Steel at both -25degC and room temperature, the experimental i-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, in the elastic region. In the plastic region, however, the experimental i-integral values fell apart from the curve predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, and also approached to those by the non-linear-elastic-theory with increasing strain.(author)

  4. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    OpenAIRE

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning n...

  5. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker - large piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  6. Musings on the puzzle piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P

    2016-02-01

    Following is a brief musing on Roy Grinker's discussion of what the puzzle piece symbolizes for autism during his presentation at the 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research. In his words, "The puzzle piece is ubiquitous." It likely holds a different meaning for each of us, and this is how one autism researcher sees it. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  8. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  9. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, i...

  10. Semi-empirical formula for large pore-size estimation from o-Ps annihilation lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh; Tran Quoc Dung; Luu Anh Tuyen; Khuong Thanh Tuan

    2007-01-01

    The o-Ps annihilation rate in large pore was investigated by the semi-classical approach. The semi-empirical formula that simply correlates between the pore size and the o-Ps lifetime was proposed. The calculated results agree well with experiment in the range from some angstroms to several ten nanometers size of pore. (author)

  11. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12μm grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35μm. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of 85 Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J C [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12{mu}m grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35{mu}m. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of {sup 85}Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  13. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  14. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2?nm have been obtained b...

  15. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  16. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  17. Classification of large-sized hyperspectral imagery using fast machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junshi; Yokoya, Naoto; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-07-01

    We present a framework of fast machine learning algorithms in the context of large-sized hyperspectral images classification from the theoretical to a practical viewpoint. In particular, we assess the performance of random forest (RF), rotation forest (RoF), and extreme learning machine (ELM) and the ensembles of RF and ELM. These classifiers are applied to two large-sized hyperspectral images and compared to the support vector machines. To give the quantitative analysis, we pay attention to comparing these methods when working with high input dimensions and a limited/sufficient training set. Moreover, other important issues such as the computational cost and robustness against the noise are also discussed.

  18. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  20. Monitoring: The missing piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorkland, Ronald, E-mail: r_bjorkland@hotmail.com

    2013-11-15

    The U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 heralded in an era of more robust attention to environmental impacts resulting from larger scale federal projects. The number of other countries that have adopted NEPA's framework is evidence of the appeal of this type of environmental legislation. Mandates to review environmental impacts, identify alternatives, and provide mitigation plans before commencement of the project are at the heart of NEPA. Such project reviews have resulted in the development of a vast number of reports and large volumes of project-specific data that potentially can be used to better understand the components and processes of the natural environment and provide guidance for improved and efficient environmental protection. However, the environmental assessment (EA) or the more robust and intensive environmental impact statement (EIS) that are required for most major projects more frequently than not are developed to satisfy the procedural aspects of the NEPA legislation while they fail to provide the needed guidance for improved decision-making. While NEPA legislation recommends monitoring of project activities, this activity is not mandated, and in those situations where it has been incorporated, the monitoring showed that the EIS was inaccurate in direction and/or magnitude of the impact. Many reviews of NEPA have suggested that monitoring all project phases, from the design through the decommissioning, should be incorporated. Information gathered though a well-developed monitoring program can be managed in databases and benefit not only the specific project but would provide guidance how to better design and implement future activities designed to protect and enhance the natural environment. -- Highlights: • NEPA statutes created profound environmental protection legislative framework. • Contrary to intent, NEPA does not provide for definitive project monitoring. • Robust project monitoring is essential for enhanced

  1. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  2. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  3. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  4. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  5. Validation Of Intermediate Large Sample Analysis (With Sizes Up to 100 G) and Associated Facility Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pragmatic rather than physical correction factors for neutron and gamma-ray shielding were studied for samples of intermediate size, i.e. up to the 10-100 gram range. It was found that for most biological and geological materials, the neutron self-shielding is less than 5 % and the gamma-ray self-attenuation can easily be estimated. A trueness control material of 1 kg size was made based on use of left-overs of materials, used in laboratory intercomparisons. A design study for a large sample pool-side facility, handling plate-type volumes, had to be stopped because of a reduction in human resources, available for this CRP. The large sample NAA facilities were made available to guest scientists from Greece and Brazil. The laboratory for neutron activation analysis participated in the world’s first laboratory intercomparison utilizing large samples. (author)

  6. Size Reduction Techniques for Large Scale Permanent Magnet Generators in Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Increased wind penetration is necessary to reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, combat climate change and increase national energy security. The U.S Department of Energy has recommended large scale and offshore wind turbines to achieve 20% wind electricity generation by 2030. Currently, geared doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are typically employed in the drivetrain for conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. Yet, gearboxes account for the greatest downtime of wind turbines, decreasing reliability and contributing to loss of profit. Direct drive permanent magnet generators (PMGs) offer a reliable alternative to DFIGs by eliminating the gearbox. However, PMGs scale up in size and weight much more rapidly than DFIGs as rated power is increased, presenting significant challenges for large scale wind turbine application. Thus, size reduction techniques are needed for viability of PMGs in large scale wind turbines. Two size reduction techniques are presented. It is demonstrated that 25% size reduction of a 10MW PMG is possible with a high remanence theoretical permanent magnet. Additionally, the use of a Halbach cylinder in an outer rotor PMG is investigated to focus magnetic flux over the rotor surface in order to increase torque. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  7. Evaluation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals via finite size scaling: a large scale molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dednam, W.; Botha, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Solvation of bio-molecules in water is severely affected by the presence of co-solvent within the hydration shell of the solute structure. Furthermore, since solute molecules can range from small molecules, such as methane, to very large protein structures, it is imperative to understand the detailed structure-function relationship on the microscopic level. For example, it is useful know the conformational transitions that occur in protein structures. Although such an understanding can be obtained through large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, it is often the case that such simulations would require excessively large simulation times. In this context, Kirkwood-Buff theory, which connects the microscopic pair-wise molecular distributions to global thermodynamic properties, together with the recently developed technique, called finite size scaling, may provide a better method to reduce system sizes, and hence also the computational times. In this paper, we present molecular dynamics trial simulations of biologically relevant low-concentration solvents, solvated by aqueous co-solvent solutions. In particular we compare two different methods of calculating the relevant Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The first (traditional) method computes running integrals over the radial distribution functions, which must be obtained from large system-size NVT or NpT simulations. The second, newer method, employs finite size scaling to obtain the Kirkwood-Buff integrals directly by counting the particle number fluctuations in small, open sub-volumes embedded within a larger reservoir that can be well approximated by a much smaller simulation cell. In agreement with previous studies, which made a similar comparison for aqueous co-solvent solutions, without the additional solvent, we conclude that the finite size scaling method is also applicable to the present case, since it can produce computationally more efficient results which are equivalent to the more costly radial distribution

  8. Evaluation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals via finite size scaling: a large scale molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dednam, W; Botha, A E

    2015-01-01

    Solvation of bio-molecules in water is severely affected by the presence of co-solvent within the hydration shell of the solute structure. Furthermore, since solute molecules can range from small molecules, such as methane, to very large protein structures, it is imperative to understand the detailed structure-function relationship on the microscopic level. For example, it is useful know the conformational transitions that occur in protein structures. Although such an understanding can be obtained through large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, it is often the case that such simulations would require excessively large simulation times. In this context, Kirkwood-Buff theory, which connects the microscopic pair-wise molecular distributions to global thermodynamic properties, together with the recently developed technique, called finite size scaling, may provide a better method to reduce system sizes, and hence also the computational times. In this paper, we present molecular dynamics trial simulations of biologically relevant low-concentration solvents, solvated by aqueous co-solvent solutions. In particular we compare two different methods of calculating the relevant Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The first (traditional) method computes running integrals over the radial distribution functions, which must be obtained from large system-size NVT or NpT simulations. The second, newer method, employs finite size scaling to obtain the Kirkwood-Buff integrals directly by counting the particle number fluctuations in small, open sub-volumes embedded within a larger reservoir that can be well approximated by a much smaller simulation cell. In agreement with previous studies, which made a similar comparison for aqueous co-solvent solutions, without the additional solvent, we conclude that the finite size scaling method is also applicable to the present case, since it can produce computationally more efficient results which are equivalent to the more costly radial distribution

  9. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm applied to a lot-sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework that has been successfully applied to vehicle routing problems and a general purpose MIP solver. The framework uses local search and an adaptive procedure which choses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer...... of a solution and to investigate the feasibility of elements in such a neighborhood. The hybrid heuristic framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with dynamic lot sizes, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature. On average the heuristic...

  10. Sizing and scaling requirements of a large-scale physical model for code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, R.; Legore, T.

    1990-01-01

    Model validation is an important consideration in application of a code for performance assessment and therefore in assessing the long-term behavior of the engineered and natural barriers of a geologic repository. Scaling considerations relevant to porous media flow are reviewed. An analysis approach is presented for determining the sizing requirements of a large-scale, hydrology physical model. The physical model will be used to validate performance assessment codes that evaluate the long-term behavior of the repository isolation system. Numerical simulation results for sizing requirements are presented for a porous medium model in which the media properties are spatially uncorrelated

  11. Study on external reactor vessel cooling capacity for advanced large size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Di; Liu Xiaojing; Cheng Xu; Li Fei

    2014-01-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is widely adopted as a part of in- vessel retention (IVR) in severe accident management strategies. In this paper, some flow parameters and boundary conditions, eg., inlet and outlet area, water inlet temperature, heating power of the lower head, the annular gap size at the position of the lower head and flooding water level, were considered to qualitatively study the effect of them on natural circulation capacity of the external reactor vessel cooling for an advanced large size PWR by using RELAP5 code. And the calculation results provide some basis of analysis for the structure design and the following transient response behavior of the system. (authors)

  12. Statistical characteristics and stability index (si) of large-sized landslide dams around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Dai, F.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, landslide dams have received greater attention of researchers, as they have caused loss to property and human lives. Over 261 large-sized landslide dams from different countries of the world with volume greater than 1 x 105 m have been reviewed for this study. The data collected for this study shows that 58% of the catastrophic landslides were triggered by earthquakes and 21 % by rainfall, revealing that earthquake and rainfall are the two major triggers, accounting for 75% of large-sized landslide dams. These land-slides were most frequent during last two decades (1990-2010) throughout the world. The mean landslide dam volume of the studied cases was 53.39 x 10 m with mean dam height of 71.98 m, while the mean lake volume was found to be 156.62 x 10 m. Failure of these large landslide dams pose a severe threat to the property and people living downstream, hence immediate attention is required to deal with this problem. A stability index (SI) has been derived on the basis on 59 large-sized landslide dams (out of the 261 dams) with complete parametric information. (author)

  13. Effect of pore size on performance of monolithic tube chromatography of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Hamachi, Masataka; Isakari, Yu; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pore size on the performance of ion-exchange monolith tube chromatography of large biomolecules was investigated. Radial flow 1 mL polymer based monolith tubes of different pore sizes (1.5, 2, and 6 μm) were tested with model samples such as 20 mer poly T-DNA, basic proteins, and acidic proteins (molecular weight 14 000-670 000). Pressure drop, pH transient, the number of binding site, dynamic binding capacity, and peak width were examined. Pressure drop-flow rate curves and dynamic binding capacity values were well correlated with the nominal pore size. While duration of the pH transient curves depends on the pore size, it was found that pH duration normalized on estimated surface area was constant, indicating that the ligand density is the same. This was also confirmed by the constant number of binding site values being independent of pore size. The peak width values were similar to those for axial flow monolith chromatography. These results showed that it is easy to scale up axial flow monolith chromatography to radial flow monolith tube chromatography by choosing the right pore size in terms of the pressure drop and capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Large-sized and highly radioactive 3H and 109Cd Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawakami, H.; Kato, S.

    1994-02-01

    A device for the deposition of a radioactive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was developed with the use of: (1) a modified horizontal lifting method, (2) an extremely shallow trough, and (3) a surface pressure-generating system without piston oil. It made a precious radioactive subphase solution repeatedly usable while keeping its radioactivity concentration as high as possible. Any large-size thin films can be prepared by just changing the trough size. Two monomolecular-layers of Y-type films of cadmium [ 3 H] icosanoate and 109 Cd icosanoate were built up as 3 H and 109 Cd β-sources for electron spectroscopy with intensities of 1.5 GBq (40 mCi) and 7.4 MBq (200 μCi), respectively, and a size of 65x200 mm 2 . Excellent uniformity of the distribution of deposited radioactivity was confirmed by autoradiography and photometry. (author)

  15. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Skliarov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW). The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration), meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g) confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  16. Influence Factors of Sports Bra Evaluation and Design Based on Large Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find the main influence factors of sports bra evaluation by the subjective assessment of different styles commercial sports bra, and to summarize the design elements of sports bra for large size. 10 women in large size (>C80 were chosen to evaluate 9 different sports bras. The main influence factors were extracted by factor analysis and all the product samples were classified by Q-cluster analysis. The conclusions show that breast stability, wearing comfort and bust modelling are the three key factors for sports bra evaluation. And a classification-positioning model of sports bra products was established. The findings can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the research and design of sports bras both for academic and sports or underwear enterprises, and also provide reference value for women customers.

  17. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  18. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Sklyarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM) in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW) has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  19. Development of superconducting poloidal field coils for medium and large size tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, H.-G.; Forster, S.; Hofmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Large long pulse tokamak fusion experiments require the use of superconducting poloidal field (PF) coils. In the past not much attention has been paid to the development of such coils. Therefore a development programme has been initiated recently at KfK. In this report start with summarizing the relevant PF coil parameters of some medium and large size tokamaks presently under construction or design, respectively. The most important areas of research and development work are deduced from these parameters. Design considerations and first experimental results concerning low loss conductors, cooling concepts and structural components are given

  20. Scrum of scrums solution for large size teams using scrum methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Qurashi, Saja Al; Qureshi, M. Rizwan Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Scrum is a structured framework to support complex product development. However, Scrum methodology faces a challenge of managing large teams. To address this challenge, in this paper we propose a solution called Scrum of Scrums. In Scrum of Scrums, we divide the Scrum team into teams of the right size, and then organize them hierarchically into a Scrum of Scrums. The main goals of the proposed solution are to optimize communication between teams in Scrum of Scrums; to make the system work aft...

  1. A procedure to detect flaws inside large size marble blocks by ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Bramanti, Mauro; Bozzi, Edoardo

    1999-01-01

    In stone and marble industry there is considerable interest in the possibility of using ultrasound diagnostic techniques for non-destructive testing of large size blocks in order to detect internal flaws such as faults, cracks and fissures. In this paper some preliminary measurements are reported in order to acquire basic knowledge of the fundamental properties of ultrasound, such as propagation velocity and attenuation, in the media here considered. We then outline a particular diagnostic pr...

  2. Mechanical properties of duplex steel welded joints in large-size constructions

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nowacki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of sources and own experiments, the analysis of mechanical properties, applications as well as material and technological problems of ferritic-austenitic steel welding were carried out. It was shown the area of welding applications, particularly welding of large-size structures, on the basis of example of the FCAW method of welding of the UNS S3 1803 duplex steel in construction of chemical cargo ships.Design/methodology/approach: Welding tests were carried out for duple...

  3. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SIZE NON-TRACKING SOLAR COOKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. NAHAR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A large size novel non-tracking solar cooker has been designed, developed and tested. The cooker has been designed in such a way that the width to length ratio for reflector and glass window is about 4 so that maximum radiation falls on the glass window. This has helped in eliminating azimuthal tracking that is required in simple hot box solar cooker towards the Sun every hour because the width to length ratio of reflector is 1. It has been found that stagnation temperatures were 118.5oC and 108oC in large size non-tracking solar cooker and hot box solar cooker respectively. It takes about 2 h for soft food and 3 h for hard food. The cooker is capable of cooking 4.0 kg of food at a time. The efficiency of the large size non-tracking solar cooker has been found to be 27.5%. The cooker saves 5175 MJ of energy per year. The cost of the cooker is Rs. 10000.00 (1.0 US$ = Rs. 50.50. The payback period has been calculated by considering 10% annual interest, 5% maintenance cost and 5% inflation in fuel prices and maintenance cost. The payback period is least, i.e. 1.58 yr., with respect to electricity and maximum, i.e. 4.89 yr., with respect to kerosene. The payback periods are in increasing order with respect to fuel: electricity, coal, firewood, liquid petroleum gas, and kerosene. The shorter payback periods suggests that the use of large size non-tracking solar cooker is economical.

  4. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9931

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Grabmueller, G.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. The advantages of such a Large Size Dried (LSD) Spike have been pointed out elsewhere and proof of the usefulness in the field reported. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.8 mg/ml of Pu and 37.3 mg/ml of 19.4% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a Large Size Dried Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 7 tabs

  5. Folding and unfolding of large-size shell construction for application in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenina, Irena; Pestrenin, Valery; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    A future exploration of space requires a technology of large module for biological, technological, logistic and other applications in Earth orbits [1-3]. This report describes the possibility of using large-sized shell structures deployable in space. Structure is delivered to the orbit in the spaceship container. The shell is folded for the transportation. The shell material is either rigid plastic or multilayer prepreg comprising rigid reinforcements (such as reinforcing fibers). The unfolding process (bringing a construction to the unfolded state by loading the internal pressure) needs be considered at the presence of both stretching and bending deformations. An analysis of the deployment conditions (the minimum internal pressure bringing a construction from the folded state to the unfolded state) of large laminated CFRP shell structures is formulated in this report. Solution of this mechanics of deformable solids (MDS) problem of the shell structure is based on the following assumptions: the shell is made of components whose median surface has a reamer; in the separate structural element relaxed state (not stressed and not deformed) its median surface coincides with its reamer (this assumption allows choose the relaxed state of the structure correctly); structural elements are joined (sewn together) by a seam that does not resist rotation around the tangent to the seam line. The ways of large shell structures folding, whose median surface has a reamer, are suggested. Unfolding of cylindrical, conical (full and truncated cones), and large-size composite shells (cylinder-cones, cones-cones) is considered. These results show that the unfolding pressure of such large-size structures (0.01-0.2 atm.) is comparable to the deploying pressure of pneumatic parts (0.001-0.1 atm.) [3]. It would be possible to extend this approach to investigate the unfolding process of large-sized shells with ruled median surface or for non-developable surfaces. This research was

  6. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2 nm have been obtained by a mild and durative ICE. The high-quality graphene layers preserve intact basal crystal planes owing to avoidance of the degradation reaction during both intercalation and ICE. Furthermore, we reveal that the high-quality FLG ensures a remarkable lithium-storage stability (>1,000 cycles) and a large reversible specific capacity (>600 mAh g-1). This simple and scalable technique acquiring high-quality FLG offers considerable potential for future realistic applications.

  7. Ultra-large size austenitic stainless steel forgings for fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Miura, Ritsu.

    1988-01-01

    The large SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel forgings for the reactor vessel of the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe output were successfully manufactured. The reactor vessel contains the heart of the reactor and sodium coolant at 530 deg C, and its inside diameter is about 7 m, and height is about 18 m. It is composed of 12 large forgings, that is, very thick flanges and shalls made by ring forging and an end plate made by disk forging and hot forming, using a special press machine. The manufacture of these large forgings utilized the results of the basic test on the material properties in high temperature environment and the effect that the manufacturing factors exert on the material properties and the results of the development of manufacturing techniques for superlarge forgings. The problems were the manufacturing techniques for the large ingots of 250 t class of high purity, the hot working techniques for stainless steel of fine grain size, the forging techniques for superlarge rings and disks, and the machining techniques of high precision for particularly large diameter, thin wall rings. The manufacture of these large stainless steel forgings is reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David

    2013-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  9. Prediction of hardness in pieces of quenched and tempered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanzon, Rodolfo Carlos; Rodriguez, Augusto; Sanchez, Arlington Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes the first stage of a work plan to obtain a simple software, for predicting properties at certain points of a quenched and tempered piece. In this first stage, this prediction is limited to cylindrical pieces made with steels whose chemical composition is within a certain range. The methodology basically consists of obtaining , from experimental data, a mathematical tool able to predict the hardness value, for Jominy test piece ends made with this type of steel. This meant beginning with the analysis of the usual forms of theoretical calculation of Jominy curves of quenched samples, which resulted in a proposal to modify the Just equation. Two different mathematical methods were then developed, that could predict hardness values in tempered Jominy test pieces. One, based on the determination of polynomic equations, that reproduces the loss of hardness at points along the test piece, base on the quenching value and as a function of the tempering temperature. The other one, which uses the lineal multidimensional interpolation method, because of its ease of application, has been selected as the mathematical tool to use in the software under development. At this stage of the work, the relationship between the points on the piece and those on the Jominy test pieces is carried out by the Lamont method and the representative variable of the temperature/time combination for the tempering process itself, is obtained with software based on the Hollomon and Jaffe expression. Data is needed to define: a) chemical composition and grain size of the steel used, b) diameter of the piece, c) 'H G ' severity of the quenching medium d) temperature and time of the tempering. The work's second stage continued with the addition of hardness values measured in Jominy test pieces made with other steels. The chemical composition and grain size data of each steel introduced are converted by the software into one more variable, using the concept of ideal critical

  10. From nanoparticles to large aerosols: Ultrafast measurement methods for size and concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, Lothar; Spielvogel, Juergen; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in aerosol technology is the fast measurement of number size distributions with good accuracy and size resolution. The dedicated instruments are frequently based on particle charging and electric detection. Established fast systems, however, still feature a number of shortcomings. We have developed a new instrument that constitutes of a high flow Differential Mobility Analyser (high flow DMA) and a high sensitivity Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). The system enables variable flow rates of up to 150 lpm, and the scan time for size distribution can be shortened considerably due to the short residence time of the particles in the DMA. Three different electrodes can be employed in order to cover a large size range. First test results demonstrate that the scan time can be reduced to less than 1 s for small particles, and that the results from the fast scans feature no significant difference to the results from established slow method. The fields of application for the new instrument comprise the precise monitoring of fast processes with nanoparticles, including monitoring of engine exhaust in automotive research.

  11. From nanoparticles to large aerosols: Ultrafast measurement methods for size and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Lothar; Spielvogel, Jürgen; Grimm, Hans

    2009-05-01

    A major challenge in aerosol technology is the fast measurement of number size distributions with good accuracy and size resolution. The dedicated instruments are frequently based on particle charging and electric detection. Established fast systems, however, still feature a number of shortcomings. We have developed a new instrument that constitutes of a high flow Differential Mobility Analyser (high flow DMA) and a high sensitivity Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). The system enables variable flow rates of up to 150 lpm, and the scan time for size distribution can be shortened considerably due to the short residence time of the particles in the DMA. Three different electrodes can be employed in order to cover a large size range. First test results demonstrate that the scan time can be reduced to less than 1 s for small particles, and that the results from the fast scans feature no significant difference to the results from established slow method. The fields of application for the new instrument comprise the precise monitoring of fast processes with nanoparticles, including monitoring of engine exhaust in automotive research.

  12. Impact basins on Ganymede and Callisto and implications for the large-projectile size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Neukum, G.; Wolf, U.; Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.

    2003-04-01

    It has been conjectured that the projectile family which impacted the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter was depleted in large projectiles, concluded from a ''dearth'' in large craters (> 60 km) (e.g. [1]). Geologic mapping, aided by spatial filtering of new Galileo as well as older Voyager data shows, however, that large projectiles have left an imprint of palimpsests and multi-ring structures on both Ganymede and Callisto (e. g. [2]). Most of these impact structures are heavily degraded and hence difficult to recognize. In this paper, we present (1) maps showing the outlines of these basins, and (2) derive updated crater size-frequency diagrams of the two satellites. The crater diameter from a palimpsest diameter was reconstructed using a formula derived by [3]. The calculation of the crater diameter Dc from the outer boundary Do of a multi-ring structure is much less constrained and on the order of Dc = k \\cdot Do , with k ≈ 0.25-0.3 [4]. Despite the uncertainties in locating the ''true'' crater rims, the resulting shape of the distribution in the range from kilometer-sized craters to sizes of ≈ 500 km is lunar-like and strongly suggests a collisionally evolved projectile family, very likely of asteroidal origin. An alternative explanation for this shape could be that comets are collisionally evolved bodies in a similar way as are asteroids, which as of yet is still uncertain and in discussion. Also, the crater size distributions on Ganymede and Callisto are shifted towards smaller crater sizes compared to the Moon, caused by a much lower impact velocity of impactors which preferentially were in planetocentric orbits [5]. References: [1] Strom et al., JGR 86, 8659-8674, 1981. [2] J. E. Klemaszewski et al., Ann. Geophys. 16, suppl. III, 1998. [3] Iaquinta-Ridolfi &Schenk, LPSC XXVI (abstr.), 651-652, 1995. [4] Schenk &Moore, LPSC XXX, abstr. No. 1786 [CD-Rom], 1999. [5] Horedt & Neukum, JGR 89, 10,405-10,410, 1984.

  13. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.

  14. Verification measurements of the IRMM-1027 and the IAEA large-sized dried (LSD) spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakopic, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Richter, S.

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the accountancy measurements of the fissile materials, reliable determinations of the plutonium and uranium content in spent nuclear fuel are required to comply with international safeguards agreements. Large-sized dried (LSD) spikes of enriched "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu for isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis are routinely applied in reprocessing plants for this purpose. A correct characterisation of these elements is a pre-requirement for achieving high accuracy in IDMS analyses. This paper will present the results of external verification measurements of such LSD spikes performed by the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  15. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  16. Estimation of the sizes of hot nuclear systems from particle-particle large angle kinematical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ville, J.L.; Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Jin, G.M.; Rosato, E.

    1990-06-01

    Light fragment emission, when triggered by large transverse momentum protons shows specific kinematical correlations due to recoil effects of the excited emitting source. Such effects have been observed in azimuthal angular distributions of He-particles produced in collisions induced by 94 MeV/u 16 0 ions on Al, Ni and Au targets. A model calculation assuming a two-stage mechanism (formation and sequential decay of a hot source) gives a good description of these whole data. From this succesfull confrontation, it is possible to estimate the size of the emitting system

  17. Introduction to Large-sized Test Facility for validating Containment Integrity under Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seongwan; Hong, Seongho; Min, Beongtae

    2014-01-01

    An overall assessment of containment integrity can be conducted properly by examining the hydrogen behavior in the containment building. Under severe accidents, an amount of hydrogen gases can be generated by metal oxidation and corium-concrete interaction. Hydrogen behavior in the containment building strongly depends on complicated thermal hydraulic conditions with mixed gases and steam. The performance of a PAR can be directly affected by the thermal hydraulic conditions, steam contents, gas mixture behavior and aerosol characteristics, as well as the operation of other engineering safety systems such as a spray. The models in computer codes for a severe accident assessment can be validated based on the experiment results in a large-sized test facility. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is now preparing a large-sized test facility to examine in detail the safety issues related with hydrogen including the performance of safety devices such as a PAR in various severe accident situations. This paper introduces the KAERI test facility for validating the containment integrity under severe accidents. To validate the containment integrity, a large-sized test facility is necessary for simulating complicated phenomena induced by an amount of steam and gases, especially hydrogen released into the containment building under severe accidents. A pressure vessel 9.5 m in height and 3.4 m in diameter was designed at the KAERI test facility for the validating containment integrity, which was based on the THAI test facility with the experimental safety and the reliable measurement systems certified for a long time. This large-sized pressure vessel operated in steam and iodine as a corrosive agent was made by stainless steel 316L because of corrosion resistance for a long operating time, and a vessel was installed in at KAERI in March 2014. In the future, the control systems for temperature and pressure in a vessel will be constructed, and the measurement system

  18. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yuang-Tung; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Lee, William J.; Tsai, Song-Yeu; Lu, Yung-An; Liou, Jia-Jhe; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD). The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been d...

  19. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  20. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  1. Temperature Uniformity of Wafer on a Large-Sized Susceptor for a Nitride Vertical MOCVD Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Ming; Jiang Hai-Ying; Han Yan-Bin; Li Jin-Ping; Yin Jian-Qin; Zhang Jin-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of coil location on wafer temperature is analyzed in a vertical MOCVD reactor by induction heating. It is observed that the temperature distribution in the wafer with the coils under the graphite susceptor is more uniform than that with the coils around the outside wall of the reactor. For the case of coils under the susceptor, we find that the thickness of the susceptor, the distance from the coils to the susceptor bottom and the coil turns significantly affect the temperature uniformity of the wafer. An optimization process is executed for a 3-inch susceptor with this kind of structure, resulting in a large improvement in the temperature uniformity. A further optimization demonstrates that the new susceptor structure is also suitable for either multiple wafers or large-sized wafers approaching 6 and 8 inches

  2. Accelerating inference for diffusions observed with measurement error and large sample sizes using approximate Bayesian computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picchini, Umberto; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    a nonlinear stochastic differential equation model observed with correlated measurement errors and an application to protein folding modelling. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-MCMC algorithm is suggested to allow inference for model parameters within reasonable time constraints. The ABC algorithm......In recent years, dynamical modelling has been provided with a range of breakthrough methods to perform exact Bayesian inference. However, it is often computationally unfeasible to apply exact statistical methodologies in the context of large data sets and complex models. This paper considers...... applications. A simulation study is conducted to compare our strategy with exact Bayesian inference, the latter resulting two orders of magnitude slower than ABC-MCMC for the considered set-up. Finally, the ABC algorithm is applied to a large size protein data. The suggested methodology is fairly general...

  3. The smaller the pieces the healthier their consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Katrine Lund; Schmidt, Karsten

    the snack breaks. The hypothesis was that consumers could be nudged to healthier food choices by improving accessibility to sliced apples and make a “healthier” cake portion (small) the default. The sample consisted of 391 people attending a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. People were divided in two groups...... for snacking during breaks, and were informed that this was for logistic reasons. Two snack tables were set up, one with normal sized pieces of cake (usual sizes provided by the caterer) as well as whole apples (control N=189), and a table with halved pieces of cake as well as apples served in quarter pieces....... This pilot study supports the hypothesis that the presentation of snacks plays an important role in the consumption of fruit and cake among Danish adults. Further, it suggests that such approach could become a supportive tool set for achieving PHN objectives....

  4. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  5. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  6. Application of electron beam welding to large size pressure vessels made of thick low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Aoki, S.; Kimura, M.; Nayama, M.; Takano, G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the results of studies for application of the electron beam welding to the large size pressure vessels made of thick low alloy steel (ASME A533 Gr.B cl.2 and A533 Gr.A cl.1). Two major problems for applying the EBW, the poor toughness of weld metal and the equipment to weld huge pressure vessels are focused on. For the first problem, the effects of Ni content of weld metal, welding conditions and post weld heat treatment are investigated. For the second problem, an applicability of the local vacuum EBW to a large size pressure vessel made of thick plate is qualified by the construction of a 120 mm thick, 2350 mm outside diameter cylindrical model. The model was electron beam welded using local vacuum chamber and the performance of the weld joint is investigated. Based on these results, the electron beam welding has been applied to the production of a steam generator for a PWR. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. A new type of intelligent wireless sensing network for health monitoring of large-size structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Ch.; Wu, D. T.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, J. X.; Wu, L. J.; Jiang, X. D.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, some innovative wireless sensing systems have been proposed. However, more exploration and research on wireless sensing systems are required before wireless systems can substitute for the traditional wire-based systems. In this paper, a new type of intelligent wireless sensing network is proposed for the heath monitoring of large-size structures. Hardware design of the new wireless sensing units is first studied. The wireless sensing unit mainly consists of functional modules of: sensing interface, signal conditioning, signal digitization, computational core, wireless communication and battery management. Then, software architecture of the unit is introduced. The sensing network has a two-level cluster-tree architecture with Zigbee communication protocol. Important issues such as power saving and fault tolerance are considered in the designs of the new wireless sensing units and sensing network. Each cluster head in the network is characterized by its computational capabilities that can be used to implement the computational methodologies of structural health monitoring; making the wireless sensing units and sensing network have "intelligent" characteristics. Primary tests on the measurement data collected by the wireless system are performed. The distributed computational capacity of the intelligent sensing network is also demonstrated. It is shown that the new type of intelligent wireless sensing network provides an efficient tool for structural health monitoring of large-size structures.

  8. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW. The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration, meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  9. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 211, B2440 Geel (Belgium); Van De Steene, N. [Nucomat, Mercatorstraat 206, B9100 Sint Niklaas (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10{sup -4} is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  10. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Van De Steene, N.

    2008-01-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10 -4 is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  11. Q0000-398 is a high-redshift quasar with a large angular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, M.R.; Pacht, E.

    1977-01-01

    A study is described, using the three-element interferrometer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, West Virginia, to investigate whether any quasars exist that might be radio sources. It was found that Q0000-398 appeared to be a quasar of high red shift and large angular size. The interferrometer was operated with a 300-1200-1500 m baseline configuration at 2695 MHz. The radio map for Q0000-398 is shown, and has two weak components separated by 134 +- 40 arc s. If these components are associated with the optical object this quasar has the largest known angular size for its red shift value. The results reported for Q0000-398 and other quasars having considerable angular extent demonstrate the importance of considering radio selection effects in the angular diameter-red shift relationship, and since any radio selection effects are removed when quasars are selected optically, more extensive mapping programs should be undertaken, looking particularly for large scale structure around optically selected high-z quasars. (U.K.)

  12. Push piece for spent fuel elements magazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griveau, R.; Kerlau, D.; Tucoulat, D.; Colas, J.; Pellier, R.

    1989-01-01

    The push piece permits the displacement of little section elements in a magazine of high section. At the end of cut, the push piece leans its flank against an auxiliary blank holder and the element is pushed by a paddle, the push piece being immobilized [fr

  13. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  14. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  15. Ulysses: accurate detection of low-frequency structural variations in large insert-size sequencing libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Richard, Hugues; Fischer, Gilles; Lafontaine, Ingrid

    2015-03-15

    The detection of structural variations (SVs) in short-range Paired-End (PE) libraries remains challenging because SV breakpoints can involve large dispersed repeated sequences, or carry inherent complexity, hardly resolvable with classical PE sequencing data. In contrast, large insert-size sequencing libraries (Mate-Pair libraries) provide higher physical coverage of the genome and give access to repeat-containing regions. They can thus theoretically overcome previous limitations as they are becoming routinely accessible. Nevertheless, broad insert size distributions and high rates of chimerical sequences are usually associated to this type of libraries, which makes the accurate annotation of SV challenging. Here, we present Ulysses, a tool that achieves drastically higher detection accuracy than existing tools, both on simulated and real mate-pair sequencing datasets from the 1000 Human Genome project. Ulysses achieves high specificity over the complete spectrum of variants by assessing, in a principled manner, the statistical significance of each possible variant (duplications, deletions, translocations, insertions and inversions) against an explicit model for the generation of experimental noise. This statistical model proves particularly useful for the detection of low frequency variants. SV detection performed on a large insert Mate-Pair library from a breast cancer sample revealed a high level of somatic duplications in the tumor and, to a lesser extent, in the blood sample as well. Altogether, these results show that Ulysses is a valuable tool for the characterization of somatic mosaicism in human tissues and in cancer genomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Statistical characterization of a large geochemical database and effect of sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Manheim, F.T.; Hinde, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    smaller numbers of data points showed that few elements passed standard statistical tests for normality or log-normality until sample size decreased to a few hundred data points. Large sample size enhances the power of statistical tests, and leads to rejection of most statistical hypotheses for real data sets. For large sample sizes (e.g., n > 1000), graphical methods such as histogram, stem-and-leaf, and probability plots are recommended for rough judgement of probability distribution if needed. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shcheglov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system

  18. Do Puzzle Pieces and Autism Puzzle Piece Logos Evoke Negative Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Boston, Jilana S.; Harp, Bev

    2018-01-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public.…

  19. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  20. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Sodium Engineering Division, O-arai Engineering Centre, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Nariata-cho, O-arai Machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1977-12-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  1. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M; Chin, Albert

    2017-02-10

    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.

  2. Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiliang; Yang, Xin; Yang, Mingming; Ma, Decai; Huang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Wang, Biao

    2018-02-01

    Large-size neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The extinction ratio and wavefront distortion of the crystal were tested to determine the optical homogeneity. Moreover, under different growth conditions, the macro defects of inclusion, striations, and cracking in the as-grown Nd:YAG crystals were analyzed. Specifically, the inclusion defects were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The stresses of growth striations and cracking were studied via a parallel plane polariscope. These results demonstrate that improper growth parameters and temperature fields can enhance defects significantly. Thus, by adjusting the growth parameters and optimizing the thermal environment, high-optical-quality Nd:YAG crystals with a diameter of 80 mm and a total length of 400 mm have been obtained successfully.

  3. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  4. Preparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9924

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Raab, W.; Zoigner, A.

    1989-12-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing 2 to 4 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 97%) and 40 to 200 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 18%) can be advantageously used to spike a concentrated spent fuel solution with a high burn up and with a low 235 U enrichment. This will simplify the conditioning of the sample by 1) reduced time of preparation (from more than one day used for the conventional technique to 2-3 hours); 2) reduced burden for the operator with a clear easiness for the inspector to witness the entire procedure (accurate dilution of the spent fuel sample before spiking being no longer necessary). Furthermore this type of spike could be used as a common spike for the operator and the inspector. The source materials are available in sufficient quantity and are enough cheaper than the commonly used 233 U and 242 Pu or 244 Pu tracer that the costs of the overall Operator-Inspector procedures will be reduced. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.7 mg/ml of Pu and 68 mg/ml of 17.5% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution must be dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of the Large Size Dried Spike. Proof of usefulness in the field will be done at a later date in parallel with analysis by the conventional technique. Refs and tabs

  5. Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Martin; Cheben, Pavel; Benedikovic, Daniel; Schmid, Jens H; Pond, James; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, Gonzalo; Ye, Winnie N; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Dado, Milan; Vašinek, Vladimír

    2016-03-07

    Fiber-chip edge couplers are extensively used in integrated optics for coupling of light between planar waveguide circuits and optical fibers. In this work, we report on a new fiber-chip edge coupler concept with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides. The coupler allows direct coupling with conventional cleaved optical fibers with large mode size while circumventing the need for lensed fibers. The coupler is designed for 220 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. It exhibits an overall coupling efficiency exceeding 90%, as independently confirmed by 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and fully vectorial 3D Eigenmode Expansion (EME) calculations. We present two specific coupler designs, namely for a high numerical aperture single mode optical fiber with 6 µm mode field diameter (MFD) and a standard SMF-28 fiber with 10.4 µm MFD. An important advantage of our coupler concept is the ability to expand the mode at the chip edge without leading to high substrate leakage losses through buried oxide (BOX), which in our design is set to 3 µm. This remarkable feature is achieved by implementing in the SiO 2 upper cladding thin high-index Si 3 N 4 layers. The Si 3 N 4 layers increase the effective refractive index of the upper cladding near the facet. The index is controlled along the taper by subwavelength refractive index engineering to facilitate adiabatic mode transformation to the silicon wire waveguide while the Si-wire waveguide is inversely tapered along the coupler. The mode overlap optimization at the chip facet is carried out with a full vectorial mode solver. The mode transformation along the coupler is studied using 3D-FDTD simulations and with fully-vectorial 3D-EME calculations. The couplers are optimized for operating with transverse electric (TE) polarization and the operating wavelength is centered at 1.55 µm.

  6. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  7. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  8. Technical trends of large-size photomasks for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koichiro

    2017-06-01

    Currently, flat panel displays (FPDs) are one of the main parts for information technology devices and sets. From 1990's to 2000's, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays had been mainstream FPDs. In the middle of 2000's, demand of plasma displays declined and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) newly came into FPD market. And today, major technology of FPDs are LCDs and OLEDs. Especially for mobile devices, the penetration of OLEDs is remarkable. In FPDs panel production, photolithography is the key technology as same as LSI. Photomasks for FPDs are used not only as original master of circuit pattern, but also as a tool to form other functional structures of FPDs. Photomasks for FPDs are called as "Large Size Photomasks(LSPMs)", since the remarkable feature is " Size" which reaches over 1- meter square and over 100kg. In this report, we discuss three LSPMs technical topics with FPDs technical transition and trend. The first topics is upsizing of LSPMs, the second is the challenge for higher resolution patterning, and the last is "Multi-Tone Mask" for "Half -Tone Exposure".

  9. Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered intercavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analog. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.

  10. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José Manuel; Varela, Yahson; Silva, Yolanda; Ardila, Karen; Forero, Martha; Guasca, Laura; Guerrero, Yuly; Bermudez, Adriana; Alba, Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-11-01

    Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of Pf CSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf 155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei -ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  11. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of PfCSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei-ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  12. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  13. Study of large size fiber reinforced cement containers for solid wastes from dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of large-sized metallic waste by dismantling operations, and the evolution of the specifications of the waste to be stored in the different European countries will create a need for large standard containers for the transport and final disposal of the corresponding waste. The research conducted during the 1984-1988 programme, supported by the Commission of European Communities, and based on a comparative study of high-grade concrete materials, reinforced with organic or metallic fibres, led to the development of a high performance container meeting international transport recommendations as well as French requirements for shallow-ground disposal. The material selected, consisting of high-performance mortar with metal fibre reinforcement, was the subject of an intensive programme of characterization tests conducted in close cooperation with LAFARGE Company, demonstrating the achievement of mechanical and physical properties comfortably above the regulatory requirements. The construction of an industrial prototype and the subsequent economic analysis served to guarantee the industrial feasibility and cost of this system, in which attempts were made to optimize the finished package product, including its closure system

  14. Resolution 8.069/12. It approve the regulations for the large size structures installation, destined for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution approve the regulations for the large size structures installation, destined to wind power generation. The objective of this rule is to regulate the urban conditions of the facilities and the environmental guarantees, safety and inhabitants wholesomeness

  15. Technology for Obtaining Large Size Complex Oxide Crystals for Experiments on Muon-Electron Conversion Registration in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov, Ya.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological approaches for qualitative large size scintillation crystals growing based on rare-earth silicates are proposed. A method of iridium crucibles charging using eutectic phase instead of a oxyorthosilicate was developed.

  16. Devoluming and stabilizing method for end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Shiotsuki, Msao; Kawamura, Shigeyoshi; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    As a first method, end pieces and other radioactive metal wastes are filled as a mixture in a vessel, and preliminary compression is conducted. Then, the bulk density of the radioactive metal wastes is reduced and gaps in the end pieces are filled with radioactive metal wastes. If they are applied with heat treatment under high pressure in this state together with the vessel, they are devolumed and stabilized without damaging the vessel. As a second method, metal powders are mixed and filled in the vessel together with the end pieces. The gaps in the end pieces are filled with the metal powders and if they are applied with heat treatment under high pressure in this state together with the vessel, the end pieces are devolumed and stabilized without damaging the vessel in the same manner. This can devolume and stabilize the end pieces separated from nuclear fuel assemblies easily and safely. (T.M.)

  17. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Large increase in nest size linked to climate change: an indicator of life history, senescence and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2015-11-01

    Many animals build extravagant nests that exceed the size required for successful reproduction. Large nests may signal the parenting ability of nest builders suggesting that nests may have a signaling function. In particular, many raptors build very large nests for their body size. We studied nest size in the goshawk Accipiter gentilis, which is a top predator throughout most of the Nearctic. Both males and females build nests, and males provision their females and offspring with food. Nest volume in the goshawk is almost three-fold larger than predicted from their body size. Nest size in the goshawk is highly variable and may reach more than 600 kg for a bird that weighs ca. 1 kg. While 8.5% of nests fell down, smaller nests fell down more often than large nests. There was a hump-shaped relationship between nest volume and female age, with a decline in nest volume late in life, as expected for senescence. Clutch size increased with nest volume. Nest volume increased during 1977-2014 in an accelerating fashion, linked to increasing spring temperature during April, when goshawks build and start reproduction. These findings are consistent with nest size being a reliable signal of parental ability, with large nest size signaling superior parenting ability and senescence, and also indicating climate warming.

  19. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm 2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m 2 ) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m 2 ), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  20. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún

    2018-04-01

    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show that magma/water interaction is important in the ash generation process, but to a variable extent. By investigating the large explosive basaltic eruptions from 1755 and 1625, we document that eruptions of similar size and magma geochemistry can have very different fragmentation dynamics. Our models show that fragmentation in the 1755 eruption was a combination of magmatic degassing and magma/water-interaction with the most magma/water-interaction at the beginning of the eruption. The fragmentation of the 1625 eruption was initially also a combination of both magmatic and phreatomagmatic processes, but magma/water-interaction diminished progressively during the later stages of the eruption. However, intense magma/water interaction was reintroduced during the final stages of the eruption dominating the fine fragmentation at the end. This detailed study of fragmentation changes documents that subglacial eruptions have highly variable interaction with the melt water showing that the amount and access to melt water changes significantly during eruptions. While it is often difficult to reconstruct the progression of eruptions that have no quantitative observational record, this study shows that integrating field observations and granulometry with the new regularity index can form a coherent model of eruption evolution.

  1. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Vol. II: Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-12-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particular it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel`s test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  2. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Volume II. Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particularly it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  3. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F [Catharina-Hospital Eindhoven, PO Box 1350, 5602 ZA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faddegon, Bruce A [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115-1708 (United States)], E-mail: rogier.janssen@mac.com

    2008-04-21

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm.

  4. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm 2 was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm 2 dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm

  5. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles

  6. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD. The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been discussed in this research. Using our optimal acid etching solution ratio, we are able to fabricate mc-Si solar cells of 16.34% conversion efficiency with double layers silicon nitride (Si3N4 coating. From our experiment, we find that depositing double layers silicon nitride coating on mc-Si solar cells can get the optimal performance parameters. Open circuit (Voc is 616 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 34.1 mA/cm2, and minority carrier diffusion length is 474.16 μm. The isotropic texturing and silicon nitride layers coating approach contribute to lowering cost and achieving high efficiency in mass production.

  7. Reparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.

    1991-02-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 37mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared by the IAEA-SAL and verified by three analytical laboratories: NMCC-SAL, OEFZS, IAEA-SAL; they will be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burnup and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBL-112A and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing about 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.7% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a fifth batch of LSD-spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 7 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Hydrophobic polymers modification of mesoporous silica with large pore size for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites (China); Zhang Di; Yang Na [Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Key Lab of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (China)

    2009-04-15

    Mesostructure cellular foam (MCF) materials were modified with hydrophobic polyisoprene (PI) through free radical polymerization in the pores network, and the resulting materials (MCF-PI) were investigated as matrices for drug storage. The successful synthesis of PI inside MCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. It was interesting to find the resultant system held a relatively large pore size (19.5 nm) and pore volume (1.02 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}), which would benefit for drug storage. Ibuprofen (IBU) and vancomycin were selected as model drugs and loaded onto unmodified MCF and modified MCF (MCF-PI). The adsorption capacities of these model drugs on MCF-PI were observed increase as compared to that of on pure MCF, due to the trap effects induced by polyisoprene chains inside the pores. The delivery system of MCF-PI was found to be more favorable for the adsorption of IBU (31 wt%, IBU/silica), possibly attributing to the hydrophobic interaction between IBU and PI formed on the internal surface of MCF matrix. The release of drug through the porous network was investigated by measuring uptake and release of IBU.

  9. Measurement of the thickness of the sprayed nickel coatings on large-sized cast iron products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Сясько

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern industries increasingly use automatic spraying of heat-resistant Nickel  coating with a thickness  of      T = 1-3 mm for large-size parts made of cast iron with nodular graphite. The process of coating application is characterized by time-dependent behavior of its relative magnetic permeability, μс , that is a function of relaxation time, which can be as long as 24 hours, and by μс deviation from point to point on the surface. Aspects of eddy-current phase method for measuring the T value are considered. The structure of four- winding eddy current transformer transducers is described and results of calculation and optimization of their parameters are presented. The influence of controlled and interfering parameters is considered. Based  on the above results, a two-channel combined transducer is developed  providing measurement  error  of ΔТ ≤ ±(0.03T + 0.02 mm  in the shop environment in the process of coating application and in the final product check. Results of tests on reference specimens and of application in production processes are presented.

  10. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  11. Trees of unusual size: biased inference of early bursts from large molecular phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Pennell

    Full Text Available An early burst of speciation followed by a subsequent slowdown in the rate of diversification is commonly inferred from molecular phylogenies. This pattern is consistent with some verbal theory of ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations. One often-overlooked source of bias in these studies is that of sampling at the level of whole clades, as researchers tend to choose large, speciose clades to study. In this paper, we investigate the performance of common methods across the distribution of clade sizes that can be generated by a constant-rate birth-death process. Clades which are larger than expected for a given constant-rate branching process tend to show a pattern of an early burst even when both speciation and extinction rates are constant through time. All methods evaluated were susceptible to detecting this false signature when extinction was low. Under moderate extinction, both the [Formula: see text]-statistic and diversity-dependent models did not detect such a slowdown but only because the signature of a slowdown was masked by subsequent extinction. Some models which estimate time-varying speciation rates are able to detect early bursts under higher extinction rates, but are extremely prone to sampling bias. We suggest that examining clades in isolation may result in spurious inferences that rates of diversification have changed through time.

  12. Fabrication of large size alginate beads for three-dimensional cell-cluster culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Ruan, Meilin; Liu, Hongni; Cao, Yiping; He, Rongxiang

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated large size alginate beads using a simple microfluidic device under a co-axial injection regime. This device was made by PDMS casting with a mold formed by small diameter metal and polytetrafluorothylene tubes. Droplets of 2% sodium alginate were generated in soybean oil through the device and then cross-linked in a 2% CaCl2 solution, which was mixed tween80 with at a concentration of 0.4 to 40% (w/v). Our results showed that the morphology of the produced alginate beads strongly depends on the tween80 concentration. With the increase of concentration of tween80, the shape of the alginate beads varied from semi-spherical to tailed-spherical, due to the decrease of interface tension between oil and cross-link solution. To access the biocompatibility of the approach, MCF-7 cells were cultured with the alginate beads, showing the formation of cancer cells clusters which might be useful for future studies.

  13. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9934

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.8% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a third batch of LSD-Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 6 tabs

  14. Final report on the UKAEA defect detection trials on test pieces 3 and 4. December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, D.L.; Cowburn, K.J.

    1983-03-01

    The report follows ND-R-845(R) which described the scope, inspection procedures and results of the defect detection trials on test pieces 3 and 4. The work has been aimed at assessing the ability of non-destructive testing techniques, to detect and size defects near the clad/base metal interface of a flat piece and the inner radius of a PWR inlet nozzle. Following the destructive examination of the test pieces at Ispra, the true sizes of the intended defects are now known. These sizes are compared with that intended and the performance of the inspection teams reviewed. (author)

  15. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant No.12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4

  16. The research of the quantitative prediction of the deposits concentrated regions of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenyu; Wang Shicheng

    2003-01-01

    By the general theory and method of mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information, the locative and quantitative prediction of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits of solid resources of 1 : 5,000,000 are developed in china. The deposit concentrated regions is model unit, the anomaly concentrated regions is prediction unit. The mineral prognosis of synthetic information is developed on GIS platform. The technical route and work method of looking for the large and super-large sized mineral resources and basic principle of compiling attribute table of the variables and the response variables are mentioned. In research of prediction of resources quantity, the locative and quantitative prediction are processed by separately the quantification theory Ⅲ and the corresponding characteristic analysis, two methods are compared. It is very important for resources prediction of western ten provinces in china, it is helpful. (authors)

  17. Design of large size segmented GEM foils and Drift PCB for CBM MUCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Dubey, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier), sector shaped detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) facility at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detectors modules in the Muon Chambers (MUCH) are of the order of 1 meter with active area of about 75cms. Progressive pad geometry is chosen for the readout from these detectors. In construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are stacked on top of each other in a 3/2/2/2 gap configuration. The GEM foils are double layered copper clad 50μm thin Kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. Foils of large surface area are prone to damages due to discharges owing to the high capacitance of the foil. Hence, these foils have their top surfaces divided into segments of about 100 sq.cm. Further segmentation may be necessary when there are high rate requirements, as in the case of CBM. For the GEM foils of CBM MUCH, a 24 segment layout has been adopted. Short-circuit in any of the GEM-holes will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, segment to segment isolation using opto-coupler in series with the GEM-foil segments has been introduced. Hence, a novel design for GEM chamber drift-PCB and foils has been made. In this scheme, each segment is powered and controlled individually. At the same time, the design takes into account, the space constraints, not only in x-y plane, but also in the z, due to compact assembly of MUCH detector layers

  18. Growth of large-size-two-dimensional crystalline pentacene grains for high performance organic thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Du

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New approach is presented for growth of pentacene crystalline thin film with large grain size. Modification of dielectric surfaces using a monolayer of small molecule results in the formation of pentacene thin films with well ordered large crystalline domain structures. This suggests that pentacene molecules may have significantly large diffusion constant on the modified surface. An average hole mobility about 1.52 cm2/Vs of pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs is achieved with good reproducibility.

  19. Reduced Particle size of plant material does not stimulate decomposition but affects the microbivorous microfauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, Søren

    2001-01-01

    in soils amended with the large pieces on nine out of 10 occasions. Microbial biomass measured as SIR was significantly higher in soils with maize than in those amended with barley, but no effect of particle size was observed (three-way ANOVA, P... material, but significantly higher numbers were found in soil with finely-ground maize than in soil with large pieces (two-way ANOVA, P... barley (three-way ANOVA, P

  20. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in large-sized, deep-chested versus small-sized, barrel-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos L; Kazakos, George M; Savvas, Ioannis; Kostakis, Charalampos; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is more common in large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency than in small-sized, barrelchested dogs. Prospective, cohort study. Nineteen small-sized, barrel-chested dogs (group B) and 26 large-sized, deep-chested dogs (group D). All animals were premedicated with intramuscular (IM) acepromazine (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and pethidine (3 mg kg -1 ) IM. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous sodium thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Lower oesophageal pH was monitored continuously after induction of anaesthesia. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was considered to have occurred whenever pH values > 7.5 or < 4 were recorded. If GOR was detected during anaesthesia, measures were taken to avoid aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs and to prevent the development of oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture. The frequency of GOR during anaesthesia was significantly higher in group D (6/26 dogs; 23.07%) than in group B (0/19 dogs; 0%) (p = 0.032). Signs indicative of aspiration pneumonia, oesophagitis or oesophageal stricture were not reported in any of the GOR cases. In large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency, it would seem prudent to consider measures aimed at preventing GOR and its potentially devastating consequences (oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture, aspiration pneumonia). Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ng, Felix S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice sheets flowing across a sedimentary bed usually produce a landscape of blister-like landforms streamlined in the direction of the ice flow and with each bump of the order of 10 2 to 10 3 m in length and 10 1 m in relief. Such landforms, known as drumlins, have mystified investigators for over a hundred years. A satisfactory explanation for their formation, and thus an appreciation of their glaciological significance, has remained elusive. A recent advance has been in numerical modelling of the land-forming process. In anticipation of future modelling endeavours, this paper is motivated by the requirement for robust data on drumlin size and shape for model testing. From a systematic programme of drumlin mapping from digital elevation models and satellite images of Britain and Ireland, we used a geographic information system to compile a range of statistics on length L, width W, and elongation ratio E (where E = L/ W) for a large sample. Mean L, is found to be 629 m ( n = 58,983), mean W is 209 m and mean E is 2.9 ( n = 37,043). Most drumlins are between 250 and 1000 metres in length; between 120 and 300 metres in width; and between 1.7 and 4.1 times as long as they are wide. Analysis of such data and plots of drumlin width against length reveals some new insights. All frequency distributions are unimodal from which we infer that the geomorphological label of 'drumlin' is fair in that this is a true single population of landforms, rather than an amalgam of different landform types. Drumlin size shows a clear minimum bound of around 100 m (horizontal). Maybe drumlins are generated at many scales and this is the minimum, or this value may be an indication of the fundamental scale of bump generation ('proto-drumlins') prior to them growing and elongating. A relationship between drumlin width and length is found (with r2 = 0.48) and that is approximately W = 7 L 1/2 when measured in metres. A surprising and sharply-defined line bounds the data cloud plotted in E- W

  2. Safety requirements and options for a large size fast neutron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogne, F.; Megy, J.; Robert, E.; Benmergui, A.; Villeneuve, J.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the experience gained in the safety evaluation of the PHENIX reactor, and from results already obtained in the safety studies on fast neutron reactors, the French regulatory bodies have defined since 1973 what could be the requirements and the recommendations in the matter of safety for the first large size ''prototype'' fast neutron power plant of 1200 MWe. Those requirements and recommendations, while not being compulsory due to the evolution of this type of reactors, will be used as a basis for the technical regulation that will be established in France in this field. They define particularly the care to be taken in the following areas which are essential for safety: the protection systems, the primary coolant system, the prevention of accidents at the core level, the measures to be taken with regard to the whole core accident and to the containment, the protection against sodium fires, and the design as a function of external aggressions. In applying these recommendations, the CREYS-MALVILLE plant designers have tried to achieve redundancy in the safety related systems and have justified the safety of the design with regard to the various involved phenomena. In particular, the extensive research made at the levels of the fuel and of the core instrumentation makes it possible to achieve the best defence to avoid the development of core accidents. The overall examination of the measures taken, from the standpoint of prevention and surveyance as well as from the standpoint of means of action led the French regulatory bodies to propose the construction permit of the CREYS MALVILLE plant, provided that additional examinations by the regulatory bodies be made during the construction of the plant on some technological aspects not fully clarified at the authorization time. The conservatism of the corresponding requirements should be demonstrated prior to the commissioning of the power plant. To pursue a programme on reactors of this type, or even more

  3. Application of SFM and laser scanning technology to the description of mosaics piece by piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ajioka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic floors of surviving buildings in Ostia have been mainly recorded in photographs. From 2008, Japanese research group carries out a project of 3d measuring of the whole structure of ancient Roman city Ostia using laser scanners, including its landscape, city blocks, streets, buildings, wall paintings and mosaics. The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for recording mosaics. We can record the data of mosaics, which are described piece by piece. However it is hard to acquire enough high dense point cloud and the internal camera of the laser scanner produce low quality images. We introduce a possible technology of 3D recording of mosaics with high-quality colour information; SFM. The use of this technique permits us to create 3D models from images provided from a CCD camera without heavy and large laser scanners. We applied SFM system to different three types of the mosaics laid down on the floors of "the House of the Dioscuroi", "the Insula of the Muse" and "the House of Jove and Ganymede", and created high resolution orthographic images. Then we examined to compare these orthographic images with that are created from the point cloud data. As a result, we confirmed that SFM system has sufficient practical utility for the mosaic research. And we present how much of density of point cloud or ground resolution are required for the documentation of mosaics accurately.

  4. Effect of crowd size on patient volume at a large, multipurpose, indoor stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Gray, B C; Bennett, P C; Lamparella, V J

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of patient volume expected at "mass gatherings" is desirable in order to provide optimal on-site emergency medical care. While several methods of predicting patient loads have been suggested, a reliable technique has not been established. This study examines the frequency of medical emergencies at the Syracuse University Carrier Dome, a 50,500-seat indoor stadium. Patient volume and level of care at collegiate basketball and football games as well as rock concerts, over a 7-year period were examined and tabulated. This information was analyzed using simple regression and nonparametric statistical methods to determine level of correlation between crowd size and patient volume. These analyses demonstrated no statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for basketball and football events. There was a small but statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for concerts. A comparison of similar crowd size for each of the three events showed that patient frequency is greatest for concerts and smallest for basketball. The study suggests that crowd size alone has only a minor influence on patient volume at any given event. Structuring medical services based solely on expected crowd size and not considering other influences such as event type and duration may give poor results.

  5. When bigger is not better: selection against large size, high condition and fast growth in juvenile lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, J D; Feldheim, K A; Gruber, S H; Hendry, A P

    2007-01-01

    Selection acting on large marine vertebrates may be qualitatively different from that acting on terrestrial or freshwater organisms, but logistical constraints have thus far precluded selection estimates for the former. We overcame these constraints by exhaustively sampling and repeatedly recapturing individuals in six cohorts of juvenile lemon sharks (450 age-0 and 255 age-1 fish) at an enclosed nursery site (Bimini, Bahamas). Data on individual size, condition factor, growth rate and inter-annual survival were used to test the 'bigger is better', 'fatter is better' and 'faster is better' hypotheses of life-history theory. For age-0 sharks, selection on all measured traits was weak, and generally acted against large size and high condition. For age-1 sharks, selection was much stronger, and consistently acted against large size and fast growth. These results suggest that selective pressures at Bimini may be constraining the evolution of large size and fast growth, an observation that fits well with the observed small size and low growth rate of juveniles at this site. Our results support those of some other recent studies in suggesting that bigger/fatter/faster is not always better, and may often be worse.

  6. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Lestari Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    prosedur bedah dan prosedur prostetik lebih sederhana. Desain ini juga meniadakan celah mikro pada perbatasan implant dan abutment. Desain implant gigi one-piece memiliki keterbatasan pada pilihan prosedur prostetik apabila dibandingkan dengan desain implant gigi two-pieces.   One-Piece Versus Two-pieces Tooth Implant In Daily Practice. Implant had been a gold standard to replace missing tooth. However, implant marketed today was considered complex, and needs a second surgery. Complications may occur such as screw loosening or fracture and the presence of micro gap at implant-abutment-junction that is found causing fixture failure. The one-piece-implant design may offer some advantages. Purpose: this paper was aimed to discuss the pros and cons of one-piece-implants and two-piece-implants. Case 1 A 43-year-old woman came to place an implant on #16. The available bone height was 5 mm. A trans alveolar sinus lift procedure was performed with 0,5 cc allograft. A 12 mm one-piece-implant was inserted. Case 2 A 24-year-old woman came to place an implant on #46. The available bone height was 12 mm and a 10 mm two-piece-implant was inserted. Discussion: One-piece-implant offers some advantage. It needs no second surgery, easier placement protocol, and more natural prosthetic procedures. The design is preventing the failure in implant-abutment-junction failure. The absence of micro gap in one-piece-implant seems superior in preventing crestal bone resorption. However, the prosthetic option was limited in one-piece-implant. Two-piece-implant offers more choices in prosthetic abutment. Conclusion: One-piece-implant was easier and provide simple protocol with limited choice on prosthetic.

  7. Prey size and availability limits maximum size of rainbow trout in a large tailwater: insights from a drift-foraging bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W

    2016-01-01

    The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.

  8. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of body-size traits by photogrammetry in large mammals to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p < 0.64) and was more strongly associated with maternal presence (p < 0.02) than winter snow depth (p < 0.18). These findings highlight the effects on survival of a social dynamic (the mother-young association) rather than body size and suggest a change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth.

  10. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps...). (ii) A report explaining the test methods used by the water system to evaluate the corrosion control...

  11. Does company size matter? Validation of an integrative model of safety behavior across small and large construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2018-02-01

    Previous safety climate studies primarily focused on either large construction companies or the construction industry as a whole, while little is known about whether company size has significant effects on workers' understanding of safety climate measures and relationships between safety climate factors and safety behavior. Thus, this study aims to: (a) test the measurement equivalence (ME) of a safety climate measure across workers from small and large companies; (b) investigate if company size alters the causal structure of the integrative model developed by Guo, Yiu, and González (2016). Data were collected from 253 construction workers in New Zealand using a safety climate measure. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) to test the measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structure invariance of the integrative model. Results indicate that workers from small and large companies understood the safety climate measure in a similar manner. In addition, it was suggested that company size does not change the causal structure and mediational processes of the integrative model. Both measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structural invariance of the integrative model were supported by this study. Practical applications: Findings of this study provided strong support for a meaningful use of the safety climate measure across construction companies in different sizes. Safety behavior promotion strategies designed based on the integrative model may be well suited for both large and small companies. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PERSPECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THERMAL HARDENING OF LARGE-SIZE ARTICLES OF TWO-PHASE TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development and industrial assimilation of the fundamentally new methods of thermal strengthening of large articles out of hardenable titanic alloys.

  13. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Flexible Multi-Bit Feedback Design for HARQ Operation of Large-Size Data Packets in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosravirad, Saeed; Mudolo, Luke; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2017-01-01

    large-size data packet thanks to which the transmitter node can reduce the retransmission size to only include the initially failed segments of the packet. We study the effect of feedback size on retransmission efficiency through extensive link-level simulations over realistic channel models. Numerical......A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single......-bit feedback can increase resource utilization efficiency. Considering the practical limitations for increasing feedback message size, this paper proposes a framework for the design of flexible-content multi-bit feedback. The proposed design is capable of efficiently indicating the faulty segments of a failed...

  15. The maximum sizes of large scale structures in alternative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007 India (India); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 Italy (Italy); Romano, Antonio Enea [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52–21, Medellín (Colombia); Skordis, Constantinos [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, 1 Panepistimiou Street, Nicosia, 2109 Cyprus (Cyprus); Tomaras, Theodore N., E-mail: sbhatta@iitrpr.ac.in, E-mail: kdialekt@gmail.com, E-mail: aer@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics and Department of Physics, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion (Greece)

    2017-07-01

    The maximum size of a cosmic structure is given by the maximum turnaround radius—the scale where the attraction due to its mass is balanced by the repulsion due to dark energy. We derive generic formulae for the estimation of the maximum turnaround radius in any theory of gravity obeying the Einstein equivalence principle, in two situations: on a spherically symmetric spacetime and on a perturbed Friedman-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We show that the two formulae agree. As an application of our formula, we calculate the maximum turnaround radius in the case of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We find that for this theory, such maximum sizes always lie above the ΛCDM value, by a factor 1 + 1/3ω, where ω>> 1 is the Brans-Dicke parameter, implying consistency of the theory with current data.

  16. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......-for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...... women with occupational lifting versus women with no lifting, but the differences were very small, and there was a statistically significant trend only for placental weight showing lighter weight with increasing number of kilos lifted per day. In jobs likely to include person-lifting, we found increased...

  17. A test of the mean density approximation for Lennard-Jones mixtures with large size ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The mean density approximation for mixture radial distribution functions plays a central role in modern corresponding-states theories. This approximation is reasonably accurate for systems that do not differ widely in size and energy ratios and which are nearly equimolar. As the size ratio increases, however, or if one approaches an infinite dilution of one of the components, the approximation becomes progressively worse, especially for the small molecule pair. In an attempt to better understand and improve this approximation, isothermal molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on a series of Lennard-Jones mixtures. Thermodynamic properties, including the mixture radial distribution functions, have been obtained at seven compositions ranging from 5 to 95 mol%. In all cases the size ratio was fixed at two and three energy ratios were investigated, 22 / 11 =0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. The results of the simulations are compared with the mean density approximation and a modification to integrals evaluated with the mean density approximation is proposed

  18. Sediment size of surface floodplain sediments along a large lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K. M.; Day, G.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    Data on size distribution of surface sediment across a floodplain should place important constraints of modeling of floodplain deposition. Diffusive or advective models would predict that, generally, grain size should decrease away from channel banks. Variations in grain size downstream along floodplains may depend on downstream fining of river bed material, exchange rate with river banks and net deposition onto the floodplain. Here we report detailed grain size analyses taken from 17 floodplain transects along 450 km (along channel distance) reach of the middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea. Field studies have documented a systematic change in floodplain characteristics downstream from forested, more topographically elevated and topography bounded by an actively shifting mainstem channel to a downstream swamp grass, low elevation topography along which the river meanders are currently stagnant. Frequency and duration of flooding increase downstream. Flooding occurs both by overbank flows and by injections of floodwaters up tributary and tie channels connected to the mainstem. Previous studies show that about 40% of the total discharge of water passes across the floodplain, and, correspondingly, about 40% of the total load is deposited on the plain - decreasing exponentially from channel bank. We find that floodplain sediment is most sandy at the channel bank. Grain size rapidly declines away from the bank, but surprisingly two trends were also observed. A relatively short distance from the bank the surface material is finest, but with further distance from the bank (out to greater than 1 km from the 250 m wide channel) clay content decreases and silt content increases. The changes are small but repeated at most of the transects. The second trend is that bank material fines downstream, corresponding to a downstream finding bed material, but once away from the bank, there is a weak tendency for a given distance away from the bank the floodplain surface deposits to

  19. Fatigue-crack propagation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys at large and small crack sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzic, J.J.; Campbell, J.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    Most evaluations of the fracture and fatigue-crack propagation properties of γ+α 2 titanium aluminide alloys to date have been performed using standard large-crack samples, e.g., compact-tension specimens containing crack sizes which are on the order of tens of millimeters, i.e., large compared to microstructural dimensions. However, these alloys have been targeted for applications, such as blades in gas-turbine engines, where relevant crack sizes are much smaller ( 5 mm) and (c ≅ 25--300 microm) cracks in a γ-TiAl based alloy, of composition Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr-0.2B (at.%), specifically for duplex (average grain size approximately17 microm) and refined lamellar (average colony size ≅150 microm) microstructures. It is found that, whereas the lamellar microstructure displays far superior fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth resistance in the presence of large cracks, in small-crack testing the duplex microstructure exhibits a better combination of properties. The reasons for such contrasting behavior are examined in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., crack bridging) contributions to cyclic crack advance

  20. Highly crystallized nanometer-sized zeolite a with large Cs adsorption capability for the decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Nagy L; Naito, Masanobu; Tatami, Junichi; Endo, Akira; Leo, Sin-Yen; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Wakihara, Toru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-sized zeolite A with a large cesium (Cs) uptake capability is prepared through a simple post-milling recrystallization method. This method is suitable for producing nanometer-sized zeolite in large scale, as additional organic compounds are not needed to control zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Herein, we perform a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study to evaluate the uptake ability of Cs ions by zeolite, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. In comparison to micrometer-sized zeolite A, nanometer-sized zeolite A can rapidly accommodate a larger amount of Cs ions into the zeolite crystal structure, owing to its high external surface area. Nanometer-sized zeolite is a promising candidate for the removal of radioactive Cs ions from polluted water. Our QCM study on Cs adsorption uptake behavior provides the information of adsorption kinetics (e.g., adsorption amounts and rates). This technique is applicable to other zeolites, which will be highly valuable for further consideration of radioactive Cs removal in the future. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Neonatal L-glutamine modulates anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression, and microglial immunoreactivity: analysis in developing rats suckled on normal size- and large size litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti; Francisco, Elian da Silva; Lima, Cássia Borges; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-02-01

    In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 ; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive). At P28 and P30, we tested the animals, respectively, in the elevated plus maze and open field. At P30-35, we measured CSD parameters (velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration). Fixative-perfused brains were processed for microglial immunolabeling with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to analyze cortical microglia. Rats treated with Gln presented an anxiolytic behavior and accelerated CSD propagation when compared to the water- and naive control groups. Furthermore, CSD velocity was higher (p litter sizes, and for microglial activation in the L 15 groups. Besides confirming previous electrophysiological findings (CSD acceleration after Gln), our data demonstrate for the first time a behavioral and microglial activation that is associated with early Gln treatment in developing animals, and that is possibly operated via changes in brain excitability.

  2. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  3. Organizing Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Large Firms: Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann-Pauly, D.; Wickert, C.M.J.; Spence, L.; Scherer, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of a qualitative empirical study of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Swiss MNCs and SMEs, we suggest that smaller firms are not necessarily less advanced in organizing CSR than large firms. Results according to theoretically derived assessment frameworks illustrate the

  4. Determining an Estimate of an Equivalence Relation for Moderate and Large Sized Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klukowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two approaches to determining estimates of an equivalence relation on the basis of pairwise comparisons with random errors. Obtaining such an estimate requires the solution of a discrete programming problem which minimizes the sum of the differences between the form of the relation and the comparisons. The problem is NP hard and can be solved with the use of exact algorithms for sets of moderate size, i.e. about 50 elements. In the case of larger sets, i.e. at least 200 comparisons for each element, it is necessary to apply heuristic algorithms. The paper presents results (a statistical preprocessing, which enable us to determine the optimal or a near-optimal solution with acceptable computational cost. They include: the development of a statistical procedure producing comparisons with low probabilities of errors and a heuristic algorithm based on such comparisons. The proposed approach guarantees the applicability of such estimators for any size of set. (original abstract

  5. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cazacu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  6. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to ∼30 m s -1 within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  7. Menthol: putting the pieces together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-05-01

    To integrate information on cigarette companies' understanding and use of menthol as summarised in published research based on previously internal tobacco industry documents with results from large population-based surveys of tobacco use and other independent sources. Papers published in this supplement of Tobacco Control, together with papers identified using PubMed searches. Tobacco companies shaped consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. Menthol is not just a flavouring agent. Cigarette companies use menthol's ability to mask irritation and provide sensory effects to make menthol cigarettes appeal to youth and health-concerned smokers, in part because menthol makes low-tar cigarettes more palatable. Consistent with targeted marketing, youths, women and African Americans disproportionately smoke menthols. There appear to be complex interactions with addictive effects of nicotine. The ubiquitous addition of menthol by tobacco companies to over 90% of all tobacco products, whether labelled 'menthol' or not, demonstrates that menthol is not simply a flavour or brand. Menthol imparts sensory characteristics to cigarettes and has a complex interaction with nicotine that affects smoking behaviour whether it is perceived or not, or whether cigarettes containing menthol are marketed as 'menthol' or not. Adding menthol increases fine particles in cigarette smoke, which have immediate adverse effects on the risk of heart attack. Information from industry documents, confirmed by independent scientific literature, consistently demonstrates that menthol increases population harm from smoking by increasing initiation and reducing cessation in some groups. Menthol facilitates and increases smoking, which causes disease and death.

  8. Optimization of Process Parameters During End Milling and Prediction of Work Piece Temperature Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhirud N.L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the machining processes, heat gets generated as a result of plastic deformation of metal and friction along the tool–chip and tool–work piece interface. In materials having high thermal conductivity, like aluminium alloys, large amount of this heat is absorbed by the work piece. This results in the rise in the temperature of the work piece, which may lead to dimensional inaccuracies, surface damage and deformation. So, it is needed to control rise in the temperature of the work piece. This paper focuses on the measurement, analysis and prediction of work piece temperature rise during the dry end milling operation of Al 6063. The control factors used for experimentation were number of flutes, spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The Taguchi method was employed for the planning of experimentation and L18 orthogonal array was selected. The temperature rise of the work piece was measured with the help of K-type thermocouple embedded in the work piece. Signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was carried out using the lower-the-better quality characteristics. Depth of cut was identified as the most significant factor affecting the work piece temperature rise, followed by spindle speed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find out the significant parameters affecting the work piece temperature rise. ANOVA results were found to be in line with the S/N ratio analysis. Regression analysis was used for developing empirical equation of temperature rise. The temperature rise of the work piece was calculated using the regression equation and was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the results obtained. From the confirmation test it was found that the Taguchi method is an effective method to determine optimised parameters for minimization of work piece temperature.

  9. Development of large size Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN f oresees a luminosity increase by a factor 3 compared to the LHC luminosity design value. To c ope with the corresponding rate increase, the Muon System of the ATLAS experiment at CER N needs to be upgraded. In the first station of the high rapidity region, micromegas det ectors have been chosen as the main tracking chambers but will, at the same time, also contribut e to the trigger. We describe the R&D; efforts that led to the construction of the first (1 × 2.4 m 2 ) large micromegas detectors at CERN and outline the next steps towards the construction of the 12 00 m 2 of micromegas detectors for the ATLAS upgrade. The technical solutions, adopted in the c onstruction of the chamber as well as results on the detector performance with cosmic rays are s hown.

  10. Post-mastectomy radiation in large node-negative breast tumors: Does size really matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Scott R.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment decisions regarding local control can be particularly challenging for T3N0 breast tumors because of difficulty in estimating rates of local failure after mastectomy. Reports in the literature detailing the rates of local failure vary widely, likely owing to the uncommon incidence of this clinical situation. The literature regarding this clinical scenario is reviewed, including recent reports that specifically address the issue of local failure rates after mastectomy in the absence of radiation for large node-negative breast tumors.

  11. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Koehler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M.B.; Werner, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm 2 ) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3μm, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10μm, deflection angles smaller than 10μrad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%

  12. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  13. Azimuthal coil size and field quality in the main CERN Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Field quality in superconducting magnets strongly depends on the geometry of the coil. Fiberglass spacers (shims placed between the coil and the collars have been used to optimize magnetic and mechanical performances of superconducting magnets in large accelerators. A change in the shim thickness affects both the geometry of the coil and its state of compression (prestress under operational conditions. In this paper we develop a coupled magnetomechanical model of the main Large Hadron Collider dipole. This model allows us to evaluate the prestress dependence on the shim thickness and the map of deformations of the coil and the collars. Results of the model are compared to experimental measurements carried out in a dedicated experiment, where a magnet model has been reassembled 5 times with different shims. A good agreement is found between simulations and experimental data both on the mechanical behavior and on the field quality. We show that this approach allows us to improve this agreement with respect to models previously used in the literature. We finally evaluate the range of tunability that will be provided by shims during the production of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles.

  14. Early outcome in renal transplantation from large donors to small and size-matched recipients - a porcine experimental model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravlo, Kristian; Chhoden, Tashi; Søndergaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in small recipients within 60 min after reperfusion. Interestingly, this was associated with a significant reduction in medullary RPP, while there was no significant change in the size-matched recipients. No difference was observed in urinary NGAL excretion between the groups. A significant higher level......Kidney transplantation from a large donor to a small recipient, as in pediatric transplantation, is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and DGF. We established a porcine model for renal transplantation from an adult donor to a small or size-matched recipient with a high risk of DGF...... and studied GFR, RPP using MRI, and markers of kidney injury within 10 h after transplantation. After induction of BD, kidneys were removed from ∼63-kg donors and kept in cold storage for ∼22 h until transplanted into small (∼15 kg, n = 8) or size-matched (n = 8) recipients. A reduction in GFR was observed...

  15. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  16. Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Saeed; Ghaffarpour, Reza; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Mozaffari, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New hub planning formulation is proposed to exploit assets of midsize/large CHPs. • Linearization approaches are proposed for two-variable nonlinear CHP fuel function. • Efficient operation of addressed CHPs & hub devices at contingencies are considered. • Reliability-embedded integrated planning & sizing is formulated as one single MILP. • Noticeable results for costs & reliability-embedded planning due to mid/large CHPs. - Abstract: Use of multi-carrier energy systems and the energy hub concept has recently been a widespread trend worldwide. However, most of the related researches specialize in CHP systems with constant electricity/heat ratios and linear operating characteristics. In this paper, integrated energy hub planning and sizing is developed for the energy systems with mid-scale and large-scale CHP units, by taking their wide operating range into consideration. The proposed formulation is aimed at taking the best use of the beneficial degrees of freedom associated with these units for decreasing total costs and increasing reliability. High-accuracy piecewise linearization techniques with approximation errors of about 1% are introduced for the nonlinear two-dimensional CHP input-output function, making it possible to successfully integrate the CHP sizing. Efficient operation of CHP and the hub at contingencies is extracted via a new formulation, which is developed to be incorporated to the planning and sizing problem. Optimal operation, planning, sizing and contingency operation of hub components are integrated and formulated as a single comprehensive MILP problem. Results on a case study with midsize CHPs reveal a 33% reduction in total costs, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formulation ceases the need for additional components/capacities for increasing reliability of supply.

  17. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  18. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Koehler, C. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Lutz, B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Schubert, M.B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm{sup 2}) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3{mu}m, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10{mu}m, deflection angles smaller than 10{mu}rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%.

  19. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  20. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    routinely exceeds the ability of individual sows to successfully rear all the piglets (ie viable piglets outnumber functional teats). Such interventions include: tooth reduction; split suckling; cross-fostering; use of nurse sow systems and early weaning, including split weaning; and use of artificial...... rearing systems. These practices raise welfare questions for both the piglets and sow and are described and discussed in this review. In addition, possible management approaches which might mitigate health and welfare issues associated with large litters are identified. These include early intervention...

  1. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for lot-sizing with setup times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework and a general purpose mixed-integer programming (MIP) solver. The framework is based on local search and an adaptive procedure which chooses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer programming solver and its......, and the upper bounds found by the commercial MIP solver ILOG CPLEX using state-of-the-art MIP formulations. Furthermore, we improve the best known solutions on 60 out of 100 and improve the lower bound on all 100 instances from the literature...

  2. Numerical modeling of deformation and vibrations in the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanisovich Shmakov Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of deformation processes and the analysis of the fundamental frequencies of the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan. Obtain the components of the stress-strain state structure based on imported gas dynamic and thermal loads and the form of fundamental vibrations. The analysis of fundamental frequencies, the results of which have been proposed constructive solutions to reduce the probability of failure of the action of aeroelastic forces.

  3. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  4. Microstructural Control via Copious Nucleation Manipulated by In Situ Formed Nucleants: Large-Sized and Ductile Metallic Glass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenli; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiongjun; Chen, Houwen; Guo, Zhenxi; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-10-01

    A novel strategy to control the precipitation behavior of the austenitic phase, and to obtain large-sized, transformation-induced, plasticity-reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites, with good tensile properties, is proposed. By inducing heterogeneous nucleation of the transformable reinforcement via potent nucleants formed in situ, the characteristics of the austenitic phase are well manipulated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  6. IMPACTS OF OWN BRANDS STRATEGY ON MANUFACTURER – RETAILER RELATIONSHIP: CASE STUDIES IN LARGE SIZE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Telles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marketing and production strategy of own brand products requires an understanding of both the benefits gained by retailers and manufacturers involved in this activity and also the effects of this strategy on the relationship between these companies. According to this idea, a qualitative and descriptive work was conducted, based on six case studies, three of them on large product manufacturers and three on large retailers. The aim of this study is defined is threefold: (1 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ current operations, (2 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ future operations, and (3 to analyze the influence of the own brands adoption on the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. The results indicate that (a current operations are primarily based on economic reasons (market share, and use of spare capacity, (b future operations are perceived from a marketing perspective (survival, and (c the adoption of own brand strategy does not harm the relationship between the parties – both manufacturers and retailers –, unlike the earlier studies indicated.

  7. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  8. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.delcorte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 1 bte 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C{sub 60} to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to {approx}70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  9. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcorte, Arnaud; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C 60 to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to ∼70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  10. Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

  11. MMSW. A large-size micromegas quadruplet prototype. Design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian; Sidiropoulou, Ourania [Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Wuerzburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Bianco, Michele; Danielsson, Hans; Degrange, Jordan; Oliveira, Rui de; Farina, Eduardo; Iengo, Paolo; Perez Gomez, Francisco; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sforza, Federico; Vergain, Maurice; Wotschack, Joerg [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Duedder, Andreas; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two micromegas detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m{sup 2} (MMSW) have been recently constructed and tested at CERN and University of Mainz. They serve as prototypes for the planned upgrade project of the ATLAS muon system. Their design is based on the resistive-strip technology and thus renders the detectors spark tolerant. The applied 'mechanically floating' mesh design allows for large area Micromegas construction and facilitates detector cleaning before assembly. Each quadruplet comprises four detection layers with 1024 readout strips and a strip pitch of 415 μm. In two out of the four layers the strips are inclined by ± 1.5 to allow for the measurement of a second coordinate. We present the detector concept and report on the experience gained during the detector construction.

  12. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  13. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE HANDLED AND LARGE SIZED MIXED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) plays a critical role in Hanford Site cleanup for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP). CH2M HILL is responsible for the management of 177 tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive wastes generated from weapons production activities from 1943 through 1990. In that time, 149 single-shell tanks, ranging in capacity from 50,000 gallons to 500,000 gallons, and 28 double-shell tanks with a capacity of 1 million gallons each, were constructed and filled with toxic liquid wastes and sludges. The cleanup mission includes removing these radioactive waste solids from the single-shell tanks to double-shell tanks for staging as feed to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site for vitrification of the wastes and disposal on the Hanford Site and Yucca Mountain repository. Concentrated efforts in retrieving residual solid and sludges from the single-shell tanks began in 2003; the first tank retrieved was C-106 in the 200 East Area of the site. The process for retrieval requires installation of modified sluicing systems, vacuum systems, and pumping systems into existing tank risers. Inherent with this process is the removal of existing pumps, thermo-couples, and agitating and monitoring equipment from the tank to be retrieved. Historically, these types of equipment have been extremely difficult to manage from the aspect of radiological dose, size, and weight of the equipment, as well as their attendant operating and support systems such as electrical distribution and control panels, filter systems, and mobile retrieval systems. Significant effort and expense were required to manage this new waste stream and resulted in several events over time that were both determined to be unsafe for workers and potentially unsound for protection of the environment. Over the last four years, processes and systems have been developed that reduce worker exposures to these hazards, eliminate violations

  14. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Theory of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities excited by energetic trapped particles in large-size tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.

    1987-01-01

    A theory describing excitation of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities due to a population of energetic particles, trapped in region of adverse curvature on energetic particles, trapped in region of adverse curvature in tokamaks, is presented. Theory's principal motivation is observation that high magnetic-field strengths and large geometric dimensions characteristic of present-generation thermonuclear fusion devices, places them in a frequency regime whereby processional drift frequency of auxiliary hot-ion species, in order of magnitude, falls below a typical inverse resistive interchange time scale, so that inclusion of resistive dissipation effects becomes important. Destabilization of the resistive internal kink mode by these suprathermal particles is first investigated. Using variational techniques, a generalized dispersion relation governing such modes, which recovers ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed using Nyquist-diagrammatic techniques. An important implication of theory for present-generation fusion devices is that they will be stable to fishbone activity. Interaction of energetic particles with resistive interchange-ballooning modes is taken up. A population of hot particles, deeply trapped on adverse curvature side in tokamaks, can resonantly destabilize resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. Both modes are different from their usual resistive magnetohydrodynamic counterparts in their destabilization mechanism

  16. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380308; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface area of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions (pseudo-rapidity coverage -- 1.3 $\\boldsymbol{< |\\eta| <}$ 2.7) of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels (NSW), which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic position resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be $\\boldsymbol{30{\\mu}m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\boldsymbol{80{\\mu}m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of $\\bold...

  17. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2×0.5 m2 have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents ...

  18. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 ◦ and provide a measurement of the...

  19. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lösel, Philipp; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly ...

  20. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed fo r the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resol ution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical prec ision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 $\\mu$m along the precision coordi nate and 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the microm egas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis wi...

  1. Simulation of reflecting surface deviations of centimeter-band parabolic space radiotelescope (SRT) with the large-size mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, A.; Usyukin, V.; Vinogradov, I.; Arkhipov, M.

    2017-11-01

    he realization of astrophysical researches requires the development of high-sensitive centimeterband parabolic space radiotelescopes (SRT) with the large-size mirrors. Constructively such SRT with the mirror size more than 10 m can be realized as deployable rigid structures. Mesh-structures of such size do not provide the reflector reflecting surface accuracy which is necessary for the centimeter band observations. Now such telescope with the 10 m diameter mirror is developed in Russia in the frame of "SPECTR - R" program. External dimensions of the telescope is more than the size of existing thermo-vacuum chambers used to prove SRT reflecting surface accuracy parameters under the action of space environment factors. That's why the numerical simulation turns out to be the basis required to accept the taken designs. Such modeling should be based on experimental working of the basic constructive materials and elements of the future reflector. In the article computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations of a centimeter-band of a large-sized deployable space reflector at a stage of his orbital functioning is considered. The analysis of the factors that determines the deviations - both determined (temperatures fields) and not-determined (telescope manufacturing and installation faults; the deformations caused by features of composite materials behavior in space) is carried out. The finite-element model and complex of methods are developed. They allow to carry out computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations caused by influence of all factors and to take into account the deviations correction by space vehicle orientation system. The results of modeling for two modes of functioning (orientation at the Sun) SRT are presented.

  2. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Martin

    Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those

  3. Separation of large DNA molecules by applying pulsed electric field to size exclusion chromatography-based microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2018-02-01

    Through electrophoresis driven by a pulsed electric field, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules with an electrophoretic microchip based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which was proposed in our previous study. The conditions of the pulsed electric field required to achieve the separation were determined by numerical analyses using our originally proposed separation model. From the numerical results, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules (λ DNA and T4 DNA) within 1600 s, which was approximately half of that achieved under a direct electric field in our previous study. Our SEC-based electrophoresis microchip will be one of the effective tools to meet the growing demand of faster and more convenient separation of large DNA molecules, especially in the field of epidemiological research of infectious diseases.

  4. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  5. Investigating the Variability in Cumulus Cloud Number as a Function of Subdomain Size and Organization using large-domain LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing have introduced a "grey zone" in the representation of cumulus convection in general circulation models, in which this process is partially resolved. Cumulus parameterizations need to be made scale-aware and scale-adaptive to be able to conceptually and practically deal with this situation. A potential way forward are schemes formulated in terms of discretized Cloud Size Densities, or CSDs. Advantages include i) the introduction of scale-awareness at the foundation of the scheme, and ii) the possibility to apply size-filtering of parameterized convective transport and clouds. The CSD is a new variable that requires closure; this concerns its shape, its range, but also variability in cloud number that can appear due to i) subsampling effects and ii) organization in a cloud field. The goal of this study is to gain insight by means of sub-domain analyses of various large-domain LES realizations of cumulus cloud populations. For a series of three-dimensional snapshots, each with a different degree of organization, the cloud size distribution is calculated in all subdomains, for a range of subdomain sizes. The standard deviation of the number of clouds of a certain size is found to decrease with the subdomain size, following a powerlaw scaling corresponding to an inverse-linear dependence. Cloud number variability also increases with cloud size; this reflects that subsampling affects the largest clouds first, due to their typically larger neighbor spacing. Rewriting this dependence in terms of two dimensionless groups, by dividing by cloud number and cloud size respectively, yields a data collapse. Organization in the cloud field is found to act on top of this primary dependence, by enhancing the cloud number variability at the smaller sizes. This behavior reflects that small clouds start to "live" on top of larger structures such as cold pools, favoring or inhibiting their formation (as illustrated by the attached figure of cloud mask

  6. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  7. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m{sup 2} of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m{sup 2} for a total active area of 1200 m{sup 2}. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS end-cap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2 x 0.5 m{sup 2} have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents the first example of a Micromegas quadruplet ever built, realized using the resistive-strip technology and decoupling the amplification mesh from the readout structure. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 deg. and provide a measurement of the second coordinate. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis will be given on the methods developed to achieve the challenging mechanical precision. Measurements of deformation on chamber prototypes as a function of thermal gradients, gas over-pressure and internal stress (mesh tension and module fixation on supports) will be also shown in comparison to simulation. These tests were essential in the development of the final design in order to minimize the

  8. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y X Rachel; Song, Yun S

    2015-02-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. © 2015 Bhaskar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  10. Collide@CERN: exclusive open rehearsal of Gilles Jobin's last piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Collide@CERN and Gilles Jobin, artist in residency at CERN, present an exclusive open rehearsal of his last piece SPIDER GALAXIES Tuesday 31 July 2012 - A new piece created to open new territories of the mind - Join us in Restaurant 1 from 4 p.m. (next to the Glass Box Restaurant) With this piece, the body turns into matter, which is complete, spatial and sensual. Come and see Gilles Jobin and his dancers. With a score by Cristian Vogel and Carla Scaletti invoking sound particles, while Daniel Demont disperses the spectrum. Protean, infinitely large or infinitesimal, such are the Spider Galaxies.    

  11. 76 FR 55708 - Servicing Multi-Piece and Single Piece Rim Wheels; Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...] Servicing Multi-Piece and Single Piece Rim Wheels; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... concerning its proposal to extend the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Servicing Multi-Piece and Single Piece Rim Wheels (29...

  12. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG.

  13. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  14. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  15. Measurement of liquid mixing characteristics in large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation by stepwise response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Saito, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Kazumi; Itoi, Toshiaki.

    1981-07-01

    Liquid mixing in a large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation was measured by the step-wise response method, using NaCl solution as tracer. A 50 cm diameter column was packed with an ion exchange resin of 200 μm in mean diameter. Experiments were carried out for several types of distributor and collector, which were attached to each end of the column. The smallest mixing was observed for the perforated plate type of the collector, coupled with a minimum stagnant volume above the ion exchange resin bed. The 50 cm diameter column exhibited the better characteristics of liquid mixing than the 2 cm diameter column for which the good performance of lithium isotope separation had already been confirmed. These results indicate that a large increment of throughput is attainable by the scale-up of column diameter with the same performance of isotope separation as for the 2 cm diameter column. (author)

  16. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  17. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Dian Lestari; Ramadhani, Amilia; Hudyono, Rikko

    2014-01-01

    Saat ini, implant merupakan pilihan terbaik untuk menggantikan gigi yang tanggal, akan tetapi prosedur pemasangannya terbilang rumit dan memerlukan prosedur bedah kedua untuk pemasangan prostetik. Beberapa komplikasi seperti screw patah atau longgar dan adanya celah mikro pada batas pertemuan implant dan abutment dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implant. Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai keuntungan dan kerugian desain implant gigi one-piece dan two-pieces. Kasus pertama, seorang wa...

  18. Implant Gigi One-Piece Vs Two-Pieces Dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Dian Lestari; Ramadhani, Amilia; Hudyono, Rikko

    2014-01-01

    Saat ini, implant merupakan pilihan terbaik untuk menggantikan gigi yang tanggal, akan tetapi prosedur pemasangannya terbilang rumit dan memerlukan prosedur bedah kedua untuk pemasangan prostetik. Beberapa komplikasi seperti screw patah atau longgar dan adanya celah mikro pada batas pertemuan implant dan abutment dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implant. Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai keuntungan dan kerugian desain implant gigi one-piece dan two-pieces. Kasus pertama, seorang wa...

  19. Eco-friendly preparation of large-sized graphene via short-circuit discharge of lithium primary battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shaohong; Yu, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-02-15

    We proposed a large-sized graphene preparation method by short-circuit discharge of the lithium-graphite primary battery for the first time. LiC x is obtained through lithium ions intercalation into graphite cathode in the above primary battery. Graphene was acquired by chemical reaction between LiC x and stripper agents with dispersion under sonication conditions. The gained graphene is characterized by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the as-prepared graphene has a large size and few defects, and it is monolayer or less than three layers. The quality of graphene is significant improved compared to the reported electrochemical methods. The yield of graphene can reach 8.76% when the ratio of the H 2 O and NMP is 3:7. This method provides a potential solution for the recycling of waste lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  1. Prospects for the domestic production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanskiy, D. A.; Grin, E. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Berestevich, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Russian experience in the production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines is analyzed for the past decades. It is noted that the production of small- and medium-sized blades and vanes made of Russian alloys using technologies for aviation, marine, and gas-pumping turbines cannot be scaled for industrial gas turbines. It is shown that, in order to provide manufacturability under large-scale casting from domestic nickel alloys, it is necessary to solve complex problems in changing their chemical composition, to develop new casting technologies and to optimize the heat treatment modes. An experience of PAO NPO Saturn in manufacturing the blades and vanes made of ChS88U-VI and IN738-LC foundry nickel alloys for the turbines of the GTE-110 gas turbine unit is considered in detail. Potentialities for achieving adopted target parameters for the mechanical properties of working blades cast from ChS88UM-VI modified alloy are established. For the blades made of IN738-LC alloy manufactured using the existing foundry technology, a complete compliance with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been established. Currently, in Russia, the basis of the fleet of gas turbine plants is composed by foreign turbines, and, for the implementation of the import substitution program, one can use the positive experience of PAO NPO Saturn in casting blades from IN738-LC alloy based on a reverse engineering technique. A preliminary complex of studies of the original manufacturer's blades should be carried out, involving, first of all, the determination of geometric size using modern measurement methods as well as the studies on the chemical compositions of the used materials (base metal and protective coatings). Further, verifying the constructed calculation models based on the obtained data, one could choose available domestic materials that would meet the operating conditions of the blades according to their heat resistance and corrosion

  2. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  3. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions and Practice when Teaching Large and Reduced-Size Classes: Do Teachers Really Teach Them in the Same Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2012-01-01

    Class size research suggests that teachers do not vary their teaching strategies when moving from large to smaller classes. This study draws on interviews and classroom observations of three experienced English language teachers working with large and reduced-size classes in Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings from the study point to subtle…

  4. Contrast enhancement of mail piece images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Chul; Sridhar, Ramalingam; Demjanenko, Victor; Palumbo, Paul W.; Hull, Jonathan J.

    1992-08-01

    A New approach to contrast enhancement of mail piece images is presented. The contrast enhancement is used as a preprocessing step in the real-time address block location (RT-ABL) system. The RT-ABL system processes a stream of mail piece images and locates destination address blocks. Most of the mail pieces (classified into letters) show high contrast between background and foreground. As an extreme case, however, the seasonal greeting cards usually use colored envelopes which results in reduced contrast osured by an error rate by using a linear distributed associative memory (DAM). The DAM is trained to recognize the spectra of three classes of images: with high, medium, and low OCR error rates. The DAM is not forced to make a classification every time. It is allowed to reject as unknown a spectrum presented that does not closely resemble any that has been stored in the DAM. The DAM was fairly accurate with noisy images but conservative (i.e., rejected several text images as unknowns) when there was little ground and foreground degradations without affecting the nondegraded images. This approach provides local enhancement which adapts to local features. In order to simplify the computation of A and (sigma) , dynamic programming technique is used. Implementation details, performance, and the results on test images are presented in this paper.

  5. From mantle to critical zone: A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are unusual when defining giant-sized ore deposits, as resources are often quoted as total rare earth oxide, but the importance of a deposit may be related to the grade for individual, or a limited group of the elements. Taking the total REE resource, only one currently known deposit (Bayan Obo would class as giant (>1.7 × 107 tonnes contained metal, but a range of others classify as large (>1.7 × 106 tonnes. With the exception of unclassified resource estimates from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, all of these deposits are related to alkaline igneous activity – either carbonatites or agpaitic nepheline syenites. The total resource in these deposits must relate to the scale of the primary igneous source, but the grade is a complex function of igneous source, magmatic crystallisation, hydrothermal modification and supergene enrichment during weathering. Isotopic data suggest that the sources conducive to the formation of large REE deposits are developed in subcontinental lithospheric mantle, enriched in trace elements either by plume activity, or by previous subduction. The reactivation of such enriched mantle domains in relatively restricted geographical areas may have played a role in the formation of some of the largest deposits (e.g. Bayan Obo. Hydrothermal activity involving fluids from magmatic to meteoric sources may result in the redistribution of the REE and increases in grade, depending on primary mineralogy and the availability of ligands. Weathering and supergene enrichment of carbonatite has played a role in the formation of the highest grade deposits at Mount Weld (Australia and Tomtor (Russia. For the individual REE with the current highest economic value (Nd and the HREE, the boundaries for the large and giant size classes are two orders of magnitude lower, and deposits enriched in these metals (agpaitic systems, ion absorption deposits may have significant economic impact in the near future.

  6. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  7. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE IRREGULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs): OBSERVATIONAL PROBES OF ASTRONOMICAL PAH GEOMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with formulae (C 84 H 24 -C 120 H 36 ) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact PAHs as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial PAHs, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical PAHs. As for all PAHs comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular PAHs fails to produce a strong CC str band at 6.2 μm, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical PAH spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a PAH shifts this to 6.2 μm for PAH cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 μm in nitrogenated PAH anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical PAH spectra. Thus, nitrogenated PAHs may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 μm appears to directly reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio. Large irregular PAHs exhibit features at 7.8 μm but lack them near 8.6 μm. Hence, the 7.7 μm astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large PAHs while the 8.6 μm band can only be produced by large compact PAHs. As with the CC str , the position and profile of these bands reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio.

  8. Scaling of the Urban Water Footprint: An Analysis of 65 Mid- to Large-Sized U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Garcia, S.; Grady, C.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    Scaling laws have been shown to be relevant to a range of disciplines including biology, ecology, hydrology, and physics, among others. Recently, scaling was shown to be important for understanding and characterizing cities. For instance, it was found that urban infrastructure (water supply pipes and electrical wires) tends to scale sublinearly with city population, implying that large cities are more efficient. In this study, we explore the scaling of the water footprint of cities. The water footprint is a measure of water appropriation that considers both the direct and indirect (virtual) water use of a consumer or producer. Here we compute the water footprint of 65 mid- to large-sized U.S. metropolitan areas, accounting for direct and indirect water uses associated with agricultural and industrial commodities, and residential and commercial water uses. We find that the urban water footprint, computed as the sum of the water footprint of consumption and production, exhibits sublinear scaling with an exponent of 0.89. This suggests the possibility of large cities being more water-efficient than small ones. To further assess this result, we conduct additional analysis by accounting for international flows, and the effects of green water and city boundary definition on the scaling. The analysis confirms the scaling and provides additional insight about its interpretation.

  9. Theoretical simulation and analysis of large size BMP-LSC by 3D Monte Carlo ray tracing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Zhang Ning-Ning; Yan Sen; Song Sun; Jun Bao; Chen Gao; Zhang Yi

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) can reduce the area of solar cells by collecting light from a large area and concentrating the captured light onto relatively small area photovoltaic (PV) cells, and thereby reducing the cost of PV electricity generation. LSCs with bottom-facing cells (BMP-LSC) can collect both direct light and indirect light, so further improving the efficiency of the PV cells. However, it is hard to analyze the effect of each parameter by experiment because there are too many parameters involved in the BMP-LSC. In this paper, all the physical processes of the light transmission and collection in the BMP-LSC were analyzed. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transmission of photons in the LSC. A larger-size LSC was simulated, and the effects of dye concentration, the LSC thickness, the cell area, and the cell distance were systematically analyzed. (paper)

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of hexaploid large-sized barbs (genus Labeobarbus, Cyprinidae) based on mtDNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Berrebi, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among species of the Labeobarbus genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) which comprises large body-sized hexaploid taxa were inferred using complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene sequences. Molecular data suggest two main evolutionary groups which roughly correspond to a Northern (Middle East and Northwest Africa) and a sub-Saharan lineage. The splitting of the African hexaploids from their Asian ancestors and their subsequent diversification on the African continent occurred in the Late Miocene, a period in which other cyprinins also invaded Africa and radiated in the Mediterranean region. Finally, systematic implications of these results to the taxonomic validity of genera or subgenera such as Varicorhinus, Kosswigobarbus, Carasobarbus and Capoeta are further discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  12. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} anatase for large-area photon conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Div. of Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO{sub 2} with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  13. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  14. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  15. Synthesis of a large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin film through evaporation-induced polymeric micelle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Jiang, Xiangfen; Ohki, Shinobu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Suzuki, Madoka; Arai, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) was used as a soft template to synthesize large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin films. The kinetically frozen PS core stabilizes the micelles. The strong interaction of the inorganic precursors with the P2VP shell enables the fabrication of highly robust walls of phosphosilicate and the PEO helps orderly packing of the micelles during solvent evaporation. The molar ratio of phosphoric acid and tetraethyl orthosilicate is crucial to achieve the final mesostructure. The insertion of phosphorus species into the siloxane network is studied by (29) Si and (31) P MAS NMR spectra. The mesoporous phosphosilicate films exhibit steady cell adhesion properties and show great promise as excellent materials in bone-growth engineering applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Easy and General Synthesis of Large-Sized Mesoporous Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films by 'Micelle Assembly'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Dai, Pengcheng; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Large-sized (ca. 40 nm) mesoporous Er2O3 thin films are synthesized by using a triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) as a pore directing agent. Each block makes different contributions and the molar ratio of PVP/Er(3+) is crucial to guide the resultant mesoporous structure. An easy and general method is proposed and used to prepare a series of mesoporous rare-earth oxide (Sm2O3, Dy2O3, Tb2O3, Ho2O3, Yb2O3, and Lu2O3) thin films with potential uses in electronics and optical devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  18. The potential of natural gas use including cogeneration in large-sized industry and commercial sector in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Palomino, Raul; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been several discussions on a greater use of natural gas nationwide. Moreover, there have been several announcements by the private and public sectors regarding the construction of new pipelines to supply natural gas to the Peruvian southern and central-north markets. This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of the country based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. First, the paper estimates the market potential and characterizes the energy consumption. Then it makes a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas, and it makes an energetic and economic analysis and economic feasibility. Finally, the potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios. The natural gas use in cogeneration systems is presented as an alternative to contribute to the installed power capacity of the country. Considering the introduction of the cogeneration in the optimistic–advanced scenario and assuming that all of their conditions would be put into practice, in 2020, the share of the cogeneration in electricity production in Peru would be 9.9%. - Highlights: ► This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of Peru. ► The potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios.► The scenarios were based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. ► We estimated the market potential and characterized the energy consumption, and made a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas.

  19. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  20. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  1. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Seong; Yim, Jeong Sik; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Rhu, Ho Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Seong Soo; Oh, Jong Myung

    1993-12-01

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  2. Out-coupling membrane for large-size organic light-emitting panels with high efficiency and improved uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lei, E-mail: dinglei@sust.edu.cn [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Lu-Wei [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Zhou, Lei, E-mail: zhzhlei@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Zhang, Fang-hui [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} OLEDs. • Remarkable enhancement in efficiency was achieved from the OLEDs with out- coupling membrane. • The uniformity of large-size GOLED lighting panel is remarkably improved. - Abstract: An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} green OLEDs. Comparing with a reference OLED panel, an approximately 1-fold enhancement in the forward emission was obtained with an out-coupling membrane adhered to the surface of the external glass substrate of the panel. Moreover, it was verified that the emission color at different viewing angles can be stabilized without apparent spectral distortion. Particularly, the uniformity of the large-area OLEDs was greatly improved. Theoretical calculation clarified that the improved performance of the lighting panels is primarily attributed to the effect of particle scattering.

  3. Facile synthesis of uniform large-sized InP nanocrystal quantum dots using tris(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)phosphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal III-V semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots [NQDs] have attracted interest because they have reduced toxicity compared with II-VI compounds. However, the study and application of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals are limited by difficulties in their synthesis. In particular, it is difficult to control nucleation because the molecular bonds in III-V semiconductors are highly covalent. A synthetic approach of InP NQDs was presented using newly synthesized organometallic phosphorus [P] precursors with different functional moieties while preserving the P-Si bond. Introducing bulky side chains in our study improved the stability while facilitating InP formation with strong confinement at a readily low temperature regime (210°C to 300°C). Further shell coating with ZnS resulted in highly luminescent core-shell materials. The design and synthesis of P precursors for high-quality InP NQDs were conducted for the first time, and we were able to control the nucleation by varying the reactivity of P precursors, therefore achieving uniform large-sized InP NQDs. This opens the way for the large-scale production of high-quality Cd-free nanocrystal quantum dots. PMID:22289352

  4. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice.

  5. Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to test at full size scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of superconducting conductor, using the so-called cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging mainly involving fusion activity. It is to be noted that at present time no large Nb 3 Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it has to integrate major progresses in multiple interconnected new fields such as: large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb 3 Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections, high voltage insulation (10 kV), economical and industrial feasibility. CEA was very involved during these last 10 years in this development which took place in the frame of the NET and ITER technological programs. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by our Association of three full size conductor and connection samples in the Sultan facility (Villigen, Switzerland). (author)

  6. Pay Matters: The Piece Rate and Health in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary E

    Piece rate pay remains a common form of compensation in developing-world industries. While the piece rate may boost productivity, it has been shown to have unintended consequences for occupational safety and health, including increased accident and injury risk. This paper explores the relationship between worker pay and physical and emotional health, and questions the modern day business case for piece rate pay in the developing world. The relationship between piece rate and self-reported measures of physical and emotional health is estimated using a large survey of garment workers in 109 Vietnamese factories between 2010 and 2014. A random effects logit model controls for factory and year, predicting worker health as a function of pay type, demographics, and factory characteristics. Workers paid by the piece report worse physical and emotional health than workers paid by the hour (OR = 1.38-1.81). Wage incentives provide the most consistently significant evidence of all demographic and factory-level variables, including the factory's own performance on occupational safety and health compliance measures. These results highlight the importance of how workers are paid to understanding the variability in worker health outcomes. More research is needed to better understand the business case supporting the continued use of piece rate pay in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of loading frequency on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in α/β Ti microstructure with large colony size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoz, F.; Ghonem, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with crack tip/microstructure interactions at 520 deg. C in lamellar Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti6242) alloy under different fatigue loading frequencies. A series of heat treatments were performed in order to produce large colony microstructures that vary in their lamellar and colony size. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments were conducted on these microstructures at loading frequencies of 10 and 0.05 Hz. The lower frequency was explored with and without imposing a 5 min hold-time at the peak stress level during each loading cycle. Results show that the crack growth behavior is sensitive to the loading frequency. For the same microstructure, the crack growth rate is found to be lower at 10 than at 0.05 Hz. The addition of a hold-time, however, did not alter the FCG rate indicating that creep strain during one loading cycle does not contribute significantly in the crack growth process. It is also shown that variations in lamella and colony size have no effects on the FCG rate except for the early stage of crack propagation. Scanning Electron Microscope examinations are performed on the fracture surface in order to identify the relevant crack growth mechanisms with respect to the loading frequency and the microstructure details. Quasi-cleavage of the α/β colonies along strong planar shear bands is shown to be a major mode of failure under all test condition. At a loading frequency of 10 Hz, the crack path proceeds arbitrary along planes either perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of α lamellae, while at 0.05 Hz, parallel-to-lamellae crack paths become favored. Corresponding differences of crack growth behavior are examined in terms of slip emission at the crack tip and interactions with the microstructure details

  8. Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Liang [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Li, KenLi, E-mail: lkl@hnu.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082 (China); Shi, Lin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Liu, RangSu [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Mei, Jing [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10 000 000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9∼11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5∼2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized

  9. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  10. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.S.; Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  11. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,” or any other poster which contains at least the same... procedure shall include at least the following elements: (1) Tires shall be completely deflated before... and follow that procedure. The procedure shall include at least the following elements: (1) Tires...

  13. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's ``Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece ``Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

  14. Evolution of A-Type Macrosegregation in Large Size Steel Ingot After Multistep Forging and Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Abdelhalim; Ben Fredj, Emna; Harris, Nathan; Shahriari, Davood; Jahazi, Mohammad; Lapierre-Boire, Louis-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    A-type macrosegregation refers to the channel chemical heterogeneities that can be formed during solidification in large size steel ingots. In this research, a combination of experiment and simulation was used to study the influence of open die forging parameters on the evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns during a multistep forging of a 40 metric ton (MT) cast, high-strength steel ingot. Macrosegregation patterns were determined experimentally by macroetch along the longitudinal axis of the forged and heat-treated ingot. Mass spectroscopy, on more than 900 samples, was used to determine the chemical composition map of the entire longitudinal sectioned surface. FORGE NxT 1.1 finite element modeling code was used to predict the effect of forging sequences on the morphology evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns. For this purpose, grain flow variables were defined and implemented in a large scale finite element modeling code to describe oriented grains and A-type segregation patterns. Examination of the A-type macrosegregation showed four to five parallel continuous channels located nearly symmetrical to the axis of the forged ingot. In some regions, the A-type patterns became curved or obtained a wavy form in contrast to their straight shape in the as-cast state. Mass spectrometry analysis of the main alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, P, and S) revealed that carbon, manganese, and chromium were the most segregated alloying elements in A-type macrosegregation patterns. The observed differences were analyzed using thermodynamic calculations, which indicated that changes in the chemical composition of the liquid metal can affect the primary solidification mode and the segregation intensity of the alloying elements. Finite element modeling simulation results showed very good agreement with the experimental observations, thereby allowing for the quantification of the influence of temperature and deformation on the evolution of the shape of the

  15. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masaru; Tomita, Taketeru; Toda, Minoru; Miyamoto, Kei; Nozu, Ryo

    2016-09-15

    The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL) gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus). Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus), nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1) the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2) the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3) the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus. Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus, nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1 the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2 the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3 the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species.

  17. Long‐term creep rates on the Hayward Fault: evidence for controls on the size and frequency of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.

  18. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  19. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.J.C.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.; Ines Vaz, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: → EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. → Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. → Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. → Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  20. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  1. Ni foam assisted synthesis of high quality hexagonal boron nitride with large domain size and controllable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Li, Xiuting; Li, Deshuai; Huang, Mingqiang; Wan, Wen; Yao, Qian; Chen, Xiangping; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Le; Chen, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    The scalable synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is of great interest for its numerous applications in novel electronic devices. Highly-crystalline h-BN films, with single-crystal sizes up to hundreds of microns, are demonstrated via a novel Ni foam assisted technique reported here for the first time. The nucleation density of h-BN domains can be significantly reduced due to the high boron solubility, as well as the large specific surface area of the Ni foam. The crystalline structure of the h-BN domains is found to be well aligned with, and therefore strongly dependent upon, the underlying Pt lattice orientation. Growth-time dependent experiments confirm the presence of a surface mediated self-limiting growth mechanism for monolayer h-BN on the Pt substrate. However, utilizing remote catalysis from the Ni foam, bilayer h-BN films can be synthesized breaking the self-limiting effect. This work provides further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the growth of h-BN and proposes a facile synthesis technique that may be applied to further applications in which control over the crystal alignment, and the numbers of layers is crucial.

  2. Theoretical simulation and analysis of large size BMP-LSC by 3D Monte Carlo ray tracing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhang; Ning-Ning Zhang; Yi Zhang; Sen Yan; Song Sun; Jun Bao; Chen Gao

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) can reduce the area of solar cells by collecting light from a large area and concentrating the captured light onto relatively small area photovoltaic (PV) cells,and thereby reducing the cost of PV electricity generation.LSCs with bottom-facing cells (BMP-LSC) can collect both direct light and indirect light,so further improving the efficiency of the PV cells.However,it is hard to analyze the effect of each parameter by experiment because there are too many parameters involved in the BMP-LSC.In this paper,all the physical processes of the light transmission and collection in the BMP-LSC were analyzed.A three-dimensional Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transmission of photons in the LSC.A larger-size LSC was simulated,and the effects of dye concentration,the LSC thickness,the cell area,and the cell distance were systematically analyzed.

  3. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  4. Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

  5. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session.

  6. Consecutive Short-Scan CT for Geological Structure Analog Models with Large Size on In-Situ Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Xiaojun; Wei, Dongtao; Zhao, Yixin; Zhao, Gang; Han, Xu; Zhang, Shunli

    2016-01-01

    For the analysis of interior geometry and property changes of a large-sized analog model during a loading or other medium (water or oil) injection process with a non-destructive way, a consecutive X-ray computed tomography (XCT) short-scan method is developed to realize an in-situ tomography imaging. With this method, the X-ray tube and detector rotate 270° around the center of the guide rail synchronously by switching positive and negative directions alternately on the way of translation until all the needed cross-sectional slices are obtained. Compared with traditional industrial XCTs, this method well solves the winding problems of high voltage cables and oil cooling service pipes during the course of rotation, also promotes the convenience of the installation of high voltage generator and cooling system. Furthermore, hardware costs are also significantly decreased. This kind of scanner has higher spatial resolution and penetrating ability than medical XCTs. To obtain an effective sinogram which matches rotation angles accurately, a structural similarity based method is applied to elimination of invalid projection data which do not contribute to the image reconstruction. Finally, on the basis of geometrical symmetry property of fan-beam CT scanning, a whole sinogram filling a full 360° range is produced and a standard filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is performed to reconstruct artifacts-free images.

  7. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  8. A new piece of the puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The team responsible for the installation of the hadronic calorimeter's central barrel after completion of the assembly work. Assembly of the great ATLAS puzzle continues underground. On 10 December, the final module of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter was assembled. This piece of the tile calorimeter had already been assembled above ground during a "dress rehearsal" in 2003 (see Bulletin no 46/2003, 10 November 2003). The hadronic calorimeter's two other barrels, the so-called "extended barrels", remain to be assembled with this first central barrel, which now surrounds the electromagnetic calorimeter barrel that was lowered into the cavern at the end of October. At the end of November, the second of the eight barrel toroid coils was also installed.

  9. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-07-31

    and production feasibility resulted in the selection of the proposed mesh by the NSW community and its full scale industrial manufacturing. The successful completion of both tasks were important milestones towards the construction of large size Micromegas detectors clearing the path for NSW series production.

  10. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    and production feasibility resulted in the selection of the proposed mesh by the NSW community and its full scale industrial manufacturing. The successful completion of both tasks were important milestones towards the construction of large size Micromegas detectors clearing the path for NSW series production.

  11. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Contribution of large-sized primary sensory neuronal sensitization to mechanical allodynia by upregulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels via cyclooxygenase 1 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fei; Wang, Yan; Fu, Han; Yang, Yan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Lin, Qing; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Behaviorally, it was found that mechanical allodynia was still evoked by BV injection in rats in which the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-positive DRG neurons were chemically deleted. Electrophysiologically, in vitro patch clamp recordings of large-sized neurons showed hyperexcitability in these neurons. Interestingly, the firing pattern of these neurons was changed from phasic to tonic under BV-inflamed state. It has been suggested that hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (HCN) expressed in large-sized DRG neurons contribute importantly to repeatedly firing. So we examined the roles of HCNs in BV-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistent with the overexpression of HCN1/2 detected by immunofluorescence, HCNs-mediated hyperpolarization activated cation current (I h ) was significantly increased in the BV treated samples. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the hyperexcitability and upregulation of I h in large-sized neurons were mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-prostaglandin E2 pathway. This is evident by the fact that the COX-1 inhibitor significantly attenuated the BV-induced mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that BV can excite the large-sized DRG neurons at least in part by increasing I h through activation of COX-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  14. Assessing the impact of large-scale computing on the size and complexity of first-principles electromagnetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing need to determine the electromagnetic performance of increasingly complex systems at ever higher frequencies. The ideal approach would be some appropriate combination of measurement, analysis, and computation so that system design and assessment can be achieved to a needed degree of accuracy at some acceptable cost. Both measurement and computation benefit from the continuing growth in computer power that, since the early 1950s, has increased by a factor of more than a million in speed and storage. For example, a CRAY2 has an effective throughput (not the clock rate) of about 10 11 floating-point operations (FLOPs) per hour compared with the approximate 10 5 provided by the UNIVAC-1. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate the computational complexity of modeling large (in wavelengths) electromagnetic problems. In particular the author makes the point that simply relying on faster computers for increasing the size and complexity of problems that can be modeled is less effective than might be anticipated from this raw increase in computer throughput. He suggests that rather than depending on faster computers alone, various analytical and numerical alternatives need development for reducing the overall FLOP count required to acquire the information desired. One approach is to decrease the operation count of the basic model computation itself, by reducing the order of the frequency dependence of the various numerical operations or their multiplying coefficients. Another is to decrease the number of model evaluations that are needed, an example being the number of frequency samples required to define a wideband response, by using an auxiliary model of the expected behavior. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  16. Influence of large wood on channel morphology and sediment storage in headwater mountain streams, Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Erica L. Bishop; J. Michael Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Large fallen wood can have a significant impact on channel form and process in forested mountain streams. In this study, four small channels on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA, were surveyed for channel geometries and large wood loading, including the size, source, and characteristics of individual pieces. The study is part of a larger effort...

  17. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  18. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  20. Model Checking in Bits and Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Namjoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated verification of concurrent programs is a difficult problem, primarily because of state explosion: the exponential growth of a program state space with the number of its concurrently active components. It is natural to apply a divide and conquer strategy to ameliorate state explosion, by analyzing only a single component at a time. We show that this strategy leads to the notion of a "split" invariant, an assertion which is globally inductive, while being structured as the conjunction of a number of local, per-component invariants. This formulation is closely connected to the classical Owicki-Gries method and to Rely-Guarantee reasoning. We show how the division of an invariant into a number of pieces with limited scope makes it possible to apply new, localized forms of symmetry and abstraction to drastically simplify its computation. Split invariance also has interesting connections to parametric verification. A quantified invariant for a parametric system is a split invariant for every instance. We show how it is possible, in some cases, to invert this connection, and to automatically generalize from a split invariant for a small instance of a system to a quantified invariant which holds for the entire family of instances.

  1. The last piece of the ring

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In a sequel to the recent success at CMS, the last section of the LHC beam vacuum system was installed in ATLAS on Monday 16 June. The place where experiment and accelerator meet, the completion of the last part of the continuous 27 km beampipe signals how near the LHC is to the circulation of its first beam. Watch the video! The last section of the LHC beampipe being installed in ATLAS.Although a seemingly simple piece of technology in comparison with the complexity of the detectors, the beampipe is a carefully designed and essential part of both the experiments and the LHC. The section of beam pipe that completed the LHC ring on Monday 16 June is about 20 metres from the centre of ATLAS, very close to where the first magnets of the LHC are located. Unlike the central ATLAS beampipe, which is made of beryllium, the final section is made of stainless steel. An aluminium cone surrounds the stainless steel tube with the super slim...

  2. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  3. Underwater transporting method and device for incore structure cutting piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Koichi; Chiba, Noboru; Chiba, Isao; Takada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Chiba, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    Cutting pieces are handled by using a pick-up device connected with a wire ropes, a take-up drum, chains and a winch as cutting piece handling means, and moved freely on the water surface by a propulsion machine of a transporting means of the device to transfer them under water to a predetermined position. The pick-up device is lifted by taking-up the rope by the rotation of the take-up drum using chain-driving by way of the winch and the chains. The cut pieces are stored in a cask by lowering them in the cask and releasing the handling. In addition, if the weight of the cut pieces is recognized before cutting, and the load of the weight of the cut pieces is applied to the device previously, the balance of the device and the cut pieces can be kept, and cut pieces can be transported under water always stably. Further, if the cut pieces are supported upon cutting operation, the cut pieces are made stable, and cutting operation with good efficiency can be attained. (N.H.)

  4. Finite-time and finite-size scalings in the evaluation of large-deviation functions: Numerical approach in continuous time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-06-01

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which-as shown on the contact process-provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.

  5. Finite-time and finite-size scalings in the evaluation of large-deviation functions: Numerical approach in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-06-01

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.

  6. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Missions for LEO Small Debris and for GEO Large Object Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most LEO debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with specific useful orbits. Objects in such narrow inclination bands have all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a low-orbiting base can serve as a "mother ship" that can tend and then send small, disposable common individual catcher/deboost devices--one for each debris object--as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as each higher object. The dV necessary to catch highly-eccentric orbit debris in the center of the band alternatively allows the capture of less-eccentric debris in a wider inclination range around the center. It is demonstrated that most LEO hazardous debris can be removed from orbit in three years, using a single LEO launch of one mother ship--with its onboard magazine of freeflying low-tech catchers--into each of ten identified bands, with second or potentially third launches into only the three highest-inclination bands. The nearly 1000 objects near the geostationary orbit present special challenges in mass, maneuverability, and ultimate disposal options, leading to a dramatically different architecture and technology suite than the LEO solution. It is shown that the entire population of near-GEO derelict objects can be gathered and tethered together within a 3 year period for future scrap-yard operations using achievable technologies and only two earth launches.

  7. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  8. 7 CFR 51.1435 - U.S. Commercial Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Commercial Pieces. 51.1435 Section 51.1435 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Grades § 51.1435 U.S. Commercial Pieces. The...

  9. 75 FR 28051 - Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice announcing public workshop. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Pieces of Privacy.'' DATES: The workshop will be...

  10. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  11. The underestimated role of temperature-oxygen relationship in large-scale studies on size-to-temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2017-09-01

    The observation that ectotherm size decreases with increasing temperature (temperature-size rule; TSR) has been widely supported. This phenomenon intrigues researchers because neither its adaptive role nor the conditions under which it is realized are well defined. In light of recent theoretical and empirical studies, oxygen availability is an important candidate for understanding the adaptive role behind TSR. However, this hypothesis is still undervalued in TSR studies at the geographical level. We reanalyzed previously published data about the TSR pattern in diatoms sampled from Icelandic geothermal streams, which concluded that diatoms were an exception to the TSR. Our goal was to incorporate oxygen as a factor in the analysis and to examine whether this approach would change the results. Specifically, we expected that the strength of size response to cold temperatures would be different than the strength of response to hot temperatures, where the oxygen limitation is strongest. By conducting a regression analysis for size response at the community level, we found that diatoms from cold, well-oxygenated streams showed no size-to-temperature response, those from intermediate temperature and oxygen conditions showed reverse TSR, and diatoms from warm, poorly oxygenated streams showed significant TSR. We also distinguished the roles of oxygen and nutrition in TSR. Oxygen is a driving factor, while nutrition is an important factor that should be controlled for. Our results show that if the geographical or global patterns of TSR are to be understood, oxygen should be included in the studies. This argument is important especially for predicting the size response of ectotherms facing climate warming.

  12. Orbital Wall Reconstruction with Two-Piece Puzzle 3D Printed Implants: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y.; Büttner, Michael; Vercruysse, Herman; Wauters, Lauri; Beerens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for secondary reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects using titanium implants that act as three-dimensional (3D) puzzle pieces. We present three cases of large defect reconstruction using implants produced by Xilloc Medical B.V. (Maastricht, the Netherlands) with a 3D printer manufactured by LayerWise (3D Systems; Heverlee, Belgium), and designed using the biomedical engineering software programs ProPlan and 3-Matic (Materialise, Heverlee, Belgium). The smaller size of the implants allowed sequential implantation for the reconstruction of extensive two-wall defects via a limited transconjunctival incision. The precise fit of the implants with regard to the surrounding ledges and each other was confirmed by intraoperative 3D imaging (Mobile C-arm Systems B.V. Pulsera, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, the Netherlands). The patients showed near-complete restoration of orbital volume and ocular motility. However, challenges remain, including traumatic fat atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26889349

  13. Earthquake resistance of cracked concrete embedded with large size rebars (D43 and D57) in nuclear containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Y-C. [Chaoyang Univ. of Tech., Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pei, K-C. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    The bond behavior of varying size re-bar (D19, D32, D43 and D57) embedded in concrete, under cyclic load in a pullout test, were investigated through a series of experiments and monitored in real-time by acoustic emission (AE) herein. Parallel tests of specimens with an existing crack were also conducted to observe the behavior of cracked concrete subject to cyclic load. The detailed acoustics information can be used for analyzing and comparing the effects of concrete with varying size re-bar. The results provide useful in formation in evaluating the safety of NPP RC structure subjected to cyclic load. (author)

  14. Immediate loading with single-piece implant following extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Dwivedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dental implantology had evolved over a number of years, many dental surgeons are unaware of the concept of immediate loading with the use of one-piece implant that began in the early 1960s. The goal of successful prosthodontics rehabilitation is to provide function, esthetics, and comfort to the patient. The aim of this literature is to provide an overview of one-piece implant, with its advantages and disadvantages over conventional two-piece implant. Immediate prosthetic of a one-piece system allows for a better tissue healing and better adhesion of gingival mucosa to form a collar which is healthy and adherent to the implant, avoiding a second surgical procedure, and also includes a very important aspect esthetics. This article describes a case report of immediate loading with single-piece implant following extraction.

  15. Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ambroise G.; Cornelissen, Perry; Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Vera, Frans M.W.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter

  16. Superficially porous particles with 1000Å pores for large biomolecule high performance liquid chromatography and polymer size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian M; Schuster, Stephanie A; Boyes, Barry E; Shields, Taylor J; Miles, William L; Haynes, Mark J; Moran, Robert E; Kirkland, Joseph J; Schure, Mark R

    2017-03-17

    To facilitate mass transport and column efficiency, solutes must have free access to particle pores to facilitate interactions with the stationary phase. To ensure this feature, particles should be used for HPLC separations which have pores sufficiently large to accommodate the solute without restricted diffusion. This paper describes the design and properties of superficially porous (also called Fused-Core ® , core shell or porous shell) particles with very large (1000Å) pores specifically developed for separating very large biomolecules and polymers. Separations of DNA fragments, monoclonal antibodies, large proteins and large polystyrene standards are used to illustrate the utility of these particles for efficient, high-resolution applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 957-964 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aesculus * chromosome number * genome size * phylogeny * seed mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  18. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: Is it likely to become a saviour of large-sized and full-thickness cartilage defect in young adult knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Cai, You-Zhi; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A literature review of the first-, second- and third-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) technique for the treatment of large-sized (>4 cm(2)) and full-thickness knee cartilage defects in young adults was conducted, examining the current literature on features, clinical scores, complications, magnetic resonance image (MRI) and histological outcomes, rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness. A literature review was carried out in the main medical databases to evaluate the several studies concerning ACI treatment of large-sized and full-thickness knee cartilage defects in young adults. ACI technique has been shown to relieve symptoms and improve functional assessment in large-sized (>4 cm(2)) and full-thickness knee articular cartilage defect of young adults in short- and medium-term follow-up. Besides, low level of evidence demonstrated its efficiency and durability at long-term follow-up after implantation. Furthermore, MRI and histological evaluations provided the evidence that graft can return back to the previous nearly normal cartilage via ACI techniques. Clinical outcomes tend to be similar in different ACI techniques, but with simplified procedure, low complication rate and better graft quality in the third-generation ACI technique. ACI based on the experience of cell-based therapy, with the high potential to regenerate hyaline-like tissue, represents clinical development in treatment of large-sized and full-thickness knee cartilage defects. IV.

  19. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  20. Creep rupture of mild steel compact tension test pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, E.K.

    1978-10-01

    Creep rupture lives have been determined for compact tension and unnotched tensile test pieces of mild steel at 450 0 C. Three sizes of compact tension specimens were used in which the ratios of reference stress to elastic stress intensity factor were 2.76, 4.78 and 6.6 (msup(-1/2)). The analysis of results in terms of either initial reference stress or stress intensity was unable to reduce the data to a single failure curve. An empirical correlation was found between rupture time and a reference stress/crack length combination where t = 2.46 x 10 20 sub(σref) sup(-8.96) asup(-1.56) (units hours, MPa and metres). This equation has no valid application to materials or specimens other than those from which it was derived. Reported data for 1/2Cr Mo V and 2 1/4Cr Mo steels at 565 0 C were also correlated by this approach. (author)

  1. Parameter study of temperature distribution in a work-piece during dry hyperbaric GTA-welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.

    1989-01-01

    In a sensitivity study the influence of initial and boundary welding parameters upon the spatial and temporal temperature distribution in a work-piece during dry hyperbaric GTA-welding is investigated. It will be shown that at constant arc current a variation of pressure (1-60 bar), arc length (3-10 mm), welding speed (1-2.5 mm/s) or the initial temperature (20-200deg C) of the work-piece to some extend significantly influences the size of melt and heat affected zone as well as the maximum temperature and cooling behaviour of the work-piece; compared to this no mentionable effects of shielding gas temperature (20-300deg C) or flow rate (10-500 dm N 3 /min) on the thermal condition of the work-piece can be recognized. The discovered relationships have been approximated by simple correlations, which can be used for parameter optimization and process control. (orig.) With 33 figs., 4 tabs [de

  2. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  4. Modeling of the evolution of bubble size distribution of gas-liquid flow inside a large vertical pipe. Influence of bubble coalescence and breakup models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The range of gas-liquid flow applications in today's technology is immensely wide. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. In gas-liquid flows, the bubble size distribution plays an important role in the phase structure and interfacial exchange behaviors. It is therefore necessary to take into account the dynamic change of the bubble size distribution to get good predictions in CFD. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble-Size-Class Test Solver was introduced in Lucas et al. (2001) for the simulation of the development of the flow structure along a vertical pipe. The model considers a large number of bubble classes. It solves the radial profiles of liquid and gas velocities, bubble-size class resolved gas fraction profiles as well as turbulence parameters on basis of the bubble size distribution present at the given axial position. The evolution of the flow along the height is assumed to be solely caused by the progress of bubble coalescence and break-up resulting in a bubble size distribution changing in the axial direction. In this model, the bubble coalescence and breakup models are very important for reasonable predictions of the bubble size distribution. Many bubble coalescence and breakup models have been proposed in the literature. However, some obvious discrepancies exist in the models; for example, the daughter bubble size distributions are greatly different from different bubble breakup models, as reviewed in our previous publication (Liao and Lucas, 2009a; 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to compare and evaluate typical bubble coalescence and breakup models that have been commonly used in the literature. Thus, this work is aimed to make a comparison of several typical bubble coalescence and breakup models and to discuss in detail the ability of the Test Solver to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution. (orig.)

  5. Does Decision Quality (Always) Increase with the Size of Information Samples? Some Vicissitudes in Applying the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; Kareev, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive decision making requires that contingencies between decision options and their relative assets be assessed accurately and quickly. The present research addresses the challenging notion that contingencies may be more visible from small than from large samples of observations. An algorithmic account for such a seemingly paradoxical effect…

  6. Studies on the welding of heavy-section ASTM A542 Cl. 1 steel for large-sized pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi; Kasahara, Masayuki

    1977-01-01

    ASTM A 542, Cl. 1 steel was developed and standardized recently, and is excellent in the high temperature strength and toughness as compared with conventionally used A 387, Grade 22 steel, accordingly the application to large pressure vessels is planned. This steel is a low alloy steel, and in case of large thickness, the possibility of cracking in the welded part is large. Also many times of annealing are required for the prevention of welding cracking, the relieving of residual stress, and the softening of hardened portion, but the possibility of cracking during stress-relieving annealing is large. In this study, Tekken type cracking test was carried out by coated electrode welding, and restricted cracking test was carried out by submerged arc welding of the A 542, Cl. 1 steel and A 387, Grade 22 steel, thus the welding cracking property was investigated, and the optimal welding conditions were selected. Also the test of cracking during the stress-relieving annealing of both steels was carried out, and the method of preventing the cracking was studied. The optimal conditions of stress-relieving annealing were selected, and the mechanism of the cracking was clarified. The mechanical properties of the joints welded and stress-relieved under the selected conditions were confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  7. Electrochemical machining of internal built-up surfaces of large-sized vessels for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, N N; Pulin, V Ya [Vsesoyuznyj Proektno-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. Atomnogo Mashinostroeniya i Kotlostroeniya, Rostov-na-Donu (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been employed for finishing of mechanically processed inner surfaces of large lateral parts of construction bodies with welded 0Kh18N10T steel overlayer. The finishing technology developed reduces the surface roughness from 10 mcm to the standard 2.5 mcm at the efficiency of machining of 2-4 m/sup 2/ per hour.

  8. Structure and properties of large-sized forged disk of alloy type KhN73MBTYu-VD(EhI 698-VD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for structure and mechanical properties of serial large-sized forged disk 1100 mm in diameter produced of alloy type EhI 9698-VD hand tested after standard heat treatment and isothermal ageing at operating temperature. Chemical composition studies have revealed no macroheterogeneity. In a central cross-section macrostructure is free of pores, inclusions, delaminating and variation in grain size. The metal of the disk possesses high values of long-term rupture strength and creep resistance at 650-700 deg C

  9. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Monge; Jesús Cruz

    2015-01-01

    A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12) and large (28) manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, howe...

  10. Fabrication of epoxy composites with large-pore sized mesoporous silica and investigation of their thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Kiba, Shosuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-02-01

    We fabricate epoxy composites with low thermal expansion by using mesoporous silica particles with a large pore diameter (around 10 nm) as inorganic fillers. From a simple calculation, almost all the mesopores are estimated to be completely filled with the epoxy polymer. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) values of the obtained epoxy composites proportionally decrease with the increase of the mesoporous silica content.

  11. 40 Years of Processing Pieces of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, C. E.; Funk, R. C.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    representative sample, either a 1-3 gram chip or thin section is sent to the Smithsonian Institution for classification. After Antarctic meteorites have been classified and approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society, they are announced in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which is published twice per year (fall and spring) so that scientists may review which meteorites are available to study. Requests for Antarctic Meteorite samples are welcomed from research scientists, regardless of their current state of funding for meteorite studies. Since its inception over 3,300 requests have been made for pieces of these meteorites and over 400 investigators worldwide are active in the study of meteorites.. Research on these samples has been published in more than1500 peer reviewed articles; a listing of papers for any meteorite sample can be generated by accessing http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/referencesearch.cfm. Antarctic meteorite samples requested by scientists are prepared several different ways. Most samples are prepared as chips, either using a rock splitter or using a chisel and chipping bowl. In special situations, a researcher may request a meteorite slab in which case the samples are cut using a diamond-bladed bandsaw inside of a dry nitrogen glove box. The meteorites are always cut in a 100 percent liquid-free environment. Additionally, thin/thick sections of Antarctic meteorites are also prepared at JSC. The meteorite thin section lab at JSC can prepare standard 30-micron thin sections, thick sections of variable thickness (100 to 200 microns), or demountable sections using superglue, all section are prepared without using water. Although many of the techniques used back in the '70's are still used today, advances in computers, software, databases, available tools and instrumentation have helped to streamline and shorten the duration of the classification process. In conjunction with present day missions to asteroids and other planets

  12. Image analysis of multiple moving wood pieces in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents algorithms for image processing and image analysis of wood piece materials. The algorithms were designed for auto-detection of wood piece materials on a moving conveyor belt or a truck. When wood objects on moving, the hard task is to trace the contours of the objects in n optimal way. To make the algorithms work efficiently in the plant, a flexible online system was designed and developed, which mainly consists of image acquisition, image processing, object delineation and analysis. A number of newly-developed algorithms can delineate wood objects with high accuracy and high speed, and in the wood piece analysis part, each wood piece can be characterized by a number of visual parameters which can also be used for constructing experimental models directly in the system.

  13. One-Piece Faraday Generator: A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, M. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment based on Faraday's one-piece generator, where the rotating disk is replaced by a cylindrical permanent magnet. Explains the apparent paradox that an observer in an inertial frame could measure his absolute velocity. (GA)

  14. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  15. Detection and sizing of large-scale cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, T.D.K.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Application of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been limited, mainly due to the anisotropy of the CCSS materials. Phenomena such as beam skewing and distortion are directly attributable to this anisotropy and cause severe difficulties in crack detection and sizing. To improve CCSS inspectability, the feasibility of using Lamb waves as the probing mechanism for detecting and characterizing a surface-breaking crack originating from the pipe interior surface is discussed. A similar research effort has been reported by Rokhlin who investigated the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations in thin sheets. Rokhlin and Adler also reported recently on the use of Lamb waves for evaluating spot welds. The motivation for using this probing mechanism derives from the recognition that the difficulties introduced by beam skewing, beam distortion, and high attenuation are circumvented, since Lamb waves are not bulk waves, but are resonant vibrational modes of a solid plate

  16. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S.; Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards.

  17. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  18. Dynamic correction of the laser beam coordinate in fabrication of large-sized diffractive elements for testing aspherical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, R. V.; Poleshchuk, A. G.; Korolkov, V. P.; Cherkashin, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method of improving the accuracy of a circular laser system in fabrication of large-diameter diffractive optical elements by means of a polar coordinate system and the results of their use. An algorithm for correcting positioning errors of a circular laser writing system developed at the Institute of Automation and Electrometry, SB RAS, is proposed and tested. Highprecision synthesized holograms fabricated by this method and the results of using these elements for testing the 6.5 m diameter aspheric mirror of the James Webb space telescope (JWST) are described..

  19. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  20. Technology of CCS coal utilization (outline of large-size demonstration test for CCS); CCS tan riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hironaka, H [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The coal cartridge system (CCS) is a series of the total system, in which coal is processed centrally at a supply base for each unit of consumer areas, supplied as pulverized coal in bulk units, and coal ash after combustion is recovered and treated. The system is expected of advantages resulted from the centralized production, elimination of handling troubles, and cleanliness. Following a small scale demonstration test, a large demonstration test for practically usable scale has begun in 1990, and completed in fiscal 1995. This paper introduces the CCS and reports the result of the test. In the large demonstration test, a supply station (with manufacturing capability of 200,000 tons a year) was installed in the Aichi refinery of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., and systematization on quality design and system technologies has been carried out. Long-term continuous operation for five years was achieved (operation time of the supply facilities was about 19,000 hours) without a failure and accident, to which every elemental technology was evaluated highly, and convenience and reliability of the system was verified. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  2. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by sol–gel with large nanoparticles size for magnetic hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemine, O.M., E-mail: leminej@yahoo.com [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Omri, K. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Iglesias, M.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Crespo, P.; Presa, P. de la [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); El Mir, L. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Bouzid, Houcine [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire des Matériaux Ferroélectriques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route Soukra Km 3 5, B.P. 802, F-3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Code 123, Al Khoud (Oman); Al-Hajry, Ali [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. • The obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • A non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferromagnetic. • A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe. - Abstract: Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy show that the obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that the nanoparticles have sizes ranging from 14 to 30 nm, which are indeed confirmed by large magnetic saturation and high blocking temperature. At room temperature, the observation of a non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferro/ferrimagnetic. The specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field is investigated as a function of size, frequency and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe, whereas further increase of particle size does not improve significantly the heating efficiency.

  3. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  4. Genome wide analysis of drug-induced torsades de pointes: lack of common variants with large effect sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah R Behr

    Full Text Available Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP, treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10(-7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5-2.6. The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10(-9. Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs.

  5. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  6. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Dong, Wu-Jun; Li, Ling; Xu, Jia-Ming; Jin, Du-Jia; Xia, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Ling

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS) method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT 5 ) will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT 5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the "plateau" of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT 5 , and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT 5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4-25°C) also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT 5 . Copyright

  7. Study on the temperature gradient evolution of large size nonlinear crystal based on the fluid-solid coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.

  8. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  9. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  10. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm−2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  11. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daix, N., E-mail: dai@zurich.ibm.com; Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Fompeyrine, J. [IBM Research - Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Hartmann, J. M. [CEA, LETI 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Route 134 Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  12. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, N.; Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Hartmann, J. M.; Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm-2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000-3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  13. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  15. Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Lim, Charlotte Mh; Leong, Claudia; Chia, Edwin M; Forde, Ciaran G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly. Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size. Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [ n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 ( n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite. Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively ( P portion size increased the weight of food consumed (13%). The thicker porridges were consumed at a slower rate and led to 11-13% reductions in food weight and energy intake compared with the thin versions ( P portion ( P portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible...

  17. The potential distributions, and estimated spatial requirements and population sizes, of the medium to large-sized mammals in the planning domain of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Boshoff

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Addo Elephant National Park project (GAENP involves the establishment of a mega biodiversity reserve in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Conservation planning in the GAENP planning domain requires systematic information on the potential distributions and estimated spatial requirements, and population sizes of the medium to largesized mammals. The potential distribution of each species is based on a combination of literature survey, a review of their ecological requirements, and consultation with conservation scientists and managers. Spatial requirements were estimated within 21 Mammal Habitat Classes derived from 43 Land Classes delineated by expert-based vegetation and river mapping procedures. These estimates were derived from spreadsheet models based on forage availability estimates and the metabolic requirements of the respective mammal species, and that incorporate modifications of the agriculture-based Large Stock Unit approach. The potential population size of each species was calculated by multiplying its density estimate with the area of suitable habitat. Population sizes were calculated for pristine, or near pristine, habitats alone, and then for these habitats together with potentially restorable habitats for two park planning domain scenarios. These data will enable (a the measurement of the effectiveness of the GAENP in achieving predetermined demographic, genetic and evolutionary targets for mammals that can potentially occur in selected park sizes and configurations, (b decisions regarding acquisition of additional land to achieve these targets to be informed, (c the identification of species for which targets can only be met through metapopulation management,(d park managers to be guided regarding the re-introduction of appropriate species, and (e the application of realistic stocking rates. Where possible, the model predictions were tested by comparison with empirical data, which in general corroborated the

  18. Prediction of work piece geometry in electrochemical cavity sinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggs, J B; Muller, R H; Tobias, C W

    1981-01-01

    A computer-implemented model for predicting ECM work piece geometry has been developed and experimentally verified with a commercial ECM machine for cavity sinking in copper and 302-stainless steel with 2N KNO/sub 3/ electrolyte. Constant tool piece feed rates of 7-10 x 10/sup -4/ cm/s, and applied voltages of 11-25 V were used. The model predicts the dependence of work piece geometry on operating conditions and on the electrochemical and physical properties of the metal-electrolyte pair. Comparison of eight equilibrium and six unsteady state experimental cavity profiles in copper showed satisfactory agreement with predictions, as did five equilibrium profiles for cavity sinking in 302-stainless steel.

  19. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  20. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  1. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  2. Fabrication and characterization of large size {sup 6}LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites with the ordered lamellar structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro, E-mail: ken-fukuda@tokuyama.co.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Suyama, Toshihisa [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    As alternative candidates for the {sup 3}He neutron detectors, {sup 6}LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites were fabricated and their scintillation properties were evaluated. Large size LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites of 58 mm diameter and 50 mm thickness were produced by Bridgman method. The composites had a finely ordered lamellar structure along the solidification direction. The lamellar structure was controlled by the direction and the rate of solidification, and it was optimized to improve the scintillation properties. Better results were achieved when thinner lamellar layers were aligned along the scintillation light path.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of large size 6LiF/CaF2:Eu eutectic composites with the ordered lamellar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Suyama, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    As alternative candidates for the 3 He neutron detectors, 6 LiF/CaF 2 :Eu eutectic composites were fabricated and their scintillation properties were evaluated. Large size LiF/CaF 2 :Eu eutectic composites of 58 mm diameter and 50 mm thickness were produced by Bridgman method. The composites had a finely ordered lamellar structure along the solidification direction. The lamellar structure was controlled by the direction and the rate of solidification, and it was optimized to improve the scintillation properties. Better results were achieved when thinner lamellar layers were aligned along the scintillation light path.

  4. Feminist Erotica and Agency @ The Love Piece Club

    OpenAIRE

    DALES, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Love Piece Club is a shop devoted to sex goods for women, located in Tokyo and online at www.lovepiececlub.com. As well as online shopping, the website offers regular columns, articles and photo-essays on subjects related to sexuality and women's lives. The site and shop are managed by Kitahara Minori, a writer, businesswoman and advocate for feminist erotica. This paper explores the Love Piece Club as a discursive site – its potential meanings and its significance as a feminist work in p...

  5. Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M.; Ramezani, V.

    2014-11-01

    Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The PCTDs were processed by 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ∼ ± 60 ° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies.

  6. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; White, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600μm high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000μm) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance

  7. Collecting the Puzzle Pieces: Completing HST's UV+NIR Survey of the TRAPPIST-1 System ahead of JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Julien

    2017-08-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, our team has discovered 7 Earth-sized planets around the nearby Ultra-cool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1. These planets are the first to be simultaneously Earth-sized, temperate, and amenable for in-depth atmospheric studies with space-based observatories (notably, JWST). TRAPPIST-1's system thus provides us with the first opportunity to probe the atmospheres of Earth-sized exoplanets and search for signs of habitability beyond our solar system, which will require spectral information from the UV to the IR to complete their atmospheric puzzles.We request 114 HST orbits to complete the UV+NIR survey of the 7 planets in preparation for their in-depth followup with JWST. The suggested low-density of the planets combined with their complex orbital resonance chain indicate that they migrated inward to their current positions and may harbor large water rich reservoir or leftover primordial H2 atmospheres. We have already ruled out the presence of clear H2 atmospheres for the 5 innermost planets using WFC3 and are requesting 16 WFC3 orbits to complete the TRAPPIST-1 NIR reconnaissance survey. Our primary request consists in 98 STIS orbits to complete the survey for extended H-exospheres around each of the planets. H-exospheres are the most accessible observables for volatile reservoirs, which have not been ruled out by our WFC3 observations. Exosphere detection is only amenable using HST unique capabilities in the UV and are pivotal to guide JWST's in-depth followup. The combined information from HST's UV and NIR observations will allow us put the first critical pieces of the atmospheric puzzle in place for these temperate earth-sized worlds.

  8. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  9. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S. [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Rugliancich, A., E-mail: andrea.rugliancich@pi.infn.it [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Saito, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards. - Highlights: • The Dragon Board is part of the DAQ of the LST Cherenkov telescope prototype. • We developed an automated quality control system for the Dragon Board. • We check pedestal, linearity, pulse shape and crosstalk values. • The quality control test can be performed on the production line.

  10. Management of sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens-induced pigmentary glaucoma with 3-piece IOL exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Hossein Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Rikhtegar, Mohammad Hassan; Hekmat, Vahid

    2018-02-01

    To describe our experience with exchanging sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) with 3-piece IOLs for management of pigmentary glaucoma. In this retrospective study, records of patients who underwent sulcus-fixated single-piece IOL exchanged with 3-piece IOLs were retrieved, and demographic and baseline data of patients, type of IOL, pre- and post-IOL exchange BCVA, IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications, and optic nerve head examination were documented. Baseline and final examinations were analyzed and compared. Mean age of the patients was 59 ± 10 years, and 5 (41.6%) were female. Mean interval between primary cataract extraction operation and IOL exchange was 17 ± 5 months. Nine patients received in sulcus implantation of Alcon SA60AT, and three patients had SN60WF model at the end of primary surgery. BCVA changed insignificantly from 0.06 ± 0.06 logMAR to 0.06 ± 0.06 after IOL exchange. (P = 0.22) IOP was controlled in 8 cases (66.6%), but four cases (33.3%) needed glaucoma surgery to further control glaucoma condition. IOP decreased significantly from preoperative 17 ± 3 to 14 ± 1 mmHg postoperatively. Patients with advanced age and higher baseline IOP were more likely to undergo glaucoma surgery after IOL exchange. (P = 0.07 and 0.00, respectively). single-piece IOL exchange with 3-piece IOL dramatically decreases pigment release and reduces IOP. Those with advanced age and higher IOP are less likely to respond to IOL exchange and may need glaucoma surgery to control high intraocular pressure.

  11. Torque Removal Evaluation of Screw in One-Piece and Two-Piece Abutments Tightened with a Handheld screwdriver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some clinicians use a handheld screw driver instead of a torque wrench to definitively tighten abutment screws. The aim of this study was to compare the removal torque of one-piece and two-piece abutments tightened with a handheld driver and a torque control ratchet. Methods: 40 ITI implants were placed in acrylic blocks and divided into 4 groups. In groups one and two, 10 ITI one-piece abutments (Solid® and in groups three and four, 10 ITI two-piece abutments (Synocta® were placed on the implants. In groups one and three abutments were tightened by 5 experienced males and 5 experienced females using a handheld driver. In groups two and four abutments were tightened using a torque wrench with torque values of 10, 20 and 35 N.cm. Insertion torque and removal torque values of the abutments were measured with a digital torque meter. Results: The insertion torque values (ITVs of males in both abutments were significantly higher than those of females. ITVs in both Solid® and Synocta® abutments tightened with a handheld screwdriver were similar to the torque of 20 N.cm in the torque wrench. Removal torque values (RTVs of solid® abutments were higher than those of synocta® abutments. Conclusion: The one- piece abutments (solid® showed higher RTVs than the two-piece abutments (synocta®. Hand driver does not produce sufficient preload force for the final tightening of the abutment

  12. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  13. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  14. Large-sized SmBCO single crystals with T sub c over 93 K grown in atmospheric ambient by crystal pulling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Xin; Shiohara, Y

    2003-01-01

    Sm sub 1 sub + sub x Ba sub 2 sub - sub x Cu sub 3 O sub z (SmBCO) single crystals were grown under atmospheric ambient by the top-seeded solution growth method. Inductively coupled plasma results indicate that there is negligible Sm substitution for Ba sites in the grown SmBCO crystals, although they crystallized from different Ba-Cu-O solvents with a wide composition range (Ba/Cu ratio of 0.5-0.6). As a result, these crystals show high superconducting critical transition temperature values (T sub c) of over 93 K with a sharp transition width after oxygenation. A large-sized crystal with an a-b plane of 23 x 22 mm sup 2 and a c-axis of 19 mm was obtained at a high growth rate of nearly 0.13 mm h sup - sup 1. In short, with more controllable thermodynamic parameters, SmBCO single crystals can readily achieve both large size and high superconducting properties. (rapid communication)

  15. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (PEubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  16. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  17. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  18. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  19. The Key Pieces of the Career Survival and Success Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of career-success factors identified by 5,000 managers yielded 10 key pieces: excellent performance record, communication skills, interpersonal skills, personality, skill currency, significant work experiences, power, ability to withstand pressure, ability to make difficult decisions, and having a mentor. (SK)

  20. Development of debris-resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Dong Seong; Lee, Jae Kyung; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Yim, Jung Sik; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Im, Hyun Tae

    1993-01-01

    Debris-related fuel failures has been identified to be one of the major causes of fuel failures recently occured in nuclear power plants. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to prevent the debris from reaching to fuel rods. In this regard, it is important to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. (Author)

  1. 75 FR 51668 - Optional Mail Preparation Standards for Flat-Size Mailpieces in FSS Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... bundles of six or more addressed pieces each, subject to these standards: * * * * * [Revise item b of 13.2... combination. Mailers will then prepare bundles of uniform size from the pieces in the pool. Bundles must be... this option may be applied to the top piece of each bundle, unless otherwise required to be placed on...

  2. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K., E-mail: gokeakin@gmail.com [University of Louisville Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Philips, Prejesh, E-mail: prejesh.philips@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States); Duras, Petr, E-mail: durasp@seznam.cz [Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň (Czech Republic); Pluntke, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.pluntke@t-online.de [Onkologe bei Kliniken Essen-Mitte (Germany); Scoggins, Charles, E-mail: charles.scoggins@louisville.edu; Martin, Robert C. G., E-mail: Robert.Martin@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity.

  3. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K.; Philips, Prejesh; Duras, Petr; Pluntke, Stefan; Scoggins, Charles; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity

  4. Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M., E-mail: dr_msohrabi@yahoo.com; Habibi, M.; Ramezani, V.

    2014-11-14

    Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The PCTDs were processed by 50 Hz–HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ∼±60° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies. - Highlights: • Helium iso-ion beam profile and angular distributions were studied in the 4 kJ APF device. • Large-area 1 mm-thick polycarbonate detectors were processed by 50 Hz-HV ECE. • Helium ion beam profile and distributions were observed by unaided eyes in a single detector. • Helium ion profile has ring-shaped distributions with energies lower at the ring location. • Helium iso-ion track density, diameter and energy distributions are estimated.

  5. Dying piece by piece: carbohydrate dynamics in aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings under severe carbon stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Hoch, Günter; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2017-11-02

    Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates. Darkness treatments caused a gradual dieback of tissues. Even after half the stem had died, substantial starch reserves were still present in the roots (1.3-3% dry weight), indicating limitations to carbohydrate remobilization and/or transport during starvation in the absence of water stress. Survival time decreased with increased temperature and with increasing initial shade level, which was associated with smaller biomass, higher respiration rates, and initially smaller NSC pool size. Dead tissues generally contained no starch, but sugar concentrations were substantially above zero and differed between organs (~2% in stems up to ~7.5% in leaves) and, at times, between temperature treatments and initial, pre-darkness shade treatments. Minimum root NSC concentrations were difficult to determine because dead roots quickly began to decompose, but we identify 5-6% sugar as a potential threshold for living roots. This variability may complicate efforts to identify critical NSC thresholds below which trees starve. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  6. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengbang, Wang; Mingkuan, Qin; Ruiquan, Zhao; Shenghuang, Tang [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, CNNC (China); Baoqun, Wang; Shuangxing, Lin [Geo-prospecting Team No. 216, CNNC (China)

    2001-08-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target.

  7. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Qin Mingkuan; Zhao Ruiquan; Tang Shenghuang; Wang Baoqun; Lin Shuangxing

    2001-01-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target

  8. Exact results in the large system size limit for the dynamics of the chemical master equation, a one dimensional chain of equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A; Saakian, David B

    2011-08-01

    We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) formalism to solve the dynamics of the chemical master equation (CME). We found exact analytical expressions (in large system-size limit) for the probability distribution, including explicit expression for the dynamics of variance of distribution. We also give the solution for some simple cases of the model with time-dependent rates. We derived the results of the Van Kampen method from the HJE approach using a special ansatz. Using the Van Kampen method, we give a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to define the variance in a two-dimensional case. We performed numerics for the CME with stationary noise. We give analytical criteria for the disappearance of bistability in the case of stationary noise in one-dimensional CMEs.

  9. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocomposite: a novel visible-light active photocatalyst with large pore size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Min; Huang Li; Wang Jianqiang; Wang Ying; Zou Zhigang; Gao Ling; Zhu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    A series of visible-light-driven mesoporous structured MnO 2 /TiO 2 nanocrystal photocatalysts have been synthesized through a modified sol-gel method, and the N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm confirms that the mesoporous materials possess large pore size (up to 9.2 nm) and a narrow pore size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses and complementary x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that the doping of the transition metal Mn inhibits the growth of TiO 2 anatase nanocrystals and the Mn species are highly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectrum demonstrates the excellent adsorption properties of MnO 2 /TiO 2 over the whole region of visible light, which enables this novel photocatalysis material to possess remarkable activity in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light radiation. Moreover, a 'coating mechanism' based on the nucleation of titania nanocrystals along with the interaction between the dopant precursors and titania clusters has been suggested

  10. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocomposite: a novel visible-light active photocatalyst with large pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Huang, Li; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Ying; Gao, Ling; Zhu, Jian-hua; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2008-05-01

    A series of visible-light-driven mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocrystal photocatalysts have been synthesized through a modified sol-gel method, and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm confirms that the mesoporous materials possess large pore size (up to 9.2 nm) and a narrow pore size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses and complementary x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that the doping of the transition metal Mn inhibits the growth of TiO2 anatase nanocrystals and the Mn species are highly dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectrum demonstrates the excellent adsorption properties of MnO2/TiO2 over the whole region of visible light, which enables this novel photocatalysis material to possess remarkable activity in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light radiation. Moreover, a 'coating mechanism' based on the nucleation of titania nanocrystals along with the interaction between the dopant precursors and titania clusters has been suggested.

  11. Small-Sized Mg–Al LDH Nanosheets Supported on Silica Aerogel with Large Pore Channels: Textural Properties and Basic Catalytic Performance after Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have been widely used as an important subset of solid base catalysts. However, developing low-cost, small-sized LDH nanoparticles with enhanced surface catalytic sites remains a challenge. In this work, silica aerogel (SA-supported, small-sized Mg–Al LDH nanosheets were successfully prepared by one-pot coprecipitation of Mg and Al ions in an alkaline suspension of crushed silica aerogel. The supported LDH nanosheets were uniformly dispersed in the SA substrate with the smallest average radial diameter of 19.2 nm and the thinnest average thickness of 3.2 nm, both dimensions being significantly less than those of the vast majority of LDH nanoparticles reported. The SA/LDH composites also showed large pore volume (up to 1.3 cm3·g and pore diameter (>9 nm, and therefore allow efficient access of reactants to the edge catalytic sites of LDH nanosheets. In a base-catalyzed Henry reaction of benzaldehyde with nitromethane, the SA/LDH catalysts showed high reactant conversions and favorable stability in 6 successive cycles of reactions. The low cost of the SA carrier and LDH precursors, easy preparation method, and excellent catalytic properties make these SA/LDH composites a competitive example of solid-base catalysts.

  12. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  13. Modified snap-on attachment with ′O-ring′ for two piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gunasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of near normal functions in patients who have been treated with hemimaxillectomy is generally difficult, in view of the restriction in mouth opening following healing of large surgical wound. Further, the extent and nature of the surgical defect differ from patient to patient. Thus, design of an obturator needs to be patient oriented. In this report, we describe a novel snap-on attachment with O-ring in a conventional two piece hollow bulb obturator for a 70-year-old male treated for carcinoma of the left maxilla and sinus.

  14. Different Digitalization Techniques for 3D Printing of Anatomical Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugidos Lozano, M T; Blaya Haro, F; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Manzoor, S; Nuere Menendez-Pidal, S; Juanes Méndez, J A

    2018-01-25

    The use of different technological devices that allow the creation of three-dimensional models is in constant evolution, allowing a greater application of these technologies in different fields of health sciences and medical training. The equipment for digitalization is becoming increasingly sophisticated allowing obtaining three-dimensional which are more defined and similar to real image and original object. In this work, different modalities of designing 3D anatomical models of bone pieces are presented, for use by students of different disciplines in Health Sciences. To do this we digitalized bone pieces, with different models of scanners, producing images that can be transformed for 3D printing, with a Colido X 3045 printer by digital treatment with different software.

  15. Inspection of complex geometry pieces with an intelligent contact transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, S.; Roy, O.; Mahaut, St.

    2000-01-01

    A new multi-element contact transducer has been developed to improve the inspection of components with complex geometry. The emitting surface is flexible in order to optimize the contact with pieces. An algorithm, based on a simplified geometric model, has been used to determine the delays law which allows to control the focal characteristics of the transmitted field. Acquisition data lead in transmission with an articulated transducer validate the behavior provided by simulation. Thus the optimization of the delays law ensures the transmission of a beam which is homogeneous and controlled during the moving of the transducer. Inspections in echo-pulse mode are implemented on a sample simulating a component controlled on site. Results show that the dynamical adaptation of the delays law to the geometry of the piece leads to very good performances

  16. Practice and effectiveness of web-based problem-based learning approach in a large class-size system: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongxia; Zhang, Peili

    2018-06-12

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an effective and highly efficient teaching approach that is extensively applied in education systems across a variety of countries. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of web-based PBL teaching pedagogies in large classes. The cluster sampling method was used to separate two college-level nursing student classes (graduating class of 2013) into two groups. The experimental group (n = 162) was taught using a web-based PBL teaching approach, while the control group (n = 166) was taught using conventional teaching methods. We subsequently assessed the satisfaction of the experimental group in relation to the web-based PBL teaching mode. This assessment was performed following comparison of teaching activity outcomes pertaining to exams and self-learning capacity between the two groups. When compared with the control group, the examination scores and self-learning capabilities were significantly higher in the experimental group (P web-based PBL teaching approach. In a large class-size teaching environment, the web-based PBL teaching approach appears to be more optimal than traditional teaching methods. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of web-based teaching technologies in problem-based learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  18. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Espinosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca. Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  19. Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Cs; Evangelou, Kg; Theodorou, Eg; Provatidis, Cg; Megas, Pd

    2012-01-01

    Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed.

  20. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells-seeded bio-ceramic construct for bone regeneration in large critical-size bone defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiti SK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC represent an attractive cell population for tissue engineering purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 to a silica-coated calcium hydroxyapatite (HASi - rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC construct promoted bone healing in a large segmental bone defect beyond standard critical -size radial defects (15mm in rabbits. An extensively large 30mm long radial ostectomy was performed unilaterally in thirty rabbits divided equally in five groups. Defects were filled with a HASi scaffold only (group B; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC (group C; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC along with rhBMP-2 and IGF-1 in groups D and E respectively. The same number of rBMSC (five million cells and concentration of growth factors rhBMP-2 (50µg and IGF-1 (50µg was again injected at the site of bone defect after 15 days of surgery in their respective groups. An empty defect served as the control group (group A. Radiographically, bone healing was evaluated at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days post implantation. Histological qualitative analysis with microCT (µ-CT, haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed 90 days after implantation. All rhBMP-2-added constructs induced the formation of well-differentiated mineralized woven bone surrounding the HASi scaffolds and bridging bone/implant interfaces as early as eight weeks after surgery. Bone regeneration appeared to develop earlier with the rhBMP-2 constructs than with the IGF-1 added construct. Constructs without any rhBMP-2 or IGF-1 showed osteoconductive properties limited to the bone junctions without bone ingrowths within the implantation site. In conclusion, the addition of rhBMP-2 to a HASi scaffold could promote bone generation in a large critical-size-defect.

  2. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kåre

    2016-01-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge...... was examined on 20 anatomical dry skull specimens. The results were applied to one-piece OZ approaches performed on freshly frozen cadaver heads. We defined the center of the sphenoid ridge keyhole as a superficial projection on the lateral skull surface of the most anterior and thickest part of the sphenoid...... ridge. It was located 22 mm (standard deviation [SD], 0.22 mm) from the superior temporal line; 10.7 mm (SD, 0.08 mm) posterior and 7.1 mm (SD, 0.22 mm) inferior to the frontozygomatic suture. The sphenoid ridge burr hole provides exposure of frontal, temporal dura as well as periorbita, which...

  3. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

  4. Dying piece by piece: carbohydrate dynamics in aspen seedlings under severe carbon stress and starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Chow, Pak; Landhäusser, Simon

    2016-04-01

    greater initial NSC pool sizes and lower mass-specific respiration rates. Higher temperatures reduced the time until tissue death and also tended to reduce NSC levels at death in some tissues. Survival time during starvation appeared to be controlled not only by the size of initial reserves, but by the rate of respiration. Relatively high leaf NSC levels of dead leaves observed during drought and during fall leaf abscission are within the range of leaf NSC levels of starved leaves seen here. Patterns of nonzero tissue NSC and the piecewise progression of mortality often observed in mature trees are not inconsistent with the process of carbon starvation, which may contribute to tree death by many causes.

  5. Y-piece temperature and humidification during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomita, Mario; Daroowalla, Feroza; Leblanc, Deniese S; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2009-04-01

    Practitioners often presume there is adequate humidification in the ventilator circuit if the Y-piece is at a specified temperature, but control of Y-piece temperature may be inadequate to ensure adequate humidification. In an in vitro bench model we measured water-vapor delivery with several heated humidification setups and a wide range of minute volume (V (E)) values. The setup included a condenser, hygrometry, and thermometer. First, we calibrated the system with a point-source humidifier and water pump. Then we tested the water-vapor delivery during non-heated-wire humidification and during heated-wire humidification with a temperature gradient of +3 degrees C, 0 degrees C, and -3 degrees C between the humidifier and the Y-piece. We compared the results to 2 recommended humidification values: 100% saturated (absolute humidity 44 mg H(2)O/L) gas at 37 degrees C (saturated/37 degrees C); and 75% saturated (absolute humidity 33 mg H(2)O/L), which is the humidity recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (the ISO standard). In all the experiments the setup was set to provide 35 degrees C at the Y-piece. Our method for measuring water-vapor delivery closely approximated the amount delivered by a calibrated pump, but slightly underestimated the water-vapor delivery in all the experiments and the whole V (E) range. At all V (E) values, water-vapor delivery during non-heated-wire humidification matched or exceeded saturated/37 degrees C and was significantly greater than that during heated-wire humidification. During heated-wire humidification, water-vapor delivery varied with the temperature gradient and did not reach saturated/37 degrees C at V (E) > 6 L/min. Water-vapor delivery with the negative temperature gradient was below the ISO standard. Maintaining temperature at one point in the inspiratory circuit (eg, Y-piece), does not ensure adequate water-vapor delivery. Other factors (humidification system, V (E), gradient setting) are critical

  6. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference were secondary study endpoints. At 6 months follow up visits after receiving four laser treatments, there was statistically significant hair clearance in the three treatment arms with 66.1 % mean percentage hair reduction with the ET handpiece, 43.6% with the HSS (single pass) and 64.1 % with the HSD (double). However, at one year follow up, the results significantly varied from the 6 months follow up. The mean percentage hair reduction was 57.8% with the ET handpiece treated axillas (n=9), 16.5% with the HSS (single pass) handpiece treated axillas (n=7), and

  7. Isocratic and gradient impedance plot analysis and comparison of some recently introduced large size core-shell and fully porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheyden, Yoachim; Cabooter, Deirdre; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2013-10-18

    The intrinsic kinetic performance of three recently commercialized large size (≥4μm) core-shell particles packed in columns with different lengths has been measured and compared with that of standard fully porous particles of similar and smaller size (5 and 3.5μm, respectively). The kinetic performance is compared in both absolute (plot of t0 versus the plate count N or the peak capacity np for isocratic and gradient elution, respectively) and dimensionless units. The latter is realized by switching to so-called impedance plots, a format which has been previously introduced (as a plot of t0/N(2) or E0 versus Nopt/N) and has in the present study been extended from isocratic to gradient elution (where the impedance plot corresponds to a plot of t0/np(4) versus np,opt(2)/np(2)). Both the isocratic and gradient impedance plot yielded a very similar picture: the clustered impedance plot curves divide into two distinct groups, one for the core-shell particles (lowest values, i.e. best performance) and one for the fully porous particles (highest values), confirming the clear intrinsic kinetic advantage of core-shell particles. If used around their optimal flow rate, the core-shell particles displayed a minimal separation impedance that is about 40% lower than the fully porous particles. Even larger gains in separation speed can be achieved in the C-term regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  9. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc, 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  10. Conceptual design of a permanent ring magnet based helicon plasma source module intended to be used in a large size fusion grade ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Arun; Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-15

    A conceptual design of a permanent magnet based single driver helicon plasma source module along with its design approach is described in this paper. The module unit is intended to be used in a large size ion source. The conceptual design of the helicon source module has been carried out using a computer code, HELIC. The magnetic field topology for the ring magnet is simulated with another code, BFieldM and the magnetic field values obtained from the calculation are further used as input in HELIC calculation for the conceptual design. The module is conceptualized based on a cylindrical glass vessel to produce plasma of diameter ∼50 mm, height ∼50 mm. The inner diameter of the permanent ring magnets is also of the same dimension with thickness ∼10 mm each, placed slightly above the backplate to maintain the required magnetic field. The simulated results show that for hydrogen gas, expected plasma density can be achieved as high as ∼10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} in the proposed helicon source configuration using 1 kW 13.56 MHz RF generator. An experimental setup to characterize a Helicon source module unit, consisting of a cylindrical glass (plasma) chamber along with the vacuum system, RF power supplies, probes and data acquisition system is being installed.

  11. Controllable Growth of Large-Size Crystalline MoS2 and Resist-Free Transfer Assisted with a Cu Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziyuan; Zhao, Yuda; Zhou, Changjian; Zhong, Ren; Wang, Xinsheng; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Chai, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional MoS2 is a promising material for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. It has remained a great challenge to grow large-size crystalline and high surface coverage monolayer MoS2. In this work, we investigate the controllable growth of monolayer MoS2 evolving from triangular flakes to continuous thin films by optimizing the concentration of gaseous MoS2, which has been shown a both thermodynamic and kinetic growth factor. A single-crystal monolayer MoS2 larger than 300 μm was successfully grown by suppressing the nuclei density and supplying sufficient source. Furthermore, we present a facile process of transferring the centimeter scale MoS2 assisted with a copper thin film. Our results show the absence of observable residues or wrinkles after we transfer MoS2 from the growth substrates onto flat substrates using this technique, which can be further extended to transfer other two-dimensional layered materials.

  12. NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print NICHD research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary syndrome Many people think that ... more like putting together a thousand-piece jigsaw puzzle. Except that you can’t check the cover ...

  13. The Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma: Missing puzzle piece No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    More than a decade has elapsed since the serious nature of the discrepancy between neutron dosimetry experiments (E) and neutron transport calculations (C) for the Hiroshima site was identified. Since that time extensive efforts to resolve this Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma have not only failed, but now demonstrate that the magnitude of this discrepancy is much greater than initially estimated. The currently evaluated E/C ratio for thermal neutron fluence at the Hiroshima site increases rapidly with increasing slant range from the epicenter. In the slant range region beyond 1000 m, E/C exceeds unity by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the specific dosimetry data that are utilized. Principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma are summarized. Puzzle Piece No. 6: In-situ production and Prompt fallout of radionuclides from Little Boy is advanced as a possible contributory phenomenon to this enigma. (The atom bomb detonated over Hiroshima was called Little Boy.) Measurements of 60 Co and 152 Eu specific activity at the Hiroshima site are used to obtain order of magnitude numerical estimates that show this conjecture is plausible. Comparison of different 60 Co measurements at the Hiroshima site reveals that the variation of E/C with slant range depends on the method used to quantify 60 Co specific activity as well as the type of dosimetry samples that are employed. These 60 Co comparisons lend additional qualitative credence to this conjecture. Within the limits of presently available data, these assessments show that Puzzle Piece No. 6 qualitatively satisfies the principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma. Nevertheless, current lack of data prevent this conjecture from being conclusively confirmed or refuted. Consequently, specific recommendations are advanced to resolve the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma with emphasis on experimental tests that can quantitatively evaluate Puzzle Piece

  14. A case of radiation enteritis with perforated peritonitis caused by a piece of eggshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Kazuya; Miyanaga, Tamonn; Doden, Kenji; Hattori, Masakazu; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The patient was a woman in her sixties who had received radiation therapy for cancer of uterine cervix 7 years earlier and had been suffering from diarrhea for these several years. The patient was seen at our emergency clinic because of a 5 hour-history of lower abdominal pain at the beginning of July 2010. An abdominal CT scan showed free air and ascites. A high density structure 1.5 cm in size was identified within the small intestine, but its relation with the perforation was obscure. Emergency operation was done with the most likely diagnosis of intestinal perforation and general peritonitis. When the lower abdomen was opened by midline incision, about 200 ml of cloudy ascites was observed and the ileum became white in color and hard resulting from the radiation therapy. A perforation was identified in the ileum about 15 cm distant from the ileocecal valve, and a 1.5-cm sized thin and hard material was palpated within the intestine at the same portion. Ilececal resection including the perforated portion was performed and functional end-to-end anastomosis was made at a grossly normal area. There was a piece of eggshell 1.5-cm in size in the perforated portion in the resected specimen. From this together with histopathologial findings, perforation of the small intestine caused by a piece of eggshell associated with radiation enteritis was finally diagnosed. Small bowel perforation must be kept in mind as a possible late complication of radiation therapy, however, no cases of small bowel perforation caused by eggshell have been reported so far. This rare case is reported here, with a review of the literature. (author)

  15. Effect of waste synthetic bag pieces on the CBR value of expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Agarwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soils such as black cotton soil which are widely distributed in India have a tendency for volume changes due to change in moisture content. Also exhibits very low bearing capacity and high compressibility. Stabilization of such soil by admixture is used commonly now days. But no mix is suitable to improve all the types of soil. But it is obvious that depending on type of soil & type of admixture the optimum mix can be designed.  In this paper a mix has been designed to improve the bearing capacity of soil by using fly ash and lime mixture, reinforced with waste synthetic bag pieces. Various tests are carried out to determine the CBR value and other soil properties with and without using any admixture and reinforcement. The maximum value of CBR was found to be23.82% for 2.5 mm penetration and 22.21% for 5 mm penetration, when waste synthetic bag pieces of size 2 cm * 2 cm were used at a proportion of 0.1%.

  16. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process for the Spatial Work-pieces: a Model of the Workpiece and Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiselev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a spatial grinding dynamics mathematical model. This model includes a grinding wheel dynamics model, a work-piece dynamics model, and a numerical algorithm of geometric modeling as well. The geometric modeling algorithm is based on the Z-buffer method with author’s modifications. This algorithm allows us to simulate the formation of a new workpiece surface when removing material and as well as to determine the cutting layer thickness for each abrasive grain of the grinding wheel. The use of the surface cell bilinear approximation and the simultaneous use of multiple projection directions are the special features of the algorithm. These features improve modeling quality of machined surface. The grinding wheel model is represented as cutting micro-edges (grains set. Abrasive grains are randomly distributed on the wheel outer surface. Grains size, shape, wheel structure and graininess are taken into account. To determine the uncut chip thickness, which is cut off by each grain of the grinding wheel is used the algorithm, which finds intersection point of uncut work-piece surface with radial ray passing through the grain cutting edge. Grinding forces for each grain are defined based on the cutting layer thickness value using the phenomenological models described in the literature. Using transformations described in the article, grinding forces determined for each grain are reduced to the total grinding force, which acts on the tool and machined work-piece in the appropriate coordinate systems. Work-piece dynamics is modeled with the help of the finite element method using quadratic tetrahedral elements. The described model of spatial grinding dynamics makes it possible to evaluate the level of vibration and grinding forces, as well as the shape errors and surface quality of machined work-piece.

  17. Multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: missing pieces of an old puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanzadeh, Reza; Brück, Wolfgang; Minagar, Alireza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-08

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) was considered to be a CD4 T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity, compatible with experimental autoimmune encephalitis model, which can be characterized by focal lesions in the white matter. However, studies of recent decades revealed several missing pieces of MS puzzle and showed that MS pathogenesis is more complex than the traditional view and may include the following: a primary degenerative process (e.g. oligodendroglial pathology), generalized abnormality of normal-appearing brain tissue, pronounced gray matter pathology, involvement of innate immunity, and CD8 T cells and B cells. Here, we review these findings and discuss their implications in MS pathogenesis.

  18. Multiple piece turbine engine airfoil with a structural spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J [Orlando, FL

    2011-10-11

    A multiple piece turbine airfoil having an outer shell with an airfoil tip that is attached to a root with an internal structural spar is disclosed. The root may be formed from first and second sections that include an internal cavity configured to receive and secure the one or more components forming the generally elongated airfoil. The internal structural spar may be attached to an airfoil tip and place the generally elongated airfoil in compression. The configuration enables each component to be formed from different materials to reduce the cost of the materials and to optimize the choice of material for each component.

  19. Electrification: Connecting the Pieces in the Broader View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Chris C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    Presented at the SELECT Annual Meeting on September 26, 2017, this PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of connectivity and automation and how these new technologies will impact society in both known and unknown ways. Electrification challenges and opportunities are also outlined as without electrification, connectivity and automation will just magnify the negative health, climate and economic problems of the current transportation systems. Electrification can provide benefits while mitigating the negative consequences. And with careful connection of all of the pieces from materials up through controls, a sustainable transportation eco-system is attainable.

  20. Eight piece quadrupole magnet, method for aligning quadrupole magent pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, Mark S.; Liu, Jie; Donnelly, Aric T.; Downey, Joshua S.; Nudell, Jeremy J.; Jain, Animesh

    2018-01-30

    The invention provides an alternative to the standard 2-piece or 4-piece quadrupole. For example, an 8-piece and a 10-piece quadrupole are provided whereby the tips of each pole may be adjustable. Also provided is a method for producing a quadrupole using standard machining techniques but which results in a final tolerance accuracy of the resulting construct which is better than that obtained using standard machining techniques.

  1. Daily activity patterns of large and medium-sized mammals based on camera traps data in the Central Forest Nature Reserve, Valdai Upland, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Ogurtsov

    2018-06-01

    ˆ = 0.89. The seasonal variations of daily activity of all species were also shown. According to the results of factor analysis, each of the studied species was divided into one of three separate groups. The first group included species with a tendency to nocturnal activity (wolf, elk, hare, badger, and raccoon dog, the second group – cathemeral animals (bear and lynx. In the third group was only the wild boar, whose activity was associated with the evening hours. This is the first long-term continuous camera trap survey in Russia and it provides detailed daily activity patterns for multiple large and medium-sized sympatric mammals.

  2. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  3. Effect of training data size and noise level on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong

    2011-05-01

    Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased noise levels arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and noise level on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high noise levels in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/noise levels were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher noise data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower noise lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial level of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher noise training data.

  4. A comparison of accuracy validation methods for genomic and pedigree-based predictions of swine litter size traits using Large White and simulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, A M; Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Knauer, M T

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and determine the optimal validation method when comparing accuracy from single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP) to traditional pedigree-based BLUP. Field data included six litter size traits. Simulated data included ten replicates designed to mimic the field data in order to determine the method that was closest to the true accuracy. Data were split into training and validation sets. The methods used were as follows: (i) theoretical accuracy derived from the prediction error variance (PEV) of the direct inverse (iLHS), (ii) approximated accuracies from the accf90(GS) program in the BLUPF90 family of programs (Approx), (iii) correlation between predictions and the single-step GEBVs from the full data set (GEBV Full ), (iv) correlation between predictions and the corrected phenotypes of females from the full data set (Y c ), (v) correlation from method iv divided by the square root of the heritability (Y ch ) and (vi) correlation between sire predictions and the average of their daughters' corrected phenotypes (Y cs ). Accuracies from iLHS increased from 0.27 to 0.37 (37%) in the Large White. Approximation accuracies were very consistent and close in absolute value (0.41 to 0.43). Both iLHS and Approx were much less variable than the corrected phenotype methods (ranging from 0.04 to 0.27). On average, simulated data showed an increase in accuracy from 0.34 to 0.44 (29%) using ssGBLUP. Both iLHS and Y ch approximated the increase well, 0.30 to 0.46 and 0.36 to 0.45, respectively. GEBV Full performed poorly in both data sets and is not recommended. Results suggest that for within-breed selection, theoretical accuracy using PEV was consistent and accurate. When direct inversion is infeasible to get the PEV, correlating predictions to the corrected phenotypes divided by the square root of heritability is adequate given a large enough validation data set. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The Effect of Rotor Cruise Tip Speed, Engine Technology and Engine/Drive System RPM on the NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Wilkerson, Joseph; Maciolek, Robert; Vonderwell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year study was conducted under NASA NNA06BC41C Task Order 10 and NASA NNA09DA56C task orders 2, 4, and 5 to identify the most promising propulsion system concepts that enable rotor cruise tip speeds down to 54% of the hover tip speed for a civil tiltrotor aircraft. Combinations of engine RPM reduction and 2-speed drive systems were evaluated. Three levels of engine and the drive system advanced technology were assessed; 2015, 2025 and 2035. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified. Design variables included engine speed reduction, drive system speed reduction, technology, and rotor cruise propulsion efficiency. The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor, LCTR, aircraft served as the base vehicle concept for this study and was resized for over thirty combinations of operating cruise RPM and technology level, quantifying LCTR2 Gross Weight, size, and mission fuel. Additional studies show design sensitivity to other mission ranges and design airspeeds, with corresponding relative estimated operational cost. The lightest vehicle gross weight solution consistently came from rotor cruise tip speeds between 422 fps and 500 fps. Nearly equivalent results were achieved with operating at reduced engine RPM with a single-speed drive system or with a two-speed drive system and 100% engine RPM. Projected performance for a 2025 engine technology provided improved fuel flow over a wide range of operating speeds relative to the 2015 technology, but increased engine weight nullified the improved fuel flow resulting in increased aircraft gross weights. The 2035 engine technology provided further fuel flow reduction and 25% lower engine weight, and the 2035 drive system technology provided a 12% reduction in drive system weight. In combination, the 2035 technologies reduced aircraft takeoff gross weight by 14% relative to the 2015 technologies.

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of one-piece and two-piece small-diameter dental implants: In-vitro experimental and three-dimensional finite element analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li

    2016-09-01

    Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Well-Defined Cyclic Triblock Terpolymers: A Missing Piece of the Morphology Puzzle

    KAUST Repository

    Polymeropoulos, George

    2016-10-27

    Two well-defined cyclic triblock terpolymers, missing pieces of the terpolymer morphology puzzle, consisting of poly(isoprene), polystyrene, and poly(2-vinylpyridine), were synthesized by combining the Glaser coupling reaction with anionic polymerization. An α,ω-dihydroxy linear triblock terpolymer (OH-PI1,4-b-PS-b-P2VP-OH) was first synthesized followed by transformation of the OH to alkyne groups by esterification with pentynoic acid and cyclization by Glaser coupling. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) trace of the linear terpolymer precursor was shifted to lower elution time after cyclization, indicating the successful synthesis of the cyclic terpolymer. Additionally, the SEC trace of the cyclic terpolymer produced, after cleavage of the ester groups, shifted again practically to the position corresponding to the linear precursor. The first exploratory results on morphology showed the tremendous influence of the cyclic structure on the morphology of terpolymers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  9. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Bruggers, Ilse; de Vet, Emely

    2015-10-01

    People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. A 2×2 between-subjects experiment was conducted at two schools. Pupils were presented in class with cucumber that varied both in unit size (one piece v. pre-sliced) and portion size (one-third v. two-thirds of a cucumber). Children ate ad libitum during the morning break and filled in a survey. Primary schools in the centre of the Netherlands. Primary-school pupils (n 255) aged 8-13 years. Children ate 54 % more cucumber when served a large compared with a smaller portion (difference of 49 g; P<0·001). Large units did not impact consumption (P=0·58), but were considered as less convenient to eat than small units (P=0·001). Findings suggest that children's vegetable intake can be improved by serving larger portions in smaller-sized pieces.

  10. River network bedload model: a tool to investigate the impact of flow regulation on grain size distribution in a large Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport rates along rivers and the grain size distribution (GSD) of coarse channel bed sediment are the result of the long term balance between transport capacity and sediment supply. Transport capacity, mainly a function of channel geometry and flow competence, can be altered by changes in climatic forcing as well as by human activities. In Alpine rivers it is hydropower production systems that are the main causes of modification to the transport capacity of water courses through flow regulation, leading over longer time scales to the adjustment of river bed GSDs. We developed a river network bedload transport model to evaluate the impacts of hydropower on the transfer of sediments and the GSDs of the Upper Rhône basin, a 5,200 km2 catchment located in the Swiss Alps. Many large reservoirs for hydropower production have been built along the main tributaries of the Rhône River since the 1960s, resulting in a complex system of intakes, tunnels, and pumping stations. Sediment storage behind dams and intakes, is accompanied by altered discharge due to hydropower operations, mainly higher flow in winter and lower in summer. It is expected that this change in flow regime may have resulted in different bedload transport. However, due the non-linear, threshold-based nature of the relation between discharge and sediment mobilization, the effects of changed hydraulic conditions are not easily deducible, and because observations of bedload in pre- and post-dam conditions are usually not available, a modelling approach is often necessary. In our modelling approach, the river network is conceptualized as a series of connected links (river reaches). Average geometric characteristics of each link (width, length, and slope of cross section) are extracted from digital elevation data, while surface roughness coefficients are assigned based on the GSD. Under the assumptions of rectangular prismatic cross sections and normal flow conditions, bed shear stress is estimated

  11. Sand moulds milling for one-of-a-kind pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.; Calleja, A.; Olvera, D.; Peñafiel, F. J.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    Time to market is a critical measurement for today's foundry market. Combining 3D digitizing and sand blocks milling is possible to reduce this time. Avoiding the use of a wood pattern, this technique is useful for art pieces or unique parts, when only one component is necessary. The key of the proposed methodology is to achieve enough tool life with conventional tool qualities, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. A special study of tool wear is presented in this work, studying different tool materials and different sand types. Two examples of unique parts are also presented in this work following the proposed methodology in order to reduce time and cost for the rapid reproduction of very short batches.

  12. Scleral fixation of a single-piece multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertugrul; Basaran, M Resat; Gül, Adem

    2013-01-01

    We describe an ab interno technique for injector implantation of a one-piece multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Transscleral fixation of multifocal posterior chamber IOL implantation using an injector with ab interno technique was performed in an eye of a 9-year-old girl who had undergone pars plana lensectomy 2 years before for bilateral lens subluxation with unknown etiology. No major complications were encountered during a 3-month follow-up of the patient and excellent centration was observed during the follow-up period. Her preoperative best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity of 20/32 improved to uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/25. Closed-loop design of IOL served the function of eyelets and position of the IOL was provided using only a 2-point fixation. Intraoperative position adjustment of the IOL provided an excellent centralization of multifocal IOL.

  13. The RNA silencing pathway: the bits and pieces that matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular pathways are generally proposed on the basis of available experimental knowledge. The proposed pathways, however, may be inadequate to describe the phenomena they are supposed to explain. For instance, by means of concise mathematical models we are able to reveal shortcomings in the current description of the pathway of RNA silencing. The silencing pathway operates by cleaving siRNAs from dsRNA. siRNAs can associate with RISC, leading to the degradation of the target mRNA. We propose and analyze a few small extensions to the pathway: a siRNA degrading RNase, primed amplification of aberrant RNA pieces, and cooperation between aberrant RNA to trigger amplification. These extensions allow for a consistent explanation for various types of silencing phenomena, such as virus induced silencing, transgene and transposon induced silencing, and avoidance of self-reactivity, as well as for differences found between species groups.

  14. Resolving the Aerosol Piece of the Global Climate Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors affecting our ability to calculate climate forcing and estimate model predictive skill include direct radiative effects of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds. Several decades of Earth-observing satellite observations have produced a global aerosol column-amount (AOD) record, but an aerosol microphysical property record required for climate and many air quality applications is lacking. Surface-based photometers offer qualitative aerosol-type classification, and several space-based instruments map aerosol air-mass types under favorable conditions. However, aerosol hygroscopicity, mass extinction efficiency (MEE), and quantitative light absorption, must be obtained from in situ measurements. Completing the aerosol piece of the climate picture requires three elements: (1) continuing global AOD and qualitative type mapping from space-based, multi-angle imagers and aerosol vertical distribution from near-source stereo imaging and downwind lidar, (2) systematic, quantitative in situ observations of particle properties unobtainable from space, and (3) continuing transport modeling to connect observations to sources, and extrapolate limited sampling in space and time. At present, the biggest challenges to producing the needed aerosol data record are: filling gaps in particle property observations, maintaining global observing capabilities, and putting the pieces together. Obtaining the PDFs of key particle properties, adequately sampled, is now the leading observational deficiency. One simplifying factor is that, for a given aerosol source and season, aerosol amounts often vary, but particle properties tend to be repeatable. SAM-CAAM (Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses), a modest aircraft payload deployed frequently could fill this gap, adding value to the entire satellite data record, improving aerosol property assumptions in retrieval algorithms, and providing MEEs to translate between remote-sensing optical constraints

  15. Two-piece cryopreserved tracheal allotransplantation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyikesici, Tuncel; Tuncozgur, Bulent; Sanli, Maruf; Isik, Ahmet Feridun; Meteroglu, Fatih; Elbeyli, Levent

    2009-10-01

    For successful reconstruction with tracheal allotransplants following long tracheal resections, problems related to the preservation and vascularisation of the tracheal graft have to be solved. In this study, instead of using a long-segment single-piece graft, we used a graft that has been split into two. The aim was to use this graft after cryopreservation in order to ease neo-vascularisation and to maintain tracheal integrity by transplanting it to two separate regions of the dog cervical trachea. This experimental study was conducted in animal laboratories of the medical school on 11 half-blood dogs. The trachea obtained from the first dog was 8 cm in length; it was split into two pieces of 4 cm each and stored in the preservation solution at -80 degrees C for 4 weeks. Following this, the dog was sacrificed. Two 2 cm portions of cervical trachea were excised from the second dog. These parts were then reconstructed with two tracheal grafts of the same length as the cryopreserved ones. Ten dogs that were grouped into five groups of two dogs each underwent the same procedure. The subjects had a bronchoscopic evaluation on the third postoperative week. Anastomosis regions of the test tracheas were resected to be examined histopathologically. Seven subjects were found to have third-degree obstructions during bronchoscopy; two had close to fourth-degree obstructions. In the histopathological examination, contrary to the findings of the bronchoscopies, 75% of the anastomoses had intact epithelium. The cartilage was seen to have well-preserved structural characteristics in all the anastomoses. Twelve anastomoses had moderate, seven mild and one had severe inflammation. All anastomoses had either good or very good level of vascularisation. The integrity of the tracheal epithelium can be maintained with cryopreservation and split anastomosis technique. The cartilage preserves its structural characteristics despite losing its viability, thereby offering an advantage to

  16. Treatment, as radio-active waste, of large pieces of ∝-contaminated apparatus (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Capitaine, A.; Giachetto, I.

    1962-01-01

    Two solutions have been adopted: - removal of the material from its original container, treatment in a special container; - treatment of the material directly inside its original protective packing. The treatment of a fluorination oven illustrates the second process. After a thorough cleaning of the enclosure, the oven is fixed in and the contamination held in place by a varnish. The assembly is placed in a special container and covered with shaken-down concrete. The container is shut by means of a welded cover. The operations are carried out under reduced pressure. At the end of this process it is impossible to detect any residual radioactivity. (authors) [fr

  17. Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Edwards, G.J.; Marion, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Optical damage that results in large scale fracture has been observed in the large, high-fluence, fused-silica, spatial filter lenses on the Nova and Beamlet lasers. In nearly all cases damage occurs on the vacuum side of the lenses and because the vacuum side of the lens is under tensile stress this damage can lead to catastrophic crack growth if the flaw (damage) size exceeds the critical flaw size for SiO 2 . The damaged 52 cm Nova lenses fracture into two and sometimes three large pieces. Although under full vacuum load at the time they fracture, the Nova lenses do not implode. Rather the authors have observed that the pieces lock together and air slowly leaks into the vacuum spatial filter housing through the lens cracks. The Beamlet lenses have a larger aspect ratio and peak tensile stress than Nova. The peak tensile stress at the center of the output surface of the Beamlet lens is 1,490 psi versus 810 psi for Nova. During a recent Beamlet high energy shot, a damage spot on the lens grew to the critical flaw size and the lens imploded. Post shot data indicate the lens probably fractured into 5 to 7 pieces, however, unlike Nova, these pieces did not lock together. Analysis shows that the likely source of damage is contamination from pinhole blow-off or out-gassing of volatile materials within the spatial filter. Contamination degrades the antireflection properties of the sol-gel coating and reduces its damage threshold. By changing the design of the Beamlet lens it may be possible to insure that it fails safe by locking up in much that same manner as the Nova lens

  18. Diets high in resistent starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total...... resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P microbial composition towards butyrogenic...

  19. Methods for sorting out the defects according to size in automated ultrasonic testing of large-diameter thin-walled tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovkin, A.M.; Matveev, A.S

    1977-01-01

    Two methods have been considered of identifying defects according to their size in the course of an automated ultrasonic testing, namely, according to the echo-signal amplitude, and according to the conventional depth of a defect. The peculiar features of the second method are analyzed, and its equivalence to the first one is proved. For the purpose of identifying defects according to their conventional width, a technique is suggested of standartizing flaw detectors according to the control reflectors of two sizes

  20. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-20

    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  1. [Powder modification technology used for the preparation of the hydrophilic decoction pieces of indigo naturalis and the modification principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Liu, Jian-Yun; Qin, Chun-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Han, Li; Yang, Ming

    2013-07-01

    The hydrophilicity of the normal decoction pieces (NDP) of Indigo Naturalis is not good, therefore, it is not suit for decoctions. In this paper, powder modification technology is used and some NDP and alcohol are ground together in the vibromill to prepare the hydrophilic decoction pieces (HDP) of Indigo Naturalis. Initially, the properties of NDP, ultrafine decoction pieces (UDP) and HDP are compared, the hydrophilicity of UDP was promoted slightly, that of HDP is promoted dramatically. Then, three batches of Indigo Naturalis are prepared to HDP separately, but there is no obvious difference in the contact angle. Furthermore, the size distribution, surface area and micro-shape of HDP are bigger than that of UDP and smaller than NDP. The contents of indigo and indirubin in three decoction pieces are the same, as well as the species of inorganic substance, although there is a little difference in the proportion of five inorganic substances. The fact suggests the change of physical state and the qualitative and quantitative change of organism and inorganic substances are not the main factors to influence the hydrophilicity. In addition, hydroxyl, methylene and methyl can be identified at the wavenumber of 3 356 cm(-1) and 1 461 cm(-1) in infrared spectrum; the content of alcohol in HDP is 0.67% measured by gas chromatogram. The stability of HDP in the heating condition is studied, the fact suggests the hydrophilic effect of HDP at 40 degrees C is relatively stable. All above research suggests that the alcohol is the main factor to influence the hydrophilicity and maybe the intermolecular force which fixed alcohol molecule on the surface of Indigo Naturalis is the basic principle to produce the hydrophilicity.

  2. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  3. Preservation of refrigerated calf meat pieces by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouna, M.; Besbes, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Mahjoub, A.; Maalej, M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of five 60Co gamma radiation doses in the range of 1 to 5 kGy on chemical composition and bacteriological counts of pieces of calf meat, partially vacuum - packed before treatment, was studied during storage at + 4 degree C up to 28 days. In vivo thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) using dosimeters such as lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as a very sensitive procedure to control both dose delivered to the red meat and its degree of uniformity. These two parameters are generally recommended for the quality control of food irradiation process. While ionizing radiation doses of 1 or 2 kGy were unable to increase the shelf life of treated meat, doses of 3, 4 or 5 kGy were very efficient, and adequate to prevent completely the growth of microorganisms indicating faecal contamination such as total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae; they also kept constant the contents of total mesophilic flora and maintained radioresistant psychrotrophic microflora below the value inducing superficial putrefaction of meat (10 7 CFU cntdot g -1 ) at all storage times. Pathogenic germs producing contaminating toxins in foodstuffs such as Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic sulfite reducing bacteria were totally absent in both control and treated meat. When pieces of meat were irradiated with doses of 3, 4 or 5 kGy, microbial alcalinization and proteolysis revealed by total volatile basic nitrogen were very low during the whole storage period. In addition, total protein did not change as a result of treatment during that period. However, superficial browning and significant variations were observed in water - holding capacity and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contents in the free fat of treated meat. Ionizing radiation doses had no effect on weight losses and even on the variations of pH after heating of ground calf meat in double boiler at 50, 70 or 90 degree C up to 1 h. However, these modifications very sensitive to cooking temperature

  4. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel element containing an end piece for maintaining the column of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajot, Jacques; Rabellino, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear reactor fuel element described has an end piece for maintaining the column of fuel pellets in position inside the element cladding. This end piece has a central compression spring one end of which presses against the pellets and the other against a plug shaped piece fitted with a seat for the spring, a conical piece with an elastic ring around it diverging towards the end in contact with the spring and a head at the opposite end. The connection between the compression spring and the pellets is through an application piece. A central bore provided in the end piece helps balance the pressure inside the element. This element is particularly intended for liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactors [fr

  6. Individuality in harpsichord performance: disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Asselin, Pierre-Yves; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs) to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation) and random (performer) effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or expressive devices.

  7. Individuality in harpsichord performance: Disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eGingras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation and random (performer effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or

  8. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  9. The Influence of Pituitary Size on Outcome After Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy in a Large Cohort of Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah; Galac, S.; Tryfonidou, M. A.; Hesselink, J. W.; Penning, L. C.; Kooistra, H. S.; Meij, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is one of the treatment strategies in the comprehensive management of dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH). OBJECTIVES To describe the influence of pituitary size at time of pituitary gland surgery on long-term outcome. ANIMALS

  10. Cohabitants' perspective on housing adaptations: a piece of the puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbom, Marianne; Taei, Afsaneh; Ekstam, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Swedish state-funded healthcare system, housing adaptations are used to promote safe and independent living for disabled people in ordinary housing through the elimination of physical environmental barriers in the home. The aim of this study was to describe the cohabitants' expectations and experiences of how a housing adaptation, intended for the partner, would impact their everyday life. In-depth interviews were conducted with cohabitants of nine people applying for a housing adaptation, initially at the time of the application and then again 3 months after the housing adaptation was installed. A longitudinal analysis was performed including analysis procedures from Grounded Theory. The findings revealed the expectations and experiences in four categories: partners' activities and independence; cohabitants' everyday activities and caregiving; couples' shared recreational/leisure activities; and housing decisions. A core category putting the intervention into perspective was called 'Housing adaptations - A piece of the puzzle'. From the cohabitants' perspective, new insights on housing adaptations emerged, which are important to consider when planning and carrying out successful housing adaptations. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (pappliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (pappliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  12. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Large birth size does not reduce the negative latent effects of harsh environmental conditions across life stages in two coral species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.C.; Marhaver, K.L.; Chamberland, V.F.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful

  14. Numerical Modeling of the Work Piece Region in the Plasma Arc Cutting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhouse, David

    The plasma arc cutting process is widely used for the cutting of metals. The process, however, is not fully understood and further understanding will lead to further improvements. This work aims to elucidate the fundamental physical phenomena in the region where the plasma interacts with the work piece through the use of numerical modeling techniques. This model follows standard computational fluid dynamic methods that have been suitably modified to include plasma effects, assuming either local thermodynamic equilibrium or a slight non-equilibrium captured by the two-temperature assumption. This is implemented in the general purpose, open source CFD package, OpenFOAM. The model is applied to a plasma flow through a geometry that extends from inside the plasma torch to the bottom of the slot cut in the work piece. The shape of the kerf is taken from experimental measurements. The results of this model include the temperature, velocity, and electrical current distribution throughout the plasma. From this, the heat flux to and drag force on the work piece are calculated. The location of the arc attachment in the cut slot is also noted because it is a matter of interest in the published literature as well as significantly effecting the dynamics of the heat flux and drag force. The results of this model show that the LTE formulation is not sufficient to capture the physics present due to unphysical fluid dynamic instabilities and numerical problems with the arc attachment. The two-temperature formulation, however, captures a large part of the physics present. Of particular note, it is found that an additional inelastic collision factor is necessary to describe the increased energy transfer between electrons and diatomic molecules, which is widely neglected in published literature. It is also found that inclusion of the oxygen molecular ion is necessary to accurately describe the plasma flow, which has been neglected in all published two-temperature oxygen calculations

  15. Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthipun, A. A.; Taylor, J.; Manyonda, I.; Belli, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as ≥10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as ≥750 cm 3 ; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with ≥4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

  16. Large body size and sedentary lifestyle during childhood and early adulthood and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, A; Golozar, A; Kamangar, F; Freedman, N D; Shakeri, R; Matthews, C; Islami, F; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Abnet, C C; Malekzadeh, R; Dawsey, S M

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the association of obesity and physical activity at young ages with subsequent risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Between 2003 and 2007, we conducted a case-control study in a high-risk population in northeastern Iran. Three hundred ESCC cases and 571 matched controls were recruited. Each individual was shown a standard pictogram, to report body size at ages 15 and 30. Demographic and health-related information, including physical activity at these ages was also collected. In the fully adjusted models, very obese body size (last two pictograms) at age 15 [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-7.7] and age 30 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.1-8.5) were associated with ESCC in women, but not in men. Sedentary work at age 15 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.3) and 30 (OR 18.2, 95% CI 3.9-86.2) were also associated with ESCC risk in women only. The increased risk in women at age 15 remained high after later reduction in body size, while women who became very obese only at age 30 did not show a significantly increased risk. These results highlight the importance of early lifestyle modifications in the context of cancer prevention, particularly in women.

  17. Method for Determination of Neptunium in Large-Sized Urine Samples Using Manganese Dioxide Coprecipitation and 242Pu as Yield Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of 237Np. 242Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of 237Np. A sequential injection extraction chr...... and rapid analysis of neptunium contamination level for emergency preparedness....

  18. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology (China)

    2017-02-15

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H{sub 2} system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  19. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing

    2017-01-01

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H_2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  20. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb{sub 3}Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Corte, A; Corato, V; Di Zenobio, A; Fiamozzi Zignani, C; Muzzi, L; Polli, G M; Reccia, L; Turtu, S [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bruzzone, P [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Salpietro, E [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vostner, A, E-mail: antonio.dellacorte@enea.i [Fusion for Energy, c/ Josep Pla 2, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb{sub 3}Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb{sub 3}Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb{sub 3}Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  1. Performance-Based Design Optimization of a Transition Piece for Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with optimization of the shape of the transition piece connecting turbine column with a suction bucket used as a monopod foundation for an offshore wind turbine. The structural behaviour of a transition piece made of compact reinforced composite (CRC) is analysed. Several...

  2. Short- and Long-Term Musical Preferences: What Makes a Favourite Piece of Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Webb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Within the growing field of music preferences, little is currently known about the concept of a favourite piece of music. The current study explores listeners' nominated favourite pieces of music over short and longer time-spans, combining diary and interview methods to uncover what a favourite means, how stable it is, and what factors influence…

  3. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama; Vitor Gomes Baioco; William Brasil Rodrigues Sobrinho; Alfredo Sarlo Neto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991) models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997) mod...

  4. Inventory of medium-sized and large mammals in the wetlands of Laguna de Terminos and Pantanos de Centla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Mihart,Mircea G.; Contreras-Moreno,Fernando M.; Jesús-de la Cruz,Alejandro; Juárez-López,Rugieri; Bravata de la Cruz,Yaribeth; Pérez-Solano,Luz A.; Hernández-Lara,Carolina; Friedeberg,Diana; Thornton,Dan; Koller-González,Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. However, they have received little attention in the tropics. Biodiversity data from the Terminos-Centla wetlands is limited despite the conservation efforts to protect these wetlands. In this study we list the medium-szied and large mammals from 8 sites within the Terminos-Centla wetlands. We recorded 30 native and 1 introduced species, representing 9 orders, 14 families, and 27 genera. Four of the recorded species are Threatene...

  5. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991 models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997 model of conditional conservatism and the value relevance model, based on Ohlson (1995. The results appointed that, although the Large Caps present a higher level of conservatism, their accounting figures were less informative and more relevant when compared to the Large Caps companies. Due to the greater production of private information (predisclosure surrounding larger companies, the market would tend to respond less strongly or surprised to the publication of these companies’ accounting information, while the lack of anticipated information would make the effect of disclosing these figures more preponderant for the Small Caps companies.

  6. RF-source development for ITER: Large area H- beam extraction, modifications for long pulse operation and design of a half size ITER source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Entscheva, A.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Holtum, D.; Martens, Ch.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    With an extraction area of 152 cm 2 a calorimetrically measured H - current density of 19.3 mA/cm 2 has been achieved at 0.45 Pa with 90 kW RF power. With 306 cm 2 the electrically measured H - current has reached up to 9.7 A corresponding to 32 mA/cm 2 at 100 kW. The current on the calorimeter is limited by the extraction system. Down to 0.2 Pa only a weak dependence on the source pressure has been observed. The test bed will be upgraded to demonstrate cw operation with deuterium. Based on the tested prototype a half size ITER RF-source of 80 cm x 90 cm with 360 kW RF power has been designed

  7. Comparison of runaway electron generation parameters in small, medium-sized and large tokamaks—A survey of experiments in COMPASS, TCV, ASDEX-Upgrade and JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Reux, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pautasso, G.; Decker, J.; Papp, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Coda, S.; Riccardo, V.; Lomas, P.; Jachmich, S.; Shevelev, A. E.; Alper, B.; Khilkevitch, E.; Martin, Y.; Dux, R.; Fuchs, C.; Duval, B.; Brix, M.; Tardini, G.; Maraschek, M.; Treutterer, W.; Giannone, L.; Mlynek, A.; Ficker, O.; Martin, P.; Gerasimov, S.; Potzel, S.; Paprok, R.; McCarthy, P. J.; Imrisek, M.; Boboc, A.; Lackner, K.; Fernandes, A.; Havlicek, J.; Giacomelli, L.; Vlainic, M.; Nocente, M.; Kruezi, U.; COMPASS Team; TCV Team; ASDEX-Upgrade Team; EUROFusion MST1 Team; contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the experiments on runaway electrons (RE) carried out recently in frames of EUROFusion Consortium in different tokamaks: COMPASS, ASDEX-Upgrade, TCV and JET. Massive gas injection (MGI) has been used in different scenarios for RE generation in small and medium-sized tokamaks to elaborate the most efficient and reliable ones for future RE experiments. New data on RE generated at disruptions in COMPASS and ASDEX-Upgrade was collected and added to the JET database. Different accessible parameters of disruptions, such as current quench rate, conversion rate of plasma current into runaways, etc have been analysed for each tokamak and compared to JET data. It was shown, that tokamaks with larger geometrical sizes provide the wider limits for spatial and temporal variation of plasma parameters during disruptions, thus extending the parameter space for RE generation. The second part of experiments was dedicated to study of RE generation in stationary discharges in COMPASS, TCV and JET. Injection of Ne/Ar have been used to mock-up the JET MGI runaway suppression experiments. Secondary RE avalanching was identified and quantified for the first time in the TCV tokamak in RE generating discharges after massive Ne injection. Simulations of the primary RE generation and secondary avalanching dynamics in stationary discharges has demonstrated that RE current fraction created via avalanching could achieve up to 70-75% of the total plasma current in TCV. Relaxations which are reminiscent the phenomena associated to the kinetic instability driven by RE have been detected in RE discharges in TCV. Macroscopic parameters of RE dominating discharges in TCV before and after onset of the instability fit well to the empirical instability criterion, which was established in the early tokamaks and examined by results of recent numerical simulations.

  8. Determinants of Buying Behavior of Grain Producers: A Multiple Case Study with Mid and Large Size Producers in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fava Scare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian agribusiness has demanded for inputs, capital goods, financial services and technology. In addition, there have been changes in the size of the properties, as well as in risk management and commercialization practices, and level of education and posture of those responsible for the decision making of agricultural enterprises. It is fundamental for companies that supply inputs and services to farmers to understand some variables in such changing environment, considering that they influence the business model and the buying behavior of rural producers. The purpose of this study is to develop knowledge and familiarity with the buying behavior of grain farmers in the State of Mato Grosso, with the intent of understanding how this behavior can be influenced by theproducer's profile and the farm features, as well as the risk and business management practices, the decision making, the sources of information, and the products and suppliers. In order to achieve such a goal,a multiple case study was developed by interviewing, face to face, three grain producers, from the State of Mato Grosso. The results demonstrate that the most influential determinants on the buying behavior of the interviewed producers were their level of involvement in the decision making process, the benefit they expect from each type of product, the size of their farming operation, the kind of yield production, and the crop rotation and its relation to productivity. Additionally, the ownership or not of the land, the business profitability, credit restrictions and risk management, they all influence the level of the producer's capitalization and consequently his choices of channels for acquiring inputs and capital goods. Last, though not less important, the sources of information and their reliability have an impact on the producer's loyalty to a brand, or to a local distributor or to a salesperson.

  9. T-piece resuscitators: how do they compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinder, Murray; McEwan, Alistair; Drevhammer, Thomas; Donaldson, Snorri; Tracy, Mark Brian

    2018-05-04

    The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance of different TPR devices in a controlled bench test study. Single operator provided positive pressure ventilation to an incremental testlung compliance (Crs) model (0.5-5 mL/cmH 2 O) with five different brands of TPR device (Atom, Neopuff, rPAP, GE Panda warmer and Draeger Resuscitaire). At recommended peak inflation pressure (PIP) 20 cmH 2 O, PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and rate of 60 inflations per minute. 1864 inflations were analysed. Four of the five devices tested demonstrated inadvertent elevations in mean PEEP (5.5-10.3 cmH 2 O, p<0.001) from set value as Crs was increased, while one device (rPAP) remained at the set value. Measured PIP exceeded the set value in two infant warmer devices (GE and Draeger) with inbuilt TPR at Crs of 0.5 (24.5 and 23.5 cmH 2 O, p<0.001). Significant differences were seen in tidal volumes across devices particularly at higher Crs (p<0.001). Results show important variation in delivered ventilation from set values due to inherent TPR device design characteristics with a range of lung compliances expected at birth. Device-generated inadvertent PEEP and overdelivery of PIP may be clinically deleterious for term and preterm newborns or infants with larger Crs during resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alia S; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is a common condition affecting over six million American women. Treatment of dermal or combined melasma is difficult and does not respond well to conventional topical therapies. Various light sources have been used recently in the treatment of melasma including fractionated ablative and non-ablative lasers as well as intense pulse light. We report the use of low fluence, large spot size Q-switched, Nd:Yag laser for the treatment of melasma in skin types II-IV.

  11. Study on characteristics of response to nodal vibration in a main hull of a large-size ferry boat; Ogata feri no shusentai yodo oto tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, T; Yamamoto, A; Kasuda, T; Yanagi, K [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    Demand for reduction in vibration and noise in large-size ferry boats has been severer in recent years. On the other hand, vibration exciting force in main engines and propellers is on an increasing trend in association with increase in speed and horsepower. A large-size ferry boat uses an intermediate-speed diesel engine which has high vibration exciting frequency. Therefore, discussions were given on characteristics of response to nodal vibration in a main hull induced by primary internal moment in a main engine in a large-size ferry boat mounting an intermediate speed main engine. Results of detailed vibration calculations, vibration experiments using an actual ship, and results of measurements were used for the discussions. Natural frequency for two-node vibration above and below the main hull was set for an equation of estimation such that the whole ship is hypothesized to have been structured with beams having the same cross section according to the Todd`s equation, and effect of rigidity of the long structure can be evaluated. Parameters were derived by using the minimum square method that uses the measured natural frequency of the ship A through the ship E among large-size ferry boats. The derived result may be summarized as follows: this equation of estimation has an estimation error of about 5% against the natural frequency for nodal vibration above and below the main hull; and this equation of estimation has an estimation error of about 30% against the acceleration in the vertical direction at the end of the stern. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  13. Precision templates for gluing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C; Cerrada, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns. In sizes of the order of 3 meters. has been achieved. (Author) 2 refs

  14. Precision templates for glueing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C.; Cerrada, M.

    1995-09-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns, in sizes of the order of 3 meters has been achieved

  15. Fabrication of low cost high performance large size composite structures by electron beam curing (EBC); Denshisen koka (EBC) ni yoru tei cost koseino ogata fukugozai kozo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, K.; Parrot, P.

    1996-03-15

    This article introduces the electron beam curing (EBC), which is high speed non-heating cure technique for the high performance resin for structures, conducted by Aerospacial Co., Ltd. In this technique, very strong electron beam and X-ray are used in response to the thickness of curing region of members, and the muzzle has energy of 10 MeV as permeation control energy and power of 20 kW as cure time control power. Advantages of fabrication of composite products by EBC is derived from the elimination of exoergic and heating curing processes and the local cure molding. For the EBC, the residual stress is not generated, the size is stable, the insertion of different materials is easy without mismatch of thermal expansion between the composites and metals, the homogeneous bridge can be obtained to stabilize the material quality, the processing time can be shortened, it is suitable to mass production, and the cure of products can be controlled. About 30% to 40% of the cost of products can be reduced. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  17. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kanaya, Yugo; Saito, Masahiko

    2017-07-05

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (Eurasia (15,256 km 2 ) could have been ~16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km 2 ) when applying the correction factors proposed in this study. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  18. Chromatin immunoprecipitation improvements for the processing of small frozen pieces of adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castellano-Castillo

    Full Text Available Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP has gained importance to identify links between the genome and the proteome. Adipose tissue has emerged as an active tissue, which secretes a wide range of molecules that have been related to metabolic and obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes, cardiovascular failure, metabolic syndrome, or cancer. In turn, epigenetics has raised the importance in discerning the possible relationship between metabolic disorders, lifestyle and environment. However, ChIP application in human adipose tissue is limited by several factors, such as sample size, frozen sample availability, high lipid content and cellular composition of the tissue. Here, we optimize the standard protocol of ChIP for small pieces of frozen human adipose tissue. In addition, we test ChIP for the histone mark H3K4m3, which is related to active promoters, and validate the performance of the ChIP by analyzing gene promoters for factors usually studied in adipose tissue using qPCR. Our improvements result in a higher performance in chromatin shearing and DNA recovery of adipocytes from the tissue, which may be useful for ChIP-qPCR or ChIP-seq analysis.

  19. Dual Delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF from a New Nano-Composite Scaffold, Loaded with Vascular Stents for Large-Size Mandibular Defect Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and advantages of the dual delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF from nano-composite scaffolds (PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with vascular stents (PLCL/Col/nHA for large bone defect regeneration in rabbit mandibles. Thirty-six large bone defects were repaired in rabbits using engineering bone composed of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, bFGF, BMP-2 and scaffolds composed of PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with PLCL/Col/nHA. The experiments were divided into six groups: BMSCs/bFGF/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/bFGF/scaffold, BMSCs/scaffold, scaffold alone and no treatment. Sodium alginate hydrogel was used as the carrier for BMP-2 and bFGF and its features, including gelling, degradation and controlled release properties, was detected by the determination of gelation and degradation time coupled with a controlled release study of bovine serum albumin (BSA. AlamarBlue assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity were used to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in different groups. X-ray and histological examinations of the samples were performed after 4 and 12 weeks post-implantation to clarify new bone formation in the mandible defects. The results verified that the use of sodium alginate hydrogel as a controlled release carrier has good sustained release ability, and the combined application of bFGF and BMP-2 could significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. In addition, X-ray and histological examinations of the samples exhibited that the dual release group had significantly higher bone formation than the other groups. The above results indicate that the delivery of both growth factors could enhance new bone formation and vascularization compared with delivery of BMP-2 or bFGF alone, and may supply a promising way of repairing large

  20. Measurement of behavior of secondary sealing areas of rotary engine apex seals - Two-piece nonsplit and three-piece slanted horizontal split types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Terasaki, Kazuo; Yamane, Katsuki

    1992-12-01

    Behavior measurements have been made with two displacement sensors and an underseal pressure sensor, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor research engine equipped with a packaged multichannel slip ring. The two-piece seal was tilted to the leading and trailing sides of a seal slot during its travel along the rotor housing surface and vibrated on the top end of the leading side of the slot as a fulcrum after the shift from the trailing to the leading side of the slot after the minor axis on the spark plug side. As for the three-piece seal, its top part was also tilted in all operating conditions, although its bottom part made effective area contact with the side of the slot under light load conditions up to medium engine speeds. The working chamber pressure was induced in the underseal in the same manner as with the two-piece type.