WorldWideScience

Sample records for large scale monitoring

  1. Radiations: large scale monitoring in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, M.; Khalatbari, A.

    2011-01-01

    As the consequences of radioactive leaks on their health are a matter of concern for Japanese people, a large scale epidemiological study has been launched by the Fukushima medical university. It concerns the two millions inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture. On the national level and with the support of public funds, medical care and follow-up, as well as systematic controls are foreseen, notably to check the thyroid of 360.000 young people less than 18 year old and of 20.000 pregnant women in the Fukushima Prefecture. Some measurements have already been performed on young children. Despite the sometimes rather low measures, and because they know that some parts of the area are at least as much contaminated as it was the case around Chernobyl, some people are reluctant to go back home

  2. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamony, Ram [IBM Research, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  3. Glass badge dosimetry system for large scale personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimichi Juto

    2002-01-01

    Glass Badge using silver activated phosphate glass dosemeter was specially developed for large scale personal monitoring. And dosimetry systems such as an automatic leader and a dose equipment calculation algorithm were developed at once to achieve reasonable personal monitoring. In large scale personal monitoring, both of precision for dosimetry and confidence for lot of personal data handling become very important. The silver activated phosphate glass dosemeter has basically excellent characteristics for dosimetry such as homogeneous and stable sensitivity, negligible fading and so on. Glass Badge was designed to measure 10 keV - 10 MeV range of photon. 300 keV - 3 MeV range of beta, and 0.025 eV - 15 MeV range of neutron by included SSNTD. And developed Glass Badge dosimetry system has not only these basic characteristics but also lot of features to keep good precision for dosimetry and data handling. In this presentation, features of Glass Badge dosimetry systems and examples for practical personal monitoring systems will be presented. (Author)

  4. LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, Marian; Hook, Nicholas; Lansdale, Thomas Hector; Lenkes, Daniel; Siket, Miroslav; Waldron, Denis; Fedorko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

  5. DNSSM: A Large Scale Passive DNS Security Monitoring Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal , Samuel; François , Jérôme; Wagner , Cynthia; State , Radu; Dulaunoy , Alexandre; Engel , Thomas; Festor , Olivier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present a monitoring approach and the supporting software architecture for passive DNS traffic. Monitoring DNS traffic can reveal essential network and system level activity profiles. Worm infected and botnet participating hosts can be identified and malicious backdoor communications can be detected. Any passive DNS monitoring solution needs to address several challenges that range from architectural approaches for dealing with large volumes of data up to specific D...

  6. Self managing monitoring for highly elastic large scale Cloud deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Barker, Adam David

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service computing exhibits a number of properties, which are not found in conventional server deployments. Elasticity is among the most significant of these properties which has wide reaching implications for applications deployed in cloud hosted VMs. Among the applications affected by elasticity is monitoring. In this paper we investigate the challenges of monitoring large cloud deployments and how these challenges differ from previous monitoring problems. In order to mee...

  7. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  8. Monitoring and Information Fusion for Search and Rescue Operations in Large-Scale Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nardi, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    ... for information fusion with application to search-and-rescue and large scale disaster relief. The objective is to develop and to deploy tools to support the monitoring activities in an intervention caused by a large-scale disaster...

  9. Configuration monitoring tool for large-scale distributed computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Graham, G.; Lu, X.; Afaq, A.; Kim, B.J.; Fisk, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will likely use a grid system to achieve much of its offline processing need. Given the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of grid systems, it is desirable to have in place a configuration monitor. The configuration monitoring tool is built using the Globus toolkit and web services. It consists of an information provider for the Globus MDS, a relational database for keeping track of the current and old configurations, and client interfaces to query and administer the configuration system. The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI), together with EDG Java Security packages, are used for secure authentication and transparent access to the configuration information across the CMS grid. This work has been prototyped and tested using US-CMS grid resources

  10. Configuration monitoring tool for large-scale distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Y; Fisk, I; Graham, G; Kim, B J; Lü, X

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will likely use a grid system to achieve much of its offline processing need. Given the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of grid systems, it is desirable to have in place a configuration monitor. The configuration monitoring tool is built using the Globus toolkit and web services. It consists of an information provider for the Globus MDS, a relational database for keeping track of the current and old configurations, and client interfaces to query and administer the configuration system. The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI), together with EDG Java Security packages, are used for secure authentication and transparent access to the configuration information across the CMS grid. This work has been prototyped and tested using US-CMS grid resources.

  11. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  12. Dose monitoring in large-scale flowing aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruca, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Miami Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) has been in operation for six years. The EBRF houses a 1.5 MV, 75 KW DC scanned electron beam. Experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of high-energy electron irradiation in the removal of toxic organic chemicals from contaminated water and the disinfection of various wastewater streams. The large-scale plant operates at approximately 450 L/min (120 gal/min). The radiation dose absorbed by the flowing aqueous streams is estimated by measuring the difference in water temperature before and after it passes in front of the beam. Temperature measurements are made using resistance temperature devices (RTDs) and recorded by computer along with other operating parameters. Estimated dose is obtained from the measured temperature differences using the specific heat of water. This presentation will discuss experience with this measurement system, its application to different water presentation devices, sources of error, and the advantages and disadvantages of its use in large-scale process applications

  13. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatta Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges along the export lines are now crossed by heavier and longer trains with more frequent train passages than in the past. Increasing train loading might lead to significant consequences on structures such as dynamic amplifications and reduction of service life due to fatigue. Hence dynamic assessment and monitoring of the structural condition of bridges under actual train loading are becoming more relevant to support decision making processes. The paper presents the investigations carried out on the Olifants River Viaduct, a critical structure along the Iron Ore Export Line, in order to implement a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system.

  14. State of the Art in Large-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Tyson E.; Cosh, Michael Harold; Cuenca, Richard H.; Dorigo, Wouter; Draper, Clara S.; Hagimoto, Yutaka; Kerr, Yan H.; Larson, Kristine M.; Njoku, Eni Gerald; Small, Eric E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an essential climate variable influencing land atmosphere interactions, an essential hydrologic variable impacting rainfall runoff processes, an essential ecological variable regulating net ecosystem exchange, and an essential agricultural variable constraining food security. Large-scale soil moisture monitoring has advanced in recent years creating opportunities to transform scientific understanding of soil moisture and related processes. These advances are being driven by researchers from a broad range of disciplines, but this complicates collaboration and communication. For some applications, the science required to utilize large-scale soil moisture data is poorly developed. In this review, we describe the state of the art in large-scale soil moisture monitoring and identify some critical needs for research to optimize the use of increasingly available soil moisture data. We review representative examples of 1) emerging in situ and proximal sensing techniques, 2) dedicated soil moisture remote sensing missions, 3) soil moisture monitoring networks, and 4) applications of large-scale soil moisture measurements. Significant near-term progress seems possible in the use of large-scale soil moisture data for drought monitoring. Assimilation of soil moisture data for meteorological or hydrologic forecasting also shows promise, but significant challenges related to model structures and model errors remain. Little progress has been made yet in the use of large-scale soil moisture observations within the context of ecological or agricultural modeling. Opportunities abound to advance the science and practice of large-scale soil moisture monitoring for the sake of improved Earth system monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  15. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  16. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  17. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiakakis Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions.

  18. High-Performance Monitoring Architecture for Large-Scale Distributed Systems Using Event Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, K.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential process to observe and improve the reliability and the performance of large-scale distributed (LSD) systems. In an LSD environment, a large number of events is generated by the system components during its execution or interaction with external objects (e.g. users or processes). Monitoring such events is necessary for observing the run-time behavior of LSD systems and providing status information required for debugging, tuning and managing such applications. However, correlated events are generated concurrently and could be distributed in various locations in the applications environment which complicates the management decisions process and thereby makes monitoring LSD systems an intricate task. We propose a scalable high-performance monitoring architecture for LSD systems to detect and classify interesting local and global events and disseminate the monitoring information to the corresponding end- points management applications such as debugging and reactive control tools to improve the application performance and reliability. A large volume of events may be generated due to the extensive demands of the monitoring applications and the high interaction of LSD systems. The monitoring architecture employs a high-performance event filtering mechanism to efficiently process the large volume of event traffic generated by LSD systems and minimize the intrusiveness of the monitoring process by reducing the event traffic flow in the system and distributing the monitoring computation. Our architecture also supports dynamic and flexible reconfiguration of the monitoring mechanism via its Instrumentation and subscription components. As a case study, we show how our monitoring architecture can be utilized to improve the reliability and the performance of the Interactive Remote Instruction (IRI) system which is a large-scale distributed system for collaborative distance learning. The filtering mechanism represents an Intrinsic component integrated

  19. On a digital wireless impact-monitoring network for large-scale composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qiu, Lei; Ren, Yuanqiang

    2014-01-01

    Impact, which may occur during manufacture, service or maintenance, is one of the major concerns to be monitored throughout the lifetime of aircraft composite structures. Aiming at monitoring impacts online while minimizing the weight added to the aircraft to meet the strict limitations of aerospace engineering, this paper puts forward a new digital wireless network based on miniaturized wireless digital impact-monitoring nodes developed for large-scale composite structures. In addition to investigations on the design methods of the network architecture, time synchronization and implementation method, a conflict resolution method based on the feature parameters of digital sequences is first presented to address impact localization conflicts when several nodes are arranged close together. To verify the feasibility and stability of the wireless network, experiments are performed on a complex aircraft composite wing box and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) composite wing. Experimental results show the successful design of the presented network. (paper)

  20. The integration of novel diagnostics techniques for multi-scale monitoring of large civil infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soldovieri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, structural monitoring of large infrastructures (buildings, dams, bridges or more generally man-made structures has raised an increased attention due to the growing interest about safety and security issues and risk assessment through early detection. In this framework, aim of the paper is to introduce a new integrated approach which combines two sensing techniques acting on different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon, which allows a spatially and temporally continuous monitoring of the structure with a "low" spatial resolution (meter. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, which can provide detailed images of the inner status of the structure (with a spatial resolution less then tens centimetres, but does not allow a temporal continuous monitoring. The paper describes the features of these two techniques and provides experimental results concerning preliminary test cases.

  1. Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on Orthoptera communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penone, Caterina; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pellissier, Vincent; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Biodiversity monitoring at large spatial and temporal scales is greatly needed in the context of global changes. Although insects are a species-rich group and are important for ecosystem functioning, they have been largely neglected in conservation studies and policies, mainly due to technical and methodological constraints. Sound detection, a nondestructive method, is easily applied within a citizen-science framework and could be an interesting solution for insect monitoring. However, it has not yet been tested at a large scale. We assessed the value of a citizen-science program in which Orthoptera species (Tettigoniidae) were monitored acoustically along roads. We used Bayesian model-averaging analyses to test whether we could detect widely known patterns of anthropogenic effects on insects, such as the negative effects of urbanization or intensive agriculture on Orthoptera populations and communities. We also examined site-abundance correlations between years and estimated the biases in species detection to evaluate and improve the protocol. Urbanization and intensive agricultural landscapes negatively affected Orthoptera species richness, diversity, and abundance. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies of Orthoptera, vertebrates, carabids, and butterflies. The average mass of communities decreased as urbanization increased. The dispersal ability of communities increased as the percentage of agricultural land and, to a lesser extent, urban area increased. Despite changes in abundances over time, we found significant correlations between yearly abundances. We identified biases linked to the protocol (e.g., car speed or temperature) that can be accounted for ease in analyses. We argue that acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera along roads offers several advantages for assessing Orthoptera biodiversity at large spatial and temporal extents, particularly in a citizen science framework. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boivin

    Full Text Available Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada. The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession. The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1 a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2 a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high, but even then the influence was quite small.

  3. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Frédéric; Simard, Anouk; Peres-Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada). The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession). The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1) a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2) a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high), but even then the influence was quite small.

  4. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  5. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Hierarchical fiber-optic-based sensing system: impact damage monitoring of large-scale CFRP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsukamoto, Haruka

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a novel fiber-optic-based hierarchical sensing concept for monitoring randomly induced damage in large-scale composite structures. In a hierarchical system, several kinds of specialized devices are hierarchically combined to form a sensing network. Specifically, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with an optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed devices detect damage, and the fiber-optic network gathers the damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of a hierarchical sensing system through comparison with existing fiber-optic-based systems, and an impact damage detection system was then proposed to validate the new concept. The sensor devices were developed based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), and Brillouin-based distributed strain measurement was utilized to identify damaged areas. Verification tests were conducted step-by-step, beginning with a basic test using a single sensor unit, and, finally, the proposed monitoring system was successfully verified using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fuselage demonstrator. It was clearly confirmed that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and a wider monitorable area compared to existing systems

  7. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or

  8. Development of solution monitoring software for enhanced safeguards at a large scale reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Handenhove, Carl; Breban, Domnica; Creusot, Christophe [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dransart, Pascal; Dechamp, Luc [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Varese, (Italy); Jarde, Eric [Euriware, Equeurdreville (France)

    2011-12-15

    The implementation of an effective and efficient IAEA safeguards approach at large scale reprocessing facilities with large throughput and continuous flow of nuclear material requires the introduction of enhanced safeguards measures to provide added assurance about the absence of diversion of nuclear material and confirmation that the facility is operated as declared. One of the enhanced safeguards measures, a Solution Monitoring and Measurement System (SMMS), comprising data collection instruments, data transmission equipment and an advanced Solution Monitoring Software (SMS), is being implemented at a large scale reprocessing plant in Japan. SMS is designed as a tool to enable automatic calculations of volumes, densities and flow-rates in selected process vessels, including most of the vessels of the main nuclear material stream. This software also includes automatic features to support the inspectorate in verifying inventories and inventory changes. The software also enables one to analyze the flows of nuclear material within the process and of specified 'cycles' of operation, and, in order to provide assurance that the facility is being operated as declared to compare these with those expected (reference signatures). The configuration and parameterization work (especially the analytical and comparative work) for the implementation and configuration of the SMS has been carried out jointly between the IAEA, Euriware-France (the software developer) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC)-Ispra. This paper describes the main features of the SMS, including the principles underlying the automatic analysis functionalities. It then focuses on the collaborative work performed by the JRC-Ispra, Euriware and the IAEA for the parameterization of the software (vessels and cycles of operation), including the current status and the future challenges.

  9. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Flexible Sensor for Human Sleep Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoheng Ding

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG and its application as a sensor is a popular research subject. There is demand for self-powered, flexible sensors with high sensitivity and high power-output for the next generation of consumer electronics. In this study, a 300 mm × 300 mm carbon nanotube (CNT-doped porous PDMS film was successfully fabricated wherein the CNT influenced the micropore structure. A self-powered TENG tactile sensor was established according to triboelectric theory. The CNT-doped porous TENG showed a voltage output seven times higher than undoped porous TENG and 16 times higher than TENG with pure PDMS, respectively. The TENG successfully acquired human motion signals, breath signals, and heartbeat signals during a sleep monitoring experiment. The results presented here may provide an effective approach for fabricating large-scale and low-cost flexible TENG sensors.

  10. A KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection framework for large-scale processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shardt, Yuri A W; Chen, Zhiwen; Yang, Xu; Ding, Steven X; Peng, Kaixiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale processes, consisting of multiple interconnected subprocesses, are commonly encountered in industrial systems, whose performance needs to be determined. A common approach to this problem is to use a key performance indicator (KPI)-based approach. However, the different KPI-based approaches are not developed with a coherent and consistent framework. Thus, this paper proposes a framework for KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection (PM-FD) for large-scale industrial processes, which considers the static and dynamic relationships between process and KPI variables. For the static case, a least squares-based approach is developed that provides an explicit link with least-squares regression, which gives better performance than partial least squares. For the dynamic case, using the kernel representation of each subprocess, an instrument variable is used to reduce the dynamic case to the static case. This framework is applied to the TE benchmark process and the hot strip mill rolling process. The results show that the proposed method can detect faults better than previous methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Image subsampling and point scoring approaches for large-scale marine benthic monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Nicholas R.; Foster, Scott D.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2016-07-01

    Benthic imagery is an effective tool for quantitative description of ecologically and economically important benthic habitats and biota. The recent development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) allows surveying of spatial scales that were previously unfeasible. However, an AUV collects a large number of images, the scoring of which is time and labour intensive. There is a need to optimise the way that subsamples of imagery are chosen and scored to gain meaningful inferences for ecological monitoring studies. We examine the trade-off between the number of images selected within transects and the number of random points scored within images on the percent cover of target biota, the typical output of such monitoring programs. We also investigate the efficacy of various image selection approaches, such as systematic or random, on the bias and precision of cover estimates. We use simulated biotas that have varying size, abundance and distributional patterns. We find that a relatively small sampling effort is required to minimise bias. An increased precision for groups that are likely to be the focus of monitoring programs is best gained through increasing the number of images sampled rather than the number of points scored within images. For rare species, sampling using point count approaches is unlikely to provide sufficient precision, and alternative sampling approaches may need to be employed. The approach by which images are selected (simple random sampling, regularly spaced etc.) had no discernible effect on mean and variance estimates, regardless of the distributional pattern of biota. Field validation of our findings is provided through Monte Carlo resampling analysis of a previously scored benthic survey from temperate waters. We show that point count sampling approaches are capable of providing relatively precise cover estimates for candidate groups that are not overly rare. The amount of sampling required, in terms of both the number of images and

  12. Direct Satellite Data Acquisition and its Application for Large -scale Monitoring Projects in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, O.

    2011-12-01

    ScanEx RDC created an infrastructure (ground stations network) to acquire and process remote sensing data from different satellites: Terra, Aqua, Landsat, IRS-P5/P6, SPOT 4/5, FORMOSAT-2, EROS A/B, RADARSAT-1/2, ENVISAT-1. It owns image archives from these satellites as well as from SPOT-2 and CARTOSAT-2. ScanEx RDC builds and delivers remote sensing ground stations (working with up to 15 satellites); and owns the ground stations network to acquire data for Russia and surrounding territory. ScanEx stations are the basic component in departmental networks of remote sensing data acquisition for different state authorities (Roshydromet, Ministry of Natural Recourses, Emercom) and University- based remote sensing data acquisition and processing centers in Russia and abroad. ScanEx performs large-scale projects in collaboration with government agencies to monitor forests, floods, fires, sea surface pollution, and ice situation in Northern Russia. During 2010-2011 ScanEx conducted daily monitoring of wild fires in Russia detecting and registering thermal anomalies using data from Terra, Aqua, Landsat and SPOT satellites. Detailed SPOT 4/5 data is used to analyze burnt areas and to assess damage caused by fire. Satellite data along with other information about fire situation in Russia was daily updated and published via free-access Internet geoportal. A few projects ScanEx conducted together with environmental NGO. Project "Satellite monitoring of Especially Protected Natural Areas of Russia and its results visualization on geoportal was conducted in cooperation with NGO "Transparent World". The project's goal was to observe natural phenomena and economical activity, including illegal, by means of Earth remote sensing data. Monitoring is based on multi-temporal optical space imagery of different spatial resolution. Project results include detection of anthropogenic objects that appeared in the vicinity or even within the border of natural territories, that have never been

  13. Efficacy of extracting indices from large-scale acoustic recordings to monitor biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel; McKenna, Megan F; Clapp, Mary; Meyer, Erik; Stabenau, Erik; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin; Wittemyer, George

    2018-04-20

    Passive acoustic monitoring has the potential to be a powerful approach for assessing biodiversity across large spatial and temporal scales. However, extracting meaningful information from recordings can be prohibitively time consuming. Acoustic indices offer a relatively rapid method for processing acoustic data and are increasingly used to characterize biological communities. We examine the ability of acoustic indices to predict the diversity and abundance of biological sounds within recordings. First we reviewed the acoustic index literature and found that over 60 indices have been applied to a range of objectives with varying success. We then implemented a subset of the most successful indices on acoustic data collected at 43 sites in temperate terrestrial and tropical marine habitats across the continental U.S., developing a predictive model of the diversity of animal sounds observed in recordings. For terrestrial recordings, random forest models using a suite of acoustic indices as covariates predicted Shannon diversity, richness, and total number of biological sounds with high accuracy (R 2 > = 0.94, mean squared error MSE indices assessed, roughness, acoustic activity, and acoustic richness contributed most to the predictive ability of models. Performance of index models was negatively impacted by insect, weather, and anthropogenic sounds. For marine recordings, random forest models predicted Shannon diversity, richness, and total number of biological sounds with low accuracy (R 2 = 195), indicating that alternative methods are necessary in marine habitats. Our results suggest that using a combination of relevant indices in a flexible model can accurately predict the diversity of biological sounds in temperate terrestrial acoustic recordings. Thus, acoustic approaches could be an important contribution to biodiversity monitoring in some habitats in the face of accelerating human-caused ecological change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  14. ALOS PALSAR Winter Coherence and Summer Intensities for Large Scale Forest Monitoring in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Christian; Thiel, Carolin; Santoro, Maurizio; Schmullius, Christiane

    2008-11-01

    In this paper summer intensity and winter coherence images are used for large scale forest monitoring. The intensities (FBD HH/HV) have been acquired during summer 2007 and feature the K&C intensity stripes [1]. The processing consisted of radiometric calibration, orthorectification, and topographic normalisation. The coherence has been estimated from interferometric pairs with 46-days repeat-pass intervals. The pairs have been acquired during the winters 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. During both winters suited weather conditions have been reported. Interferometric processing consisted of SLC co-registration at sub-pixel level, common-band filtering in range and azimuth and generation of a differential interferogram, which was used in the coherence estimation procedure based on adaptive estimation. All images were geocoded using SRTM data. The pixel size of the final SAR products is 50 m x 50 m. It could already be demonstrated, that by using PALSAR intensities and winter coherence forest and non-forest can be clearly separated [2]. By combining both data types hardly any overlap of the class signatures was detected, even though the analysis was conducted on pixel level and no speckle filter has been applied. Thus, the delineation of a forest cover mask could be executed operationally. The major hitch is the definition of a biomass threshold for regrowing forest to be distinguished as forest.

  15. Research highlights from a large scale residential monitoring study in a hot climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2003-10-01

    A utility load research project has monitored a large number of residences in Central Florida, collecting detailed end-use data. The monitoring was performed to better estimate the impact of a load control program, as well as obtain improved appliance energy load profiles. The monitoring measured total as well as a number of electrical end-uses on a 15 min basis. The measured end-uses included space cooling, heating, water heating, range and cooking, clothes drying, and swimming pools electricity use and demand. The project identified a number of influences on electrical demand that are not commonly described. (Author)

  16. A cellphone based system for large-scale monitoring of black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Lukac, M.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Praveen, P. S.; Honles, T.; Leong, I.; Rehman, I. H.; Schauer, J. J.; Ramanathan, V.

    2011-08-01

    Black carbon aerosols are a major component of soot and are also a major contributor to global and regional climate change. Reliable and cost-effective systems to measure near-surface black carbon (BC) mass concentrations (hereafter denoted as [BC]) globally are necessary to validate air pollution and climate models and to evaluate the effectiveness of BC mitigation actions. Toward this goal we describe a new wireless, low-cost, ultra low-power, BC cellphone based monitoring system (BC_CBM). BC_CBM integrates a Miniaturized Aerosol filter Sampler (MAS) with a cellphone for filter image collection, transmission and image analysis for determining [BC] in real time. The BC aerosols in the air accumulate on the MAS quartz filter, resulting in a coloration of the filter. A photograph of the filter is captured by the cellphone camera and transmitted by the cellphone to the analytics component of BC_CBM. The analytics component compares the image with a calibrated reference scale (also included in the photograph) to estimate [BC]. We demonstrate with field data collected from vastly differing environments, ranging from southern California to rural regions in the Indo-Gangetic plains of Northern India, that the total BC deposited on the filter is directly and uniquely related to the reflectance of the filter in the red wavelength, irrespective of its source or how the particles were deposited. [BC] varied from 0.1 to 1 μg m -3 in Southern California and from 10 to 200 μg m -3 in rural India in our field studies. In spite of the 3 orders of magnitude variation in [BC], the BC_CBM system was able to determine the [BC] well within the experimental error of two independent reference instruments for both indoor air and outdoor ambient air. Accurate, global-scale measurements of [BC] in urban and remote rural locations, enabled by the wireless, low-cost, ultra low-power operation of BC_CBM, will make it possible to better capture the large spatial and temporal variations in

  17. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  18. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  19. Large-Scale Production of Monitored Drift Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F.; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Richter, R; Zhuravlov, V

    2016-01-01

    Precision drift tube chambers with a sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 20 microns are under construction for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 70% of the 88 large chambers for the outermost layer of the central part of the spectrometer have been assembled. Measurements during chamber construction of the positions of the sense wires and of the sensors for the optical alignment monitoring system demonstrate that the requirements for the mechanical precision of the chambers are fulfilled.

  20. Power monitoring and control for large scale projects: SKA, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. Paulo; Maia, Dalmiro; Carvalho, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Swart, Paul; Le Roux, Gerhard; Natarajan, Swaminathan; van Ardenne, Arnold; Seca, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Large sensor-based science infrastructures for radio astronomy like the SKA will be among the most intensive datadriven projects in the world, facing very high demanding computation, storage, management, and above all power demands. The geographically wide distribution of the SKA and its associated processing requirements in the form of tailored High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, require a Greener approach towards the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) adopted for the data processing to enable operational compliance to potentially strict power budgets. Addressing the reduction of electricity costs, improve system power monitoring and the generation and management of electricity at system level is paramount to avoid future inefficiencies and higher costs and enable fulfillments of Key Science Cases. Here we outline major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science and Smart power monitoring and control.

  1. Large Scale Environmental Monitoring through Integration of Sensor and Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jurdak

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring outdoor environments through networks of wireless sensors has received interest for collecting physical and chemical samples at high spatial and temporal scales. A central challenge to environmental monitoring applications of sensor networks is the short communication range of the sensor nodes, which increases the complexity and cost of monitoring commodities that are located in geographically spread areas. To address this issue, we propose a new communication architecture that integrates sensor networks with medium range wireless mesh networks, and provides users with an advanced web portal for managing sensed information in an integrated manner. Our architecture adopts a holistic approach targeted at improving the user experience by optimizing the system performance for handling data that originates at the sensors, traverses the mesh network, and resides at the server for user consumption. This holistic approach enables users to set high level policies that can adapt the resolution of information collected at the sensors, set the preferred performance targets for their application, and run a wide range of queries and analysis on both real-time and historical data. All system components and processes will be described in this paper.

  2. Large Scale Environmental Monitoring through Integration of Sensor and Mesh Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Nafaa, Abdelhamid; Barbirato, Alessio

    2008-11-24

    Monitoring outdoor environments through networks of wireless sensors has received interest for collecting physical and chemical samples at high spatial and temporal scales. A central challenge to environmental monitoring applications of sensor networks is the short communication range of the sensor nodes, which increases the complexity and cost of monitoring commodities that are located in geographically spread areas. To address this issue, we propose a new communication architecture that integrates sensor networks with medium range wireless mesh networks, and provides users with an advanced web portal for managing sensed information in an integrated manner. Our architecture adopts a holistic approach targeted at improving the user experience by optimizing the system performance for handling data that originates at the sensors, traverses the mesh network, and resides at the server for user consumption. This holistic approach enables users to set high level policies that can adapt the resolution of information collected at the sensors, set the preferred performance targets for their application, and run a wide range of queries and analysis on both real-time and historical data. All system components and processes will be described in this paper.

  3. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of ...

  4. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  5. Radiations: large scale monitoring in Japan; Radiations: suivi a grande echelle au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.; Khalatbari, A.

    2011-10-15

    As the consequences of radioactive leaks on their health are a matter of concern for Japanese people, a large scale epidemiological study has been launched by the Fukushima medical university. It concerns the two millions inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture. On the national level and with the support of public funds, medical care and follow-up, as well as systematic controls are foreseen, notably to check the thyroid of 360.000 young people less than 18 year old and of 20.000 pregnant women in the Fukushima Prefecture. Some measurements have already been performed on young children. Despite the sometimes rather low measures, and because they know that some parts of the area are at least as much contaminated as it was the case around Chernobyl, some people are reluctant to go back home

  6. Large scale distribution monitoring of FRP-OF based on BOTDR technique for infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; He, Jianping; Yan, Kai; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    BOTDA(R) sensing technique is considered as one of the most practical solution for large-sized structures as the instrument. However, there is still a big obstacle to apply BOTDA(R) in large-scale area due to the high cost and the reliability problem of sensing head which is associated to the sensor installation and survival. In this paper, we report a novel low-cost and high reliable BOTDA(R) sensing head using FRP(Fiber Reinforced Polymer)-bare optical fiber rebar, named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF. We investigated the surface bonding and its mechanical strength by SEM and intensity experiments. Considering the strain difference between OF and host matrix which may result in measurement error, the strain transfer from host to OF have been theoretically studied. Furthermore, GFRP-OFs sensing properties of strain and temperature at different gauge length were tested under different spatial and readout resolution using commercial BOTDA. Dual FRP-OFs temperature compensation method has also been proposed and analyzed. And finally, BOTDA(R)-OFs have been applied in Tiyu west road civil structure at Guangzhou and Daqing Highway. This novel FRP-OF rebar shows both high strengthen and good sensing properties, which can be used in long-term SHM for civil infrastructures.

  7. Automated selected reaction monitoring data analysis workflow for large-scale targeted proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinova, Silvia; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Chang, Ching-Yun; Espona, Lucia; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-08-01

    Targeted proteomics based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is commonly used for accurate and reproducible quantification of protein analytes in complex biological mixtures. Strictly hypothesis-driven, SRM assays quantify each targeted protein by collecting measurements on its peptide fragment ions, called transitions. To achieve sensitive and accurate quantitative results, experimental design and data analysis must consistently account for the variability of the quantified transitions. This consistency is especially important in large experiments, which increasingly require profiling up to hundreds of proteins over hundreds of samples. Here we describe a robust and automated workflow for the analysis of large quantitative SRM data sets that integrates data processing, statistical protein identification and quantification, and dissemination of the results. The integrated workflow combines three software tools: mProphet for peptide identification via probabilistic scoring; SRMstats for protein significance analysis with linear mixed-effect models; and PASSEL, a public repository for storage, retrieval and query of SRM data. The input requirements for the protocol are files with SRM traces in mzXML format, and a file with a list of transitions in a text tab-separated format. The protocol is especially suited for data with heavy isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. We demonstrate the protocol on a clinical data set in which the abundances of 35 biomarker candidates were profiled in 83 blood plasma samples of subjects with ovarian cancer or benign ovarian tumors. The time frame to realize the protocol is 1-2 weeks, depending on the number of replicates used in the experiment.

  8. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  9. Monitoring of large-scale federated data storage: XRootD and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Beche, A; Arias, D Diguez; Giordano, D; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Belov, S; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Tadel, M; Vukotic, I

    2014-01-01

    The computing models of the LHC experiments are gradually moving from hierarchical data models with centrally managed data pre-placement towards federated storage which provides seamless access to data files independently of their location and dramatically improve recovery due to fail-over mechanisms. Construction of the data federations and understanding the impact of the new approach to data management on user analysis requires complete and detailed monitoring. Monitoring functionality should cover the status of all components of the federated storage, measuring data traffic and data access performance, as well as being able to detect any kind of inefficiencies and to provide hints for resource optimization and effective data distribution policy. Data mining of the collected monitoring data provides a deep insight into new usage patterns. In the WLCG context, there are several federations currently based on the XRootD technology. This paper will focus on monitoring for the ATLAS and CMS XRootD federations implemented in the Experiment Dashboard monitoring framework. Both federations consist of many dozens of sites accessed by many hundreds of clients and they continue to grow in size. Handling of the monitoring flow generated by these systems has to be well optimized in order to achieve the required performance. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the XRootD monitoring architecture is sufficiently generic to be easily adapted for other technologies, such as HTTP/WebDAV dynamic federations.

  10. Outdoor thermal monitoring of large scale structures by infrared thermography integrated in an ICT based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    An infrared system has been developed to monitor transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. Results obtained on bridges open to traffic allows to retrieve the inner structure of the decks. To complete this study, experiments were carried out over several months to monitor two reinforced concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T each. Detection of a damaged area over one of the two beams was made by Pulse Phase Thermography approach. Measurements carried out over several months. Finally, conclusion on the robustness of the system is proposed and perspectives are presented.

  11. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Aging of transport infrastructures combined with traffic and climatic solicitations contribute to the reduction of their performances. To address and quantify the resilience of civil engineering structure, investigations on robust, fast and efficient methods are required. Among research works carried out at IFSTTAR, methods for long term monitoring face an increasing demand. Such works take benefits of this last decade technological progresses in ICT domain. The present study follows the ISTIMES European project [1], which aimed at demonstrate the ability of different electromagnetic sensing techniques, processing methods and ICT architecture, to be used for long term monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. Thanks to this project a multi-sensing techniques system, able to date and synchronize measurements carried out by infrared thermography coupled with various measurements data (i.e. weather parameters), have been designed, developed and implemented on real site [2]. Among experiments carried out on real transport infrastructure, it has been shown, for the "Musmesci" bridge deck (Italy), that by using infrared thermal image sequence with weather measurements during sevral days it was possible to develop analysis methods able to produce qualitative and quantitative data [3]. In the present study, added functionalities were designed and added to the "IrLAW" system in order to reach full autonomy in term of power supply, very long term measurement capability (at least 1 year) and automated data base feeding. The surveyed civil engineering structures consist in two concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T weight each. One of the two beams was damage by high energy mechanical impact at the IFSTTAR falling rocks test station facilities located in the French Alpes [4]. The system is composed of one IR uncooled microbolometric camera (FLIR SC325) with a 320X240 Focal Plane Array detector in band III, a weather station VAISALA WXT520, a GPS, a failover power supply

  12. Low-cost Photoacoustic-based Measurement System for Carbon Dioxide Fluxes with the Potential for large-scale Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, L. T.; Bierer, B.; Ortiz Perez, A.; Woellenstein, J.; Sachs, T.; Palzer, S.

    2016-12-01

    The determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding ecological processes on regional and global scales. High quality data sets with full uncertainty estimates are needed to evaluate model simulations. However, current flux monitoring techniques are unsuitable to provide reliable data of a large area at both a detailed level and an appropriate resolution, at best in combination with a high sampling rate. Currently used sensing technologies, such as non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzers, cannot be deployed in large numbers to provide high spatial resolution due to their costs and complex maintenance requirements. Here, we propose a novel CO2 measurement system, whose gas sensing unit is made up of low-cost, low-power consuming components only, such as an IR-LED and a photoacoustic detector. The sensor offers a resolution of sensor response of just a few seconds. Since the sensor can be applied in-situ without special precautions, it allows for environmental monitoring in a non-invasive way. Its low energy consumption enables long-term measurements. The low overall costs favor the manufacturing in large quantities. This allows the operation of multiple sensors at a reasonable price and thus provides concentration measurements at any desired spatial coverage and at high temporal resolution. With appropriate 3D configuration of the units, vertical and horizontal fluxes can be determined. By applying a closely meshed wireless sensor network, inhomogeneities as well as CO2 sources and sinks in the lower atmosphere can be monitored. In combination with sensors for temperature, pressure and humidity, our sensor paves the way towards the reliable and extensive monitoring of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange rates. The technique can also be easily adapted to other relevant greenhouse gases.

  13. Monitor large-scale consumers market natural gas and electricity 2010; Monitor groothandelsmarkten gas en elektriciteit 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The Office of Energy Regulation ('Energiekamer') carries out its legal task by means of a monitor, a practical tool to assess and analyze the wholesale market for electricity. Monitoring of the wholesale electricity market concerns continuous, accurate and structured following of developments in the market. The aim is to identify in time signals from the market that could lead to a decrease of competition and transparency. The starting point of the monitor for the wholesale electricity market is the selection of indicators which give insight in real competition, liquidity and transparency. [Dutch] De Energiekamer schrijft jaarlijks haar bevindingen over de mate van marktwerking in de groothandelsmarkten gas en elektriciteit in een rapport aan de Minister van Economische Zaken. Dit rapport is de monitor. Sinds 2007 zijn de bevindingen over de groothandelsmarkten voor gas en elektriciteit samengevoegd in een publicatie. Concreet verzamelt de Energiekamer marktinformatie zoals prijzen en hoeveelheden. Daarnaast bestudeert de Energiekamer of deze uitkomsten overeenkomen met wat beoogd was in de vrije energiemarkt. De Energiekamer onderzoekt of de voorwaarden (zoals bijvoorbeeld toetredingsbarrieres en transparantie) optimaal zijn voor doeltreffende concurrentie en geeft voorstellen van maatregelen om de marktwerking te verbeteren.

  14. Establishment and monitoring of large scale trials of short rotation coppice for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Stevens, E.A.; Watters, M.P.

    1998-09-01

    The overall objective of the trials was to obtain information on costs, logistics, productivity and biology of short rotation coppice crops in order to evaluate their potential for producing wood for fuel. More specifically, the objectives of the final and most recent phase of the research work were: the continuing management and monitoring of the coppice trial sites established during phases 1 and 2 of the project; to provide technical and economic data on the management and maintenance of the continuing coppice trail sites; to identify appropriate methods for stool removal and land reclamation and provide technical and economic data on those operations; and to undertake yield assessment at the remaining sites using appropriate methods of yield estimation. (author)

  15. The application of acoustic emission measurements on laboratory testpieces to large scale pressure vessel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, T.; Dawson, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A test pressure vessel containing 4 artificial defects was monitored for emission whilst pressure cycling to failure. Testpieces cut from both the failed vessel and from as-rolled plate material were tested in the laboratory. A marked difference in emission characteristics was observed between plate and vessel testpieces. Activity from vessel material was virtually constant after general yield and emission amplitudes were low. Plate testpieces showed maximum activity at general yield and more frequent high amplitude emissions. An attempt has been made to compare the system sensitivities between the pressure vessel test and laboratory tests. In the absence of an absolute calibration device, system sensitivities were estimated using dummy signals generated by the excitation of an emission sensor. The measurements have shown an overall difference in sensitivity between vessel and laboratory tests of approximately 25db. The reduced sensitivity in the vessel test is attributed to a combination of differences in sensors, acoustic couplant, attenuation, and dispersion relative to laboratory tests and the relative significance of these factors is discussed. Signal amplitude analysis of the emissions monitored from laboratory testpieces showed that, whith losses of the order of 25 to 30db, few emissions would be detected from the pressure vessel test. It is concluded that no reliable prediction of acoustic behaviour of a structure may be made from laboratory test unless testpieces of the actual structural material are used. A considerable improvement in detection sensitivity, is also required for reliable detection of defects in low strength ductile materials and an absolute method of system calibration is required between tests

  16. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  17. Breakthrough In Current In Plane Metrology For Monitoring Large Scale MRAM Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from R&D to large...... of the Resistance Area product (RA) and the Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements, compared to state of the art CIPT metrology tools dedicated to R&D. On two test wafers, the repeatability of RA and MR was improved up to 350% and the measurement reproducibility up to 1700%. We believe that CIPT metrology now...

  18. Using Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing to Monitor Large Scale Permafrost Transitions: Preliminary Results from a Controlled Thaw Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Wagner, A. M.; Lindsey, N.; Dou, S.; Bjella, K.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Ulrich, C.; Gelvin, A.; Morales, A.; James, S. R.; Saari, S.; Ekblaw, I.; Wood, T.; Robertson, M.; Martin, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    In a warming world, permafrost landscapes are being rapidly transformed by thaw, yielding surface subsidence and groundwater flow alteration. The same transformations pose a threat to arctic infrastructure and can induce catastrophic failure of the roads, runways, and pipelines on which human habitation depends. Scalable solutions to monitoring permafrost thaw dynamics are required to both quantitatively understand biogeochemical feedbacks as well as to protect built infrastructure from damage. Unfortunately, permafrost alteration happens over the time scale of climate change, years to decades, a decided challenge for testing new sensing technologies in a limited context. One solution is to engineer systems capable of rapidly thawing large permafrost units to allow short duration experiments targeting next-generation sensing approaches. We present preliminary results from a large-scale controlled permafrost thaw experiment designed to evaluate the utility of different geophysical approaches for tracking the cause, precursors, and early phases of thaw subsidence. We focus on the use of distributed fiber optic sensing for this challenge and deployed distributed temperature (DTS), strain (DSS), and acoustic (DAS) sensing systems in a 2D array to detect thaw signatures. A 10 x 15 x 1 m section of subsurface permafrost was heated using an array of 120 downhole heaters (60 w) at an experimental site near Fairbanks, AK. Ambient noise analysis of DAS datasets collected at the plot, coupled to shear wave inversion, was utilized to evaluate changes in shear wave velocity associated with heating and thaw. These measurements were confirmed by seismic surveys collected using a semi-permanent orbital seismic source activated on a daily basis. Fiber optic measurements were complemented by subsurface thermistor and thermocouple arrays, timelapse total station surveys, LIDAR, secondary seismic measurements (geophone and broadband recordings), timelapse ERT, borehole NMR, soil

  19. Deformation integrity monitoring for GNSS positioning services including local, regional and large scale hazard monitoring - the Karlsruhe approach and software(MONIKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, R.

    2007-05-01

    GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference

  20. Feasibility analysis of using inverse modeling for estimating natural groundwater recharge from a large-scale soil moisture monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiejun; Franz, Trenton E.; Yue, Weifeng; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; You, Jinsheng; Chen, Xunhong; Shulski, Martha D.; Young, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of groundwater recharge (GR), its accurate estimation still remains one of the most challenging tasks in the field of hydrology. In this study, with the help of inverse modeling, long-term (6 years) soil moisture data at 34 sites from the Automated Weather Data Network (AWDN) were used to estimate the spatial distribution of GR across Nebraska, USA, where significant spatial variability exists in soil properties and precipitation (P). To ensure the generality of this study and its potential broad applications, data from public domains and literature were used to parameterize the standard Hydrus-1D model. Although observed soil moisture differed significantly across the AWDN sites mainly due to the variations in P and soil properties, the simulations were able to capture the dynamics of observed soil moisture under different climatic and soil conditions. The inferred mean annual GR from the calibrated models varied over three orders of magnitude across the study area. To assess the uncertainties of the approach, estimates of GR and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from the calibrated models were compared to the GR and ETa obtained from other techniques in the study area (e.g., remote sensing, tracers, and regional water balance). Comparison clearly demonstrated the feasibility of inverse modeling and large-scale (>104 km2) soil moisture monitoring networks for estimating GR. In addition, the model results were used to further examine the impacts of climate and soil on GR. The data showed that both P and soil properties had significant impacts on GR in the study area with coarser soils generating higher GR; however, different relationships between GR and P emerged at the AWDN sites, defined by local climatic and soil conditions. In general, positive correlations existed between annual GR and P for the sites with coarser-textured soils or under wetter climatic conditions. With the rapidly expanding soil moisture monitoring networks around the

  1. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  2. Government management and implementation of national real-time energy monitoring system for China large-scale public building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na Wei; Wu Yong; Song Yan; Dong Zhongcheng

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings (GOBLPB) is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. It is significant for China government to achieve the target: reducing building energy consumption by 11 million ton standard coal before 2010. In the framework of a national demonstration project concerning the energy management system, Shenzhen Municipality has been selected for the implementation of the system. A data acquisition system and a methodology concerning the energy consumption of the GOBLPB have been developed. This paper summarizes the various features of the system incorporated into identifying the building consumes and energy saving potential. This paper also defines the methods to achieve the real-time monitoring and diagnosis: the meters installed at each building, the data transmitted through internet to a center server, the analysis and unification at the center server and the publication through web. Furthermore, this paper introduces the plans to implement the system and to extend countrywide. Finally, this paper presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy efficiency supervisory system on GOBLPB in its construction, reconstruction or operation stages.

  3. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed OSR seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on large earth bumble bees (Bombus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Guido; Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado ® -dressed winter oilseed rape (OSR, 10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed) on the development, reproduction and behaviour of large earth bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where OSR is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km 2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and 10 bumble bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to OSR fields and three locations were situated 400 m distant from the nearest OSR field. The development of colonies was monitored from the beginning of OSR flowering in April until June 2014. Pollen from returning foragers was analysed for its composition. An average of 44 % of OSR pollen was found in pollen loads of bumble bees indicating that OSR was a major resource for the colonies. At the end of OSR flowering, hives were transferred to a nature reserve until the end of the study. Colony development in terms of hive weight and the number of workers showed a typical course with no statistically significant differences between the sites. Reproductive output was comparatively high and not negatively affected by the exposure to treated OSR. In summary, Elado ® -dressed OSR did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of bumble bee colonies.

  4. Social Network Analysis and Mining to Monitor and Identify Problems with Large-Scale Information and Communication Technology Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; de Brito, Silvana Rossy; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Rocha, Cláudio Alex Jorge; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    The published literature reveals several arguments concerning the strategic importance of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions for developing countries where the digital divide is a challenge. Large-scale ICT interventions can be an option for countries whose regions, both urban and rural, present a high number of digitally excluded people. Our goal was to monitor and identify problems in interventions aimed at certification for a large number of participants in different geographical regions. Our case study is the training at the Telecentros.BR, a program created in Brazil to install telecenters and certify individuals to use ICT resources. We propose an approach that applies social network analysis and mining techniques to data collected from Telecentros.BR dataset and from the socioeconomics and telecommunications infrastructure indicators of the participants' municipalities. We found that (i) the analysis of interactions in different time periods reflects the objectives of each phase of training, highlighting the increased density in the phase in which participants develop and disseminate their projects; (ii) analysis according to the roles of participants (i.e., tutors or community members) reveals that the interactions were influenced by the center (or region) to which the participant belongs (that is, a community contained mainly members of the same region and always with the presence of tutors, contradicting expectations of the training project, which aimed for intense collaboration of the participants, regardless of the geographic region); (iii) the social network of participants influences the success of the training: that is, given evidence that the degree of the community member is in the highest range, the probability of this individual concluding the training is 0.689; (iv) the North region presented the lowest probability of participant certification, whereas the Northeast, which served municipalities with similar

  5. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  6. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented. Two circular study sites were delineated next to each other in northeast Germany and comprised almost 65 km 2 each. At the reference site, study fields were drilled with clothianidin-free OSR seeds while at the test site the oilseed rape seeds contained a coating with 10 g clothianidin and 2 g beta-cyfluthrin per kg seeds (Elado®). The comparison of environmental conditions at the study sites indicated that they are as similar as possible in terms of climate, soil, land use, history and current practice of agriculture as well as in availability of oilseed rape and non-crop bee forage. Accordingly, local environmental conditions were considered not to have had any confounding effect on the results of the monitoring of the bee species. Furthermore, the study area was found to be representative for other oilseed rape cultivation regions in Europe.

  8. The Design and Implementation of Smart Monitoring System for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Cab Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairui Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, organizations use IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee technology to deliver solution in variety areas including home environment monitoring. ZigBee technology has advantages on low-cost, low power consumption and self-forming. With the rapid expansion of the Internet, there is the requirement for remote monitoring large-scale railway maintenance equipment cab. This paper discusses the disadvantages of the existing smart monitoring system, and proposes a solution. A ZigBee wireless sensor network smart monitoring system and Wi-Fi network is integrated through a home gateway to increase the system flexibility. At the same time the home gateway cooperated with a pre- processing system provide a flexible user interface, and the security and safety of the smart monitoring system. To testify the efficiency of the proposed system, the temperature and humidity sensors and light sensors have developed and evaluated in the smart monitoring system.

  9. The Design and Implementation of Smart Monitoring System for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Cab Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hairui Wang; Junfu Yu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, organizations use IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee technology to deliver solution in variety areas including home environment monitoring. ZigBee technology has advantages on low-cost, low power consumption and self-forming. With the rapid expansion of the Internet, there is the requirement for remote monitoring large-scale railway maintenance equipment cab. This paper discusses the disadvantages of the existing smart monitoring system, and proposes a solution. A ZigBee wireless senso...

  10. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  11. Analysis Methods for Extracting Knowledge from Large-Scale WiFi Monitoring to Inform Building Facility Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Antonio; Blunck, Henrik; Prentow, Thor Siiger

    2014-01-01

    realistic data to inform facility planning. In this paper, we propose analysis methods to extract knowledge from large sets of network collected WiFi traces to better inform facility management and planning in large building complexes. The analysis methods, which build on a rich set of temporal and spatial......The optimization of logistics in large building com- plexes with many resources, such as hospitals, require realistic facility management and planning. Current planning practices rely foremost on manual observations or coarse unverified as- sumptions and therefore do not properly scale or provide....... Spatio-temporal visualization tools built on top of these methods enable planners to inspect and explore extracted information to inform facility-planning activities. To evaluate the methods, we present results for a large hospital complex covering more than 10 hectares. The evaluation is based on Wi...

  12. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  13. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  14. Large Scale System Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    NUMBER 00 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 01 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Columbia University 1700 Broadway New York NY 10019-5905 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFRL/RIGA 525 Brooks Rd. Rome NY 13441-4505...pealing because of the need to modify source code. Since source-level annotations serve as a vestigial policy, we articulated a way to augment self

  15. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  16. Spatiotemporal complexity of 2-D rupture nucleation process observed by direct monitoring during large-scale biaxial rock friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Tsuchida, Kotoyo; Kawakata, Hironori; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-05-01

    We were able to successfully capture rupture nucleation processes on a 2-D fault surface during large-scale biaxial friction experiments using metagabbro rock specimens. Several rupture nucleation patterns have been detected by a strain gauge array embedded inside the rock specimens as well as by that installed along the edge walls of the fault. In most cases, the unstable rupture started just after the rupture front touched both ends of the rock specimen (i.e., when rupture front extended to the entire width of the fault). In some cases, rupture initiated at multiple locations and the rupture fronts coalesced to generate unstable ruptures, which could only be detected from the observation inside the rock specimen. Therefore, we need to carefully examine the 2-D nucleation process of the rupture especially when analyzing the data measured only outside the rock specimen. At least the measurements should be done at both sides of the fault to identify the asymmetric rupture propagation on the fault surface, although this is not perfect yet. In the present experiment, we observed three typical types of the 2-D rupture propagation patterns, two of which were initiated at a single location either close to the fault edge or inside the fault. This initiation could be accelerated by the free surface effect at the fault edge. The third one was initiated at multiple locations and had a rupture coalescence at the middle of the fault. These geometrically complicated rupture initiation patterns are important for understanding the earthquake nucleation process in nature.

  17. Holistic information evaluation of divergence of soil's properties by using of legacy data of large scale monitoring surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Identification of tendencies of soil's transformations is very important for adequate ecological and economical assessment of degradation of soils. But monitoring of conditions of soils, and other natural objects, bring up a number of important methodological questions, including the probabilistic and statistical analysis of the accumulated legacy data and their use for verification of quantitative estimates of natural processes. Owing to considerable natural variability there is a problem of a reliable assessment of contemporary soil evolution under the influence of environmental management and climate changes. When studying dynamics of soil quality it is necessary to consider soil as open complex system with parameters which significantly vary in space. The analysis of probabilistic distributions of attributes of studied system is informative for the characteristic of holistic state and behavior of the system. Therefore earlier we had offered the method of evaluation of alterations of soils by analysis of changes of pdf of their properties and their statistical entropy. The executed analysis of dynamics of pdf showed that often opposite tendencies to decrease and to increase of property can be shown at the same time. However to give an adequate quantitative evaluation of changes of soil properties it is necessary to characterize them in general. We proposed that it is reasonable to name processes of modern changes in soil properties concerning their start meaning by the term "divergence" and investigate it quantitatively. For this purpose we suggested to use value of information divergence which is defined as a measure of distinctions of pdf in compared objects or in various time. As the measure of dissimilarity, divergence should satisfy come conditions, the most important is scale-invariance property. Information divergence was used by us for evaluation of distinctions of soils according heterogeneity of factors of soil formation and with course of natural and

  18. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  19. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey

    OpenAIRE

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado®-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. ...

  20. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  1. Gravitation on large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, E.

    A sample of dwarf and spiral galaxies with extended rotation curves is analysed, assuming that the fraction of dark matter is small. The objective of the paper is to prepare a framework for a theory, based on fundamental principles, that would give fits of the same quality as the phenomenology of dark halos. The following results are obtained: 1) The geodesics of massive systems with low density (Class I galaxies) can be described by the metric ds^2 = b^{-1}(r)dr^2 - b(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + gamma_f M^{1/2}) In this expression Gamma_f is a new fundamental constant which has been deduced from rotation curves of galaxies with circular velocity V_c^2 >= 2 {{GM} over r} for all r 2) The above metric is deduced from the conformal invariant metric ds^2 = B^{-1}(r)dr^2 - B(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where B(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + Gamma_f M^{1/2} + {1 over 3} {Gamma_f^2 over G}r) through a linear transform, u, of the linear special group SL(2, R) 3) The term {2 over c^2}Gamma_f M^{1/2} accounts for the difference between the observed rotation velocity and the Newtonian velocity. The term {2 over {3c^2}}{Gamma_f^2 over G}r is interpreted as a scale invariance between systems of different masses and sizes. 4) The metric B is a vacuum solution around a mass M deduced from the least action principle applied to the unique action I_a = -2 a int (-g)^{1/2} [R_{mu kappa}R^{ mu kappa} - 1/3(Ralphaalpha)^2] dx^4 built with the conformal Weyl tensor 5) For galaxies such that there is a radius, r_0, at which {{GM} over r_0} = Gamma M^{1/2} (Class II), the term Gamma M^{1/2} might be confined by the Newtonian potential yielding stationary solutions. 6) The analysed rotation curves of Class II galaxies are indeed well described with metrics of the form b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + (n + 1) Gamma_0 M^{1/2}) where n is an integer and Gamma_0 = {1 over the square root of 3}Gamma_f 7) The effective potential is determined and

  2. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  3. Large-scale CO2 injection demos for the development of monitoring and verification technology and guidelines (CO2ReMoVe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenborg, T.; David, P. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Bentham, M.; Chadwick, A.; Kirk, K. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Dillen, M. [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Groenenberg, H. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deflandre, J.P.; Le Gallo, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-04-15

    The objectives of the EU project CO2ReMoVe are to undertake the research and development necessary to establish scientifically based standards for monitoring future CCS operations and to develop the performance assessment methodologies necessary to demonstrate the long-term reliability of geological storage of CO2. This could in turn lead to guidelines for the certification of sites suitable for CCS on a wide scale. Crucial to the project portfolio are the continuing large-scale CO2 injection operation at Sleipner, the injection operation at In Salah (Algeria) and the recently started injection project at Snoehvit (Norway). Two pilot sites are also currently in the project portfolio, Ketzin in Germany and K12-B in the offshore continental shelf of the Netherlands.

  4. A resource of large-scale molecular markers for monitoring Agropyron cristatum chromatin introgression in wheat background based on transcriptome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Lu, Yuqing; Liu, Qunxing; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2017-09-20

    Agropyron cristatum is a wild grass of the tribe Triticeae and serves as a gene donor for wheat improvement. However, very few markers can be used to monitor A. cristatum chromatin introgressions in wheat. Here, we reported a resource of large-scale molecular markers for tracking alien introgressions in wheat based on transcriptome sequences. By aligning A. cristatum unigenes with the Chinese Spring reference genome sequences, we designed 9602 A. cristatum expressed sequence tag-sequence-tagged site (EST-STS) markers for PCR amplification and experimental screening. As a result, 6063 polymorphic EST-STS markers were specific for the A. cristatum P genome in the single-receipt wheat background. A total of 4956 randomly selected polymorphic EST-STS markers were further tested in eight wheat variety backgrounds, and 3070 markers displaying stable and polymorphic amplification were validated. These markers covered more than 98% of the A. cristatum genome, and the marker distribution density was approximately 1.28 cM. An application case of all EST-STS markers was validated on the A. cristatum 6 P chromosome. These markers were successfully applied in the tracking of alien A. cristatum chromatin. Altogether, this study provided a universal method of large-scale molecular marker development to monitor wild relative chromatin in wheat.

  5. Use of two population metrics clarifies biodiversity dynamics in large-scale monitoring: the case of trees in Japanese old-growth forests: the need for multiple population metrics in large-scale monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mifuyu; Yamaura, Yuichi; Abe, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Iida, Shigeo; Katsuki, Toshio; Masaki, Takashi; Niiyama, Kaoru; Saito, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Sugita, Hisashi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Amano, Tatsuya; Taki, Hisatomo; Okabe, Kimiko

    2011-07-01

    Many indicators/indices provide information on whether the 2010 biodiversity target of reducing declines in biodiversity have been achieved. The strengths and limitations of the various measures used to assess the success of such measures are now being discussed. Biodiversity dynamics are often evaluated by a single biological population metric, such as the abundance of each species. Here we examined tree population dynamics of 52 families (192 species) at 11 research sites (three vegetation zones) of Japanese old-growth forests using two population metrics: number of stems and basal area. We calculated indices that track the rate of change in all species of tree by taking the geometric mean of changes in population metrics between the 1990s and the 2000s at the national level and at the levels of the vegetation zone and family. We specifically focused on whether indices based on these two metrics behaved similarly. The indices showed that (1) the number of stems declined, whereas basal area did not change at the national level and (2) the degree of change in the indices varied by vegetation zone and family. These results suggest that Japanese old-growth forests have not degraded and may even be developing in some vegetation zones, and indicate that the use of a single population metric (or indicator/index) may be insufficient to precisely understand the state of biodiversity. It is therefore important to incorporate more metrics into monitoring schemes to overcome the risk of misunderstanding or misrepresenting biodiversity dynamics.

  6. The application of two-step linear temperature program to thermal analysis for monitoring the lipid induction of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 in large scale cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongmun; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-02-01

    Recently, microalgae was considered as a renewable energy for fuel production because its production is nonseasonal and may take place on nonarable land. Despite all of these advantages, microalgal oil production is significantly affected by environmental factors. Furthermore, the large variability remains an important problem in measurement of algae productivity and compositional analysis, especially, the total lipid content. Thus, there is considerable interest in accurate determination of total lipid content during the biotechnological process. For these reason, various high-throughput technologies were suggested for accurate measurement of total lipids contained in the microorganisms, especially oleaginous microalgae. In addition, more advanced technologies were employed to quantify the total lipids of the microalgae without a pretreatment. However, these methods are difficult to measure total lipid content in wet form microalgae obtained from large-scale production. In present study, the thermal analysis performed with two-step linear temeperature program was applied to measure heat evolved in temperature range from 310 to 351 °C of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 obtained from large-scale cultivation. And then, we examined the relationship between the heat evolved in 310-351 °C (HE) and total lipid content of the wet Nostoc cell cultivated in raceway. As a result, the linear relationship was determined between HE value and total lipid content of Nostoc sp. KNUA003. Particularly, there was a linear relationship of 98% between the HE value and the total lipid content of the tested microorganism. Based on this relationship, the total lipid content converted from the heat evolved of wet Nostoc sp. KNUA003 could be used for monitoring its lipid induction in large-scale cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Efficient Audio Coding Scheme for Quantitative and Qualitative Large Scale Acoustic Monitoring Using the Sensor Grid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gontier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of urban areas and the growth of human population worldwide raise societal and environmental concerns. To better address these concerns, the monitoring of the acoustic environment in urban as well as rural or wilderness areas is an important matter. Building on the recent development of low cost hardware acoustic sensors, we propose in this paper to consider a sensor grid approach to tackle this issue. In this kind of approach, the crucial question is the nature of the data that are transmitted from the sensors to the processing and archival servers. To this end, we propose an efficient audio coding scheme based on third octave band spectral representation that allows: (1 the estimation of standard acoustic indicators; and (2 the recognition of acoustic events at state-of-the-art performance rate. The former is useful to provide quantitative information about the acoustic environment, while the latter is useful to gather qualitative information and build perceptually motivated indicators using for example the emergence of a given sound source. The coding scheme is also demonstrated to transmit spectrally encoded data that, reverted to the time domain using state-of-the-art techniques, are not intelligible, thus protecting the privacy of citizens.

  8. Monitoring Utilization of a Large Scale Addiction Treatment System: The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Khobzi Rotondi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Client-based information systems can yield data to address issues of system accountability and planning, and contribute information related to changing patterns of substance use in treatment and, indirectly, general populations. The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS monitors the number/types of clients treated in approximately 170 publicly-funded addiction treatment agencies in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to estimate the caseload of addiction treatment agencies, and describe important characteristics of clients, their patterns of service utilization and trends over-time from 2005 to 2010. In 2009–2010, 47,065 individuals were admitted to treatment. Since 2005–2006, there has been an increase in adolescents/youth in treatment, and a decrease in the male-female gender ratio. Alcohol problems predominated, but an increasing proportion of clients used cannabis and prescription opioids. DATIS is an evolving system and an integral component of Ontario's performance measurement system. Linkages with healthcare information systems will allow for longitudinal tracking of client health-related outcomes.

  9. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  10. Kinota: An Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Chepudira, K.; LaBar, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) SensorThings API (STA) specification, ratified in 2016, is a next-generation open standard for enabling real-time communication of sensor data. Building on over a decade of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Standards, STA offers a rich data model that can represent a range of sensor and phenomena types (e.g. fixed sensors sensing fixed phenomena, fixed sensors sensing moving phenomena, mobile sensors sensing fixed phenomena, and mobile sensors sensing moving phenomena) and is data agnostic. Additionally, and in contrast to previous SWE standards, STA is developer-friendly, as is evident from its convenient JSON serialization, and expressive OData-based query language (with support for geospatial queries); with its Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), STA is also well-suited to efficient real-time data publishing and discovery. All these attributes make STA potentially useful for use in environmental monitoring sensor networks. Here we present Kinota(TM), an Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring. Kinota, which roughly stands for Knowledge from Internet of Things Analyses, relies on Cassandra its underlying data store, which is a horizontally scalable, fault-tolerant open-source database that is often used to store time-series data for Big Data applications (though integration with other NoSQL or rational databases is possible). With this foundation, Kinota can scale to store data from an arbitrary number of sensors collecting data every 500 milliseconds. Additionally, Kinota architecture is very modular allowing for customization by adopters who can choose to replace parts of the existing implementation when desirable. The architecture is also highly portable providing the flexibility to choose between cloud providers like azure, amazon, google etc. The scalable, flexible and cloud friendly architecture of Kinota makes it ideal for use in next

  11. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  12. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on red mason bees (Osmia bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km 2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado ® -dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.

  13. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  14. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  15. The Integrated Use of DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light and MODIS Data for Monitoring Large-Scale Impervious Surface Dynamics: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Shao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The timely and reliable estimation of imperviousness is essential for the scientific understanding of human-Earth interactions. Due to the unique capacity of capturing artificial light luminosity and long-term data records, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP’s Operational Line-scan System (OLS nighttime light (NTL imagery offers an appealing opportunity for continuously characterizing impervious surface area (ISA at regional and continental scales. Although different levels of success have been achieved, critical challenges still remain in the literature. ISA results generated by DMSP-OLS NTL alone suffer from limitations due to systemic defects of the sensor. Moreover, the majority of developed methodologies seldom consider spatial heterogeneity, which is a key issue in coarse imagery applications. In this study, we proposed a novel method for multi-temporal ISA estimation. This method is based on a linear regression model developed between the sub-pixel ISA fraction and a multi-source index with the integrated use of DMSP-OLS NTL and MODIS NDVI. In contrast with traditional regression analysis, we incorporated spatial information to the regression model for obtaining spatially adaptive coefficients at the per-pixel level. To produce multi-temporal ISA maps using a mono-temporal reference dataset, temporally stable samples were extracted for model training and validation. We tested the proposed method in the Yangtze River Delta and generated annual ISA fraction maps for the decade 2000–2009. According to our assessments, the proposed method exhibited substantial improvements compared with the standard linear regression model and provided a feasible way to monitor large-scale impervious surface dynamics.

  16. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  17. Based on Real Time Remote Health Monitoring Systems: A New Approach for Prioritization "Large Scales Data" Patients with Chronic Heart Diseases Using Body Sensors and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalid, Naser; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Salman, Omar H; Hashim, M; Albahri, O S; Albahri, A S

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents a new approach to prioritize "Large-scale Data" of patients with chronic heart diseases by using body sensors and communication technology during disasters and peak seasons. An evaluation matrix is used for emergency evaluation and large-scale data scoring of patients with chronic heart diseases in telemedicine environment. However, one major problem in the emergency evaluation of these patients is establishing a reasonable threshold for patients with the most and least critical conditions. This threshold can be used to detect the highest and lowest priority levels when all the scores of patients are identical during disasters and peak seasons. A practical study was performed on 500 patients with chronic heart diseases and different symptoms, and their emergency levels were evaluated based on four main measurements: electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation sensor, blood pressure monitoring, and non-sensory measurement tool, namely, text frame. Data alignment was conducted for the raw data and decision-making matrix by converting each extracted feature into an integer. This integer represents their state in the triage level based on medical guidelines to determine the features from different sources in a platform. The patients were then scored based on a decision matrix by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques, namely, integrated multi-layer for analytic hierarchy process (MLAHP) and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). For subjective validation, cardiologists were consulted to confirm the ranking results. For objective validation, mean ± standard deviation was computed to check the accuracy of the systematic ranking. This study provides scenarios and checklist benchmarking to evaluate the proposed and existing prioritization methods. Experimental results revealed the following. (1) The integration of TOPSIS and MLAHP effectively and systematically solved the patient settings on triage and

  18. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  19. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region

  20. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-12-14

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region.

  1. Large scale cross hole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.K.; Black, J.H.; Doe, T.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological properties of the major hydrogeological features. The SCV block is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is not smoothed out even over scales of hundreds of meters. Results of the interpretation validate the hypothesis of the major fracture zones, A, B and H; not much evidence of minor fracture zones is found. The uncertainty in the flow path, through the fractured rock, causes sever problems in interpretation. Derived values of hydraulic conductivity were found to be in a narrow range of two to three orders of magnitude. Test design did not allow fracture zones to be tested individually. This could be improved by testing the high hydraulic conductivity regions specifically. The Piezomac and single hole equipment worked well. Few, if any, of the tests ran long enough to approach equilibrium. Many observation boreholes showed no response. This could either be because there is no hydraulic connection, or there is a connection but a response is not seen within the time scale of the pumping test. The fractional dimension analysis yielded credible results, and the sinusoidal testing procedure provided an effective means of identifying the dominant hydraulic connections. (10 refs.) (au)

  2. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado ® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado ® -dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from T fields were 1.3 ± 0.9 μg/kg and 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/kg in nectar and pollen, respectively. Secondly, pollen and nectar for residue analyses were sampled from free flying honey bees, bumble bees and mason bees, placed at six study locations each in the R and T sites at the start of oilseed rape flowering. Honey samples were analysed from all honey bee colonies at the end of oilseed rape flowering. Neither clothianidin nor its metabolites were detectable or quantifiable in R site samples. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from the T site were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.0 µg/kg) in most pollen and nectar samples collected by bees and 1.4 ± 0.5 µg/kg in honey taken from honey bee colonies. In summary, the study provides reliable semi-field and field data of clothianidin residues in nectar and pollen collected by different bee species in oilseed rape fields under common agricultural conditions.

  3. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  4. Conference on Large Scale Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, D; Pardalos, P

    1994-01-01

    On February 15-17, 1993, a conference on Large Scale Optimization, hosted by the Center for Applied Optimization, was held at the University of Florida. The con­ ference was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Army Research Office, and the University of Florida, with endorsements from SIAM, MPS, ORSA and IMACS. Forty one invited speakers presented papers on mathematical program­ ming and optimal control topics with an emphasis on algorithm development, real world applications and numerical results. Participants from Canada, Japan, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark gave the meeting an important international component. At­ tendees also included representatives from IBM, American Airlines, US Air, United Parcel Serice, AT & T Bell Labs, Thinking Machines, Army High Performance Com­ puting Research Center, and Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the NSF sponsored attendance of thirteen graduate students from universities in the United States and abro...

  5. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  6. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  7. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  8. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  9. Reviving large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiront, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the past decade, most large-scale hydro development projects in northern Quebec have been put on hold due to land disputes with First Nations. Hydroelectric projects have recently been revived following an agreement signed with Aboriginal communities in the province who recognized the need to find new sources of revenue for future generations. Many Cree are working on the project to harness the waters of the Eastmain River located in the middle of their territory. The work involves building an 890 foot long dam, 30 dikes enclosing a 603 square-km reservoir, a spillway, and a power house with 3 generating units with a total capacity of 480 MW of power for start-up in 2007. The project will require the use of 2,400 workers in total. The Cree Construction and Development Company is working on relations between Quebec's 14,000 Crees and the James Bay Energy Corporation, the subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec which is developing the project. Approximately 10 per cent of the $735-million project has been designated for the environmental component. Inspectors ensure that the project complies fully with environmental protection guidelines. Total development costs for Eastmain-1 are in the order of $2 billion of which $735 million will cover work on site and the remainder will cover generating units, transportation and financial charges. Under the treaty known as the Peace of the Braves, signed in February 2002, the Quebec government and Hydro-Quebec will pay the Cree $70 million annually for 50 years for the right to exploit hydro, mining and forest resources within their territory. The project comes at a time when electricity export volumes to the New England states are down due to growth in Quebec's domestic demand. Hydropower is a renewable and non-polluting source of energy that is one of the most acceptable forms of energy where the Kyoto Protocol is concerned. It was emphasized that large-scale hydro-electric projects are needed to provide sufficient energy to meet both

  10. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  11. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  12. Report on a workshop on the application of thermoluminescence dosimetry to large scale individual monitoring, Ispra, 11-13 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.R.; Christensen, P.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Marshall, T.O.; Harvey, J.R.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, M.; Oberhoffer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop was held for the benefit of those actually involved in the operation of large scale automatic thermoluminescence dosimetry systems. It was organised around three overall themes subdivided into 13 subject headings: External constraints: User requirements, Quantities and Units, Legal requirements, Testing, Intercomparisons; Dosimetry systems: Materials, Dosemeter design, Reading systems, Annealing procedures, Rogue readings; Management: Distribution and organisation, Reporting and record keeping, Financial aspects. (author)

  13. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  14. Ethics of large-scale change

    OpenAIRE

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

      The subject of this paper is long-term large-scale changes in human society. Some very significant examples of large-scale change are presented: human population growth, human appropriation of land and primary production, the human use of fossil fuels, and climate change. The question is posed, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, th...

  15. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of superconductors capable of carrying large current densities in large-scale electrical devices are examined. Discussions are included on critical current density, superconducting materials available, and future prospects for improved superconducting materials. (JRD)

  16. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  17. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  19. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  20. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig

  1. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that

  2. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    problem is formulated as a centralized large-scale optimization problem but is then decomposed into smaller subproblems that are solved locally by each unit connected to an aggregator. For large-scale systems the method is faster than solving the full problem and can be distributed to include an arbitrary...

  3. Large-scale grid management; Storskala Nettforvaltning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-07-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series.

  4. Analysis using large-scale ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie, S. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are highly mobile organisms and there is increasing evidence that studies at large spatial scales are needed if we are to properly understand their population dynamics. While classical metapopulation models have rarely proved useful for birds, more general metapopulation ideas involving collections of populations interacting within spatially structured landscapes are highly relevant (Harrison, 1994. There is increasing interest in understanding patterns of synchrony, or lack of synchrony, between populations and the environmental and dispersal mechanisms that bring about these patterns (Paradis et al., 2000. To investigate these processes we need to measure abundance, demographic rates and dispersal at large spatial scales, in addition to gathering data on relevant environmental variables. There is an increasing realisation that conservation needs to address rapid declines of common and widespread species (they will not remain so if such trends continue as well as the management of small populations that are at risk of extinction. While the knowledge needed to support the management of small populations can often be obtained from intensive studies in a few restricted areas, conservation of widespread species often requires information on population trends and processes measured at regional, national and continental scales (Baillie, 2001. While management prescriptions for widespread populations may initially be developed from a small number of local studies or experiments, there is an increasing need to understand how such results will scale up when applied across wider areas. There is also a vital role for monitoring at large spatial scales both in identifying such population declines and in assessing population recovery. Gathering data on avian abundance and demography at large spatial scales usually relies on the efforts of large numbers of skilled volunteers. Volunteer studies based on ringing (for example Constant Effort Sites [CES

  5. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  6. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  7. Large-scale computing with Quantum Espresso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannozzi, P.; Cavazzoni, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a short introduction to Quantum Espresso: a distribution of software for atomistic simulations in condensed-matter physics, chemical physics, materials science, and to its usage in large-scale parallel computing.

  8. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era

  9. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobov, A. V., E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com; Rubin, S. G., E-mail: sgrubin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  10. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Abhijit Datta; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  11. Political consultation and large-scale research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Folkers, H.

    1977-01-01

    Large-scale research and policy consulting have an intermediary position between sociological sub-systems. While large-scale research coordinates science, policy, and production, policy consulting coordinates science, policy and political spheres. In this very position, large-scale research and policy consulting lack of institutional guarantees and rational back-ground guarantee which are characteristic for their sociological environment. This large-scale research can neither deal with the production of innovative goods under consideration of rentability, nor can it hope for full recognition by the basis-oriented scientific community. Policy consulting knows neither the competence assignment of the political system to make decisions nor can it judge succesfully by the critical standards of the established social science, at least as far as the present situation is concerned. This intermediary position of large-scale research and policy consulting has, in three points, a consequence supporting the thesis which states that this is a new form of institutionalization of science: These are: 1) external control, 2) the organization form, 3) the theoretical conception of large-scale research and policy consulting. (orig.) [de

  12. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data

  13. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  14. Factors Influencing Uptake of a Large Scale Curriculum Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Philip S.

    Educational research has all too often failed to be implemented on a large-scale basis. This paper describes the multiplier effect of a professional development program for teachers and for trainers in the United Kingdom, and how that program was developed, monitored, and evaluated. Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) is a…

  15. Novel insights in the fecal egg count reduction test for monitoring drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths in large-scale treatment programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Levecke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT is recommended to monitor drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in public health. However, the impact of factors inherent to study design (sample size and detection limit of the fecal egg count (FEC method and host-parasite interactions (mean baseline FEC and aggregation of FEC across host population on the reliability of FECRT is poorly understood.A simulation study was performed in which FECRT was assessed under varying conditions of the aforementioned factors. Classification trees were built to explore critical values for these factors required to obtain conclusive FECRT results. The outcome of this analysis was subsequently validated on five efficacy trials across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Unsatisfactory (<85.0% sensitivity and specificity results to detect reduced efficacy were found if sample sizes were small (<10 or if sample sizes were moderate (10-49 combined with highly aggregated FEC (k<0.25. FECRT remained inconclusive under any evaluated condition for drug efficacies ranging from 87.5% to 92.5% for a reduced-efficacy-threshold of 90% and from 92.5% to 97.5% for a threshold of 95%. The most discriminatory study design required 200 subjects independent of STH status (including subjects who are not excreting eggs. For this sample size, the detection limit of the FEC method and the level of aggregation of the FEC did not affect the interpretation of the FECRT. Only for a threshold of 90%, mean baseline FEC <150 eggs per gram of stool led to a reduced discriminatory power.This study confirms that the interpretation of FECRT is affected by a complex interplay of factors inherent to both study design and host-parasite interactions. The results also highlight that revision of the current World Health Organization guidelines to monitor drug efficacy is indicated. We, therefore, propose novel guidelines to support future monitoring programs.

  16. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  17. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  18. Growth Limits in Large Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    limitations. The rising complexity of network management with the convergence of communications platforms is shown as problematic for both automatic management feasibility and for manpower resource management. In the fourth step the scope is extended to include the present society with the DDN project as its......The Subject of large scale networks is approached from the perspective of the network planner. An analysis of the long term planning problems is presented with the main focus on the changing requirements for large scale networks and the potential problems in meeting these requirements. The problems...... the fundamental technological resources in network technologies are analysed for scalability. Here several technological limits to continued growth are presented. The third step involves a survey of major problems in managing large scale networks given the growth of user requirements and the technological...

  19. Managing large-scale models: DBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    A set of fundamental management tools for developing and operating a large scale model and data base system is presented. Based on experience in operating and developing a large scale computerized system, the only reasonable way to gain strong management control of such a system is to implement appropriate controls and procedures. Chapter I discusses the purpose of the book. Chapter II classifies a broad range of generic management problems into three groups: documentation, operations, and maintenance. First, system problems are identified then solutions for gaining management control are disucssed. Chapters III, IV, and V present practical methods for dealing with these problems. These methods were developed for managing SEAS but have general application for large scale models and data bases

  20. Accelerating sustainability in large-scale facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research centres and large-scale facilities are intrinsically energy intensive, but how can big science improve its energy management and eventually contribute to the environmental cause with new cleantech? CERN’s commitment to providing tangible answers to these questions was sealed in the first workshop on energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures held in Lund, Sweden, on the 13-14 October.   Participants at the energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures workshop. The workshop, co-organised with the European Spallation Source (ESS) and  the European Association of National Research Facilities (ERF), tackled a recognised need for addressing energy issues in relation with science and technology policies. It brought together more than 150 representatives of Research Infrastrutures (RIs) and energy experts from Europe and North America. “Without compromising our scientific projects, we can ...

  1. Large-scale Complex IT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that identifies the major challen...

  2. Large-scale complex IT systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2012-01-01

    12 pages, 2 figures This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that ident...

  3. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  4. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  5. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications

  6. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  7. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  8. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments. Pavel Ambrož, Astronomical Institute of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165. Ondrejov, The Czech Republic. e-mail: pambroz@asu.cas.cz. Alfred Schroll, Kanzelhöehe Solar Observatory of the University of Graz, A-9521 Treffen,. Austria. e-mail: schroll@solobskh.ac.at.

  9. Sensitivity analysis for large-scale problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    The development of efficient techniques for calculating sensitivity derivatives is studied. The objective is to present a computational procedure for calculating sensitivity derivatives as part of performing structural reanalysis for large-scale problems. The scope is limited to framed type structures. Both linear static analysis and free-vibration eigenvalue problems are considered.

  10. Ethics of large-scale change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

    , which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, the neoclassical economists' approach, and finally the so-called Concentric Circle Theories approach...

  11. The origin of large scale cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Palmer, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the origin of large scale cosmic structure. The evolution of density perturbations, the nonlinear regime (Zel'dovich's solution and others), the Gott and Rees clustering hierarchy, the spectrum of condensations, and biassed galaxy formation, are all discussed. (UK)

  12. Learning from large scale neural simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale neural simulations have the marks of a distinct methodology which can be fruitfully deployed to advance scientific understanding of the human brain. Computer simulation studies can be used to produce surrogate observational data for better conceptual models and new how...

  13. Stability of large scale interconnected dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpan, E.P.

    1993-07-01

    Large scale systems modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations are considered and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniform asymptotic connective stability of the systems using the method of cone-valued Lyapunov functions. It is shown that this model significantly improves the existing models. (author). 9 refs

  14. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems, discussed at the ''Large-scale Structure of the Universe'' symposium are considered on a popular level. Described are the cell structure of galaxy distribution in the Universe, principles of mathematical galaxy distribution modelling. The images of cell structures, obtained after reprocessing with the computer are given. Discussed are three hypothesis - vortical, entropic, adiabatic, suggesting various processes of galaxy and galaxy clusters origin. A considerable advantage of the adiabatic hypothesis is recognized. The relict radiation, as a method of direct studying the processes taking place in the Universe is considered. The large-scale peculiarities and small-scale fluctuations of the relict radiation temperature enable one to estimate the turbance properties at the pre-galaxy stage. The discussion of problems, pertaining to studying the hot gas, contained in galaxy clusters, the interactions within galaxy clusters and with the inter-galaxy medium, is recognized to be a notable contribution into the development of theoretical and observational cosmology

  15. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  16. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  17. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  18. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  19. Puzzles of large scale structure and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the puzzle of cosmic voids bounded by two-dimensional structures of galactic clusters as also a puzzle pointed out by Weinberg: How can the mass of a typical elementary particle depend on a cosmic parameter like the Hubble constant? An answer to the first puzzle is proposed in terms of 'Scaled' Quantum Mechanical like behaviour which appears at large scales. The second puzzle can be answered by showing that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle has a Machian character (see Ahmed N. Cantorian small worked, Mach's principle and the universal mass network. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(4))

  20. Adaptive visualization for large-scale graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Shinano, Yuji; Ohzahata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    We propose an adoptive visualization technique for representing a large-scale hierarchical dataset within limited display space. A hierarchical dataset has nodes and links showing the parent-child relationship between the nodes. These nodes and links are described using graphics primitives. When the number of these primitives is large, it is difficult to recognize the structure of the hierarchical data because many primitives are overlapped within a limited region. To overcome this difficulty, we propose an adaptive visualization technique for hierarchical datasets. The proposed technique selects an appropriate graph style according to the nodal density in each area. (author)

  1. Stabilization Algorithms for Large-Scale Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the project is on stabilization of large-scale inverse problems where structured models and iterative algorithms are necessary for computing approximate solutions. For this purpose, we study various iterative Krylov methods and their abilities to produce regularized solutions. Some......-curve. This heuristic is implemented as a part of a larger algorithm which is developed in collaboration with G. Rodriguez and P. C. Hansen. Last, but not least, a large part of the project has, in different ways, revolved around the object-oriented Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools developed by PhD Michael Jacobsen. New...

  2. Challenges for Large Scale Structure Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I will describe some of the outstanding questions in Cosmology where answers could be provided by observations of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe at late times.I will discuss some of the theoretical challenges which will have to be overcome to extract this information from the observations. I will describe some of the theoretical tools that might be useful to achieve this goal. 

  3. Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305 METHODS FOR LARGE-SCALE NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION by Philip E. Gill, Waiter Murray, I Michael A. Saunden, and Masgaret H. Wright...typical iteration can be partitioned so that where B is an m X m basise matrix. This partition effectively divides the vari- ables into three classes... attention is given to the standard of the coding or the documentation. A much better way of obtaining mathematical software is from a software library

  4. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  5. Fires in large scale ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; White, B.W.; Nichols, B.D.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.; Blythe, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained simulating fires in large scale ventilation systems patterned after ventilation systems found in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The series of experiments discussed included: (1) combustion aerosol loading of 0.61x0.61 m HEPA filters with the combustion products of two organic fuels, polystyrene and polymethylemethacrylate; (2) gas dynamic and heat transport through a large scale ventilation system consisting of a 0.61x0.61 m duct 90 m in length, with dampers, HEPA filters, blowers, etc.; (3) gas dynamic and simultaneous transport of heat and solid particulate (consisting of glass beads with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10μ) through the large scale ventilation system; and (4) the transport of heat and soot, generated by kerosene pool fires, through the large scale ventilation system. The FIRAC computer code, designed to predict fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems, was used to predict the results of experiments (2) through (4). In general, the results of the predictions were satisfactory. The code predictions for the gas dynamics, heat transport, and particulate transport and deposition were within 10% of the experimentally measured values. However, the code was less successful in predicting the amount of soot generation from kerosene pool fires, probably due to the fire module of the code being a one-dimensional zone model. The experiments revealed a complicated three-dimensional combustion pattern within the fire room of the ventilation system. Further refinement of the fire module within FIRAC is needed. (orig.)

  6. LAVA: Large scale Automated Vulnerability Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    LAVA: Large-scale Automated Vulnerability Addition Brendan Dolan -Gavitt∗, Patrick Hulin†, Tim Leek†, Fredrich Ulrich†, Ryan Whelan† (Authors listed...released, and thus rapidly become stale. We can expect tools to have been trained to detect bugs that have been released. Given the commercial price tag...low TCN) and dead (low liveness) program data is a powerful one for vulnera- bility injection. The DUAs it identifies are internal program quantities

  7. Large-Scale Transit Signal Priority Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin S.; Lozner, Bailey

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) deployed Transit Signal Priority (TSP) at 195 intersections in highly urbanized areas of Washington, DC. In collaboration with a broader regional implementation, and in partnership with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), DDOT set out to apply a systems engineering–driven process to identify, design, test, and accept a large-scale TSP system. This presentation will highlight project successes and lessons learned.

  8. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  9. RESTRUCTURING OF THE LARGE-SCALE SPRINKLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kozaczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the best ways for agriculture to become independent from shortages of precipitation is irrigation. In the seventies and eighties of the last century a number of large-scale sprinklers in Wielkopolska was built. At the end of 1970’s in the Poznan province 67 sprinklers with a total area of 6400 ha were installed. The average size of the sprinkler reached 95 ha. In 1989 there were 98 sprinklers, and the area which was armed with them was more than 10 130 ha. The study was conducted on 7 large sprinklers with the area ranging from 230 to 520 hectares in 1986÷1998. After the introduction of the market economy in the early 90’s and ownership changes in agriculture, large-scale sprinklers have gone under a significant or total devastation. Land on the State Farms of the State Agricultural Property Agency has leased or sold and the new owners used the existing sprinklers to a very small extent. This involved a change in crop structure, demand structure and an increase in operating costs. There has also been a threefold increase in electricity prices. Operation of large-scale irrigation encountered all kinds of barriers in practice and limitations of system solutions, supply difficulties, high levels of equipment failure which is not inclined to rational use of available sprinklers. An effect of a vision of the local area was to show the current status of the remaining irrigation infrastructure. The adopted scheme for the restructuring of Polish agriculture was not the best solution, causing massive destruction of assets previously invested in the sprinkler system.

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  11. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriage, Tobias; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John; Bennett, Charles; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  12. Building capacity in biodiversity monitoring at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Bohm, Monika; Arvanitidis, Christos; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Brummitt, Neil; Chandler, Mark; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Costello, Mark J.; Ding, Hui; García-Moreno, Jaime; Gill, Michael J.; Haase, Peter; Jones, Miranda; Juillard, Romain; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Corinne S.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Proença, Vânia; Peng, Cui; Regan, Eugenie; Schmiedel, Ute; Simsika, John P.; Weatherdon, Lauren; Waterman, Carly; Xu, Haigen; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Human-driven global change is causing ongoing declines in biodiversity worldwide. In order to address these declines, decision-makers need accurate assessments of the status of and pressures on biodiversity. However, these are heavily constrained by incomplete and uneven spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. For instance, data from regions such as Europe and North America are currently used overwhelmingly for large-scale biodiversity assessments due to lesser availability of suitable data from other, more biodiversity-rich, regions. These data-poor regions are often those experiencing the strongest threats to biodiversity, however. There is therefore an urgent need to fill the existing gaps in global biodiversity monitoring. Here, we review current knowledge on best practice in capacity building for biodiversity monitoring and provide an overview of existing means to improve biodiversity data collection considering the different types of biodiversity monitoring data. Our review comprises insights from work in Africa, South America, Polar Regions and Europe; in government-funded, volunteer and citizen-based monitoring in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. The key steps to effectively building capacity in biodiversity monitoring are: identifying monitoring questions and aims; identifying the key components, functions, and processes to monitor; identifying the most suitable monitoring methods for these elements, carrying out monitoring activities; managing the resultant data; and interpreting monitoring data. Additionally, biodiversity monitoring should use multiple approaches including extensive and intensive monitoring through volunteers and professional scientists but also harnessing new technologies. Finally, we call on the scientific community to share biodiversity monitoring data, knowledge and tools to ensure the accessibility, interoperability, and reporting of biodiversity data at a global scale.

  13. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  14. Status: Large-scale subatmospheric cryogenic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1960's and early 1970's an interest in testing and operating RF cavities at 1.8K motivated the development and construction of four large (300 Watt) 1.8K refrigeration systems. in the past decade, development of successful superconducting RF cavities and interest in obtaining higher magnetic fields with the improved Niobium-Titanium superconductors has once again created interest in large-scale 1.8K refrigeration systems. The L'Air Liquide plant for Tore Supra is a recently commissioned 300 Watt 1.8K system which incorporates new technology, cold compressors, to obtain the low vapor pressure for low temperature cooling. CEBAF proposes to use cold compressors to obtain 5KW at 2.0K. Magnetic refrigerators of 10 Watt capacity or higher at 1.8K are now being developed. The state of the art of large-scale refrigeration in the range under 4K will be reviewed. 28 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  15. The Software Reliability of Large Scale Integration Circuit and Very Large Scale Integration Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Artem Ganiyev; Jan Vitasek

    2010-01-01

    This article describes evaluation method of faultless function of large scale integration circuits (LSI) and very large scale integration circuits (VLSI). In the article there is a comparative analysis of factors which determine faultless of integrated circuits, analysis of already existing methods and model of faultless function evaluation of LSI and VLSI. The main part describes a proposed algorithm and program for analysis of fault rate in LSI and VLSI circuits.

  16. Large Scale Landform Mapping Using Lidar DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Gökgöz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, LIDAR DEM data was used to obtain a primary landform map in accordance with a well-known methodology. This primary landform map was generalized using the Focal Statistics tool (Majority, considering the minimum area condition in cartographic generalization in order to obtain landform maps at 1:1000 and 1:5000 scales. Both the primary and the generalized landform maps were verified visually with hillshaded DEM and an orthophoto. As a result, these maps provide satisfactory visuals of the landforms. In order to show the effect of generalization, the area of each landform in both the primary and the generalized maps was computed. Consequently, landform maps at large scales could be obtained with the proposed methodology, including generalization using LIDAR DEM.

  17. Constructing sites on a large scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Tietjen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the regional scale has regained importance in urban and landscape design. In parallel, the focus in design tasks has shifted from master plans for urban extension to strategic urban transformation projects. A prominent example of a contemporary spatial development approach...... for setting the design brief in a large scale urban landscape in Norway, the Jaeren region around the city of Stavanger. In this paper, we first outline the methodological challenges and then present and discuss the proposed method based on our teaching experiences. On this basis, we discuss aspects...... is the IBA Emscher Park in the Ruhr area in Germany. Over a 10 years period (1988-1998), more than a 100 local transformation projects contributed to the transformation from an industrial to a post-industrial region. The current paradigm of planning by projects reinforces the role of the design disciplines...

  18. Large Scale Self-Organizing Information Distribution System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates issues in "large-scale" networks. Here "large-scale" refers to networks with large number of high capacity nodes and transmission links, and shared by a large number of users...

  19. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos

  20. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Daniel J. Eisenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS #20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos.

  1. Concepts for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Daniel; Åtland, Vegar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a techno-economic analysis of large-scale, carbon-lean hydrogen production in Norway, in order to evaluate various production methods and estimate a breakeven price level. Norway possesses vast energy resources and the export of oil and gas is vital to the country s economy. The results of this thesis indicate that hydrogen represents a viable, carbon-lean opportunity to utilize these resources, which can prove key in the future of Norwegian energy e...

  2. Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials

  3. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.T.

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. On hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analyzed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population. (author)

  4. Large scale flow in the dayside magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The degree of control over plasma flow direction exerted by the compressed magnetic field in the dayside magnetosheath is examined by comparing ISEE 1 LEPEDEA data with hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic predictions. Measured flow directions projected toward the subsolar region pass within approx.1 R/sub E/ of the aberrated theoretical hydrodynamic stagnation point in 11 of 20 cases analyzed. The remaining nine cases pass within approx.2-3 R/sub E/ of the stagnation point. One case with large deflection has been studied in detail with large-time-resolution plasma and magnetic field data both from ISEE 1 and from ISEE 3, in the role of a solar wind monitor. The deflected flow is persitent over a period of 1 1/2 hours, and its direction is consistent with a stagnation point displacement resulting from increased, asymmetric magnetic field pressure contributions during periods of low Alfven Mach number, as predicted by Russell et al. Of the other eight cases with large deflections, four are associated with flux transfer events identified independently by Berchem and Russell. The observed deflections in these cases are consistent with either the subsolar merging line or the antiparallel merging hypothesis, but not exclusively with one or the other. The results relating to the formation of a stagnation line rather than a stagnation point are inconclusive

  5. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  6. Large scale integration of photovoltaics in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalka, Aneta; Alam, Nazmul; Duminil, Eric; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We implement the photovoltaics on a large scale. ► We use three-dimensional modelling for accurate photovoltaic simulations. ► We consider the shadowing effect in the photovoltaic simulation. ► We validate the simulated results using detailed hourly measured data. - Abstract: For a large scale implementation of photovoltaics (PV) in the urban environment, building integration is a major issue. This includes installations on roof or facade surfaces with orientations that are not ideal for maximum energy production. To evaluate the performance of PV systems in urban settings and compare it with the building user’s electricity consumption, three-dimensional geometry modelling was combined with photovoltaic system simulations. As an example, the modern residential district of Scharnhauser Park (SHP) near Stuttgart/Germany was used to calculate the potential of photovoltaic energy and to evaluate the local own consumption of the energy produced. For most buildings of the district only annual electrical consumption data was available and only selected buildings have electronic metering equipment. The available roof area for one of these multi-family case study buildings was used for a detailed hourly simulation of the PV power production, which was then compared to the hourly measured electricity consumption. The results were extrapolated to all buildings of the analyzed area by normalizing them to the annual consumption data. The PV systems can produce 35% of the quarter’s total electricity consumption and half of this generated electricity is directly used within the buildings.

  7. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  8. Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D.; Tentner, A.

    1995-06-01

    A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  9. Large-scale digitizer system, analog converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Wagner, L.J.

    1976-10-01

    Analog to digital converter circuits that are based on the sharing of common resources, including those which are critical to the linearity and stability of the individual channels, are described. Simplicity of circuit composition is valued over other more costly approaches. These are intended to be applied in a large-scale processing and digitizing system for use with high-energy physics detectors such as drift-chambers or phototube-scintillator arrays. Signal distribution techniques are of paramount importance in maintaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Noise in both amplitude and time-jitter senses is held sufficiently low so that conversions with 10-bit charge resolution and 12-bit time resolution are achieved

  10. Engineering management of large scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  11. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  12. Large - scale Rectangular Ruler Automated Verification Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chang, Luping; Xing, Minjian; Xie, Xie

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces a large-scale rectangular ruler automated verification device, which consists of photoelectric autocollimator and self-designed mechanical drive car and data automatic acquisition system. The design of mechanical structure part of the device refer to optical axis design, drive part, fixture device and wheel design. The design of control system of the device refer to hardware design and software design, and the hardware mainly uses singlechip system, and the software design is the process of the photoelectric autocollimator and the automatic data acquisition process. This devices can automated achieve vertical measurement data. The reliability of the device is verified by experimental comparison. The conclusion meets the requirement of the right angle test procedure.

  13. Testing Einstein's Gravity on Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    A little over a decade has passed since two teams studying high redshift Type Ia supernovae announced the discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating. After all this time, we?re still not sure how cosmic acceleration fits into the theory that tells us about the large-scale universe: General Relativity (GR). As part of our search for answers, we have been forced to question GR itself. But how will we test our ideas? We are fortunate enough to be entering the era of precision cosmology, where the standard model of gravity can be subjected to more rigorous testing. Various techniques will be employed over the next decade or two in the effort to better understand cosmic acceleration and the theory behind it. In this talk, I will describe cosmic acceleration, current proposals to explain it, and weak gravitational lensing, an observational effect that allows us to do the necessary precision cosmology.

  14. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  15. Monitoring large rotating machines at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Le Reverend, D.

    1992-09-01

    At Electricite de France (EDF), since 1978, the operating instruments which ensure the DETECTION function, have been completed on turbogenerators by a specialized ''off-line'' vibration monitoring system, which allows a posteriori DIAGNOSIS analysis. However because of a need of a real time and more elaborated DETECTION function, the concept of the Monitoring and Diagnosis Aid Station (Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic: PSAD) has been developed. It federates the processing of monitoring, organized into several functions, and includes the monitoring of turbogenerators (TGS) and reactor coolant pumps (RCP). The purpose of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the monitoring functions of TGS and RCP and on the other, the first experimental results on the behaviour of three RCP, obtained through a SAMT (Surveillance Automatisee des Machines Tournantes - Automatic monitoring of rotating machines) prototype. (authors). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 4 refs

  16. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  17. Large-scale stochasticity in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Large scale stochasticity (L.S.S.) in Hamiltonian systems is defined on the paradigm Hamiltonian H(v,x,t) =v 2 /2-M cos x-P cos k(x-t) which describes the motion of one particle in two electrostatic waves. A renormalization transformation Tsub(r) is described which acts as a microscope that focusses on a given KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) torus in phase space. Though approximate, Tsub(r) yields the threshold of L.S.S. in H with an error of 5-10%. The universal behaviour of KAM tori is predicted: for instance the scale invariance of KAM tori and the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponent of Cantori. The Fourier expansion of KAM tori is computed and several conjectures by L. Kadanoff and S. Shenker are proved. Chirikov's standard mapping for stochastic layers is derived in a simpler way and the width of the layers is computed. A simpler renormalization scheme for these layers is defined. A Mathieu equation for describing the stability of a discrete family of cycles is derived. When combined with Tsub(r), it allows to prove the link between KAM tori and nearby cycles, conjectured by J. Greene and, in particular, to compute the mean residue of a torus. The fractal diagrams defined by G. Schmidt are computed. A sketch of a methodology for computing the L.S.S. threshold in any two-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system is given. (Auth.)

  18. Large Scale EOF Analysis of Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, M.; Gittens, A.; Kashinath, K.; Cavanaugh, N. R.; Mahoney, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a distributed approach towards extracting EOFs from 3D climate data. We implement the method in Apache Spark, and process multi-TB sized datasets on O(1000-10,000) cores. We apply this method to latitude-weighted ocean temperature data from CSFR, a 2.2 terabyte-sized data set comprising ocean and subsurface reanalysis measurements collected at 41 levels in the ocean, at 6 hour intervals over 31 years. We extract the first 100 EOFs of this full data set and compare to the EOFs computed simply on the surface temperature field. Our analyses provide evidence of Kelvin and Rossy waves and components of large-scale modes of oscillation including the ENSO and PDO that are not visible in the usual SST EOFs. Further, they provide information on the the most influential parts of the ocean, such as the thermocline, that exist below the surface. Work is ongoing to understand the factors determining the depth-varying spatial patterns observed in the EOFs. We will experiment with weighting schemes to appropriately account for the differing depths of the observations. We also plan to apply the same distributed approach to analysis of analysis of 3D atmospheric climatic data sets, including multiple variables. Because the atmosphere changes on a quicker time-scale than the ocean, we expect that the results will demonstrate an even greater advantage to computing 3D EOFs in lieu of 2D EOFs.

  19. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  20. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  1. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  2. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  3. Multidimensional scaling for large genomic data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Henry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS is aimed to represent high dimensional data in a low dimensional space with preservation of the similarities between data points. This reduction in dimensionality is crucial for analyzing and revealing the genuine structure hidden in the data. For noisy data, dimension reduction can effectively reduce the effect of noise on the embedded structure. For large data set, dimension reduction can effectively reduce information retrieval complexity. Thus, MDS techniques are used in many applications of data mining and gene network research. However, although there have been a number of studies that applied MDS techniques to genomics research, the number of analyzed data points was restricted by the high computational complexity of MDS. In general, a non-metric MDS method is faster than a metric MDS, but it does not preserve the true relationships. The computational complexity of most metric MDS methods is over O(N2, so that it is difficult to process a data set of a large number of genes N, such as in the case of whole genome microarray data. Results We developed a new rapid metric MDS method with a low computational complexity, making metric MDS applicable for large data sets. Computer simulation showed that the new method of split-and-combine MDS (SC-MDS is fast, accurate and efficient. Our empirical studies using microarray data on the yeast cell cycle showed that the performance of K-means in the reduced dimensional space is similar to or slightly better than that of K-means in the original space, but about three times faster to obtain the clustering results. Our clustering results using SC-MDS are more stable than those in the original space. Hence, the proposed SC-MDS is useful for analyzing whole genome data. Conclusion Our new method reduces the computational complexity from O(N3 to O(N when the dimension of the feature space is far less than the number of genes N, and it successfully

  4. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  5. Large scale analysis of signal reachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Gabr, Haitham; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2014-06-15

    Major disorders, such as leukemia, have been shown to alter the transcription of genes. Understanding how gene regulation is affected by such aberrations is of utmost importance. One promising strategy toward this objective is to compute whether signals can reach to the transcription factors through the transcription regulatory network (TRN). Due to the uncertainty of the regulatory interactions, this is a #P-complete problem and thus solving it for very large TRNs remains to be a challenge. We develop a novel and scalable method to compute the probability that a signal originating at any given set of source genes can arrive at any given set of target genes (i.e., transcription factors) when the topology of the underlying signaling network is uncertain. Our method tackles this problem for large networks while providing a provably accurate result. Our method follows a divide-and-conquer strategy. We break down the given network into a sequence of non-overlapping subnetworks such that reachability can be computed autonomously and sequentially on each subnetwork. We represent each interaction using a small polynomial. The product of these polynomials express different scenarios when a signal can or cannot reach to target genes from the source genes. We introduce polynomial collapsing operators for each subnetwork. These operators reduce the size of the resulting polynomial and thus the computational complexity dramatically. We show that our method scales to entire human regulatory networks in only seconds, while the existing methods fail beyond a few tens of genes and interactions. We demonstrate that our method can successfully characterize key reachability characteristics of the entire transcriptions regulatory networks of patients affected by eight different subtypes of leukemia, as well as those from healthy control samples. All the datasets and code used in this article are available at bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/PReach/scalable.htm. © The Author 2014

  6. Large scale molecular simulations of nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of nanomaterials in biomedical applications has been accompanied by an increasing interest in understanding their interactions with tissues, cells, and biomolecules, and in particular, on how they might affect the integrity of cell membranes and proteins. In this mini-review, we present a summary of some of the recent studies on this important subject, especially from the point of view of large scale molecular simulations. The carbon-based nanomaterials and noble metal nanoparticles are the main focus, with additional discussions on quantum dots and other nanoparticles as well. The driving forces for adsorption of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene nanosheets onto proteins or cell membranes are found to be mainly hydrophobic interactions and the so-called π-π stacking (between aromatic rings), while for the noble metal nanoparticles the long-range electrostatic interactions play a bigger role. More interestingly, there are also growing evidences showing that nanotoxicity can have implications in de novo design of nanomedicine. For example, the endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ is shown to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting enzyme MMP-9, and graphene is illustrated to disrupt bacteria cell membranes by insertion/cutting as well as destructive extraction of lipid molecules. These recent findings have provided a better understanding of nanotoxicity at the molecular level and also suggested therapeutic potential by using the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles against cancer or bacteria cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Large-scale tides in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: iphys@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Density perturbations in cosmology, i.e. spherically symmetric adiabatic perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime, are locally exactly equivalent to a different FLRW solution, as long as their wavelength is much larger than the sound horizon of all fluid components. This fact is known as the 'separate universe' paradigm. However, no such relation is known for anisotropic adiabatic perturbations, which correspond to an FLRW spacetime with large-scale tidal fields. Here, we provide a closed, fully relativistic set of evolutionary equations for the nonlinear evolution of such modes, based on the conformal Fermi (CFC) frame. We show explicitly that the tidal effects are encoded by the Weyl tensor, and are hence entirely different from an anisotropic Bianchi I spacetime, where the anisotropy is sourced by the Ricci tensor. In order to close the system, certain higher derivative terms have to be dropped. We show that this approximation is equivalent to the local tidal approximation of Hui and Bertschinger [1]. We also show that this very simple set of equations matches the exact evolution of the density field at second order, but fails at third and higher order. This provides a useful, easy-to-use framework for computing the fully relativistic growth of structure at second order.

  8. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristina Rulli, Maria; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300–550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190–370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations. (letter)

  9. Large-scale assembly of colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta

    This study reports a simple, roll-to-roll compatible coating technology for producing three-dimensional highly ordered colloidal crystal-polymer composites, colloidal crystals, and macroporous polymer membranes. A vertically beveled doctor blade is utilized to shear align silica microsphere-monomer suspensions to form large-area composites in a single step. The polymer matrix and the silica microspheres can be selectively removed to create colloidal crystals and self-standing macroporous polymer membranes. The thickness of the shear-aligned crystal is correlated with the viscosity of the colloidal suspension and the coating speed, and the correlations can be qualitatively explained by adapting the mechanisms developed for conventional doctor blade coating. Five important research topics related to the application of large-scale three-dimensional highly ordered macroporous films by doctor blade coating are covered in this study. The first topic describes the invention in large area and low cost color reflective displays. This invention is inspired by the heat pipe technology. The self-standing macroporous polymer films exhibit brilliant colors which originate from the Bragg diffractive of visible light form the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities. The colors can be easily changed by tuning the size of the air cavities to cover the whole visible spectrum. When the air cavities are filled with a solvent which has the same refractive index as that of the polymer, the macroporous polymer films become completely transparent due to the index matching. When the solvent trapped in the cavities is evaporated by in-situ heating, the sample color changes back to brilliant color. This process is highly reversible and reproducible for thousands of cycles. The second topic reports the achievement of rapid and reversible vapor detection by using 3-D macroporous photonic crystals. Capillary condensation of a condensable vapor in the interconnected macropores leads to the

  10. Photorealistic large-scale urban city model reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Charalambos; You, Suya

    2009-01-01

    The rapid and efficient creation of virtual environments has become a crucial part of virtual reality applications. In particular, civil and defense applications often require and employ detailed models of operations areas for training, simulations of different scenarios, planning for natural or man-made events, monitoring, surveillance, games, and films. A realistic representation of the large-scale environments is therefore imperative for the success of such applications since it increases the immersive experience of its users and helps reduce the difference between physical and virtual reality. However, the task of creating such large-scale virtual environments still remains a time-consuming and manual work. In this work, we propose a novel method for the rapid reconstruction of photorealistic large-scale virtual environments. First, a novel, extendible, parameterized geometric primitive is presented for the automatic building identification and reconstruction of building structures. In addition, buildings with complex roofs containing complex linear and nonlinear surfaces are reconstructed interactively using a linear polygonal and a nonlinear primitive, respectively. Second, we present a rendering pipeline for the composition of photorealistic textures, which unlike existing techniques, can recover missing or occluded texture information by integrating multiple information captured from different optical sensors (ground, aerial, and satellite).

  11. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first

  12. Large-scale fuel cycle centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy center concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey - 1975 (NECSS-75) -- an important study mandated by the U.S. Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For the study, NRC defined fuel cycle centers to consist of fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle center sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000 - 300,000 MWe. The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle center permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centers in enhancing safeguarding of strategic special nuclear materials -- plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting of fuel cycle centers presents a considerably smaller problem than the siting of reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the United States (1500-2000 MT/yr) can reprocess the fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000 MWe. Only two or three fuel cycle centers of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the United States by the year 2000 . The NECSS-75 fuel cycle center evaluations showed that large scale fuel cycle centers present no real technical difficulties in siting from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be attainable with fuel cycle centers; such centers offer opportunities for improved waste management systems. Combined centers consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centers can eliminate not only shipment of plutonium, but also mixed oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centers unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of plutonium-burning reactors could reduce any

  13. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  14. Safeguarding of large scale reprocessing and MOX plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howsley, R.; Burrows, B.; Longevialle, H. de; Kuroi, H.; Izumi, A.

    1997-01-01

    In May 97, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the final measures of the ''93+2'' safeguards strengthening programme, thus improving the international non-proliferation regime by enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards verification. These enhancements are not however, a revolution in current practices, but rather an important step in the continuous evolution of the safeguards system. The principles embodied in 93+2, for broader access to information and increased physical access already apply, in a pragmatic way, to large scale reprocessing and MOX fabrication plants. In these plants, qualitative measures and process monitoring play an important role in addition to accountancy and material balance evaluations in attaining the safeguard's goals. This paper will reflect on the safeguards approaches adopted for these large bulk handling facilities and draw analogies, conclusions and lessons for the forthcoming implementation of the 93+2 Programme. (author)

  15. Large-scale demonstration of waste solidification in saltstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.; Oblath, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1988-05-01

    The saltstone lysimeters are a large scale demonstration of a disposal concept for decontaminated salt solution resulting from in-tank processing of defense waste. The lysimeter experiment has provided data on the leaching behavior of large saltstone monoliths under realistic field conditions. The results also will be used to compare the effect of capping the wasteform on contaminant release. Biweekly monitoring of sump leachate from three lysimeters has continued on a routine basis for approximately 3 years. An uncapped lysimeter has shown the highest levels of nitrate and 99 Tc release. Gravel and clay capped lysimeters have shown levels equivalent to or slightly higher than background rainwater levels. Mathematical model predictions have been compared to lysimeter results. The models will be applied to predict the impact of saltstone disposal on groundwater quality. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Probes of large-scale structure in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gorski, K.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in observational techniques has made it possible to confront quantitatively various models for the large-scale structure of the Universe with detailed observational data. We develop a general formalism to show that the gravitational instability theory for the origin of large-scale structure is now capable of critically confronting observational results on cosmic microwave background radiation angular anisotropies, large-scale bulk motions and large-scale clumpiness in the galaxy counts. (author)

  17. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  18. Large scale dynamics of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthune, William

    2017-08-01

    Planets form in the gaseous and dusty disks orbiting young stars. These protoplanetary disks are dispersed in a few million years, being accreted onto the central star or evaporated into the interstellar medium. To explain the observed accretion rates, it is commonly assumed that matter is transported through the disk by turbulence, although the mechanism sustaining turbulence is uncertain. On the other side, irradiation by the central star could heat up the disk surface and trigger a photoevaporative wind, but thermal effects cannot account for the observed acceleration and collimation of the wind into a narrow jet perpendicular to the disk plane. Both issues can be solved if the disk is sensitive to magnetic fields. Weak fields lead to the magnetorotational instability, whose outcome is a state of sustained turbulence. Strong fields can slow down the disk, causing it to accrete while launching a collimated wind. However, the coupling between the disk and the neutral gas is done via electric charges, each of which is outnumbered by several billion neutral molecules. The imperfect coupling between the magnetic field and the neutral gas is described in terms of "non-ideal" effects, introducing new dynamical behaviors. This thesis is devoted to the transport processes happening inside weakly ionized and weakly magnetized accretion disks; the role of microphysical effects on the large-scale dynamics of the disk is of primary importance. As a first step, I exclude the wind and examine the impact of non-ideal effects on the turbulent properties near the disk midplane. I show that the flow can spontaneously organize itself if the ionization fraction is low enough; in this case, accretion is halted and the disk exhibits axisymmetric structures, with possible consequences on planetary formation. As a second step, I study the launching of disk winds via a global model of stratified disk embedded in a warm atmosphere. This model is the first to compute non-ideal effects from

  19. Monitoring of large rotating machines at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Oswald, G.P.; Morel, J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of equipment surveillance is the prevention of major risks, the early detection of abnormal conditions and post-incident analysis to correct faults observed. At EDF, overall vibration monitoring in the control room was supplemented by a special vibration monitoring system. However, in order to satisfy more elaborate, real time detection requirements and benefit from the new possibilities offered by computer-based systems, EDF has developed the PSAD concept (Surveillance and Diagnosis-aid Station) which groups surveillance processing, organized on surveillance functions including turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump surveillance. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump surveillance functions and present the first examples of reactor coolant pump behaviour feedback using a PSAD mockup (Automated Surveillance of Rotating Machines). In the first place, surveillance implies determining exactly what has to be monitored. This entails considering incidents liable to affect machine behaviour and, of course, specifying both the vibration quantities and those defining the operating condition of the machine considered which are necessary to be able to interpret the vibrations. Data processing requirements concern detection of faults and diagnosis aids. Faults detection must be automatic, but not the diagnosis function. Data can be processed to evidence one or several faults, using the most appropriate data display system. Interpretation is then entrusted to experts. To satisfy the above requirements, the PSAD system integrates two new concepts: distributed surveillance, involving depth distribution (different layers of software organized for increasingly sophisticated and gradually narrowing data processing) and space distribution (the work is performed in the most appropriate place, whether this be the plant, with automatic real time processing, or elsewhere if the complexity of the diagnosis so requires

  20. Large scale injection test (LASGIT) modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedo, D.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With the objective of understanding the gas flow processes through clay barriers in schemes of radioactive waste disposal, the Lasgit in situ experiment was planned and is currently in progress. The modelling of the experiment will permit to better understand of the responses, to confirm hypothesis of mechanisms and processes and to learn in order to design future experiments. The experiment and modelling activities are included in the project FORGE (FP7). The in situ large scale injection test Lasgit is currently being performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory by SKB and BGS. An schematic layout of the test is shown. The deposition hole follows the KBS3 scheme. A copper canister is installed in the axe of the deposition hole, surrounded by blocks of highly compacted MX-80 bentonite. A concrete plug is placed at the top of the buffer. A metallic lid anchored to the surrounding host rock is included in order to prevent vertical movements of the whole system during gas injection stages (high gas injection pressures are expected to be reached). Hydration of the buffer material is achieved by injecting water through filter mats, two placed at the rock walls and two at the interfaces between bentonite blocks. Water is also injected through the 12 canister filters. Gas injection stages are performed injecting gas to some of the canister injection filters. Since the water pressure and the stresses (swelling pressure development) will be high during gas injection, it is necessary to inject at high gas pressures. This implies mechanical couplings as gas penetrates after the gas entry pressure is achieved and may produce deformations which in turn lead to permeability increments. A 3D hydro-mechanical numerical model of the test using CODE-BRIGHT is presented. The domain considered for the modelling is shown. The materials considered in the simulation are the MX-80 bentonite blocks (cylinders and rings), the concrete plug

  1. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  2. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  3. Global Scale Remote Sensing Monitoring of Endorheic Lake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Semi-arid regions of the world contain thousands of endorheic lakes in large shallow basins. Due to their generally remote locations few are continuously monitored. Documentation of recent variability is essential to assessing how endorheic lakes respond to short-term meteorological conditions and longer-term decadal-scale climatic variability and is critical in determining future disturbance of hydrological regimes with respect to predicted warming and drying in the mid-latitudes. Short- and long-term departures from climatic averages, rapid environmental shifts and increased population pressures may result in significant fluctuations in the hydrologic budgets of these lakes and adversely impact endorheic lake/basin ecosystems. Information on flooding variability is also critical in estimating changes in P/E balances and on the production of exposed and easily deflated surfaces that may impact dust loading locally and regionally. In order to provide information on how these lakes respond we need to understand how entire systems respond hydrologically to different climatic inputs. This requires monitoring and analysis of regional to continental-scale systems. To date, this level of monitoring has not been achieved in an operational system. In order to assess the possibility of creating a global-scale lake inundation database we analyzed two contrasting lake systems in western North America (Mexico and New Mexico, USA) and China (Inner Mongolia). We asked two major questions: 1) is it possible to quickly and accurately quantify current lake inundation events in near real time using remote sensing? and, 2) is it possible to differentiate variable meteorological sources and resultant lake inundation responses using this type of database? With respect to these results we outline an automated lake monitoring approach using MODIS data and real-time processing systems that may provide future global monitoring capabilities.

  4. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele

    2015-08-23

    The interaction between scales is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer. The large-scale amplitude modulation of the small scales already observed in other works depends on the crosswise location. Large-scale positive fluctuations correlate with a stronger activity of the small scales on the low speed-side of the mixing layer, and a reduced activity on the high speed-side. However, from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  5. Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Hybrid inflation; Higgs scalar field; structure formation; curvation. ... We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which ... May 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board ...

  6. Comparison Between Overtopping Discharge in Small and Large Scale Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents overtopping measurements from small scale model test performed at the Haudraulic & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark and large scale model tests performed at the Largde Wave Channel,Hannover, Germany. Comparison between results obtained from...... small and large scale model tests show no clear evidence of scale effects for overtopping above a threshold value. In the large scale model no overtopping was measured for waveheights below Hs = 0.5m as the water sunk into the voids between the stones on the crest. For low overtopping scale effects...

  7. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  8. Automatic management software for large-scale cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Yunjian; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    At present, the large-scale cluster system faces to the difficult management. For example the manager has large work load. It needs to cost much time on the management and the maintenance of large-scale cluster system. The nodes in large-scale cluster system are very easy to be chaotic. Thousands of nodes are put in big rooms so that some managers are very easy to make the confusion with machines. How do effectively carry on accurate management under the large-scale cluster system? The article introduces ELFms in the large-scale cluster system. Furthermore, it is proposed to realize the large-scale cluster system automatic management. (authors)

  9. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  10. SIMON: Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Development of SIMON (SImulation MONitoring) system is described. SIMON aims to investigate many physical phenomena of tokamak type nuclear fusion plasma by simulation and to exchange information and to carry out joint researches with scientists in the world using internet. The characteristics of SIMON are followings; 1) decrease load of simulation by trigger sending method, 2) visualization of simulation results and hierarchical structure of analysis, 3) decrease of number of license by using command line when software is used, 4) improvement of support for using network of simulation data output by use of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), 5) avoidance of complex built-in work in client part and 6) small-sized and portable software. The visualization method of large scale simulation, remote collaboration system by HTML, trigger sending method, hierarchical analytical method, introduction into three-dimensional electromagnetic transportation code and technologies of SIMON system are explained. (S.Y.)

  11. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.R.; Elmer, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company's automation objectives in the area; the field operator's interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method

  12. Topographically Engineered Large Scale Nanostructures for Plasmonic Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Santiago, Kevin C.; Rutherford, Gugu N.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that a nanostructured metal thin film can achieve enhanced transmission efficiency and sharp resonances and use a large-scale and high-throughput nanofabrication technique for the plasmonic structures. The fabrication technique combines the features of nanoimprint and soft lithography to topographically construct metal thin films with nanoscale patterns. Metal nanogratings developed using this method show significantly enhanced optical transmission (up to a one-order-of-magnitude enhancement) and sharp resonances with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~15nm in the zero-order transmission using an incoherent white light source. These nanostructures are sensitive to the surrounding environment, and the resonance can shift as the refractive index changes. We derive an analytical method using a spatial Fourier transformation to understand the enhancement phenomenon and the sensing mechanism. The use of real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions in microfluidic cells integrated with these nanostructures is demonstrated to be effective for biosensing. The perpendicular transmission configuration and large-scale structures provide a feasible platform without sophisticated optical instrumentation to realize label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing.

  13. Large scale and performance tests of the ATLAS online software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov; Kotov, V.; Mineev, M.; Roumiantsev, V.; Wolters, H.; Amorim, A.; Pedro, L.; Ribeiro, A.; Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Dobson, M.; Jones, R.; Kazarov, A.; Kolos, S.; Liko, D.; Lucio, L.; Mapelli, L.; Nassiakou, M.; Schweiger, D.; Soloviev, I.; Hart, R.; Ryabov, Y.; Moneta, L.

    2001-01-01

    One of the sub-systems of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment is the Online Software system. It encompasses the functionality needed to configure, control and monitor the DAQ. Its architecture is based on a component structure described in the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ technical proposal. Regular integration tests ensure its smooth operation in test beam setups during its evolutionary development towards the final ATLAS online system. Feedback is received and returned into the development process. Studies of the system behavior have been performed on a set of up to 111 PCs on a configuration which is getting closer to the final size. Large scale and performance test of the integrated system were performed on this setup with emphasis on investigating the aspects of the inter-dependence of the components and the performance of the communication software. Of particular interest were the run control state transitions in various configurations of the run control hierarchy. For the purpose of the tests, the software from other Trigger/DAQ sub-systems has been emulated. The author presents a brief overview of the online system structure, its components and the large scale integration tests and their results

  14. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing Auger surface array data sample of the highest energy cosmic rays, large scale anisotropy studies at this part of the spectrum become a promising path towards the understanding of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic particles. We describe the methods underlying the search for distortions in the cosmic rays arrival directions over large angular scales, that is, bigger than those commonly employed in the search for correlations with point-like sources. The widely used tools, known as coverage maps, are described and some of the issues involved in their calculations are presented through Monte Carlo based studies. Coverage computation requires a deep knowledge on the local detection efficiency, including the influence of weather parameters like temperature and pressure. Particular attention is devoted to a new proposed method to extract the coverage, based upon the assumption of time factorization of an extensive air shower detector acceptance. We use Auger monitoring data to test the goodness of such a hypothesis. We finally show the necessity of using more than one coverage to extract any possible anisotropic pattern on the sky, by pointing to some of the biases present in commonly used methods based, for example, on the scrambling of the UTC arrival times for each event. (author)

  15. Optimization of Large-Scale Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F. M.

    solutions to small problems with one or two variables to the optimization of large structures such as bridges, ships and offshore structures. The methods used for salving these problems have evolved from being classical differential calculus and calculus of variation to very advanced numerical techniques...

  16. Metastrategies in large-scale bargaining settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennes, D.; Jong, S. de; Tuyls, K.; Gal, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents novel methods for representing and analyzing a special class of multiagent bargaining settings that feature multiple players, large action spaces, and a relationship among players' goals, tasks, and resources. We show how to reduce these interactions to a set of bilateral

  17. Large scale processing of dielectric electroactive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu

    Efficient processing techniques are vital to the success of any manufacturing industry. The processing techniques determine the quality of the products and thus to a large extent the performance and reliability of the products that are manufactured. The dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP...

  18. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  19. LARGE-SCALE FLOWS IN PROMINENCE CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Gibson, S. E.; Tomczyk, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Brooks, D. H.; Williams, D. R.; Tripathi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of rarefied density often form cavities above quiescent prominences. We observed two different cavities with the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter on 2005 April 21 and with Hinode/EIS on 2008 November 8. Inside both of these cavities, we find coherent velocity structures based on spectral Doppler shifts. These flows have speeds of 5-10 km s -1 , occur over length scales of tens of megameters, and persist for at least 1 hr. Flows in cavities are an example of the nonstatic nature of quiescent structures in the solar atmosphere.

  20. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  1. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed

  2. Large Scale Demand Response of Thermostatic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana

    This study is concerned with large populations of residential thermostatic loads (e.g. refrigerators, air conditioning or heat pumps). The purpose is to gain control over the aggregate power consumption in order to provide balancing services for the electrical grid. Without affecting the temperat......This study is concerned with large populations of residential thermostatic loads (e.g. refrigerators, air conditioning or heat pumps). The purpose is to gain control over the aggregate power consumption in order to provide balancing services for the electrical grid. Without affecting....... The control architecture is defined by parsimonious communication requirements that also have a high level data privacy, and it furthermore guarantees a robust and secure local operation. Mathematical models are put forward, and the effectiveness is shown by numerical simulations. A case study of 10000...

  3. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-07-25

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed.

  4. Large-scale preparation of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, J S; Elbing, K L; Brent, R

    2001-05-01

    Although the need for large quantities of plasmid DNA has diminished as techniques for manipulating small quantities of DNA have improved, occasionally large amounts of high-quality plasmid DNA are desired. This unit describes the preparation of milligram quantities of highly purified plasmid DNA. The first part of the unit describes three methods for preparing crude lysates enriched in plasmid DNA from bacterial cells grown in liquid culture: alkaline lysis, boiling, and Triton lysis. The second part describes four methods for purifying plasmid DNA in such lysates away from contaminating RNA and protein: CsCl/ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography.

  5. Large scale calculations for hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The talk reviews some recent Monte Carlo calculations for Quantum Chromodynamics, performed on Euclidean lattices of rather large extent. Purpose of the calculations is to provide accurate determinations of quantities, such as interquark potentials or mass eigenvalues, which are relevant for hadronic spectroscopy. Results obtained in quenched QCD on 16 3 x 32 lattices are illustrated, and a discussion of computational resources and techniques required for the calculations is presented. 18 refs.,3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  7. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  8. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor...

  9. Responses in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: barreira@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ''bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients , which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k . Further, the responses up to n -th order completely describe the ( n +2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance Cov{sup NG}{sub ℓ=0}( k {sub 1}, k {sub 2}), in the limit where one of the modes, say k {sub 2}, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k {sub 2} ∼< 0.06 h Mpc{sup −1}, and for any k {sub 1} ∼> 2 k {sub 2}. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  10. Responses in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ``bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients, which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k. Further, the responses up to n-th order completely describe the (n+2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance CovNGl=0(k1,k2), in the limit where one of the modes, say k2, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k2 lesssim 0.06 h Mpc-1, and for any k1 gtrsim 2k2. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  11. Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sugahara, Akihiro; Li, J.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale simulation using super-computer, which generally requires long CPU time and produces large amount of data, has been extensively studied as a third pillar in various advanced science fields in parallel to theory and experiment. Such a simulation is expected to lead new scientific discoveries through elucidation of various complex phenomena, which are hardly identified only by conventional theoretical and experimental approaches. In order to assist such large simulation studies for which many collaborators working at geographically different places participate and contribute, we have developed a unique remote collaboration system, referred to as SIMON (simulation monitoring system), which is based on client-server system control introducing an idea of up-date processing, contrary to that of widely used post-processing. As a key ingredient, we have developed a trigger method, which transmits various requests for the up-date processing from the simulation (client) running on a super-computer to a workstation (server). Namely, the simulation running on a super-computer actively controls the timing of up-date processing. The server that has received the requests from the ongoing simulation such as data transfer, data analyses, and visualizations, etc. starts operations according to the requests during the simulation. The server makes the latest results available to web browsers, so that the collaborators can monitor the results at any place and time in the world. By applying the system to a specific simulation project of laser-matter interaction, we have confirmed that the system works well and plays an important role as a collaboration platform on which many collaborators work with one another

  12. Large-scale modelling of neuronal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, G.; Verondini, E.; Giampieri, E.; Bersani, F.; Remondini, D.; Milanesi, L.; Zironi, I.

    2009-01-01

    The brain is, without any doubt, the most, complex system of the human body. Its complexity is also due to the extremely high number of neurons, as well as the huge number of synapses connecting them. Each neuron is capable to perform complex tasks, like learning and memorizing a large class of patterns. The simulation of large neuronal systems is challenging for both technological and computational reasons, and can open new perspectives for the comprehension of brain functioning. A well-known and widely accepted model of bidirectional synaptic plasticity, the BCM model, is stated by a differential equation approach based on bistability and selectivity properties. We have modified the BCM model extending it from a single-neuron to a whole-network model. This new model is capable to generate interesting network topologies starting from a small number of local parameters, describing the interaction between incoming and outgoing links from each neuron. We have characterized this model in terms of complex network theory, showing how this, learning rule can be a support For network generation.

  13. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  14. Autonomous Sensors for Large Scale Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, J.; Kerr, R.; Riccobono, J.; Kapali, S.; Migliozzi, M. A.; Goenka, C.

    2017-12-01

    Presented here is a novel implementation of a "Doppler imager" which remotely measures winds and temperatures of the neutral background atmosphere at ionospheric altitudes of 87-300Km and possibly above. Incorporating both recent optical manufacturing developments, modern network awareness and the application of machine learning techniques for intelligent self-monitoring and data classification. This system achieves cost savings in manufacturing, deployment and lifetime operating costs. Deployed in both ground and space-based modalities, this cost-disruptive technology will allow computer models of, ionospheric variability and other space weather models to operate with higher precision. Other sensors can be folded into the data collection and analysis architecture easily creating autonomous virtual observatories. A prototype version of this sensor has recently been deployed in Trivandrum India for the Indian Government. This Doppler imager is capable of operation, even within the restricted CubeSat environment. The CubeSat bus offers a very challenging environment, even for small instruments. The lack of SWaP and the challenging thermal environment demand development of a new generation of instruments; the Doppler imager presented is well suited to this environment. Concurrent with this CubeSat development is the development and construction of ground based arrays of inexpensive sensors using the proposed technology. This instrument could be flown inexpensively on one or more CubeSats to provide valuable data to space weather forecasters and ionospheric scientists. Arrays of magnetometers have been deployed for the last 20 years [Alabi, 2005]. Other examples of ground based arrays include an array of white-light all sky imagers (THEMIS) deployed across Canada [Donovan et al., 2006], oceans sensors on buoys [McPhaden et al., 2010], and arrays of seismic sensors [Schweitzer et al., 2002]. A comparable array of Doppler imagers can be constructed and deployed on the

  15. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  16. A Large-Scale Study of Misophonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Erfanian, Mercede

    2018-03-01

    We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Most participants indicated that their symptoms started in childhood or early teenage years. Severity of misophonic responses increases over time. One third of participants reported having family members with similar symptoms. Half of our participants reported no comorbid clinical conditions, and the other half reported a variety of conditions. Only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to the severity of the misophonic symptoms. Remarkably, half of the participants reported experiencing euphoric, relaxing, and tingling sensations with particular sounds or sights, a relatively unfamiliar phenomenon called autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR). It is unlikely that another "real" underlying clinical, psychiatric, or psychological disorder can explain away the misophonia. The possible relationship with PTSD and ASMR warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. EPFM verification by a large scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Hidaka, T.; Sato, M.; Urabe, Y.; Iida, M.

    1993-01-01

    Step B test was carried out as one of the elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFR) study in Japanese PTS integrity research project. In step B test bending load was applied to the large flat specimen with thermal shock. Tensile load was kept constant during the test. Estimated stable crack growth at the deepest point of the crack was 3 times larger than the experimental value in the previous analysis. In order to diminish the difference between them from the point of FEM modeling, more precise FEM mesh was introduced. According to the new analysis, the difference considerably decreased. That is, stable crack growth evaluation was improved by adopting precise FEM model near the crack tip and the difference was almost same order as that in the NKS4-1 test analysis by MPA. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  19. Large-Scale Pattern Discovery in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin-Mahieux, Thierry

    This work focuses on extracting patterns in musical data from very large collections. The problem is split in two parts. First, we build such a large collection, the Million Song Dataset, to provide researchers access to commercial-size datasets. Second, we use this collection to study cover song recognition which involves finding harmonic patterns from audio features. Regarding the Million Song Dataset, we detail how we built the original collection from an online API, and how we encouraged other organizations to participate in the project. The result is the largest research dataset with heterogeneous sources of data available to music technology researchers. We demonstrate some of its potential and discuss the impact it already has on the field. On cover song recognition, we must revisit the existing literature since there are no publicly available results on a dataset of more than a few thousand entries. We present two solutions to tackle the problem, one using a hashing method, and one using a higher-level feature computed from the chromagram (dubbed the 2DFTM). We further investigate the 2DFTM since it has potential to be a relevant representation for any task involving audio harmonic content. Finally, we discuss the future of the dataset and the hope of seeing more work making use of the different sources of data that are linked in the Million Song Dataset. Regarding cover songs, we explain how this might be a first step towards defining a harmonic manifold of music, a space where harmonic similarities between songs would be more apparent.

  20. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  1. Irradiation of onions on a large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji; Hayashi, Toru; Uozumi, J.; Sugimoto, Toshio; Aoki, Shohei

    1984-01-01

    A large number of onions of var. Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were irradiated in September followed by storage at 0 deg C or 5 deg C. The onions were shifted from cold-storage facilities to room temperature in mid-March or in mid-April in the following year. Their sprouting, rooting, spoilage characteristics and sugar content were observed during storage at room temperature. Most of the unirradiated onions sprouted either outside or inside bulbs during storage at room temperature, and almost all of the irradiated ones showed small buds with browning inside the bulb in mid-April irrespective of the storage temperature. Rooting and/or expansion of bottom were observed in the unirradiated samples. Although the irradiated materials did not have root, they showed expansion of bottom to some extent. Both the irradiated and unirradiated onions spoiled slightly unless they sprouted, and sprouted onions got easily spoiled. There was no difference in the glucose content between the unirradiated and irradiated onions, but the irradiated ones yielded higher sucrose content when stored at room temperature. Irradiation treatment did not have an obvious effect on the quality of freeze-dried onion slices. (author)

  2. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Significant improvements in the properties of superconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements are being incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapes that are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devices include new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusion power experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines. These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applications that utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments such as ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising new materials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied in order to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, we will review the key developments that are leading to these new applications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factor is improved understanding or development of materials with significantly improved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Sn for use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, the development is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort to develop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materials that can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications of these two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order for new applications to be realized

  3. Software for large scale tracking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1984-05-01

    Over the past few years, Brookhaven accelerator physicists have been adapting particle tracking programs in planning local storage rings, and lately for SSC reference designs. In addition, the Laboratory is actively considering upgrades to its AGS capabilities aimed at higher proton intensity, polarized proton beams, and heavy ion acceleration. Further activity concerns heavy ion transfer, a proposed booster, and most recently design studies for a heavy ion collider to join to this complex. Circumstances have thus encouraged a search for common features among design and modeling programs and their data, and the corresponding controls efforts among present and tentative machines. Using a version of PATRICIA with nonlinear forces as a vehicle, we have experimented with formal ways to describe accelerator lattice problems to computers as well as to speed up the calculations for large storage ring models. Code treated by straightforward reorganization has served for SSC explorations. The representation work has led to a relational data base centered program, LILA, which has desirable properties for dealing with the many thousands of rapidly changing variables in tracking and other model programs. 13 references

  4. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-05-06

    Significant improvements in the properties ofsuperconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements arebeing incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapesthat are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devicesinclude new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusionpower experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines.These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applicationsthat utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments suchas ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising newmaterials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied inorder to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, wewill review the key developments that are leading to these newapplications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factoris improved understanding or development of materials with significantlyimproved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Snfor use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, thedevelopment is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort todevelop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materialsthat can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications ofthese two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, wewill discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order fornew applications to be realized.

  5. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.

    2015-01-01

    from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  6. Distributed Monitoring and Resource Management for Large Cloud Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhib, Fetahi Zebenigus

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the number, size and complexity of large-scale networked systems has been growing fast, and this trend is expected to accelerate. The best known example of a large-scale networked system is probably the Internet, while large datacenters for cloud services are the most recent ones. In such environments, a key challenge is to develop scalable and adaptive technologies for management functions. This thesis addresses the challenge by engineering several protocols  for distri...

  7. Efficient species-level monitoring at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; Larissa L. Bailey; Thomas D. Sisk; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the population trends of multiple animal species at a landscape scale is prohibitively expensive. However, advances in survey design, statistical methods, and the ability to estimate species presence on the basis of detection­nondetection data have greatly increased the feasibility of species-level monitoring. For example, recent advances in monitoring make...

  8. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  9. Large-scale matrix-handling subroutines 'ATLAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fujita, Keiichi; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Tahara, Nobuo

    1978-03-01

    Subroutine package ''ATLAS'' has been developed for handling large-scale matrices. The package is composed of four kinds of subroutines, i.e., basic arithmetic routines, routines for solving linear simultaneous equations and for solving general eigenvalue problems and utility routines. The subroutines are useful in large scale plasma-fluid simulations. (auth.)

  10. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine large-scale agricultural land acquisitions in nine West African countries -Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Benin, Mali, Togo, Senegal, Niger, and Côte d'Ivoire. ... They will use the results to increase public awareness and knowledge about the consequences of large-scale land acquisitions.

  11. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Elsawy, Hesham; Gharbieh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Adinoyi, Abdulkareem; Alshaalan, Furaih

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end

  12. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure and chemical purity of 99⋅1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale. Keywords. Sol–gel; yttria-stabilized zirconia; large scale; nanopowder; Pechini method. 1. Introduction. Zirconia has attracted the attention of many scientists because of its tremendous thermal, mechanical ...

  13. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  14. Algorithm 896: LSA: Algorithms for Large-Scale Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), 16-1-16-29 ISSN 0098-3500 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405; GA ČR GP201/06/P397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : algorithms * design * large-scale optimization * large-scale nonsmooth optimization * large-scale nonlinear least squares * large-scale nonlinear minimax * large-scale systems of nonlinear equations * sparse pro blems * partially separable pro blems * limited-memory methods * discrete Newton methods * quasi-Newton methods * primal interior-point methods Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2009

  15. Integrating Data Streams from in-situ Measurements, Social Networks and Satellite Earth Observation to Augment Operational Flood Monitoring and Forecasting: the 2017 Hurricane Season in the Americas as a Large-scale Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matgen, P.; Pelich, R.; Brangbour, E.; Bruneau, P.; Chini, M.; Hostache, R.; Schumann, G.; Tamisier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria generated large streams of heterogeneous data, coming notably from three main sources: imagery (satellite and aircraft), in-situ measurement stations and social media. Interpreting these data streams brings critical information to develop, validate and update prediction models. The study addresses existing gaps in the joint extraction of disaster risk information from multiple data sources and their usefulness for reducing the predictive uncertainty of large-scale flood inundation models. Satellite EO data, most notably the free-of-charge data streams generated by the Copernicus program, provided a wealth of high-resolution imagery covering the large areas affected. Our study is focussing on the mapping of flooded areas from a sequence of Sentinel-1 SAR imagery using a classification algorithm recently implemented on the European Space Agency's Grid Processing On Demand environment. The end-to-end-processing chain provided a fast access to all relevant imagery and an effective processing for near-real time analyses. The classification algorithm was applied on pairs of images to rapidly and automatically detect, record and disseminate all observable changes of water bodies. Disaster information was also retrieved from photos as well as texts contributed on social networks and the study shows how this information may complement EO and in-situ data and augment information content. As social media data are noisy and difficult to geo-localize, different techniques are being developed to automatically infer associated semantics and geotags. The presentation provides a cross-comparison between the hazard information obtained from the three data sources. We provide examples of how the generated database of geo-localized disaster information was finally integrated into a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Colorado River emptying into the Matagorda Bay on the Gulf of Mexico in order to reduce its predictive uncertainty. We describe the

  16. Monitoring community mobilisation and organisational capacity among high-risk groups in a large-scale HIV prevention programme in India: selected findings using a Community Ownership and Preparedness Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Pradeep; Moulasha, K; Wheeler, Tisha; Baer, James; Bharadwaj, Sowmyaa; Ramanathan, T V; Thomas, Tom

    2012-10-01

    In a participatory approach to health and development interventions, defining and measuring community mobilisation is important, but it is challenging to do this effectively, especially at scale. A cross-sectional, participatory monitoring tool was administered in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 across a representative sample of 25 community-based groups (CBGs) formed under the Avahan India AIDS Initiative, to assess their progress in mobilisation, and to inform efforts to strengthen the groups and make them sustainable. The survey used a weighted index to capture both qualitative and quantitative data in numeric form. The index permitted broad, as well as highly detailed, analysis of community mobilisation, relevant at the level of individual groups, as well as state-wide and across the whole programme. The survey demonstrated that leadership and programme management were the strongest areas among the CBGs, confirming the programme's investment in these areas. Discussion of the Round 1 results led to efforts to strengthen governance and democratic decision making in the groups, and progress was reflected in the Round 2 survey results. CBG engagement with state authorities to gain rights and entitlements and securing the long-term financial stability of groups remain a challenge. The survey has proven useful for informing the managers of programmes about what is happening on the ground, and it has opened spaces for discussion within community groups about the nature of leadership, decision making and their goals, which is leading to accelerated progress. The tool provided useful data to manage community mobilisation in Avahan.

  17. A Simple Instrumentation System for Large Structure Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik R. Santoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional instrumentation systems used for monitoring vibration of large-scale infrastructure building such as bridges, railway, and others structural building, generally have a complex design. Makes it simple would be very useful both in terms of low-cost and easy maintenance. This paper describes how to develop the instrumentation system. The system is built based on distributed network, with field bus topology, using single-master multi-slave architecture. Master is a control unit, built based on a PC equipped with RS-485 interface. Slave is a sensing unit; each slave was built by integrating a 3-axis vibration sensor with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. Vibration sensor is designed using the main components of a MEMS accelerometer. While the software is developed for two functions: as a control system hardware and data processing. To verify performance of the developed instrumentation system, several laboratory tests have been performed. The result shows that the system has good performance.

  18. Large-Scale 3D Printing: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassmi, Hamad Al; Najjar, Fady Al; Ismail Mourad, Abdel-Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Research on small-scale 3D printing has rapidly evolved, where numerous industrial products have been tested and successfully applied. Nonetheless, research on large-scale 3D printing, directed to large-scale applications such as construction and automotive manufacturing, yet demands a great a great deal of efforts. Large-scale 3D printing is considered an interdisciplinary topic and requires establishing a blended knowledge base from numerous research fields including structural engineering, materials science, mechatronics, software engineering, artificial intelligence and architectural engineering. This review article summarizes key topics of relevance to new research trends on large-scale 3D printing, particularly pertaining (1) technological solutions of additive construction (i.e. the 3D printers themselves), (2) materials science challenges, and (3) new design opportunities.

  19. Scale interactions in a mixing layer – the role of the large-scale gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-02-15

    © 2016 Cambridge University Press. The interaction between the large and the small scales of turbulence is investigated in a mixing layer, at a Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale of , via direct numerical simulations. The analysis is performed in physical space, and the local vorticity root-mean-square (r.m.s.) is taken as a measure of the small-scale activity. It is found that positive large-scale velocity fluctuations correspond to large vorticity r.m.s. on the low-speed side of the mixing layer, whereas, they correspond to low vorticity r.m.s. on the high-speed side. The relationship between large and small scales thus depends on position if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity fluctuations. On the contrary, the correlation coefficient is nearly constant throughout the mixing layer and close to unity if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity gradients. Therefore, the small-scale activity appears closely related to large-scale gradients, while the correlation between the small-scale activity and the large-scale velocity fluctuations is shown to reflect a property of the large scales. Furthermore, the vorticity from unfiltered (small scales) and from low pass filtered (large scales) velocity fields tend to be aligned when examined within vortical tubes. These results provide evidence for the so-called \\'scale invariance\\' (Meneveau & Katz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 32, 2000, pp. 1-32), and suggest that some of the large-scale characteristics are not lost at the small scales, at least at the Reynolds number achieved in the present simulation.

  20. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  1. An Novel Architecture of Large-scale Communication in IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wubin; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, many scholars have done a great deal of research on the development of Internet of Things and networked physical systems. However, few people have made the detailed visualization of the large-scale communications architecture in the IOT. In fact, the non-uniform technology between IPv6 and access points has led to a lack of broad principles of large-scale communications architectures. Therefore, this paper presents the Uni-IPv6 Access and Information Exchange Method (UAIEM), a new architecture and algorithm that addresses large-scale communications in the IOT.

  2. Large scale and big data processing and management

    CERN Document Server

    Sakr, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Large Scale and Big Data: Processing and Management provides readers with a central source of reference on the data management techniques currently available for large-scale data processing. Presenting chapters written by leading researchers, academics, and practitioners, it addresses the fundamental challenges associated with Big Data processing tools and techniques across a range of computing environments.The book begins by discussing the basic concepts and tools of large-scale Big Data processing and cloud computing. It also provides an overview of different programming models and cloud-bas

  3. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  4. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  5. Phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome patchiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackenberg Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome structure (i.e. mosaic compositional patchiness has been explored mainly by analytical ultracentrifugation of bulk DNA. However, with the availability of large, good-quality chromosome sequences, and the recently developed computational methods to directly analyze patchiness on the genome sequence, an evolutionary comparative analysis can be carried out at the sequence level. Results The local variations in the scaling exponent of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis are used here to analyze large-scale genome structure and directly uncover the characteristic scales present in genome sequences. Furthermore, through shuffling experiments of selected genome regions, computationally-identified, isochore-like regions were identified as the biological source for the uncovered large-scale genome structure. The phylogenetic distribution of short- and large-scale patchiness was determined in the best-sequenced genome assemblies from eleven eukaryotic genomes: mammals (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Canis familiaris, birds (Gallus gallus, fishes (Danio rerio, invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found large-scale patchiness of genome structure, associated with in silico determined, isochore-like regions, throughout this wide phylogenetic range. Conclusion Large-scale genome structure is detected by directly analyzing DNA sequences in a wide range of eukaryotic chromosome sequences, from human to yeast. In all these genomes, large-scale patchiness can be associated with the isochore-like regions, as directly detected in silico at the sequence level.

  6. Large-scale land transformations in Indonesia: The role of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... enable timely responses to the impacts of large-scale land transformations in Central Kalimantan ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  7. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  8. Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of Lusu ... in terms of socio economic, health, education, employment, safe drinking water, ... The data were analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Science (SPSS).

  9. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    , the impact of large-scale agriculture and outgrower schemes on productivity, household welfare and wages in developing countries is highly contentious. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides an introduction to the study, while also reviewing the key debate in the contemporary land ‘grabbing’ and historical large...... sugarcane outgrower scheme on household income and asset stocks. Chapter 5 examines the wages and working conditions in ‘formal’ large-scale and ‘informal’ small-scale irrigated agriculture. The results in Chapter 2 show that moisture stress, the use of untested planting materials, and conflict over land...... commands a higher wage than ‘formal’ large-scale agriculture, while rather different wage determination mechanisms exist in the two sectors. Human capital characteristics (education and experience) partly explain the differences in wages within the formal sector, but play no significant role...

  10. Personalized Opportunistic Computing for CMS at Large Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    **Douglas Thain** is an Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, where he designs large scale distributed computing systems to power the needs of advanced science and...

  11. Bottom-Up Accountability Initiatives and Large-Scale Land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    fuel/energy, climate, and finance has occurred and one of the most ... this wave of large-scale land acquisitions. In fact, esti- ... Environmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth,. Nigeria ... map the differentiated impacts (gender, ethnicity,.

  12. Large-scale linear programs in planning and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale linear programs are at the core of many traffic-related optimization problems in both planning and prediction. Moreover, many of these involve significant uncertainty, and hence are modeled using either chance constraints, or robust optim...

  13. Bottom-Up Accountability Initiatives and Large-Scale Land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Security can help increase accountability for large-scale land acquisitions in ... to build decent economic livelihoods and participate meaningfully in decisions ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  14. No Large Scale Curvature Perturbations during Waterfall of Hybrid Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depend crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical back-reactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the clas...

  15. Bayesian hierarchical model for large-scale covariance matrix estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongxiao; Hero, Alfred O

    2007-12-01

    Many bioinformatics problems implicitly depend on estimating large-scale covariance matrix. The traditional approaches tend to give rise to high variance and low accuracy due to "overfitting." We cast the large-scale covariance matrix estimation problem into the Bayesian hierarchical model framework, and introduce dependency between covariance parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of our approaches over the traditional approaches using simulations and OMICS data analysis.

  16. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    pump flow meters, sediment trap weigh tanks , and beach profiling lidar. A detailed discussion of the original LSTF features and capabilities can be...ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-88 April 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport...describes the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) and recent upgrades to the measurement systems. The purpose of these upgrades was to increase

  17. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  18. Large-scale coastal impact induced by a catastrophic storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    breaching. Our results demonstrate that violent, millennial-scale storms can trigger significant large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coasts, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with a single extreme storm event....

  19. Penalized Estimation in Large-Scale Generalized Linear Array Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Adam; Vincent, Martin; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale generalized linear array models (GLAMs) can be challenging to fit. Computation and storage of its tensor product design matrix can be impossible due to time and memory constraints, and previously considered design matrix free algorithms do not scale well with the dimension...

  20. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kuehn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations. (orig.)

  1. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kühn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus

    2009-03-01

    The application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.

  2. MONITORING OF LARGE INSTABLE AREAS: system reliability and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, G.; Mucciarelli, M.; Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas is a necessary operation every time you can not remove the conditions of risk and apply to mitigation measures. In Italian Apennine regions there are many urban or extra-urban areas affected by instability, for which it is impracticable to remove hazard conditions, because of size and cost problems. The technological evolution exportable to the field of land instability monitoring is particularly lively and allows the use of warning systems unthinkable just few years ago. However, the monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas requires a very great knowledge of the specific problems, without which the reliability of the system may be dangerously overestimated. The movement may arise, indeed, in areas not covered by instrumentation, or covered with vegetation that prevents the acquisition of both reflected signals in the multi-beam laser techniques and radar signals. Environmental conditions (wind, concentrated sources of light, temperature changes, presence of animals) may also invalidate the accuracy of the measures, by introducing modulations or disturbance at a level well above the threshold of alarm signal, leading consequently to raise the values of the warning threshold. The Authors have gained long experience with the observation and monitoring of some large landslides in the Southern Apennine (Aliano, Buoninventre, Calciano, Carlantino, etc.) and unstable areas also at regional scale. One of the most important experiences is about the case of landslides of extensive areas, where unstable and stables zones coexist along transverse and longitudinal axis. In many of these cases you need the accurate control of the movement at selected points to evaluate the trend of displacement velocity, which can be achieved by means of a single-beam laser. The control of these movements, however, does not provide information on stress pattern into the stable areas. Among the sensitive precursors, acoustic

  3. Trends in large-scale testing of reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale tests of reactor structures have been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories since the late 1970s. This paper describes a number of different large-scale impact tests, pressurization tests of models of containment structures, and thermal-pressure tests of models of reactor pressure vessels. The advantages of large-scale testing are evident, but cost, in particular limits its use. As computer models have grown in size, such as number of degrees of freedom, the advent of computer graphics has made possible very realistic representation of results - results that may not accurately represent reality. A necessary condition to avoiding this pitfall is the validation of the analytical methods and underlying physical representations. Ironically, the immensely larger computer models sometimes increase the need for large-scale testing, because the modeling is applied to increasing more complex structural systems and/or more complex physical phenomena. Unfortunately, the cost of large-scale tests is a disadvantage that will likely severely limit similar testing in the future. International collaborations may provide the best mechanism for funding future programs with large-scale tests. (author)

  4. Prediction of etching-shape anomaly due to distortion of ion sheath around a large-scale three-dimensional structure by means of on-wafer monitoring technique and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Ohtake, Hiroto; Araki, Ryosuke; Yanagisawa, Yuuki; Samukawa, Seiji; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ono, Kohei; Miwa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    A system for predicting distortion of a profile during plasma etching was developed. The system consists of a combination of measurement and simulation. An ‘on-wafer sheath-shape sensor’ for measuring the plasma-sheath parameters (sheath potential and thickness) on the stage of the plasma etcher was developed. The sensor has numerous small electrodes for measuring sheath potential and saturation ion-current density, from which sheath thickness can be calculated. The results of the measurement show reasonable dependence on source power, bias power and pressure. Based on self-consistent calculation of potential distribution and ion- and electron-density distributions, simulation of the sheath potential distribution around an arbitrary 3D structure and the trajectory of incident ions from the plasma to the structure was developed. To confirm the validity of the distortion prediction by comparing it with experimentally measured distortion, silicon trench etching under chlorine inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was performed using a sample with a vertical step. It was found that the etched trench was distorted when the distance from the step was several millimetres or less. The distortion angle was about 20° at maximum. Measurement was performed using the on-wafer sheath-shape sensor in the same plasma condition as the etching. The ion incident angle, calculated as a function of distance from the step, successfully reproduced the experimentally measured angle, indicating that the combination of measurement by the on-wafer sheath-shape sensor and simulation can predict distortion of an etched structure. This prediction system will be useful for designing devices with large-scale 3D structures (such as those in MEMS) and determining the optimum etching conditions to obtain the desired profiles. (paper)

  5. Planck intermediate results XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured ...

  6. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  7. Large scale laboratory diffusion experiments in clay rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Martin, P.L.; Cormenzana, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Clay formations are potential host rocks for high-level radioactive waste repositories. In clay materials the radionuclide diffusion is the main transport mechanism. Thus, the understanding of the diffusion processes and the determination of diffusion parameters in conditions as similar as possible to the real ones, are critical for the performance assessment of deep geological repository. Diffusion coefficients are mainly measured in the laboratory using small samples, after a preparation to fit into the diffusion cell. In addition, a few field tests are usually performed for confirming laboratory results, and analyse scale effects. In field or 'in situ' tests the experimental set-up usually includes the injection of a tracer diluted in reconstituted formation water into a packed off section of a borehole. Both experimental systems may produce artefacts in the determination of diffusion coefficients. In laboratory the preparation of the sample can generate structural change mainly if the consolidated clay have a layered fabric, and in field test the introduction of water could modify the properties of the saturated clay in the first few centimeters, just where radionuclide diffusion is expected to take place. In this work, a large scale laboratory diffusion experiment is proposed, using a large cylindrical sample of consolidated clay that can overcome the above mentioned problems. The tracers used were mixed with clay obtained by drilling a central hole, re-compacted into the hole at approximately the same density as the consolidated block and finally sealed. Neither additional treatment of the sample nor external monitoring are needed. After the experimental time needed for diffusion to take place (estimated by scoping calculations) the block was sampled to obtain a 3D distribution of the tracer concentration and the results were modelled. An additional advantage of the proposed configuration is that it could be used in 'in situ

  8. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  9. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  10. Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.

  11. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  12. Prototype Vector Machine for Large Scale Semi-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Kwok, James T.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-29

    Practicaldataminingrarelyfalls exactlyinto the supervisedlearning scenario. Rather, the growing amount of unlabeled data poses a big challenge to large-scale semi-supervised learning (SSL). We note that the computationalintensivenessofgraph-based SSLarises largely from the manifold or graph regularization, which in turn lead to large models that are dificult to handle. To alleviate this, we proposed the prototype vector machine (PVM), a highlyscalable,graph-based algorithm for large-scale SSL. Our key innovation is the use of"prototypes vectors" for effcient approximation on both the graph-based regularizer and model representation. The choice of prototypes are grounded upon two important criteria: they not only perform effective low-rank approximation of the kernel matrix, but also span a model suffering the minimum information loss compared with the complete model. We demonstrate encouraging performance and appealing scaling properties of the PVM on a number of machine learning benchmark data sets.

  13. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  14. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  15. Efficient network monitoring for large data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savu, D.O.; Martin, B.; Al-Shabibi, A.; Sjoen, R.; Batraneanu, S.M.; Stancu, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Though constantly evolving and improving, the available network monitoring solutions have limitations when applied to the infrastructure of a high speed realtime data acquisition (DAQ) system. DAQ networks are particular computer networks where experts have to pay attention to both individual subsections as well as system wide traffic flows while monitoring the network. The ATLAS Network at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has more than 200 switches interconnecting 3500 hosts and totaling 8500 high speed links. The use of heterogeneous tools for monitoring various infrastructure parameters, in order to assure optimal DAQ system performance, proved to be a tedious and time consuming task for experts. To alleviate this problem we used our networking and DAQ expertise to build a flexible and scalable monitoring system providing an intuitive user interface with the same look and feel irrespective of the data provider that is used. Our system uses custom developed components for critical performance monitoring and seamlessly integrates complementary data from auxiliary tools, such as NAGIOS, information services or custom databases. A number of techniques (e.g. normalization, aggregation and data caching) were used in order to improve the user interface response time. The end result is a unified monitoring interface, for fast and uniform access to system statistics, which significantly reduced the time spent by experts for ad-hoc and post-mortem analysis. (authors)

  16. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  17. Large Scale Processes and Extreme Floods in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent large scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation and ocean state have been associated with heavy rainfall and extreme floods in water basins of different sizes across the world. Such studies have emerged in the last years as a new tool to improve the traditional, stationary based approach in flood frequency analysis and flood prediction. Here we seek to advance previous studies by evaluating the dominance of large scale processes (e.g. atmospheric rivers/moisture transport) over local processes (e.g. local convection) in producing floods. We consider flood-prone regions in Brazil as case studies and the role of large scale climate processes in generating extreme floods in such regions is explored by means of observed streamflow, reanalysis data and machine learning methods. The dynamics of the large scale atmospheric circulation in the days prior to the flood events are evaluated based on the vertically integrated moisture flux and its divergence field, which are interpreted in a low-dimensional space as obtained by machine learning techniques, particularly supervised kernel principal component analysis. In such reduced dimensional space, clusters are obtained in order to better understand the role of regional moisture recycling or teleconnected moisture in producing floods of a given magnitude. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) is also used as a measure of local convection activities. We investigate for individual sites the exceedance probability in which large scale atmospheric fluxes dominate the flood process. Finally, we analyze regional patterns of floods and how the scaling law of floods with drainage area responds to changes in the climate forcing mechanisms (e.g. local vs large scale).

  18. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  19. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  20. Research and development of safeguards measures for the large scale reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchikoshi, Seiji; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro; Nidaira, Kazuo [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The Government of Japan agreed on the safeguards concepts of commercial size reprocessing plant under the bilateral agreement for cooperation between the Japan and the United States. In addition, the LASCAR, that is the forum of large scale reprocessing plant safeguards, could obtain the fruitful results in the spring of 1992. The research and development of safeguards measures for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant should be progressed with every regard to the concepts described in both documents. Basically, the material accountancy and monitoring system should be established, based on the NRTA and other measures in order to obtain the timeliness goal for plutonium, and the un-attended mode inspection approach based on the integrated containment/surveillance system coupled with radiation monitoring in order to reduce the inspection efforts. NMCC has been studying on the following measures for a large scale reprocessing plant safeguards (1) A radiation gate monitor and integrated surveillance system (2) A near real time Shipper and Receiver Difference monitoring (3) A near real time material accountancy system operated for the bulk handling area (4) A volume measurement technique in a large scale input accountancy vessel (5) An in-process inventory estimation technique applied to the process equipment such as the pulse column and evaporator (6) Solution transfer monitoring approach applied to buffer tanks in the chemical process (7) A timely analysis technique such as a hybrid K edge densitometer operated in the on-site laboratory (J.P.N.).

  1. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  2. Vibration monitoring of large generator stator and-winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffeau, F.; Bernard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Large generators of French Nuclear Power plants are equipped with a standardised vibration monitoring system. The first aim of these new systems is to protect the machines by generating alarms in the control room when predefined vibration thresholds have been over-passed. Secondly, this specially designed instrumentation permits to create a National data base allowing to compare different generators of the same technology. Additionally, statistical methods have been developed in order to 'guess' vibration level at several locations of the stator end-windings, depending on the actual operating parameters of the generator, i.e. reactive and active power load. So this paper presents the general concept of the vibration monitoring of EDF large generator stators and deals with a new method to predict vibrations in different locations under control. (authors)

  3. PKI security in large-scale healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    During the past few years a lot of PKI (Public Key Infrastructures) infrastructures have been proposed for healthcare networks in order to ensure secure communication services and exchange of data among healthcare professionals. However, there is a plethora of challenges in these healthcare PKI infrastructures. Especially, there are a lot of challenges for PKI infrastructures deployed over large-scale healthcare networks. In this paper, we propose a PKI infrastructure to ensure security in a large-scale Internet-based healthcare network connecting a wide spectrum of healthcare units geographically distributed within a wide region. Furthermore, the proposed PKI infrastructure facilitates the trust issues that arise in a large-scale healthcare network including multi-domain PKI infrastructures.

  4. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  5. The role of large scale motions on passive scalar transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarathne, Suranga; Araya, Guillermo; Tutkun, Murat; Leonardi, Stefano; Castillo, Luciano

    2014-11-01

    We study direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 394 to investigate effect of large scale motions on fluctuating temperature field which forms a passive scalar field. Statistical description of the large scale features of the turbulent channel flow is obtained using two-point correlations of velocity components. Two-point correlations of fluctuating temperature field is also examined in order to identify possible similarities between velocity and temperature fields. The two-point cross-correlations betwen the velocity and temperature fluctuations are further analyzed to establish connections between these two fields. In addition, we use proper orhtogonal decompotion (POD) to extract most dominant modes of the fields and discuss the coupling of large scale features of turbulence and the temperature field.

  6. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  7. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  8. Rotation invariant fast features for large-scale recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Gabriel; Chandrasekhar, Vijay; Tsai, Sam; Chen, David; Grzeszczuk, Radek; Girod, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    We present an end-to-end feature description pipeline which uses a novel interest point detector and Rotation- Invariant Fast Feature (RIFF) descriptors. The proposed RIFF algorithm is 15× faster than SURF1 while producing large-scale retrieval results that are comparable to SIFT.2 Such high-speed features benefit a range of applications from Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) to web-scale image retrieval and analysis.

  9. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  11. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  12. Spatiotemporal property and predictability of large-scale human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Tao; Fu, Dongfei; Xu, Bowen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of human mobility emerging from complexity on individual scale have been extensively studied due to the application potential on human behavior prediction and recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and investigate a comprehensive data set of human activities on large geographical scales, including both websites browse and mobile towers visit. Numerical results show that the degree of activity decays as a power law, indicating that human behaviors are reminiscent of scale-free random walks known as Lévy flight. More significantly, this study suggests that human activities on large geographical scales have specific non-Markovian characteristics, such as a two-segment power-law distribution of dwelling time and a high possibility for prediction. Furthermore, a scale-free featured mobility model with two essential ingredients, i.e., preferential return and exploration, and a Gaussian distribution assumption on the exploration tendency parameter is proposed, which outperforms existing human mobility models under scenarios of large geographical scales.

  13. Report of the LASCAR forum: Large scale reprocessing plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on the studies which were carried out from 1988 to 1992 under the auspices of the multinational forum known as Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards (LASCAR) on safeguards for four large scale reprocessing plants operated or planned to be operated in the 1990s. The report summarizes all of the essential results of these studies. The participants in LASCAR were from France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Commission of the European Communities - Euratom, and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  14. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order. (paper)

  15. Large-scale structure in the universe: Theory vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Jones, B.J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of observations constrain models of the origin of large scale cosmic structures. We review here the elements of current theories and comment in detail on which of the current observational data provide the principal constraints. We point out that enough observational data have accumulated to constrain (and perhaps determine) the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations over a very large range of scales. We discuss the theories in the light of observational data and focus on the potential of future observations in providing even (and ever) tighter constraints. (orig.)

  16. Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....

  17. Fatigue Analysis of Large-scale Wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper does research on top flange fatigue damage of large-scale wind turbine generator. It establishes finite element model of top flange connection system with finite element analysis software MSC. Marc/Mentat, analyzes its fatigue strain, implements load simulation of flange fatigue working condition with Bladed software, acquires flange fatigue load spectrum with rain-flow counting method, finally, it realizes fatigue analysis of top flange with fatigue analysis software MSC. Fatigue and Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory. The analysis result indicates that its result provides new thinking for flange fatigue analysis of large-scale wind turbine generator, and possesses some practical engineering value.

  18. Generation of large-scale vortives in compressible helical turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiani, O.G.; Gvaramadze, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    We consider generation of large-scale vortices in compressible self-gravitating turbulent medium. The closed equation describing evolution of the large-scale vortices in helical turbulence with finite correlation time is obtained. This equation has the form similar to the hydromagnetic dynamo equation, which allows us to call the vortx genertation effect the vortex dynamo. It is possible that principally the same mechanism is responsible both for amplification and maintenance of density waves and magnetic fields in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. (author). 29 refs

  19. Parallel clustering algorithm for large-scale biological data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minchao; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Wang; Dai, Dongbo; Zhang, Huiran; Xie, Hao; Chen, Luonan; Guo, Yike; Xie, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent explosion of biological data brings a great challenge for the traditional clustering algorithms. With increasing scale of data sets, much larger memory and longer runtime are required for the cluster identification problems. The affinity propagation algorithm outperforms many other classical clustering algorithms and is widely applied into the biological researches. However, the time and space complexity become a great bottleneck when handling the large-scale data sets. Moreover, the similarity matrix, whose constructing procedure takes long runtime, is required before running the affinity propagation algorithm, since the algorithm clusters data sets based on the similarities between data pairs. Two types of parallel architectures are proposed in this paper to accelerate the similarity matrix constructing procedure and the affinity propagation algorithm. The memory-shared architecture is used to construct the similarity matrix, and the distributed system is taken for the affinity propagation algorithm, because of its large memory size and great computing capacity. An appropriate way of data partition and reduction is designed in our method, in order to minimize the global communication cost among processes. A speedup of 100 is gained with 128 cores. The runtime is reduced from serval hours to a few seconds, which indicates that parallel algorithm is capable of handling large-scale data sets effectively. The parallel affinity propagation also achieves a good performance when clustering large-scale gene data (microarray) and detecting families in large protein superfamilies.

  20. Large Scale Visual Recommendations From Street Fashion Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh, Vignesh; Piramuthu, Robinson; Bhardwaj, Anurag; Di, Wei; Sundaresan, Neel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a completely automated large scale visual recommendation system for fashion. Our focus is to efficiently harness the availability of large quantities of online fashion images and their rich meta-data. Specifically, we propose four data driven models in the form of Complementary Nearest Neighbor Consensus, Gaussian Mixture Models, Texture Agnostic Retrieval and Markov Chain LDA for solving this problem. We analyze relative merits and pitfalls of these algorithms through extensive e...

  1. Evolutionary leap in large-scale flood risk assessment needed

    OpenAIRE

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Bates, Paul D.; de Bruijn, Karin; Castellarin, Attilio; Kreibich, Heidi; Priest, Sally J.; Schröter, Kai; Bagli, Stefano; Blöschl, Günter; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Gouldby, Ben; Klijn, Frans; Lammersen, Rita; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Ridder, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems and socio-economic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. However, reliable risk estimates are required for prioritizing national investments in flood risk mitigation or for appraisal and management of insura...

  2. Analysis of environmental impact assessment for large-scale X-ray medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jin; Pei Chengkai

    2011-01-01

    Based on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project, this paper elaborates the basic analysis essentials of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment, and provides the analysis procedure of environmental impact and dose estimation method under normal and accident conditions. The key points of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment include the determination of pollution factor and management limit value according to the project's actual situation, the utilization of various methods of assessment and prediction such as analogy, actual measurement and calculation to analyze, monitor, calculate and predict the pollution during normal and accident condition. (authors)

  3. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  4. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  5. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. Similitude and scaling of large structural elements: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shehadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scaled down models are widely used for experimental investigations of large structures due to the limitation in the capacities of testing facilities along with the expenses of the experimentation. The modeling accuracy depends upon the model material properties, fabrication accuracy and loading techniques. In the present work the Buckingham π theorem is used to develop the relations (i.e. geometry, loading and properties between the model and a large structural element as that is present in the huge existing petroleum oil drilling rigs. The model is to be designed, loaded and treated according to a set of similitude requirements that relate the model to the large structural element. Three independent scale factors which represent three fundamental dimensions, namely mass, length and time need to be selected for designing the scaled down model. Numerical prediction of the stress distribution within the model and its elastic deformation under steady loading is to be made. The results are compared with those obtained from the full scale structure numerical computations. The effect of scaled down model size and material on the accuracy of the modeling technique is thoroughly examined.

  7. Large-scale fracture mechancis testing -- requirements and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of fracture mechanics to very important and/or complicated structures, like reactor pressure vessels, brings also some questions about the reliability and precision of such calculations. These problems become more pronounced in cases of elastic-plastic conditions of loading and/or in parts with non-homogeneous materials (base metal and austenitic cladding, property gradient changes through material thickness) or with non-homogeneous stress fields (nozzles, bolt threads, residual stresses etc.). For such special cases some verification by large-scale testing is necessary and valuable. This paper discusses problems connected with planning of such experiments with respect to their limitations, requirements to a good transfer of received results to an actual vessel. At the same time, an analysis of possibilities of small-scale model experiments is also shown, mostly in connection with application of results between standard, small-scale and large-scale experiments. Experience from 30 years of large-scale testing in SKODA is used as an example to support this analysis. 1 fig

  8. Large-scale Lurgi plant would be uneconomic: study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-21

    Gas Council and National Coal Board agreed that building of large scale Lurgi plant on the basis of study is not at present acceptable on economic grounds. The committee considered that new processes based on naphtha offered more economic sources of base and peak load production. Tables listing data provided in contractors' design studies and summary of contractors' process designs are included.

  9. Origin of large-scale cell structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Y.B.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative explanation is offered for the characteristic global structure of the universe, wherein ''black'' regions devoid of galaxies are surrounded on all sides by closed, comparatively thin, ''bright'' layers populated by galaxies. The interpretation rests on some very general arguments regarding the growth of large-scale perturbations in a cold gas

  10. Large-Scale Systems Control Design via LMI Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rehák, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2015), s. 247-253 ISSN 1392-124X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Combinatorial linear matrix inequalities * large-scale system * decentralized control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2015

  11. Identification of low order models for large scale processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattamwar, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are complex, multi-phase and large scale in nature. These processes are characterized by various nonlinear physiochemical effects and fluid flows. Such processes often show coexistence of fast and slow dynamics during their time evolutions. The increasing demand

  12. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... Fullscreen Fullscreen Off. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463.

  13. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463 · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Success Factors of Large Scale ERP Implementation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rotchanakitumnuai; Siriluck

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the determinants of ERP implementation success factors of ERP implementation. The result indicates that large scale ERP implementation success consist of eight factors: project management competence, knowledge sharing, ERP system quality , understanding, user involvement, business process re-engineering, top management support, organization readiness.

  15. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    We describe the instrument architecture of the Johns Hopkins University-led CLASS instrument, a groundbased cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that will measure the large-scale polarization of the CMB in several frequency bands to search for evidence of inflation.

  16. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred; Douglas, Craig C.; Haase, Gundolf; Horvá th, Zoltá n

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one

  17. Breakdown of large-scale circulation in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent rotating convection in a cylinder is investigated both numerically and experimentally at Rayleigh number Ra = $10^9$ and Prandtl number $\\sigma$ = 6.4. In this Letter we discuss two topics: the breakdown under rotation of the domain-filling large-scale circulation (LSC) typical for

  18. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena

  19. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-01-01

    structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination

  20. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior. 355. Figure 2. Zonal and meridional components of the time-dependent residual velocity at a few selected depths as marked above each panel, are plotted as contours of constant velocity in the longitude-latitude plane. The left panels show the zonal component, ...

  1. Facile Large-Scale Synthesis of 5- and 6-Carboxyfluoresceins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Peter; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Harris, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    A series of fluorescein dyes have been prepared from a common precursor through a very simple synthetic procedure, giving access to important precursors for fluorescent probes. The method has proven an efficient access to regioisomerically pure 5- and 6-carboxyfluoresceins on a large scale, in good...

  2. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  3. Newton Methods for Large Scale Problems in Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Samantha Leigh

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on practical ways of designing optimization algorithms for minimizing large-scale nonlinear functions with applications in machine learning. Chapter 1 introduces the overarching ideas in the thesis. Chapters 2 and 3 are geared towards supervised machine learning applications that involve minimizing a sum of loss…

  4. Large-Scale Machine Learning for Classification and Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, nowadays tremendous amounts of data including images and videos, up to millions or billions, can be collected for training machine learning models. Inspired by this trend, this thesis is dedicated to developing large-scale machine learning techniques for the purpose of making classification and nearest…

  5. Proceedings of the meeting on large scale computer simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The meeting to summarize the collaboration activities for FY2003 on the Large Scale Computer Simulation Research was held January 15-16, 2004 at Theory and Computer Simulation Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science. Recent simulation results, methodologies and other related topics were presented. (author)

  6. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high-resolution ...... the present state of this technology, it appears well suited to large-scale maritime archaeological mapping....

  7. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the

  8. Dynamic Modeling, Optimization, and Advanced Control for Large Scale Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail

    with a complex conversion route. Computational fluid dynamics is used to model transport phenomena in large reactors capturing tank profiles, and delays due to plug flows. This work publishes for the first time demonstration scale real data for validation showing that the model library is suitable...

  9. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  10. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...

  11. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe - Is the Cosmological Principle Valid? A K Mittal T R Seshadri. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 39-47 ...

  12. LARGE-SCALE COMMERCIAL INVESTMENTS IN LAND: SEEKING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extent of large-scale investment in land or to assess its impact on the people in recipient countries. .... favorable lease terms, apparently based on a belief that this is necessary to .... Harm to the rights of local occupiers of land can result from a dearth. 24. ..... applies to a self-identified group based on the group's traditions.

  13. Mixing Metaphors: Building Infrastructure for Large Scale School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Neumerski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to increase understanding of the possibilities and challenges of building educational infrastructure--the basic, foundational structures, systems, and resources--to support large-scale school turnaround. Building educational infrastructure often exceeds the capacity of schools, districts, and state education…

  14. Reconsidering Replication: New Perspectives on Large-Scale School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Glazer, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to reconsider organizational replication as a strategy for large-scale school improvement: a strategy that features a "hub" organization collaborating with "outlet" schools to enact school-wide designs for improvement. To do so, we synthesize a leading line of research on commercial replication to construct a…

  15. Technologies and challenges in large-scale phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2013-01-01

    become the main technique for discovery and characterization of phosphoproteins in a nonhypothesis driven fashion. In this review, we describe methods for state-of-the-art MS-based analysis of protein phosphorylation as well as the strategies employed in large-scale phosphoproteomic experiments...... with focus on the various challenges and limitations this field currently faces....

  16. Solving Large Scale Crew Scheduling Problems in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin); L. Albino; T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); J. Roussado; R.L. Saldanha

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with large-scale crew scheduling problems arising at the Dutch railway operator, Netherlands Railways (NS). NS operates about 30,000 trains a week. All these trains need a driver and a certain number of guards. Some labor rules restrict the duties of a certain crew base

  17. The large scale microwave background anisotropy in decaying particle cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, M.

    1987-06-01

    We investigate the large-scale anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in cosmological models with decaying particles. The observed value of the quadrupole moment combined with other constraints gives an upper limit on the redshift of the decay z/sub d/ < 3-5. 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Dual Decomposition for Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Dual decomposition is applied to power balancing of exible thermal storage units. The centralized large-scale problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems and solved locallyby each unit in the Smart Grid. Convergence is achieved by coordinating the units consumption through a negotiation...

  19. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2017-01-01

    and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...

  20. Assessment of climate change impacts on rainfall using large scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many of the applied techniques in water resources management can be directly or indirectly influenced by ... is based on large scale climate signals data around the world. In order ... predictand relationships are often very complex. .... constraints to solve the optimization problem. ..... social, and environmental sustainability.

  1. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.

  2. New Visions for Large Scale Networks: Research and Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This paper documents the findings of the March 12-14, 2001 Workshop on New Visions for Large-Scale Networks: Research and Applications. The workshops objectives were...

  3. Large-scale silviculture experiments of western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Poage; Paul D. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    We review 12 large-scale silviculture experiments (LSSEs) in western Washington and Oregon with which the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service is substantially involved. We compiled and arrayed information about the LSSEs as a series of matrices in a relational database, which is included on the compact disc published with this report and...

  4. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  5. Cycle 24 COS FUV Internal/External Wavelength Scale Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the monitoring of the COS FUV wavelength scale zero-points during Cycle 24 in program 14855. Select cenwaves were monitored for all FUV gratings at Lifetime Position 3. The target and cenwaves have remained the same since Cycle 21, with a change only to the target acquisition sequence. All measured offsets are within the error goals, although the G140L cenwaves show offsets at the short-wavelength end of segment A that are approaching the tolerance. This behavior will be closely monitored in subsequent iterations of the program.

  6. Variability in large-scale wind power generation: Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Weir, David [Energy Department, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo Norway; Scharff, Richard [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Söder, Lennart [Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Menemenlis, Nickie [Institut de recherche Hydro-Québec, Montreal Canada; Cutululis, Nicolaos A. [DTU, Wind Energy, Roskilde Denmark; Danti Lopez, Irene [Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin Ireland; Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto California USA; Estanqueiro, Ana [LNEG, Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, UESEO, Lisbon Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Renewable Energy Research Institute and DIEEAC/EDII-AB, Castilla-La Mancha University, Albacete Spain; Zhang, Qin [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing China; Bai, Jianhua [State Grid Energy Research Institute Beijing, Beijing China; Wan, Yih-Huei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA

    2015-10-25

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net load events. The comparison shows regions with low variability (Sweden, Spain and Germany), medium variability (Portugal, Ireland, Finland and Denmark) and regions with higher variability (Quebec, Bonneville Power Administration and Electric Reliability Council of Texas in North America; Gansu, Jilin and Liaoning in China; and Norway and offshore wind power in Denmark). For regions with low variability, the maximum 1 h wind ramps are below 10% of nominal capacity, and for regions with high variability, they may be close to 30%. Wind power variability is mainly explained by the extent of geographical spread, but also higher capacity factor causes higher variability. It was also shown how wind power ramps are autocorrelated and dependent on the operating output level. When wind power was concentrated in smaller area, there were outliers with high changes in wind output, which were not present in large areas with well-dispersed wind power.

  7. The Large-scale Effect of Environment on Galactic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuangpeng; Guo, Qi; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Lacey, Cedric G.; Pan, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We use a volume-limited galaxy sample from the SDSS Data Release 7 to explore the dependence of galactic conformity on the large-scale environment, measured on ˜ 4 Mpc scales. We find that the star formation activity of neighbour galaxies depends more strongly on the environment than on the activity of their primary galaxies. In under-dense regions most neighbour galaxies tend to be active, while in over-dense regions neighbour galaxies are mostly passive, regardless of the activity of their primary galaxies. At a given stellar mass, passive primary galaxies reside in higher density regions than active primary galaxies, leading to the apparently strong conformity signal. The dependence of the activity of neighbour galaxies on environment can be explained by the corresponding dependence of the fraction of satellite galaxies. Similar results are found for galaxies in a semi-analytical model, suggesting that no new physics is required to explain the observed large-scale conformity.

  8. Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik; Sandberg, Sveinung; Pedersen, Willy

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 15-20 years, domestic cultivation of cannabis has been established in a number of European countries. New techniques have made such cultivation easier; however, the bulk of growers remain small-scale. In this study, we explore the factors that prevent small-scale growers from increasing their production. The study is based on 1 year of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted with 45 Norwegian cannabis growers, 10 of whom were growing on a large-scale and 35 on a small-scale. The study identifies five mechanisms that prevent small-scale indoor growers from going large-scale. First, large-scale operations involve a number of people, large sums of money, a high work-load and a high risk of detection, and thus demand a higher level of organizational skills than for small growing operations. Second, financial assets are needed to start a large 'grow-site'. Housing rent, electricity, equipment and nutrients are expensive. Third, to be able to sell large quantities of cannabis, growers need access to an illegal distribution network and knowledge of how to act according to black market norms and structures. Fourth, large-scale operations require advanced horticultural skills to maximize yield and quality, which demands greater skills and knowledge than does small-scale cultivation. Fifth, small-scale growers are often embedded in the 'cannabis culture', which emphasizes anti-commercialism, anti-violence and ecological and community values. Hence, starting up large-scale production will imply having to renegotiate or abandon these values. Going from small- to large-scale cannabis production is a demanding task-ideologically, technically, economically and personally. The many obstacles that small-scale growers face and the lack of interest and motivation for going large-scale suggest that the risk of a 'slippery slope' from small-scale to large-scale growing is limited. Possible political implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright

  9. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  10. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  11. Large-scale motions in the universe: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The expansion of the universe can be retarded in localised regions within the universe both by the presence of gravity and by non-gravitational motions generated in the post-recombination universe. The motions of galaxies thus generated are called 'peculiar motions', and the amplitudes, size scales and coherence of these peculiar motions are among the most direct records of the structure of the universe. As such, measurements of these properties of the present-day universe provide some of the severest tests of cosmological theories. This is a review of the current evidence for large-scale motions of galaxies out to a distance of ∼5000 km s -1 (in an expanding universe, distance is proportional to radial velocity). 'Large-scale' in this context refers to motions that are correlated over size scales larger than the typical sizes of groups of galaxies, up to and including the size of the volume surveyed. To orient the reader into this relatively new field of study, a short modern history is given together with an explanation of the terminology. Careful consideration is given to the data used to measure the distances, and hence the peculiar motions, of galaxies. The evidence for large-scale motions is presented in a graphical fashion, using only the most reliable data for galaxies spanning a wide range in optical properties and over the complete range of galactic environments. The kinds of systematic errors that can affect this analysis are discussed, and the reliability of these motions is assessed. The predictions of two models of large-scale motion are compared to the observations, and special emphasis is placed on those motions in which our own Galaxy directly partakes. (author)

  12. Measuring Cosmic Expansion and Large Scale Structure with Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2007-01-01

    Destiny is a simple, direct, low cost mission to determine the properties of dark energy by obtaining a cosmologically deep supernova (SN) type Ia Hubble diagram and by measuring the large-scale mass power spectrum over time. Its science instrument is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared survey camera/spectrometer with a large field of view. During its first two years, Destiny will detect, observe, and characterize 23000 SN Ia events over the redshift interval 0.4Destiny will be used in its third year as a high resolution, wide-field imager to conduct a weak lensing survey covering >lo00 square degrees to measure the large-scale mass power spectrum. The combination of surveys is much more powerful than either technique on its own, and will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than will be provided by ongoing ground-based projects.

  13. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  14. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  15. Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)

  16. Updating Geospatial Data from Large Scale Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Chen, J.; Wang, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; Ai, T.

    2011-08-01

    In the past decades, many geospatial databases have been established at national, regional and municipal levels over the world. Nowadays, it has been widely recognized that how to update these established geo-spatial database and keep them up to date is most critical for the value of geo-spatial database. So, more and more efforts have been devoted to the continuous updating of these geospatial databases. Currently, there exist two main types of methods for Geo-spatial database updating: directly updating with remote sensing images or field surveying materials, and indirectly updating with other updated data result such as larger scale newly updated data. The former method is the basis because the update data sources in the two methods finally root from field surveying and remote sensing. The later method is often more economical and faster than the former. Therefore, after the larger scale database is updated, the smaller scale database should be updated correspondingly in order to keep the consistency of multi-scale geo-spatial database. In this situation, it is very reasonable to apply map generalization technology into the process of geo-spatial database updating. The latter is recognized as one of most promising methods of geo-spatial database updating, especially in collaborative updating environment in terms of map scale, i.e , different scale database are produced and maintained separately by different level organizations such as in China. This paper is focused on applying digital map generalization into the updating of geo-spatial database from large scale in the collaborative updating environment for SDI. The requirements of the application of map generalization into spatial database updating are analyzed firstly. A brief review on geospatial data updating based digital map generalization is then given. Based on the requirements analysis and review, we analyze the key factors for implementing updating geospatial data from large scale including technical

  17. The shared and unique values of optical, fluorescence, thermal and microwave satellite data for estimating large-scale crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale crop monitoring and yield estimation are important for both scientific research and practical applications. Satellite remote sensing provides an effective means for regional and global cropland monitoring, particularly in data-sparse regions that lack reliable ground observations and rep...

  18. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  19. Study of a large scale neutron measurement channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarouayache, Anissa; Ben Hadid, Hayet.

    1982-12-01

    A large scale measurement channel allows the processing of the signal coming from an unique neutronic sensor, during three different running modes: impulses, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - A theoretical study of the large scale channel and its brief description are given. The results obtained till now in that domain are presented. - The fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied and the improvements to be done are defined. The study of a fluctuation linear channel with an automatic commutation of scales is described and the results of the tests are given. In this large scale channel, the method of data processing is analogical. - To become independent of the problems generated by the use of a an analogical processing of the fluctuation signal, a digital method of data processing is tested. The validity of that method is improved. The results obtained on a test system realized according to this method are given and a preliminary plan for further research is defined [fr

  20. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quinby, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caulfield, Emmet [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Diffendorfer, Jay [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Haines, Seth [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  1. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  2. Large Scale Emerging Properties from Non Hamiltonian Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bianucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “large scale” depends obviously on the phenomenon we are interested in. For example, in the field of foundation of Thermodynamics from microscopic dynamics, the spatial and time large scales are order of fraction of millimetres and microseconds, respectively, or lesser, and are defined in relation to the spatial and time scales of the microscopic systems. In large scale oceanography or global climate dynamics problems the time scales of interest are order of thousands of kilometres, for space, and many years for time, and are compared to the local and daily/monthly times scales of atmosphere and ocean dynamics. In all the cases a Zwanzig projection approach is, at least in principle, an effective tool to obtain class of universal smooth “large scale” dynamics for few degrees of freedom of interest, starting from the complex dynamics of the whole (usually many degrees of freedom system. The projection approach leads to a very complex calculus with differential operators, that is drastically simplified when the basic dynamics of the system of interest is Hamiltonian, as it happens in Foundation of Thermodynamics problems. However, in geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Biology, and in most of the physical problems the building block fundamental equations of motions have a non Hamiltonian structure. Thus, to continue to apply the useful projection approach also in these cases, we exploit the generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism given by the Lie algebra of dissipative differential operators. In this way, we are able to analytically deal with the series of the differential operators stemming from the projection approach applied to these general cases. Then we shall apply this formalism to obtain some relevant results concerning the statistical properties of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

  3. Solving large scale structure in ten easy steps with COLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassev, Svetlin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: stassev@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu, E-mail: deisenstein@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100 Mpc/h with particles of mass ≈ 5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub s}un/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10{sup 11}M{sub s}un/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obtained with LPT. A standard detailed N-body run is orders of magnitude slower than our COLA-based code. The speed-up we obtain with COLA is due to the fact that we calculate the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT, while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos. Achieving a similar level of accuracy in halo statistics without the COLA method requires at least 3 times more timesteps than when COLA is employed.

  4. Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, Karen [MIT; Marzouk, Youssef [MIT

    2013-11-12

    The SAGUARO (Scalable Algorithms for Groundwater Uncertainty Analysis and Robust Optimization) Project focused on the development of scalable numerical algorithms for large-scale Bayesian inversion in complex systems that capitalize on advances in large-scale simulation-based optimization and inversion methods. The project was a collaborative effort among MIT, the University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Sandia National Laboratories. The research was directed in three complementary areas: efficient approximations of the Hessian operator, reductions in complexity of forward simulations via stochastic spectral approximations and model reduction, and employing large-scale optimization concepts to accelerate sampling. The MIT--Sandia component of the SAGUARO Project addressed the intractability of conventional sampling methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems by devising reduced-order models that are faithful to the full-order model over a wide range of parameter values; sampling then employs the reduced model rather than the full model, resulting in very large computational savings. Results indicate little effect on the computed posterior distribution. On the other hand, in the Texas--Georgia Tech component of the project, we retain the full-order model, but exploit inverse problem structure (adjoint-based gradients and partial Hessian information of the parameter-to-observation map) to implicitly extract lower dimensional information on the posterior distribution; this greatly speeds up sampling methods, so that fewer sampling points are needed. We can think of these two approaches as ``reduce then sample'' and ``sample then reduce.'' In fact, these two approaches are complementary, and can be used in conjunction with each other. Moreover, they both exploit deterministic inverse problem structure, in the form of adjoint-based gradient and Hessian information of the underlying parameter-to-observation map, to

  5. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif

    2017-01-07

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  6. Less is more: regularization perspectives on large scale machine learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning based techniques provide a possible solution at the expanse of theoretical guidance and, especially, of computational requirements. It is then a key challenge for large scale machine learning to devise approaches guaranteed to be accurate and yet computationally efficient. In this talk, we will consider a regularization perspectives on machine learning appealing to classical ideas in linear algebra and inverse problems to scale-up dramatically nonparametric methods such as kernel methods, often dismissed because of prohibitive costs. Our analysis derives optimal theoretical guarantees while providing experimental results at par or out-performing state of the art approaches.

  7. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif; Orakzai, Faisal Moeen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  8. Novel algorithm of large-scale simultaneous linear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, T; Hoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Sogabe, T; Zhang, S-L

    2010-01-01

    We review our recently developed methods of solving large-scale simultaneous linear equations and applications to electronic structure calculations both in one-electron theory and many-electron theory. This is the shifted COCG (conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient) method based on the Krylov subspace, and the most important issue for applications is the shift equation and the seed switching method, which greatly reduce the computational cost. The applications to nano-scale Si crystals and the double orbital extended Hubbard model are presented.

  9. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  10. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  11. Hydrometeorological variability on a large french catchment and its relation to large-scale circulation across temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Nicolas; Dieppois, Bastien; Fritier, Nicolas; Laignel, Benoit; Debret, Maxime; Lavers, David; Hannah, David

    2015-04-01

    In the present context of global changes, considerable efforts have been deployed by the hydrological scientific community to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate fluctuations on water resources. Both observational and modeling studies have been extensively employed to characterize hydrological changes and trends, assess the impact of climate variability or provide future scenarios of water resources. In the aim of a better understanding of hydrological changes, it is of crucial importance to determine how and to what extent trends and long-term oscillations detectable in hydrological variables are linked to global climate oscillations. In this work, we develop an approach associating large-scale/local-scale correlation, enmpirical statistical downscaling and wavelet multiresolution decomposition of monthly precipitation and streamflow over the Seine river watershed, and the North Atlantic sea level pressure (SLP) in order to gain additional insights on the atmospheric patterns associated with the regional hydrology. We hypothesized that: i) atmospheric patterns may change according to the different temporal wavelengths defining the variability of the signals; and ii) definition of those hydrological/circulation relationships for each temporal wavelength may improve the determination of large-scale predictors of local variations. The results showed that the large-scale/local-scale links were not necessarily constant according to time-scale (i.e. for the different frequencies characterizing the signals), resulting in changing spatial patterns across scales. This was then taken into account by developing an empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) modeling approach which integrated discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis for reconstructing local hydrometeorological processes (predictand : precipitation and streamflow on the Seine river catchment) based on a large-scale predictor (SLP over the Euro-Atlantic sector) on a monthly time-step. This approach

  12. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  13. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented

  14. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  15. Nearly incompressible fluids: Hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Shaikh, D.

    2006-01-01

    A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as 'nearly incompressible hydrodynamics', is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term 'locally incompressible' to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term 'nearly incompressible', which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly

  16. Divergence of perturbation theory in large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Enrico; van der Woude, Drian

    2018-05-01

    We make progress towards an analytical understanding of the regime of validity of perturbation theory for large scale structures and the nature of some non-perturbative corrections. We restrict ourselves to 1D gravitational collapse, for which exact solutions before shell crossing are known. We review the convergence of perturbation theory for the power spectrum, recently proven by McQuinn and White [1], and extend it to non-Gaussian initial conditions and the bispectrum. In contrast, we prove that perturbation theory diverges for the real space two-point correlation function and for the probability density function (PDF) of the density averaged in cells and all the cumulants derived from it. We attribute these divergences to the statistical averaging intrinsic to cosmological observables, which, even on very large and "perturbative" scales, gives non-vanishing weight to all extreme fluctuations. Finally, we discuss some general properties of non-perturbative effects in real space and Fourier space.

  17. GAIA: A WINDOW TO LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusser, Adi [Physics Department and the Asher Space Science Institute-Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Branchini, Enzo [Department of Physics, Universita Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Davis, Marc, E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it, E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Using redshifts as a proxy for galaxy distances, estimates of the two-dimensional (2D) transverse peculiar velocities of distant galaxies could be obtained from future measurements of proper motions. We provide the mathematical framework for analyzing 2D transverse motions and show that they offer several advantages over traditional probes of large-scale motions. They are completely independent of any intrinsic relations between galaxy properties; hence, they are essentially free of selection biases. They are free from homogeneous and inhomogeneous Malmquist biases that typically plague distance indicator catalogs. They provide additional information to traditional probes that yield line-of-sight peculiar velocities only. Further, because of their 2D nature, fundamental questions regarding vorticity of large-scale flows can be addressed. Gaia, for example, is expected to provide proper motions of at least bright galaxies with high central surface brightness, making proper motions a likely contender for traditional probes based on current and future distance indicator measurements.

  18. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  19. Large Scale GW Calculations on the Cori System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslippe, Jack; Del Ben, Mauro; da Jornada, Felipe; Canning, Andrew; Louie, Steven

    The NERSC Cori system, powered by 9000+ Intel Xeon-Phi processors, represents one of the largest HPC systems for open-science in the United States and the world. We discuss the optimization of the GW methodology for this system, including both node level and system-scale optimizations. We highlight multiple large scale (thousands of atoms) case studies and discuss both absolute application performance and comparison to calculations on more traditional HPC architectures. We find that the GW method is particularly well suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism across many layers of the system. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, as part of the Computational Materials Sciences Program.

  20. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  1. Cosmic ray acceleration by large scale galactic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Lagage, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration may account for the existence of galactic cosmic rays detailed application to stellar wind shocks and especially to supernova shocks have been developed. Existing models can usually deal with the energetics or the spectral slope, but the observed energy range of cosmic rays is not explained. Therefore it seems worthwhile to examine the effect that large scale, long-lived galactic shocks may have on galactic cosmic rays, in the frame of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Large scale fast shocks can only be expected to exist in the galactic halo. We consider three situations where they may arise: expansion of a supernova shock in the halo, galactic wind, galactic infall; and discuss the possible existence of these shocks and their role in accelerating cosmic rays

  2. Efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making for large scale settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2011-01-01

    to bring about more effective and more efficient retrieval systems that support the users' decision making process. We sketch promising research directions for more efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making, especially for large scale systems.......Collaborative decision making is a successful approach in settings where data analysis and querying can be done interactively. In large scale systems with huge data volumes or many users, collaboration is often hindered by impractical runtimes. Existing work on improving collaboration focuses...... on avoiding redundancy for users working on the same task. While this improves the effectiveness of the user work process, the underlying query processing engine is typically considered a "black box" and left unchanged. Research in multiple query processing, on the other hand, ignores the application...

  3. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  4. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Therefore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon

  5. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    The present trend on investing in renewable ways of producing electricity in the detriment of conventional fossil fuel-based plants will lead to a certain point where these plants have to provide ancillary services and contribute to overall grid stability. Photovoltaic (PV) power has the fastest...... growth among all renewable energies and managed to reach high penetration levels creating instabilities which at the moment are corrected by the conventional generation. This paradigm will change in the future scenarios where most of the power is supplied by large scale renewable plants and parts...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...

  6. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  7. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Ariefiandy

    Full Text Available Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψand varied detection probabilities (p according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site, p (site survey; ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  8. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  9. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site*survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species. PMID:23527027

  10. Quantum cosmological origin of large scale structures of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anini, Y.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, the initial quantum state of matter perturbations about de Sitter minisuperspace model is found. For a large class of boundary conditions (bcs), including those of Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin, the resulting quantum state is the de Sitter invariant vacuum. This result is found to depend only on the regularity requirement at the euclidean origin of spacetime which is common to all reasonable (bcs). The initial value of the density perturbations implied by these quantum fluctuations are found and evaluated at the initial horizon crossing. The perturbations are found to have an almost scale independent spectrum, and an amplitude which depends on the scale at which inflation took place. The amplitude would have the right value if the scale of inflation is H ≤ 10 15 Gev. (author). 9 refs

  11. Some Statistics for Measuring Large-Scale Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Kaplan, David M.; A, Stephen; Ramsey

    1993-01-01

    Good statistics for measuring large-scale structure in the Universe must be able to distinguish between different models of structure formation. In this paper, two and three dimensional ``counts in cell" statistics and a new ``discrete genus statistic" are applied to toy versions of several popular theories of structure formation: random phase cold dark matter model, cosmic string models, and global texture scenario. All three statistics appear quite promising in terms of differentiating betw...

  12. Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Edward Y

    2011-01-01

    "Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval - Mathematics of Perception" covers knowledge representation and semantic analysis of multimedia data and scalability in signal extraction, data mining, and indexing. The book is divided into two parts: Part I - Knowledge Representation and Semantic Analysis focuses on the key components of mathematics of perception as it applies to data management and retrieval. These include feature selection/reduction, knowledge representation, semantic analysis, distance function formulation for measuring similarity, and

  13. PKI security in large-scale healthcare networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Komninos, N.

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years a lot of PKI (Public Key Infrastructures) infrastructures have been proposed for healthcare networks in order to ensure secure communication services and exchange of data among healthcare professionals. However, there is a plethora of challenges in these healthcare PKI infrastructures. Especially, there are a lot of challenges for PKI infrastructures deployed over large-scale healthcare networks. In this paper, we propose a PKI infrastructure to ensure security in a ...

  14. Experimental simulation of microinteractions in large scale explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Luo, R.; Yuen, W.W.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data and analysis of recent experiments conducted in the SIGMA-2000 facility to simulate microinteractions in large scale explosions. Specifically, the fragmentation behavior of a high temperature molten steel drop under high pressure (beyond critical) conditions are investigated. The current data demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of high pressure in suppressing the thermal effect of fragmentation under supercritical conditions. The results support the microinteractions idea, and the ESPROSE.m prediction of fragmentation rate. (author)

  15. A Classification Framework for Large-Scale Face Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ziheng; Deravi, Farzin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a generic classification framework for large-scale face recognition systems. Within the framework, a data sampling strategy is proposed to tackle the data imbalance when image pairs are sampled from thousands of face images for preparing a training dataset. A modified kernel Fisher discriminant classifier is proposed to make it computationally feasible to train the kernel-based classification method using tens of thousands of training samples. The framework is tested in an...

  16. Design study on sodium cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Hishida, Masahiko; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2004-07-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2, design improvement for further cost reduction of establishment of the plant concept has been performed. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2003, which is the third year of Phase 2. In the JFY2003 design study, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity and thermal hydraulics which found in the last fiscal year has been examined and the plant concept has been modified. Furthermore, fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set and economy has been evaluated. In addition, as the interim evaluation of the candidate concept of the FBR fuel cycle is to be conducted, cost effectiveness and achievability for the development goal were evaluated and the data of the three large-scale reactor candidate concepts were prepared. As a results of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  17. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  18. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessments Of Selected Large-Scale Projects...Volatile EvolutioN MEP Mars Exploration Program MIB Mishap Investigation Board MMRTG Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator MMS Magnetospheric...probes designed to explore the Martian surface, to satellites equipped with advanced sensors to study the earth , to telescopes intended to explore the

  19. Perturbation theory instead of large scale shell model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Mankos, P.

    1977-01-01

    Results of large scale shell model calculations for (sd)-shell nuclei are compared with a perturbation theory provides an excellent approximation when the SU(3)-basis is used as a starting point. The results indicate that perturbation theory treatment in an SU(3)-basis including 2hω excitations should be preferable to a full diagonalization within the (sd)-shell. (orig.) [de

  20. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar; Bellini, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2009-04-20

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0}. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A{sub 0}=0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  1. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ0. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A0 = 0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  2. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ 0 . Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A 0 =0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  3. Investigation of the large scale regional hydrogeological situation at Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghammar, A.; Grundfelt, B.; Hartley, L.

    1997-11-01

    The present study forms part of the large-scale groundwater flow studies within the SR 97 project. The site of interest is Ceberg. Within the present study two different regional scale groundwater models have been constructed, one large regional model with an areal extent of about 300 km 2 and one semi-regional model with an areal extent of about 50 km 2 . Different types of boundary conditions have been applied to the models. Topography driven pressures, constant infiltration rates, non-linear infiltration combined specified pressure boundary conditions, and transfer of groundwater pressures from the larger model to the semi-regional model. The present model has shown that: -Groundwater flow paths are mainly local. Large-scale groundwater flow paths are only seen below the depth of the hypothetical repository (below 500 meters) and are very slow. -Locations of recharge and discharge, to and from the site area are in the close vicinity of the site. -The low contrast between major structures and the rock mass means that the factor having the major effect on the flowpaths is the topography. -A sufficiently large model, to incorporate the recharge and discharge areas to the local site is in the order of kilometres. -A uniform infiltration rate boundary condition does not give a good representation of the groundwater movements in the model. -A local site model may be located to cover the site area and a few kilometers of the surrounding region. In order to incorporate all recharge and discharge areas within the site model, the model will be somewhat larger than site scale models at other sites. This is caused by the fact that the discharge areas are divided into three distinct areas to the east, south and west of the site. -Boundary conditions may be supplied to the site model by means of transferring groundwater pressures obtained with the semi-regional model

  4. Concurrent Programming Using Actors: Exploiting Large-Scale Parallelism,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-07

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK* Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA Is WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square...D-R162 422 CONCURRENT PROGRMMIZNG USING f"OS XL?ITP TEH l’ LARGE-SCALE PARALLELISH(U) NASI AC E Al CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE L. G AGHA ET AL...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDA.RDS - -96 A -E. __ _ __ __’ .,*- - -- •. - MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL

  5. On a Game of Large-Scale Projects Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2009-09-01

    The paper is devoted to game-theoretical control problems motivated by economic decision making situations arising in realization of large-scale projects, such as designing and putting into operations the new gas or oil pipelines. A non-cooperative two player game is considered with payoff functions of special type for which standard existence theorems and algorithms for searching Nash equilibrium solutions are not applicable. The paper is based on and develops the results obtained in [1]-[5].

  6. Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-20

    We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.

  7. Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Jian-Feng; Xu, Weiyu; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.

  8. Large-scale nuclear energy from the thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.; Duret, M.F.; Craig, D.S.; Veeder, J.I.; Bain, A.S.

    1973-02-01

    The thorium fuel cycle in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactors challenges breeders and fusion as the simplest means of meeting the world's large-scale demands for energy for centuries. Thorium oxide fuel allows high power density with excellent neutron economy. The combination of thorium fuel with organic caloporteur promises easy maintenance and high availability of the whole plant. The total fuelling cost including charges on the inventory is estimated to be attractively low. (author) [fr

  9. Fast, large-scale hologram calculation in wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Matsushima, Kyoji; Takahashi, Takayuki; Nagahama, Yuki; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Hirayama, Ryuji; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    We propose a large-scale hologram calculation using WAvelet ShrinkAge-Based superpositIon (WASABI), a wavelet transform-based algorithm. An image-type hologram calculated using the WASABI method is printed on a glass substrate with the resolution of 65 , 536 × 65 , 536 pixels and a pixel pitch of 1 μm. The hologram calculation time amounts to approximately 354 s on a commercial CPU, which is approximately 30 times faster than conventional methods.

  10. Large-scale Health Information Database and Privacy Protection*1

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Japan was once progressive in the digitalization of healthcare fields but unfortunately has fallen behind in terms of the secondary use of data for public interest. There has recently been a trend to establish large-scale health databases in the nation, and a conflict between data use for public interest and privacy protection has surfaced as this trend has progressed. Databases for health insurance claims or for specific health checkups and guidance services were created according to the law...

  11. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  12. Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Ramette, A.; Saby, N.; Bru, D.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 739 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  13. DEMNUni: massive neutrinos and the bispectrum of large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Rossana; Castorina, Emanuele; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2018-03-01

    The main effect of massive neutrinos on the large-scale structure consists in a few percent suppression of matter perturbations on all scales below their free-streaming scale. Such effect is of particular importance as it allows to constraint the value of the sum of neutrino masses from measurements of the galaxy power spectrum. In this work, we present the first measurements of the next higher-order correlation function, the bispectrum, from N-body simulations that include massive neutrinos as particles. This is the simplest statistics characterising the non-Gaussian properties of the matter and dark matter halos distributions. We investigate, in the first place, the suppression due to massive neutrinos on the matter bispectrum, comparing our measurements with the simplest perturbation theory predictions, finding the approximation of neutrinos contributing at quadratic order in perturbation theory to provide a good fit to the measurements in the simulations. On the other hand, as expected, a linear approximation for neutrino perturbations would lead to Script O(fν) errors on the total matter bispectrum at large scales. We then attempt an extension of previous results on the universality of linear halo bias in neutrino cosmologies, to non-linear and non-local corrections finding consistent results with the power spectrum analysis.

  14. Large-scale preparation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Fu; Bai, Yu-Jun; Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning; Lu, Xi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were synthesized on large scale by a simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C in an autoclave. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of HGCNSs with an average diameter of 10 nm or so and a wall thickness of a few graphenes. The HGCNSs exhibit a reversible capacity of 391 mAh g −1 after 60 cycles when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres could be prepared on large scale by the simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C, which exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite. Highlights: ► Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were prepared on large scale at 550 °C ► The preparation is simple, effective and eco-friendly. ► The in situ yielded MgO nanocrystals promote the graphitization. ► The HGCNSs exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite.

  15. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, Bologna, 40126 (Italy); Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: dutta@physics.tamu.edu [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.

  16. BILGO: Bilateral greedy optimization for large scale semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Zhifeng

    2013-10-03

    Many machine learning tasks (e.g. metric and manifold learning problems) can be formulated as convex semidefinite programs. To enable the application of these tasks on a large-scale, scalability and computational efficiency are considered as desirable properties for a practical semidefinite programming algorithm. In this paper, we theoretically analyze a new bilateral greedy optimization (denoted BILGO) strategy in solving general semidefinite programs on large-scale datasets. As compared to existing methods, BILGO employs a bilateral search strategy during each optimization iteration. In such an iteration, the current semidefinite matrix solution is updated as a bilateral linear combination of the previous solution and a suitable rank-1 matrix, which can be efficiently computed from the leading eigenvector of the descent direction at this iteration. By optimizing for the coefficients of the bilateral combination, BILGO reduces the cost function in every iteration until the KKT conditions are fully satisfied, thus, it tends to converge to a global optimum. In fact, we prove that BILGO converges to the global optimal solution at a rate of O(1/k), where k is the iteration counter. The algorithm thus successfully combines the efficiency of conventional rank-1 update algorithms and the effectiveness of gradient descent. Moreover, BILGO can be easily extended to handle low rank constraints. To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of BILGO, we apply it to two important machine learning tasks, namely Mahalanobis metric learning and maximum variance unfolding. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that BILGO can solve large-scale semidefinite programs efficiently.

  17. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-scale preparation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Fu [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bai, Yu-Jun, E-mail: byj97@126.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lu, Xi-Feng [Lunan Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering, Jining 272000 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were synthesized on large scale by a simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 Degree-Sign C in an autoclave. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of HGCNSs with an average diameter of 10 nm or so and a wall thickness of a few graphenes. The HGCNSs exhibit a reversible capacity of 391 mAh g{sup -1} after 60 cycles when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres could be prepared on large scale by the simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 Degree-Sign C, which exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were prepared on large scale at 550 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation is simple, effective and eco-friendly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in situ yielded MgO nanocrystals promote the graphitization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HGCNSs exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite.

  19. Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Bouchet, François R., E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: bouchet@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-02-01

    Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = O(1) × 10{sup −6} match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.

  20. Origin of the large scale structures of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaknin, David H.

    2004-01-01

    We revise the statistical properties of the primordial cosmological density anisotropies that, at the time of matter-radiation equality, seeded the gravitational development of large scale structures in the otherwise homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker flat universe. Our analysis shows that random fluctuations of the density field at the same instant of equality and with comoving wavelength shorter than the causal horizon at that time can naturally account, when globally constrained to conserve the total mass (energy) of the system, for the observed scale invariance of the anisotropies over cosmologically large comoving volumes. Statistical systems with similar features are generically known as glasslike or latticelike. Obviously, these conclusions conflict with the widely accepted understanding of the primordial structures reported in the literature, which requires an epoch of inflationary cosmology to precede the standard expansion of the universe. The origin of the conflict must be found in the widespread, but unjustified, claim that scale invariant mass (energy) anisotropies at the instant of equality over comoving volumes of cosmological size, larger than the causal horizon at the time, must be generated by fluctuations in the density field with comparably large comoving wavelength

  1. Critical thinking, politics on a large scale and media democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio IBÁÑEZ-MARTÍN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first approximation to the social current reality offers us numerous motives for the worry. The spectacle of violence and of immorality can scare us easily. But more worrying still it is to verify that the horizon of conviviality, peace and wellbeing that Europe had been developing from the Treaty of Rome of 1957 has compromised itself seriously for the economic crisis. Today we are before an assault to the democratic politics, which is qualified, on the part of the media democracy, as an exhausted system, which is required to be changed into a new and great politics, a politics on a large scale. The article analyses the concept of a politics on a large scale, primarily attending to Nietzsche, and noting its union with the great philosophy and the great education. The study of the texts of Nietzsche leads us to the conclusion of how in them we often find an interesting analysis of the problems and a misguided proposal for solutions. We cannot think to suggest solutions to all the problems, but we outline various proposals about changes of political activity, that reasonably are defended from the media democracy. In conclusion, we point out that a politics on a large scale requires statesmen, able to suggest modes of life in common that can structure a long-term coexistence.

  2. Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.

  3. Problems of large-scale vertically-integrated aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H H; Riordan, P F

    1976-01-01

    The problems of vertically-integrated aquaculture are outlined; they are concerned with: species limitations (in the market, biological and technological); site selection, feed, manpower needs, and legal, institutional and financial requirements. The gaps in understanding of, and the constraints limiting, large-scale aquaculture are listed. Future action is recommended with respect to: types and diversity of species to be cultivated, marketing, biotechnology (seed supply, disease control, water quality and concerted effort), siting, feed, manpower, legal and institutional aids (granting of water rights, grants, tax breaks, duty-free imports, etc.), and adequate financing. The last of hard data based on experience suggests that large-scale vertically-integrated aquaculture is a high risk enterprise, and with the high capital investment required, banks and funding institutions are wary of supporting it. Investment in pilot projects is suggested to demonstrate that large-scale aquaculture can be a fully functional and successful business. Construction and operation of such pilot farms is judged to be in the interests of both the public and private sector.

  4. Large-scale impact cratering on the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieve, R.A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The crater densities on the earth and moon form the basis for a standard flux-time curve that can be used in dating unsampled planetary surfaces and constraining the temporal history of endogenic geologic processes. Abundant evidence is seen not only that impact cratering was an important surface process in planetary history but also that large imapact events produced effects that were crucial in scale. By way of example, it is noted that the formation of multiring basins on the early moon was as important in defining the planetary tectonic framework as plate tectonics is on the earth. Evidence from several planets suggests that the effects of very-large-scale impacts go beyond the simple formation of an impact structure and serve to localize increased endogenic activity over an extended period of geologic time. Even though no longer occurring with the frequency and magnitude of early solar system history, it is noted that large scale impact events continue to affect the local geology of the planets. 92 references

  5. BILGO: Bilateral greedy optimization for large scale semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Zhifeng; Yuan, Ganzhao; Ghanem, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Many machine learning tasks (e.g. metric and manifold learning problems) can be formulated as convex semidefinite programs. To enable the application of these tasks on a large-scale, scalability and computational efficiency are considered as desirable properties for a practical semidefinite programming algorithm. In this paper, we theoretically analyze a new bilateral greedy optimization (denoted BILGO) strategy in solving general semidefinite programs on large-scale datasets. As compared to existing methods, BILGO employs a bilateral search strategy during each optimization iteration. In such an iteration, the current semidefinite matrix solution is updated as a bilateral linear combination of the previous solution and a suitable rank-1 matrix, which can be efficiently computed from the leading eigenvector of the descent direction at this iteration. By optimizing for the coefficients of the bilateral combination, BILGO reduces the cost function in every iteration until the KKT conditions are fully satisfied, thus, it tends to converge to a global optimum. In fact, we prove that BILGO converges to the global optimal solution at a rate of O(1/k), where k is the iteration counter. The algorithm thus successfully combines the efficiency of conventional rank-1 update algorithms and the effectiveness of gradient descent. Moreover, BILGO can be easily extended to handle low rank constraints. To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of BILGO, we apply it to two important machine learning tasks, namely Mahalanobis metric learning and maximum variance unfolding. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that BILGO can solve large-scale semidefinite programs efficiently.

  6. [A large-scale accident in Alpine terrain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, M; Paal, P

    2015-02-01

    Due to the geographical conditions, large-scale accidents amounting to mass casualty incidents (MCI) in Alpine terrain regularly present rescue teams with huge challenges. Using an example incident, specific conditions and typical problems associated with such a situation are presented. The first rescue team members to arrive have the elementary tasks of qualified triage and communication to the control room, which is required to dispatch the necessary additional support. Only with a clear "concept", to which all have to adhere, can the subsequent chaos phase be limited. In this respect, a time factor confounded by adverse weather conditions or darkness represents enormous pressure. Additional hazards are frostbite and hypothermia. If priorities can be established in terms of urgency, then treatment and procedure algorithms have proven successful. For evacuation of causalities, a helicopter should be strived for. Due to the low density of hospitals in Alpine regions, it is often necessary to distribute the patients over a wide area. Rescue operations in Alpine terrain have to be performed according to the particular conditions and require rescue teams to have specific knowledge and expertise. The possibility of a large-scale accident should be considered when planning events. With respect to optimization of rescue measures, regular training and exercises are rational, as is the analysis of previous large-scale Alpine accidents.

  7. Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity Scale to Predict Large Artery Occlusion: Design and Comparison With Other Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Sidsel; Damgaard, Dorte; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Andersen, Grethe

    2016-07-01

    We designed and validated a simple prehospital stroke scale to identify emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and compared the scale to other published scales for prediction of ELVO. A national historical test cohort of 3127 patients with information on intracranial vessel status (angiography) before reperfusion therapy was identified. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) items with the highest predictive value of occlusion of a large intracranial artery were identified, and the most optimal combination meeting predefined criteria to ensure usefulness in the prehospital phase was determined. The predictive performance of Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity (PASS) scale was compared with other published scales for ELVO. The PASS scale was composed of 3 NIHSS scores: level of consciousness (month/age), gaze palsy/deviation, and arm weakness. In derivation of PASS 2/3 of the test cohort was used and showed accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76 for detecting large arterial occlusion. Optimal cut point ≥2 abnormal scores showed: sensitivity=0.66 (95% CI, 0.62-0.69), specificity=0.83 (0.81-0.85), and area under the curve=0.74 (0.72-0.76). Validation on 1/3 of the test cohort showed similar performance. Patients with a large artery occlusion on angiography with PASS ≥2 had a median NIHSS score of 17 (interquartile range=6) as opposed to PASS <2 with a median NIHSS score of 6 (interquartile range=5). The PASS scale showed equal performance although more simple when compared with other scales predicting ELVO. The PASS scale is simple and has promising accuracy for prediction of ELVO in the field. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Automatic Measurement in Large-Scale Space with the Laser Theodolite and Vision Guiding Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The multitheodolite intersection measurement is a traditional approach to the coordinate measurement in large-scale space. However, the procedure of manual labeling and aiming results in the low automation level and the low measuring efficiency, and the measurement accuracy is affected easily by the manual aiming error. Based on the traditional theodolite measuring methods, this paper introduces the mechanism of vision measurement principle and presents a novel automatic measurement method for large-scale space and large workpieces (equipment combined with the laser theodolite measuring and vision guiding technologies. The measuring mark is established on the surface of the measured workpiece by the collimating laser which is coaxial with the sight-axis of theodolite, so the cooperation targets or manual marks are no longer needed. With the theoretical model data and the multiresolution visual imaging and tracking technology, it can realize the automatic, quick, and accurate measurement of large workpieces in large-scale space. Meanwhile, the impact of artificial error is reduced and the measuring efficiency is improved. Therefore, this method has significant ramification for the measurement of large workpieces, such as the geometry appearance characteristics measuring of ships, large aircraft, and spacecraft, and deformation monitoring for large building, dams.

  9. Some ecological guidelines for large-scale biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.; Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J. [National Audubon Society, Tavernier, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The National Audubon Society sees biomass as an appropriate and necessary source of energy to help replace fossil fuels in the near future, but is concerned that large-scale biomass plantations could displace significant natural vegetation and wildlife habitat, and reduce national and global biodiversity. We support the development of an industry large enough to provide significant portions of our energy budget, but we see a critical need to ensure that plantations are designed and sited in ways that minimize ecological disruption, or even provide environmental benefits. We have been studying the habitat value of intensively managed short-rotation tree plantations. Our results show that these plantations support large populations of some birds, but not all of the species using the surrounding landscape, and indicate that their value as habitat can be increased greatly by including small areas of mature trees within them. We believe short-rotation plantations can benefit regional biodiversity if they can be deployed as buffers for natural forests, or as corridors connecting forest tracts. To realize these benefits, and to avoid habitat degradation, regional biomass plantation complexes (e.g., the plantations supplying all the fuel for a powerplant) need to be planned, sited, and developed as large-scale units in the context of the regional landscape mosaic.

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding Large Scale Vapour Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, S.J.; Hall, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    In foundries, violent explosions occur occasionally when molten metal comes into contact with water. If similar explosions can occur with other materials, hazardous situations may arise for example in LNG marine transportation accidents, or in liquid cooled reactor incidents when molten UO 2 contacts water or sodium coolant. Over the last 10 years a large body of experimental data has been obtained on the behaviour of small quantities of hot material in contact with a vaporisable coolant. Such experiments generally give low energy yields, despite producing fine fragmentation of the molten material. These events have been interpreted in terms of a wide range of phenomena such as violent boiling, liquid entrainment, bubble collapse, superheat, surface cracking and many others. Many of these studies have been aimed at understanding the small scale behaviour of the particular materials of interest. However, understanding the nature of the energetic events which were the original cause for concern may also be necessary to give confidence that violent events cannot occur for these materials in large scale situations. More recently, there has been a trend towards larger experiments and some of these have produced explosions of moderately high efficiency. Although occurrence of such large scale explosions can depend rather critically on initial conditions in a way which is not fully understood, there are signs that the interpretation of these events may be more straightforward than that of the single drop experiments. In the last two years several theoretical models for large scale explosions have appeared which attempt a self contained explanation of at least some stages of such high yield events: these have as their common feature a description of how a propagating breakdown of an initially quasi-stable distribution of materials is induced by the pressure and flow field caused by the energy release in adjacent regions. These models have led to the idea that for a full

  11. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any

  12. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  13. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.F.; Berggren, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficiently short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system; to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to demonstrate the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may be obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2017-10-01

    Between late fall and early spring, Mars’ middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  15. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2017-01-01

    Between late fall and early spring, Mars' middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r 0 = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(Ωh) -1 (H 0 = 100h km s -1 Mpc -1 ). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Lyα absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with Ω<1

  17. Large-Scale and Global Hydrology. Chapter 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Koster, Randal; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Powered by the sun, water moves continuously between and through Earths oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial reservoirs. It enables life, shapes Earths surface, and responds to and influences climate change. Scientists measure various features of the water cycle using a combination of ground, airborne, and space-based observations, and seek to characterize it at multiple scales with the aid of numerical models. Over time our understanding of the water cycle and ability to quantify it have improved, owing to advances in observational capabilities, the extension of the data record, and increases in computing power and storage. Here we present some of the most recent estimates of global and continental ocean basin scale water cycle stocks and fluxes and provide examples of modern numerical modeling systems and reanalyses.Further, we discuss prospects for predicting water cycle variability at seasonal and longer scales, which is complicated by a changing climate and direct human impacts related to water management and agriculture. Changes to the water cycle will be among the most obvious and important facets of climate change, thus it is crucial that we continue to invest in our ability to monitor it.

  18. Exploring the large-scale structure of Taylor–Couette turbulence through Large-Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders are performed in an attempt to explore the large-scale axially-pinned structures seen in experiments and simulations. Both static and dynamic LES models are used. The Reynolds number is kept fixed at Re = 3.4 · 104, and the radius ratio η = ri /ro is set to η = 0.909, limiting the effects of curvature and resulting in frictional Reynolds numbers of around Re τ ≈ 500. Four rotation ratios from Rot = ‑0.0909 to Rot = 0.3 are simulated. First, the LES of TC is benchmarked for different rotation ratios. Both the Smagorinsky model with a constant of cs = 0.1 and the dynamic model are found to produce reasonable results for no mean rotation and cyclonic rotation, but deviations increase for increasing rotation. This is attributed to the increasing anisotropic character of the fluctuations. Second, “over-damped” LES, i.e. LES with a large Smagorinsky constant is performed and is shown to reproduce some features of the large-scale structures, even when the near-wall region is not adequately modeled. This shows the potential for using over-damped LES for fast explorations of the parameter space where large-scale structures are found.

  19. Systematic renormalization of the effective theory of Large Scale Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A perturbative description of Large Scale Structure is a cornerstone of our understanding of the observed distribution of matter in the universe. Renormalization is an essential and defining step to make this description physical and predictive. Here we introduce a systematic renormalization procedure, which neatly associates counterterms to the UV-sensitive diagrams order by order, as it is commonly done in quantum field theory. As a concrete example, we renormalize the one-loop power spectrum and bispectrum of both density and velocity. In addition, we present a series of results that are valid to all orders in perturbation theory. First, we show that while systematic renormalization requires temporally non-local counterterms, in practice one can use an equivalent basis made of local operators. We give an explicit prescription to generate all counterterms allowed by the symmetries. Second, we present a formal proof of the well-known general argument that the contribution of short distance perturbations to large scale density contrast δ and momentum density π(k) scale as k 2 and k, respectively. Third, we demonstrate that the common practice of introducing counterterms only in the Euler equation when one is interested in correlators of δ is indeed valid to all orders.

  20. Exploiting Data Sparsity for Large-Scale Matrix Computations

    KAUST Repository

    Akbudak, Kadir; Ltaief, Hatem; Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Charara, Ali; Keyes, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Exploiting data sparsity in dense matrices is an algorithmic bridge between architectures that are increasingly memory-austere on a per-core basis and extreme-scale applications. The Hierarchical matrix Computations on Manycore Architectures (HiCMA) library tackles this challenging problem by achieving significant reductions in time to solution and memory footprint, while preserving a specified accuracy requirement of the application. HiCMA provides a high-performance implementation on distributed-memory systems of one of the most widely used matrix factorization in large-scale scientific applications, i.e., the Cholesky factorization. It employs the tile low-rank data format to compress the dense data-sparse off-diagonal tiles of the matrix. It then decomposes the matrix computations into interdependent tasks and relies on the dynamic runtime system StarPU for asynchronous out-of-order scheduling, while allowing high user-productivity. Performance comparisons and memory footprint on matrix dimensions up to eleven million show a performance gain and memory saving of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics on thousands of cores, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries. This represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale matrix computations toward solving big data problems in geospatial statistics for climate/weather forecasting applications.

  1. Exploiting Data Sparsity for Large-Scale Matrix Computations

    KAUST Repository

    Akbudak, Kadir

    2018-02-24

    Exploiting data sparsity in dense matrices is an algorithmic bridge between architectures that are increasingly memory-austere on a per-core basis and extreme-scale applications. The Hierarchical matrix Computations on Manycore Architectures (HiCMA) library tackles this challenging problem by achieving significant reductions in time to solution and memory footprint, while preserving a specified accuracy requirement of the application. HiCMA provides a high-performance implementation on distributed-memory systems of one of the most widely used matrix factorization in large-scale scientific applications, i.e., the Cholesky factorization. It employs the tile low-rank data format to compress the dense data-sparse off-diagonal tiles of the matrix. It then decomposes the matrix computations into interdependent tasks and relies on the dynamic runtime system StarPU for asynchronous out-of-order scheduling, while allowing high user-productivity. Performance comparisons and memory footprint on matrix dimensions up to eleven million show a performance gain and memory saving of more than an order of magnitude for both metrics on thousands of cores, against state-of-the-art open-source and vendor optimized numerical libraries. This represents an important milestone in enabling large-scale matrix computations toward solving big data problems in geospatial statistics for climate/weather forecasting applications.

  2. Just enough inflation. Power spectrum modifications at large scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean

    2014-07-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50-60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic and model-independent analysis of any possible non-slow-roll background evolution prior to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low-l, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at l< or similar 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  3. The Effect of Large Scale Salinity Gradient on Langmuir Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Jarosz, E.; Yu, Z.; Jensen, T.; Sullivan, P. P.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Langmuir circulation (LC) is believed to be one of the leading order causes of turbulent mixing in the upper ocean. It is important for momentum and heat exchange across the mixed layer (ML) and directly impact the dynamics and thermodynamics in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere including the vertical distributions of chemical, biological, optical, and acoustic properties. Based on Craik and Leibovich (1976) theory, large eddy simulation (LES) models have been developed to simulate LC in the upper ocean, yielding new insights that could not be obtained from field observations and turbulent closure models. Due its high computational cost, LES models are usually limited to small domain sizes and cannot resolve large-scale flows. Furthermore, most LES models used in the LC simulations use periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction, which assumes the physical properties (i.e. temperature and salinity) and expected flow patterns in the area of interest are of a periodically repeating nature so that the limited small LES domain is representative for the larger area. Using periodic boundary condition can significantly reduce computational effort in problems, and it is a good assumption for isotropic shear turbulence. However, LC is anisotropic (McWilliams et al 1997) and was observed to be modulated by crosswind tidal currents (Kukulka et al 2011). Using symmetrical domains, idealized LES studies also indicate LC could interact with oceanic fronts (Hamlington et al 2014) and standing internal waves (Chini and Leibovich, 2005). The present study expands our previous LES modeling investigations of Langmuir turbulence to the real ocean conditions with large scale environmental motion that features fresh water inflow into the study region. Large scale gradient forcing is introduced to the NCAR LES model through scale separation analysis. The model is applied to a field observation in the Gulf of Mexico in July, 2016 when the measurement site was impacted by

  4. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P [PA Energy, Malling (Denmark); Vedde, J [SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  5. Large-scale field testing on flexible shallow landslide barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnion, Louis; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna; Roth, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Open shallow landslides occur regularly in a wide range of natural terrains. Generally, they are difficult to predict and result in damages to properties and disruption of transportation systems. In order to improve the knowledge about the physical process itself and to develop new protection measures, large-scale field experiments were conducted in Veltheim, Switzerland. Material was released down a 30° inclined test slope into a flexible barrier. The flow as well as the impact into the barrier was monitored using various measurement techniques. Laser devices recording flow heights, a special force plate measuring normal and shear basal forces as well as load cells for impact pressures were installed along the test slope. In addition, load cells were built in the support and retaining cables of the barrier to provide data for detailed back-calculation of load distribution during impact. For the last test series an additional guiding wall in flow direction on both sides of the barrier was installed to achieve higher impact pressures in the middle of the barrier. With these guiding walls the flow is not able to spread out before hitting the barrier. A special constructed release mechanism simulating the sudden failure of the slope was designed such that about 50 m3 of mixed earth and gravel saturated with water can be released in an instant. Analysis of cable forces combined with impact pressures and velocity measurements during a test series allow us now to develop a load model for the barrier design. First numerical simulations with the software tool FARO, originally developed for rockfall barriers and afterwards calibrated for debris flow impacts, lead already to structural improvements on barrier design. Decisive for the barrier design is the first dynamic impact pressure depending on the flow velocity and afterwards the hydrostatic pressure of the complete retained material behind the barrier. Therefore volume estimation of open shallow landslides by assessing

  6. Online Monitoring of Large Centrifugal Pumps in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Efenji A.; Faragalla, Mohamed M.; Awwal, Arigi M.; Lee, Yong-kwan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Online Monitoring detects and diagnoses incipient faults, performs predictive maintenance, and can estimate the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of Active and Passive Components before they fail. In an effort towards assisting Utility Partners to be proactive in the management of their Assets, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) collaborated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Monitoring (FW-PHM) Software Suite. The FW-PHM is a web based diagnostic tools and databases designed for use in commercial NPP. The AFS development process as designed by EPRI can be adapted to Large Centrifugal Pumps (LCP) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). For the purpose of this endeavor, the set of LCP considered are Safety Class-Motor Driven-Vertical Centrifugal Pumps for primary flow which includes Safety Injection, Containment Spray, and Residual Heat Removal. Fault Signatures of the LCP for OLM has been developed following the INCOSE V-model systems development approach. The fault types, fault features, and their detection methods and effectiveness for the LCP were established by diligently following the guidelines recommended by EPRI. An optimization of the FS for OLM has been suggested for implementation. As a way of extending this work, a Cost-Benefit Analysis between OLM and the conventional Periodic Maintenance for the LCP in NPP is proposed.

  7. Online Monitoring of Large Centrifugal Pumps in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, Efenji A.; Faragalla, Mohamed M.; Awwal, Arigi M.; Lee, Yong-kwan

    2016-01-01

    Online Monitoring detects and diagnoses incipient faults, performs predictive maintenance, and can estimate the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of Active and Passive Components before they fail. In an effort towards assisting Utility Partners to be proactive in the management of their Assets, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) collaborated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Monitoring (FW-PHM) Software Suite. The FW-PHM is a web based diagnostic tools and databases designed for use in commercial NPP. The AFS development process as designed by EPRI can be adapted to Large Centrifugal Pumps (LCP) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). For the purpose of this endeavor, the set of LCP considered are Safety Class-Motor Driven-Vertical Centrifugal Pumps for primary flow which includes Safety Injection, Containment Spray, and Residual Heat Removal. Fault Signatures of the LCP for OLM has been developed following the INCOSE V-model systems development approach. The fault types, fault features, and their detection methods and effectiveness for the LCP were established by diligently following the guidelines recommended by EPRI. An optimization of the FS for OLM has been suggested for implementation. As a way of extending this work, a Cost-Benefit Analysis between OLM and the conventional Periodic Maintenance for the LCP in NPP is proposed

  8. Detecting differential protein expression in large-scale population proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Soyoung; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-06-17

    Mass spectrometry-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics shows great potential in clinical biomarker studies, identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins in biological samples. However, methods are needed to appropriately handle issues/challenges unique to mass spectrometry data in order to detect as many biomarker proteins as possible. One issue is that different mass spectrometry experiments generate quite different total numbers of quantified peptides, which can result in more missing peptide abundances in an experiment with a smaller total number of quantified peptides. Another issue is that the quantification of peptides is sometimes absent, especially for less abundant peptides and such missing values contain the information about the peptide abundance. Here, we propose a Significance Analysis for Large-scale Proteomics Studies (SALPS) that handles missing peptide intensity values caused by the two mechanisms mentioned above. Our model has a robust performance in both simulated data and proteomics data from a large clinical study. Because varying patients’ sample qualities and deviating instrument performances are not avoidable for clinical studies performed over the course of several years, we believe that our approach will be useful to analyze large-scale clinical proteomics data.

  9. Large Scale Community Detection Using a Small World Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Behera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a social network, small or large communities within the network play a major role in deciding the functionalities of the network. Despite of diverse definitions, communities in the network may be defined as the group of nodes that are more densely connected as compared to nodes outside the group. Revealing such hidden communities is one of the challenging research problems. A real world social network follows small world phenomena, which indicates that any two social entities can be reachable in a small number of steps. In this paper, nodes are mapped into communities based on the random walk in the network. However, uncovering communities in large-scale networks is a challenging task due to its unprecedented growth in the size of social networks. A good number of community detection algorithms based on random walk exist in literature. In addition, when large-scale social networks are being considered, these algorithms are observed to take considerably longer time. In this work, with an objective to improve the efficiency of algorithms, parallel programming framework like Map-Reduce has been considered for uncovering the hidden communities in social network. The proposed approach has been compared with some standard existing community detection algorithms for both synthetic and real-world datasets in order to examine its performance, and it is observed that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the existing ones.

  10. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  11. Deep Feature Learning and Cascaded Classifier for Large Scale Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasoon, Adhish

    from data rather than having a predefined feature set. We explore deep learning approach of convolutional neural network (CNN) for segmenting three dimensional medical images. We propose a novel system integrating three 2D CNNs, which have a one-to-one association with the xy, yz and zx planes of 3D......This thesis focuses on voxel/pixel classification based approaches for image segmentation. The main application is segmentation of articular cartilage in knee MRIs. The first major contribution of the thesis deals with large scale machine learning problems. Many medical imaging problems need huge...... amount of training data to cover sufficient biological variability. Learning methods scaling badly with number of training data points cannot be used in such scenarios. This may restrict the usage of many powerful classifiers having excellent generalization ability. We propose a cascaded classifier which...

  12. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom; Femiani, John; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2017-01-01

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  13. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom

    2017-11-22

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  14. Large-scale compositional heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic imaging of subducted Farallon and Tethys lithosphere in the lower mantle has been taken as evidence for whole-mantle convection, and efficient mantle mixing. However, cosmochemical constraints point to a lower-mantle composition that has a lower Mg/Si compared to upper-mantle pyrolite. Moreover, geochemical signatures of magmatic rocks indicate the long-term persistence of primordial reservoirs somewhere in the mantle. In this presentation, I establish geodynamic mechanisms for sustaining large-scale (primordial) heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using numerical models. Mantle flow is controlled by rock density and viscosity. Variations in intrinsic rock density, such as due to heterogeneity in basalt or iron content, can induce layering or partial layering in the mantle. Layering can be sustained in the presence of persistent whole mantle convection due to active "unmixing" of heterogeneity in low-viscosity domains, e.g. in the transition zone or near the core-mantle boundary [1]. On the other hand, lateral variations in intrinsic rock viscosity, such as due to heterogeneity in Mg/Si, can strongly affect the mixing timescales of the mantle. In the extreme case, intrinsically strong rocks may remain unmixed through the age of the Earth, and persist as large-scale domains in the mid-mantle due to focusing of deformation along weak conveyor belts [2]. That large-scale lateral heterogeneity and/or layering can persist in the presence of whole-mantle convection can explain the stagnation of some slabs, as well as the deflection of some plumes, in the mid-mantle. These findings indeed motivate new seismic studies for rigorous testing of model predictions. [1] Ballmer, M. D., N. C. Schmerr, T. Nakagawa, and J. Ritsema (2015), Science Advances, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500815. [2] Ballmer, M. D., C. Houser, J. W. Hernlund, R. Wentzcovitch, and K. Hirose (2017), Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo2898.

  15. On the Phenomenology of an Accelerated Large-Scale Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiros Khurshudyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper, several new results towards the explanation of the accelerated expansion of the large-scale universe is discussed. On the other hand, inflation is the early-time accelerated era and the universe is symmetric in the sense of accelerated expansion. The accelerated expansion of is one of the long standing problems in modern cosmology, and physics in general. There are several well defined approaches to solve this problem. One of them is an assumption concerning the existence of dark energy in recent universe. It is believed that dark energy is responsible for antigravity, while dark matter has gravitational nature and is responsible, in general, for structure formation. A different approach is an appropriate modification of general relativity including, for instance, f ( R and f ( T theories of gravity. On the other hand, attempts to build theories of quantum gravity and assumptions about existence of extra dimensions, possible variability of the gravitational constant and the speed of the light (among others, provide interesting modifications of general relativity applicable to problems of modern cosmology, too. In particular, here two groups of cosmological models are discussed. In the first group the problem of the accelerated expansion of large-scale universe is discussed involving a new idea, named the varying ghost dark energy. On the other hand, the second group contains cosmological models addressed to the same problem involving either new parameterizations of the equation of state parameter of dark energy (like varying polytropic gas, or nonlinear interactions between dark energy and dark matter. Moreover, for cosmological models involving varying ghost dark energy, massless particle creation in appropriate radiation dominated universe (when the background dynamics is due to general relativity is demonstrated as well. Exploring the nature of the accelerated expansion of the large-scale universe involving generalized

  16. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  17. Monitoring tree secies diversity over large spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson; Clifford C. Amundsen

    2004-01-01

    The prospect of decline in biological diversity has become a central concern in the life sciences, both around the world and across the United States. Anthropogenic disturbance has been identified as a major factor affecting species diversity trends. An increase in the harvesting of naturally diverse timber stands in the South has become an important issue. The...

  18. Evolution of scaling emergence in large-scale spatial epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Zipf's law and Heaps' law are two representatives of the scaling concepts, which play a significant role in the study of complexity science. The coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law motivates different understandings on the dependence between these two scalings, which has still hardly been clarified. In this article, we observe an evolution process of the scalings: the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law are naturally shaped to coexist at the initial time, while the crossover comes with the emergence of their inconsistency at the larger time before reaching a stable state, where the Heaps' law still exists with the disappearance of strict Zipf's law. Such findings are illustrated with a scenario of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading, and the empirical results of pandemic disease support a universal analysis of the relation between the two laws regardless of the biological details of disease. Employing the United States domestic air transportation and demographic data to construct a metapopulation model for simulating the pandemic spread at the U.S. country level, we uncover that the broad heterogeneity of the infrastructure plays a key role in the evolution of scaling emergence. The analyses of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading help understand the temporal evolution of scalings, indicating the coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law depends on the collective dynamics of epidemic processes, and the heterogeneity of epidemic spread indicates the significance of performing targeted containment strategies at the early time of a pandemic disease.

  19. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...... optimization decision. A multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm was introduced to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity of Pareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level planning approach and the MOPSO...

  20. Safeguarding aspects of large-scale commercial reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The paper points out that several solutions to the problems of safeguarding large-scale plants have been put forward: (1) Increased measurement accuracy. This does not remove the problem of timely detection. (2) Continuous in-process measurement. As yet unproven and likely to be costly. (3) More extensive use of containment and surveillance. The latter appears to be feasible but requires the incorporation of safeguards into plant design and sufficient redundancy to protect the operators interests. The advantages of altering the emphasis of safeguards philosophy from quantitative goals to the analysis of diversion strategies should be considered