WorldWideScience

Sample records for large scale maps

  1. Large Scale Landform Mapping Using Lidar DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Gökgöz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, LIDAR DEM data was used to obtain a primary landform map in accordance with a well-known methodology. This primary landform map was generalized using the Focal Statistics tool (Majority, considering the minimum area condition in cartographic generalization in order to obtain landform maps at 1:1000 and 1:5000 scales. Both the primary and the generalized landform maps were verified visually with hillshaded DEM and an orthophoto. As a result, these maps provide satisfactory visuals of the landforms. In order to show the effect of generalization, the area of each landform in both the primary and the generalized maps was computed. Consequently, landform maps at large scales could be obtained with the proposed methodology, including generalization using LIDAR DEM.

  2. Geophysical mapping of complex glaciogenic large-scale structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the main results of a four year PhD study concerning the use of geophysical data in geological mapping. The study is related to the Geocenter project, “KOMPLEKS”, which focuses on the mapping of complex, large-scale geological structures. The study area is approximately 100 km2...... data types and co-interpret them in order to improve our geological understanding. However, in order to perform this successfully, methodological considerations are necessary. For instance, a structure indicated by a reflection in the seismic data is not always apparent in the resistivity data...... information) can be collected. The geophysical data are used together with geological analyses from boreholes and pits to interpret the geological history of the hill-island. The geophysical data reveal that the glaciotectonic structures truncate at the surface. The directions of the structures were mapped...

  3. LARGE-SCALE INDICATIVE MAPPING OF SOIL RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Panidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study we estimate relationships between quantitative parameters of relief, soil runoff regime, and spatial distribution of radioactive pollutants in the soil. The study is conducted on the test arable area located in basin of the upper Oka River (Orel region, Russia. Previously we collected rich amount of soil samples, which make it possible to investigate redistribution of the Chernobyl-origin cesium-137 in soil material and as a consequence the soil runoff magnitude at sampling points. Currently we are describing and discussing the technique applied to large-scale mapping of the soil runoff. The technique is based upon the cesium-137 radioactivity measurement in the different relief structures. Key stages are the allocation of the places for soil sampling points (we used very high resolution space imagery as a supporting data; soil samples collection and analysis; calibration of the mathematical model (using the estimated background value of the cesium-137 radioactivity; and automated compilation of the map (predictive map of the studied territory (digital elevation model is used for this purpose, and cesium-137 radioactivity can be predicted using quantitative parameters of the relief. The maps can be used as a support data for precision agriculture and for recultivation or melioration purposes.

  4. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  5. Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Ramette, A.; Saby, N.; Bru, D.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 739 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  6. Efficient Topology Estimation for Large Scale Optical Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Elibol, Armagan; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Large scale optical mapping methods are in great demand among scientists who study different aspects of the seabed, and have been fostered by impressive advances in the capabilities of underwater robots in gathering optical data from the seafloor. Cost and weight constraints mean that low-cost ROVs usually have a very limited number of sensors. When a low-cost robot carries out a seafloor survey using a down-looking camera, it usually follows a predefined trajectory that provides several non time-consecutive overlapping image pairs. Finding these pairs (a process known as topology estimation) is indispensable to obtaining globally consistent mosaics and accurate trajectory estimates, which are necessary for a global view of the surveyed area, especially when optical sensors are the only data source. This book contributes to the state-of-art in large area image mosaicing methods for underwater surveys using low-cost vehicles equipped with a very limited sensor suite. The main focus has been on global alignment...

  7. Reconstructing Information in Large-Scale Structure via Logarithmic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapudi, Istvan

    We propose to develop a new method to extract information from large-scale structure data combining two-point statistics and non-linear transformations; before, this information was available only with substantially more complex higher-order statistical methods. Initially, most of the cosmological information in large-scale structure lies in two-point statistics. With non- linear evolution, some of that useful information leaks into higher-order statistics. The PI and group has shown in a series of theoretical investigations how that leakage occurs, and explained the Fisher information plateau at smaller scales. This plateau means that even as more modes are added to the measurement of the power spectrum, the total cumulative information (loosely speaking the inverse errorbar) is not increasing. Recently we have shown in Neyrinck et al. (2009, 2010) that a logarithmic (and a related Gaussianization or Box-Cox) transformation on the non-linear Dark Matter or galaxy field reconstructs a surprisingly large fraction of this missing Fisher information of the initial conditions. This was predicted by the earlier wave mechanical formulation of gravitational dynamics by Szapudi & Kaiser (2003). The present proposal is focused on working out the theoretical underpinning of the method to a point that it can be used in practice to analyze data. In particular, one needs to deal with the usual real-life issues of galaxy surveys, such as complex geometry, discrete sam- pling (Poisson or sub-Poisson noise), bias (linear, or non-linear, deterministic, or stochastic), redshift distortions, pro jection effects for 2D samples, and the effects of photometric redshift errors. We will develop methods for weak lensing and Sunyaev-Zeldovich power spectra as well, the latter specifically targetting Planck. In addition, we plan to investigate the question of residual higher- order information after the non-linear mapping, and possible applications for cosmology. Our aim will be to work out

  8. Update of the Large-scale Concentration Maps for the Netherlands (GCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Elshout, S.; Molenaar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Every year the RIVM and PBL publish the so-called Large-scale concentration maps of the Netherlands (GCN maps). These maps offer an approximation of the background concentrations of several air-polluting substances. Sometimes these maps need to be updated to realize a better approximation of the background concentrations. [nl

  9. Large Scale Crop Mapping in Ukraine Using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.; Kussul, N.

    2016-12-01

    There are no globally available high resolution satellite-derived crop specific maps at present. Only coarse-resolution imagery (> 250 m spatial resolution) has been utilized to derive global cropland extent. In 2016 we are going to carry out a country level demonstration of Sentinel-2 use for crop classification in Ukraine within the ESA Sen2-Agri project. But optical imagery can be contaminated by cloud cover that makes it difficult to acquire imagery in an optimal time range to discriminate certain crops. Due to the Copernicus program since 2015, a lot of Sentinel-1 SAR data at high spatial resolution is available for free for Ukraine. It allows us to use the time series of SAR data for crop classification. Our experiment for one administrative region in 2015 showed much higher crop classification accuracy with SAR data than with optical only time series [1, 2]. Therefore, in 2016 within the Google Earth Engine Research Award we use SAR data together with optical ones for large area crop mapping (entire territory of Ukraine) using cloud computing capabilities available at Google Earth Engine (GEE). This study compares different classification methods for crop mapping for the whole territory of Ukraine using data and algorithms from GEE. Classification performance assessed using overall classification accuracy, Kappa coefficients, and user's and producer's accuracies. Also, crop areas from derived classification maps compared to the official statistics [3]. S. Skakun et al., "Efficiency assessment of multitemporal C-band Radarsat-2 intensity and Landsat-8 surface reflectance satellite imagery for crop classification in Ukraine," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observ. and Rem. Sens., 2015, DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2454297. N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "The use of satellite SAR imagery to crop classification in Ukraine within JECAM project," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), pp.1497-1500, 13

  10. USGS Imagery Topo Large-scale Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Imagery Topo Large service from The National Map (TNM) is a dynamic topographic base map service that combines the best available data (Boundaries,...

  11. Battlespace Awareness: Heterogeneous Sensor Maps of Large Scale, Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    intelligence , machine learning, mapping, autonomous vehicles, optimization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS...M. Tanner, P. Piniés, L. M. Paz, and P. Newman. “DENSER Cities: A System for Dense Efficient Reconstructions of Cities”. In: ArXiv e- prints (Apr...Efficient Reconstructions of Cities”. In: ArXiv e- prints (Apr. 2016). arXiv: arXiv:1604.03734 [cs.CV]. [8] Michael Tanner et al. “Keep Geometry in

  12. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data.

  13. Maps4Science - National Roadmap for Large-Scale Research Facilities 2011 (NWO Application form)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Van der Wal, T.; De By, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is historically known as one of worlds' best-measured countries. It is continuing this tradition today with unequalled new datasets, such as the nationwide large-scale topographic map, our unique digital height map (nationwide coverage; ten very accurate 3D points for every Dutch m2)

  14. Large Scale Hierarchical K-Means Based Image Retrieval With MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    flat vocabulary on MapReduce. In 2013, Moise and Shestakov [32, 40], have been researching large scale indexing and search with MapReduce. They...time will be greatly reduced, however image retrieval performance will almost certainly suffer. Moise and Shestakov ran tests with 100M images on 108...43–72, 2005. [32] Diana Moise , Denis Shestakov, Gylfi Gudmundsson, and Laurent Amsaleg. Indexing and searching 100m images with map-reduce. In

  15. Update of the Large-scale Concentration Maps for the Netherlands (GCN); De aangepaste GCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Elshout, S.; Molenaar, R. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Every year the RIVM and PBL publish the so-called Large-scale concentration maps of the Netherlands (GCN maps). These maps offer an approximation of the background concentrations of several air-polluting substances. Sometimes these maps need to be updated to realize a better approximation of the background concentrations. [Dutch] Jaarlijks publiceren het RIVM en het PBL de zogenoemde Grootschalige Concentratiekaarten van Nederland (GCN-kaarten). Deze kaarten geven een benadering van de achtergrondconcentraties van enkele luchtvervuilende stoffen. Soms is het nodig de kaarten aan te passen om tot een betere benadering van de achtergrondconcentratie te komen.

  16. Network Partitioning Domain Knowledge Multiobjective Application Mapping for Large-Scale Network-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhen Tei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiobjective application mapping technique targeted for large-scale network-on-chip (NoC. As the number of intellectual property (IP cores in multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC increases, NoC application mapping to find optimum core-to-topology mapping becomes more challenging. Besides, the conflicting cost and performance trade-off makes multiobjective application mapping techniques even more complex. This paper proposes an application mapping technique that incorporates domain knowledge into genetic algorithm (GA. The initial population of GA is initialized with network partitioning (NP while the crossover operator is guided with knowledge on communication demands. NP reduces the large-scale application mapping complexity and provides GA with a potential mapping search space. The proposed genetic operator is compared with state-of-the-art genetic operators in terms of solution quality. In this work, multiobjective optimization of energy and thermal-balance is considered. Through simulation, knowledge-based initial mapping shows significant improvement in Pareto front compared to random initial mapping that is widely used. The proposed knowledge-based crossover also shows better Pareto front compared to state-of-the-art knowledge-based crossover.

  17. Large scale mapping: an empirical comparison of pixel-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, large scale mapping was carried using precise ground survey methods. Later, paradigm shift in data collection using medium to low resolution and, recently, high resolution images brought to bear the problem of accurate data analysis and fitness-for-purpose challenges. Using high resolution satellite images ...

  18. Maps on large-scale air quality concentrations in the Netherlands. Report on 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Aben, J.M.M.; Blom, W.F.; Van Dam, J.D.; Elzenga, H.E.; Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Hammingh, P.; Hoen, A.; Jimmink, B.A.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Matthijsen, J.; Peek, C.J.; Schilderman, C.B.W.; Van der Sluis, O.C.; De Vries, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Decrease expected in the number of locations exceeding the air quality limit values In the Netherlands, the number of locations were the European limit values for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide will be exceeded is expected to decrease by 70-90%, in the period up to 2011, respectively 2015. The limit value for particulate matter from 2011 onwards, and for nitrogen dioxide from 2015 onwards, is expected to be exceeded at a small number of locations in the Netherlands, based on standing and proposed Dutch and European policies. These locations are situated mainly in the Randstad, Netherlands, in the vicinity of motorway around the large cities and in the busiest streets in large cities. Whether the limit values will actually be exceeded depends also on local policies and meteorological fluctuations. This estimate is based on large-scale concentration maps (called GCN maps) of air quality components and on additional local contributions. The concentration maps provide the best possible estimate of large-scale air quality. The degree of uncertainty about the local concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide is estimated to be approximately 20%. This report presents the methods used to produce the GCN maps and the included emissions. It also shows the differences with respect to the maps of 2007. These maps are used by local, provincial and other authorities. MNP emphasises to keep the uncertainties in the concentrations in mind when using these maps for planning, or when comparing concentrations with limit values. This also applies to the selecting of local measures to improve the air quality. The concentration maps are available online, at http://www.mnp.nl/gcn.html [nl

  19. Maps on large-scale air quality concentrations in the Netherlands. Report on 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Aben, J.M.M.; Diederen, H.S.M.A.; Drissen, E; Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Jimmink, B.A.; Koekoek, A.F.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Matthijsen, J.; Peek, C.J.; Van Rijn, F.J.A.; De Vries, W.J.

    2010-06-01

    In the Netherlands, the number of locations for which the European limit values for nitrogen dioxide concentrations could be exceeded is larger than was estimated last year. The limit value, from 2015 onwards, might be exceeded along 100 to 150 kilometres of city roads and along about 100 kilometres of motorways, based on standing and proposed national and European policies, not taking local policies into account. The exceedances occur mainly in the Randstad area, along motorways around the large cities, and in streets within these cities. The number of locations is about twice as large as was estimated last year, as a result of new measurements of emissions from heavy-duty vehicles, and meeting the limit value in time may require additional national and local policies. The new estimates were based on large-scale concentration maps (called GCN maps) of air quality components, and on additional local contributions. The concentration maps provided the best possible estimate of large-scale air quality. The degree of uncertainty in local concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was estimated at approximately 15 to 20 per cent. This report presents the methods and emissions used for producing the GCN maps. It also shows the differences with the maps produced in 2009. These maps are used by local, provincial and other authorities to define additional local measures. The PBL would like to emphasise that uncertainties in the concentrations must be kept in mind when using these maps for planning, or when comparing concentrations with limit values. This also applies to the selecting of local measures to improve the air quality. The concentration maps are available online, at http://www.pbl.nl/gcn. Keywords: GCN; particulate matter; PM10; nitrogen dioxide; limit value. [nl

  20. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  1. Maps on large-scale air quality concentrations in the Netherlands. Report on 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Aben, J.M.M.; Blom, W.F.; Diederen, H.S.M.A.; Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Jimmink, B.A.; Koekoek, A.F.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Matthijsen, J.; Peek, C.J.; Van Rijn, F.J.A.; Van Schijndel, M.W.; Van der Sluis, O.C.; De Vries, W.J.

    2009-06-01

    In the Netherlands, the number of locations where the European limit values for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations could be exceeded is lower than was estimated last year. The limit value for particulate matter, from 2011 onwards, is possibly be exceeded at only a few locations in the Netherlands, based on standing and proposed national and European policies. These locations are situated mainly in the Randstad area in the Netherlands, in the vicinity of motorways around the large cities, and close to stables in agricultural areas. The limit value for nitrogen dioxide, from 2015 onwards, is possibly to be exceeded along 100 kilometres of roads in cities and along 50 kilometres of motorways. Whether the limit values will actually be exceeded depends also on local policies and meteorological fluctuations. This estimate was based on large-scale concentration maps (called GCN maps) of air quality components, and on additional local contributions. The concentration maps provided the best possible estimate of large-scale air quality. The degree of uncertainty in local concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was estimated to be approximately 15 to 20%. This report presents the methods and emissions used for producing the GCN maps. It also shows the differences with respect to the maps of 2008. These maps are used by local, provincial and other authorities to define additional local measures. PBL would like to emphasise that uncertainties in the concentrations must be kept in mind when using these maps for planning, or when comparing concentrations with limit values. This also applies to the selecting of local measures to improve the air quality. The concentration maps are available online, at http://www. pbl.nl/gcn [nl

  2. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeh, Obinna, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  3. Large scale mapping of groundwater resources using a highly integrated set of tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Verner; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    large areas with information from an optimum number of new investigation boreholes, existing boreholes, logs and water samples to get an integrated and detailed description of the groundwater resources and their vulnerability.Development of more time efficient and airborne geophysical data acquisition...... platforms (e.g. SkyTEM) have made large-scale mapping attractive and affordable in the planning and administration of groundwater resources. The handling and optimized use of huge amounts of geophysical data covering large areas has also required a comprehensive database, where data can easily be stored...

  4. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  5. Maps on large-scale air quality concentrations in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Aben, J.M.M.; Beck, J.P.; Blom, W.F.; Van Dam, J.D.; Elzenga, H.E.; Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Hoen, A.; Jimmink, B.A.; Matthijsen, J.; Peek, C.J.; Van Velze, K.; Visser, H.; De Vries, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Every year MNP produces maps showing large-scale concentrations of several air quality components in the Netherlands for which there are European regulations. The concentration maps are based on a combination of model calculations and measurements. These maps (called GCN maps) show the large-scale contribution of these components in air in the Netherlands for both past and future years. Local, provincial and other authorities use these maps for reporting exceedances in the framework of the EU Air Quality Directive and for planning. The report gives the underlying assumptions applied to the GCN-maps in this 2007 report. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) is legally responsible for selecting the scenario to be used in the GCN maps. The Ministry has chosen to base the current maps of nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide for 2010 up to 2020 on standing and proposed Dutch and European policies. That means that the Netherlands and other European countries will meet their National Emissions Ceilings (NEC) by 2010 and the emissions according to the ambitions of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution of the European Commission up to 2020, as assumed in the calculations. The large-scale concentrations of NO2 and PM10, presented by the GCN maps, are in 2006 and for the 2010-2020 period, below the European limit value of yearly averaged 40 μg m 3 everywhere in the Netherlands. The large-scale concentration exceeds the European limit value for the daily average of PM10 of maximally 35 days above 50 μg m 3 in some locations in 2006. This applies close to the harbours of Amsterdam and Rotterdam and is associated with storage and handling of dry bulk material. The large-scale concentration of PM10 is below the European limit value for the daily average everywhere in 2010-2020. Several changes have been implemented, in addition to the changes in the GCN maps of last year (report March 2006). New insights into

  6. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  7. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Nageswara S; Carter, Steven M; Wu Qishi; Wing, William R; Zhu Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts

  8. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carter, Steven M [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wu Qishi [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wing, William R [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu Mengxia [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Blondin, John M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  9. Geospatial Augmented Reality for the interactive exploitation of large-scale walkable orthoimage maps in museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüest, Robert; Nebiker, Stephan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present an app framework for augmenting large-scale walkable maps and orthoimages in museums or public spaces using standard smartphones and tablets. We first introduce a novel approach for using huge orthoimage mosaic floor prints covering several hundred square meters as natural Augmented Reality (AR) markers. We then present a new app architecture and subsequent tests in the Swissarena of the Swiss National Transport Museum in Lucerne demonstrating the capabilities of accurately tracking and augmenting different map topics, including dynamic 3d data such as live air traffic. The resulting prototype was tested with everyday visitors of the museum to get feedback on the usability of the AR app and to identify pitfalls when using AR in the context of a potentially crowded museum. The prototype is to be rolled out to the public after successful testing and optimization of the app. We were able to show that AR apps on standard smartphone devices can dramatically enhance the interactive use of large-scale maps for different purposes such as education or serious gaming in a museum context.

  10. Large-Scale Mapping and Predictive Modeling of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in a Shallow Eutrophic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Havens

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatially intensive sampling program was developed for mapping the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV over an area of approximately 20,000 ha in a large, shallow lake in Florida, U.S. The sampling program integrates Geographic Information System (GIS technology with traditional field sampling of SAV and has the capability of producing robust vegetation maps under a wide range of conditions, including high turbidity, variable depth (0 to 2 m, and variable sediment types. Based on sampling carried out in AugustœSeptember 2000, we measured 1,050 to 4,300 ha of vascular SAV species and approximately 14,000 ha of the macroalga Chara spp. The results were similar to those reported in the early 1990s, when the last large-scale SAV sampling occurred. Occurrence of Chara was strongly associated with peat sediments, and maximal depths of occurrence varied between sediment types (mud, sand, rock, and peat. A simple model of Chara occurrence, based only on water depth, had an accuracy of 55%. It predicted occurrence of Chara over large areas where the plant actually was not found. A model based on sediment type and depth had an accuracy of 75% and produced a spatial map very similar to that based on observations. While this approach needs to be validated with independent data in order to test its general utility, we believe it may have application elsewhere. The simple modeling approach could serve as a coarse-scale tool for evaluating effects of water level management on Chara populations.

  11. Large-scale mapping and predictive modeling of submerged aquatic vegetation in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Karl E; Harwell, Matthew C; Brady, Mark A; Sharfstein, Bruce; East, Therese L; Rodusky, Andrew J; Anson, Daniel; Maki, Ryan P

    2002-04-09

    A spatially intensive sampling program was developed for mapping the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) over an area of approximately 20,000 ha in a large, shallow lake in Florida, U.S. The sampling program integrates Geographic Information System (GIS) technology with traditional field sampling of SAV and has the capability of producing robust vegetation maps under a wide range of conditions, including high turbidity, variable depth (0 to 2 m), and variable sediment types. Based on sampling carried out in August-September 2000, we measured 1,050 to 4,300 ha of vascular SAV species and approximately 14,000 ha of the macroalga Chara spp. The results were similar to those reported in the early 1990s, when the last large-scale SAV sampling occurred. Occurrence of Chara was strongly associated with peat sediments, and maximal depths of occurrence varied between sediment types (mud, sand, rock, and peat). A simple model of Chara occurrence, based only on water depth, had an accuracy of 55%. It predicted occurrence of Chara over large areas where the plant actually was not found. A model based on sediment type and depth had an accuracy of 75% and produced a spatial map very similar to that based on observations. While this approach needs to be validated with independent data in order to test its general utility, we believe it may have application elsewhere. The simple modeling approach could serve as a coarse-scale tool for evaluating effects of water level management on Chara populations.

  12. Mapping the distribution of the denitrifier community at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Bru, D.; Ramette, A.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 740 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  13. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, N; Ahmad, A; Zainon, O

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  14. Point contact tunneling spectroscopy apparatus for large scale mapping of surface superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.

  15. Superwind Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies? : Large-Scale Radio Maps of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.

    1995-03-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, radio synchrotron emission, and X-rays. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. We have begun a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyfert galaxies. In an earlier optical emission-line survey, we found extended minor axis emission and/or double-peaked emission line profiles in >~30% of the sample objects. We present here large-scale (6cm VLA C-config) radio maps of 11 edge-on Seyfert galaxies, selected (without bias) from a distance-limited sample of 23 edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurrence of superwinds. Preliminary results indicate that four (36%) of the 11 objects observed and six (26%) of the 23 objects in the distance-limited sample have extended radio emission oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. This emission may be produced by a galactic wind blowing out of the disk. Two (NGC 2992 and NGC 5506) of the nine objects for which we have both radio and optical data show good evidence for a galactic wind in both datasets. We suggest that galactic winds occur in >~30% of all Seyferts. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  16. Large Scale Textured Mesh Reconstruction from Mobile Mapping Images and LIDAR Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaha, M.; Vallet, B.; Rives, P.

    2018-05-01

    The representation of 3D geometric and photometric information of the real world is one of the most challenging and extensively studied research topics in the photogrammetry and robotics communities. In this paper, we present a fully automatic framework for 3D high quality large scale urban texture mapping using oriented images and LiDAR scans acquired by a terrestrial Mobile Mapping System (MMS). First, the acquired points and images are sliced into temporal chunks ensuring a reasonable size and time consistency between geometry (points) and photometry (images). Then, a simple, fast and scalable 3D surface reconstruction relying on the sensor space topology is performed on each chunk after an isotropic sampling of the point cloud obtained from the raw LiDAR scans. Finally, the algorithm proposed in (Waechter et al., 2014) is adapted to texture the reconstructed surface with the images acquired simultaneously, ensuring a high quality texture with no seams and global color adjustment. We evaluate our full pipeline on a dataset of 17 km of acquisition in Rouen, France resulting in nearly 2 billion points and 40000 full HD images. We are able to reconstruct and texture the whole acquisition in less than 30 computing hours, the entire process being highly parallel as each chunk can be processed independently in a separate thread or computer.

  17. LARGE SCALE TEXTURED MESH RECONSTRUCTION FROM MOBILE MAPPING IMAGES AND LIDAR SCANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boussaha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The representation of 3D geometric and photometric information of the real world is one of the most challenging and extensively studied research topics in the photogrammetry and robotics communities. In this paper, we present a fully automatic framework for 3D high quality large scale urban texture mapping using oriented images and LiDAR scans acquired by a terrestrial Mobile Mapping System (MMS. First, the acquired points and images are sliced into temporal chunks ensuring a reasonable size and time consistency between geometry (points and photometry (images. Then, a simple, fast and scalable 3D surface reconstruction relying on the sensor space topology is performed on each chunk after an isotropic sampling of the point cloud obtained from the raw LiDAR scans. Finally, the algorithm proposed in (Waechter et al., 2014 is adapted to texture the reconstructed surface with the images acquired simultaneously, ensuring a high quality texture with no seams and global color adjustment. We evaluate our full pipeline on a dataset of 17 km of acquisition in Rouen, France resulting in nearly 2 billion points and 40000 full HD images. We are able to reconstruct and texture the whole acquisition in less than 30 computing hours, the entire process being highly parallel as each chunk can be processed independently in a separate thread or computer.

  18. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.-C.; Charlet, J.M.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  19. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  20. Topographic mapping on large-scale tidal flats with an iterative approach on the waterline method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanyan; Ding, Xianrong; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Changkuan; Ge, Xiaoping

    2017-05-01

    Tidal flats, which are both a natural ecosystem and a type of landscape, are of significant importance to ecosystem function and land resource potential. Morphologic monitoring of tidal flats has become increasingly important with respect to achieving sustainable development targets. Remote sensing is an established technique for the measurement of topography over tidal flats; of the available methods, the waterline method is particularly effective for constructing a digital elevation model (DEM) of intertidal areas. However, application of the waterline method is more limited in large-scale, shifting tidal flats areas, where the tides are not synchronized and the waterline is not a quasi-contour line. For this study, a topographical map of the intertidal regions within the Radial Sand Ridges (RSR) along the Jiangsu Coast, China, was generated using an iterative approach on the waterline method. A series of 21 multi-temporal satellite images (18 HJ-1A/B CCD and three Landsat TM/OLI) of the RSR area collected at different water levels within a five month period (31 December 2013-28 May 2014) was used to extract waterlines based on feature extraction techniques and artificial further modification. These 'remotely-sensed waterlines' were combined with the corresponding water levels from the 'model waterlines' simulated by a hydrodynamic model with an initial generalized DEM of exposed tidal flats. Based on the 21 heighted 'remotely-sensed waterlines', a DEM was constructed using the ANUDEM interpolation method. Using this new DEM as the input data, it was re-entered into the hydrodynamic model, and a new round of water level assignment of waterlines was performed. A third and final output DEM was generated covering an area of approximately 1900 km2 of tidal flats in the RSR. The water level simulation accuracy of the hydrodynamic model was within 0.15 m based on five real-time tide stations, and the height accuracy (root mean square error) of the final DEM was 0.182 m

  1. Large-Scale Mixed Temperate Forest Mapping at the Single Tree Level using Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, V.; Morsdorf, F.; Ginzler, C.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation on a single tree level is critical to understand and model a variety of processes, functions, and changes in forest systems. Remote sensing technologies are increasingly utilized to complement and upscale the field-based measurements of forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) systems provide valuable information in the vertical dimension for effective vegetation structure mapping. Although many algorithms exist to extract single tree segments from forest scans, they are often tuned to perform well in homogeneous coniferous or deciduous areas and are not successful in mixed forests. Other methods are too computationally expensive to apply operationally. The aim of this study was to develop a single tree detection workflow using leaf-off ALS data for the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Aargau covers an area of over 1,400km2 and features mixed forests with various development stages and topography. Forest type was classified using random forests to guide local parameter selection. Canopy height model-based treetop maxima were detected and maintained based on the relationship between tree height and window size, used as a proxy to crown diameter. Watershed segmentation was used to generate crown polygons surrounding each maximum. The location, height, and crown dimensions of single trees were derived from the ALS returns within each polygon. Validation was performed through comparison with field measurements and extrapolated estimates from long-term monitoring plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory within the framework of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research. This method shows promise for robust, large-scale single tree detection in mixed forests. The single tree data will aid ecological studies as well as forest management practices. Figure description: Height-normalized ALS point cloud data (top) and resulting single tree segments (bottom) on the Laegeren mountain in Switzerland.

  2. An Automated Approach to Map Winter Cropped Area of Smallholder Farms across Large Scales Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale agricultural statistics are an important tool for understanding trends in food production and their associated drivers, yet these data are rarely collected in smallholder systems. These statistics are particularly important for smallholder systems given the large amount of fine-scale heterogeneity in production that occurs in these regions. To overcome the lack of ground data, satellite data are often used to map fine-scale agricultural statistics. However, doing so is challenging for smallholder systems because of (1 complex sub-pixel heterogeneity; (2 little to no available calibration data; and (3 high amounts of cloud cover as most smallholder systems occur in the tropics. We develop an automated method termed the MODIS Scaling Approach (MSA to map smallholder cropped area across large spatial and temporal scales using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite data. We use this method to map winter cropped area, a key measure of cropping intensity, across the Indian subcontinent annually from 2000–2001 to 2015–2016. The MSA defines a pixel as cropped based on winter growing season phenology and scales the percent of cropped area within a single MODIS pixel based on observed EVI values at peak phenology. We validated the result with eleven high-resolution scenes (spatial scale of 5 × 5 m2 or finer that we classified into cropped versus non-cropped maps using training data collected by visual inspection of the high-resolution imagery. The MSA had moderate to high accuracies when validated using these eleven scenes across India (R2 ranging between 0.19 and 0.89 with an overall R2 of 0.71 across all sites. This method requires no calibration data, making it easy to implement across large spatial and temporal scales, with 100% spatial coverage due to the compositing of EVI to generate cloud-free data sets. The accuracies found in this study are similar to those of other studies that map crop production using automated methods

  3. MapReduce Based Parallel Neural Networks in Enabling Large Scale Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely used in pattern recognition and classification applications. However, ANNs are notably slow in computation especially when the size of data is large. Nowadays, big data has received a momentum from both industry and academia. To fulfill the potentials of ANNs for big data applications, the computation process must be speeded up. For this purpose, this paper parallelizes neural networks based on MapReduce, which has become a major computing model to facilitate data intensive applications. Three data intensive scenarios are considered in the parallelization process in terms of the volume of classification data, the size of the training data, and the number of neurons in the neural network. The performance of the parallelized neural networks is evaluated in an experimental MapReduce computer cluster from the aspects of accuracy in classification and efficiency in computation.

  4. MapReduce Based Parallel Neural Networks in Enabling Large Scale Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jie; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Lixiong; Li, Siguang; Qi, Man

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in pattern recognition and classification applications. However, ANNs are notably slow in computation especially when the size of data is large. Nowadays, big data has received a momentum from both industry and academia. To fulfill the potentials of ANNs for big data applications, the computation process must be speeded up. For this purpose, this paper parallelizes neural networks based on MapReduce, which has become a major computing model to facilitate data intensive applications. Three data intensive scenarios are considered in the parallelization process in terms of the volume of classification data, the size of the training data, and the number of neurons in the neural network. The performance of the parallelized neural networks is evaluated in an experimental MapReduce computer cluster from the aspects of accuracy in classification and efficiency in computation.

  5. COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF TWO IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS FROM AERIAL PHOTOS WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR LARGE-SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widyaningrum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM and by Structure from Motion (SfM. In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  6. Generation of large-scale maps of science and associated indicators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past several years, techniques have been developed for clustering very large segments of the technical literature using sources such as Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index. The primary objective of this work has been to develop indicators of potential impact at the paper level to enhance planning and evaluation of research. These indicators can also be aggregated at different levels to enable profiling of departments, institutions, agencies, etc. Results of this work are presented as maps of science and technology with various overlays corresponding to the indicators associated with a particular search or question.

  7. LYα FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: lee@mpia.de [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ∼ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ∼2 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ≤ z ≤ 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup –1} Mpc × 14 h {sup –1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup –1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h {sup –1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ∼Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ≳ 10 h {sup –1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ∼1000 SFGs over ∼1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ∼ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup –1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  8. Technique for large-scale structural mapping at uranium deposits i in non-metamorphosed sedimentary cover rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochkin, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    The technique for large-scale construction (1:1000 - 1:10000), reflecting small amplitude fracture plicate structures, is given for uranium deposits in non-metamorphozed sedimentary cover rocks. Structure drill log sections, as well as a set of maps with the results of area analysis of hidden disturbances, structural analysis of iso-pachous lines and facies of platform mantle horizons serve as sour ce materials for structural mapplotting. The steps of structural map construction are considered: 1) structural carcass construction; 2) reconstruction of structure contour; 3) time determination of structure initiation; 4) plotting of an additional geologic load

  9. LARGE-SCALE CO MAPS OF THE LUPUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothill, N. F. H.; Loehr, A.; Stark, A. A.; Lane, A. P.; Harnett, J. I.; Bourke, T. L.; Myers, P. C.; Parshley, S. C.; Wright, G. A.; Walker, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Fully sampled degree-scale maps of the 13 CO 2-1 and CO 4-3 transitions toward three members of the Lupus Molecular Cloud Complex-Lupus I, III, and IV-trace the column density and temperature of the molecular gas. Comparison with IR extinction maps from the c2d project requires most of the gas to have a temperature of 8-10 K. Estimates of the cloud mass from 13 CO emission are roughly consistent with most previous estimates, while the line widths are higher, around 2 km s -1 . CO 4-3 emission is found throughout Lupus I, indicating widespread dense gas, and toward Lupus III and IV. Enhanced line widths at the NW end and along the edge of the B 228 ridge in Lupus I, and a coherent velocity gradient across the ridge, are consistent with interaction between the molecular cloud and an expanding H I shell from the Upper-Scorpius subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Lupus III is dominated by the effects of two HAe/Be stars, and shows no sign of external influence. Slightly warmer gas around the core of Lupus IV and a low line width suggest heating by the Upper-Centaurus-Lupus subgroup of Sco-Cen, without the effects of an H I shell.

  10. The topology of large-scale structure. V - Two-dimensional topology of sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. R., III; Mao, Shude; Park, Changbom; Lahav, Ofer

    1992-01-01

    A 2D algorithm is applied to observed sky maps and numerical simulations. It is found that when topology is studied on smoothing scales larger than the correlation length, the topology is approximately in agreement with the random phase formula for the 2D genus-threshold density relation, G2(nu) varies as nu(e) exp-nu-squared/2. Some samples show small 'meatball shifts' similar to those seen in corresponding 3D observational samples and similar to those produced by biasing in cold dark matter simulations. The observational results are thus consistent with the standard model in which the structure in the universe today has grown from small fluctuations caused by random quantum noise in the early universe.

  11. Challenges and opportunities : One stop processing of automatic large-scale base map production using airborne lidar data within gis environment case study: Makassar City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR data acquisition is recognized as one of the fastest solutions to provide basis data for large-scale topographical base maps worldwide. Automatic LiDAR processing is believed one possible scheme to accelerate the large-scale topographic base map provision by the Geospatial Information

  12. Fast and accurate approaches for large-scale, automated mapping of food diaries on food composition tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamarine, Marc; Hager, Jörg; Saris, Wim H M

    2018-01-01

    the EuroFIR resource. Two approaches were tested: the first was based solely on food name similarity (fuzzy matching). The second used a machine learning approach (C5.0 classifier) combining both fuzzy matching and food energy. We tested mapping food items using their original names and also an English...... not lead to any improvements compared to the fuzzy matching. However, it could increase substantially the recall rate for food items without any clear equivalent in the FCTs (+7 and +20% when mapping items using their original or English-translated names). Our approaches have been implemented as R packages...... and are freely available from GitHub. Conclusion: This study is the first to provide automated approaches for large-scale food item mapping onto FCTs. We demonstrate that both high precision and recall can be achieved. Our solutions can be used with any FCT and do not require any programming background...

  13. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their...

  14. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their...

  15. Multimodal Sensor-Based Semantic 3D Mapping for a Large-Scale Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jongmin; Yoon, Tae Sung; Park, Jin Bae

    2018-01-01

    Semantic 3D mapping is one of the most important fields in robotics, and has been used in many applications, such as robot navigation, surveillance, and virtual reality. In general, semantic 3D mapping is mainly composed of 3D reconstruction and semantic segmentation. As these technologies evolve, there has been great progress in semantic 3D mapping in recent years. Furthermore, the number of robotic applications requiring semantic information in 3D mapping to perform high-level tasks has inc...

  16. A New, Large-scale Map of Interstellar Reddening Derived from H I Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Hensley, Brandon S.; Doré, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    We present a new map of interstellar reddening, covering the 39% of the sky with low H I column densities ({N}{{H}{{I}}}Peek and Graves based on observed reddening toward passive galaxies. We therefore argue that our H I-based map provides the most accurate interstellar reddening estimates in the low-column-density regime to date. Our reddening map is made publicly available at doi.org/10.7910/DVN/AFJNWJ.

  17. Large-Scale Brain Simulation and Disorders of Consciousness. Mapping Technical and Conceptual Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain’s operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate the plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs, e.g., Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State. Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  18. The Arundel Assumption And Revision Of Some Large-Scale Maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rather common practice of stating or using the Arundel Assumption without reference to appropriate mapping standards (except mention of its use for graphical plotting) is a major cause of inaccuracies in map revision. This paper describes an investigation to ascertain the applicability of the Assumption to the revision of ...

  19. Fast and Accurate Approaches for Large-Scale, Automated Mapping of Food Diaries on Food Composition Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lamarine

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: The use of weighed food diaries in nutritional studies provides a powerful method to quantify food and nutrient intakes. Yet, mapping these records onto food composition tables (FCTs is a challenging, time-consuming and error-prone process. Experts make this effort manually and no automation has been previously proposed. Our study aimed to assess automated approaches to map food items onto FCTs.Methods: We used food diaries (~170,000 records pertaining to 4,200 unique food items from the DiOGenes randomized clinical trial. We attempted to map these items onto six FCTs available from the EuroFIR resource. Two approaches were tested: the first was based solely on food name similarity (fuzzy matching. The second used a machine learning approach (C5.0 classifier combining both fuzzy matching and food energy. We tested mapping food items using their original names and also an English-translation. Top matching pairs were reviewed manually to derive performance metrics: precision (the percentage of correctly mapped items and recall (percentage of mapped items.Results: The simpler approach: fuzzy matching, provided very good performance. Under a relaxed threshold (score > 50%, this approach enabled to remap 99.49% of the items with a precision of 88.75%. With a slightly more stringent threshold (score > 63%, the precision could be significantly improved to 96.81% while keeping a recall rate > 95% (i.e., only 5% of the queried items would not be mapped. The machine learning approach did not lead to any improvements compared to the fuzzy matching. However, it could increase substantially the recall rate for food items without any clear equivalent in the FCTs (+7 and +20% when mapping items using their original or English-translated names. Our approaches have been implemented as R packages and are freely available from GitHub.Conclusion: This study is the first to provide automated approaches for large-scale food item mapping onto FCTs. We

  20. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  1. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıza Adalı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

  2. Towards large-scale mapping of urban three-dimensional structure using Landsat imagery and global elevation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of buildings and infrastructures is fundamental to understanding and modelling of the impacts and challenges of urbanization in terms of energy use, carbon emissions, and earthquake vulnerabilities. However, spatially detailed maps of urban 3D structure have been scarce, particularly in fast-changing developing countries. We present here a novel methodology to map the volume of buildings and infrastructures at 30 meter resolution using a synergy of Landsat imagery and openly available global digital surface models (DSMs), including the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM), ALOS World 3D - 30m (AW3D30), and the recently released global DSM from the TanDEM-X mission. Our method builds on the concept of object-based height profile to extract height metrics from the DSMs and use a machine learning algorithm to predict height and volume from the height metrics. We have tested this algorithm in the entire England and assessed our result using Lidar measurements in 25 England cities. Our initial assessments achieved a RMSE of 1.4 m (R2 = 0.72) for building height and a RMSE of 1208.7 m3 (R2 = 0.69) for building volume, demonstrating the potential of large-scale applications and fully automated mapping of urban structure.

  3. Large Scale Topographic Maps Generalisation and Visualization Based on New Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, Ilma; Ključanin, Slobodanka; Poslončec-Petrić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Integrating spatial data from different sources results in visualization which is the last step in the process of digital basic topographic maps creation. Sources used for visualization are existing real estate cadastre database orthophoto plans and digital terrain models. Analogue cadastre plans were scanned and georeferenced according to existing regulations and used for toponyms. Visualization of topologically inspected geometric primitives was performed based on the ''Collection of cartog...

  4. destiny: diffusion maps for large-scale single-cell data in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Philipp; Haghverdi, Laleh; Büttner, Maren; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten; Buettner, Florian

    2016-04-15

    : Diffusion maps are a spectral method for non-linear dimension reduction and have recently been adapted for the visualization of single-cell expression data. Here we present destiny, an efficient R implementation of the diffusion map algorithm. Our package includes a single-cell specific noise model allowing for missing and censored values. In contrast to previous implementations, we further present an efficient nearest-neighbour approximation that allows for the processing of hundreds of thousands of cells and a functionality for projecting new data on existing diffusion maps. We exemplarily apply destiny to a recent time-resolved mass cytometry dataset of cellular reprogramming. destiny is an open-source R/Bioconductor package "bioconductor.org/packages/destiny" also available at www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/icb/destiny A detailed vignette describing functions and workflows is provided with the package. carsten.marr@helmholtz-muenchen.de or f.buettner@helmholtz-muenchen.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Large-Scale Mapping of Carbon Stocks in Riparian Forests with Self-Organizing Maps and the k-Nearest-Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard Suchenwirth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the machine learning tools being used in recent years for environmental applications such as forestry, self-organizing maps (SOM and the k-nearest neighbor (kNN algorithm have been used successfully. We applied both methods for the mapping of organic carbon (Corg in riparian forests due to their considerably high carbon storage capacity. Despite the importance of floodplains for carbon sequestration, a sufficient scientific foundation for creating large-scale maps showing the spatial Corg distribution is still missing. We estimated organic carbon in a test site in the Danube Floodplain based on RapidEye remote sensing data and additional geodata. Accordingly, carbon distribution maps of vegetation, soil, and total Corg stocks were derived. Results were compared and statistically evaluated with terrestrial survey data for outcomes with pure remote sensing data and for the combination with additional geodata using bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. Results show that SOM and kNN approaches enable us to reproduce spatial patterns of riparian forest Corg stocks. While vegetation Corg has very high RMSEs, outcomes for soil and total Corg stocks are less biased with a lower RMSE, especially when remote sensing and additional geodata are conjointly applied. SOMs show similar percentages of RMSE to kNN estimations.

  6. Large scale mapping: an empirical comparison of pixel-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Innocent E. Bello

    model of any part of the earth surface on a projected plane or medium in 2D or ..... segmentation following rule set (brightness/colour and shape) and scale ... vegetation or Agric (light green) and (v) Water (blue) were visualized appropriately.

  7. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  8. Distribution of circular proteins in plants: large-scale mapping of cyclotides in the Violaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBurman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade there has been increasing interest in small circular proteins found in plants of the violet family (Violaceae. These so-called cyclotides consist of a circular chain of approximately 30 amino acids, including six cysteines forming three disulfide bonds, arranged in a cyclic cystine knot motif. In this study we map the occurrence and distribution of cyclotides throughout the Violaceae. Plant material was obtained from herbarium sheets containing samples up to 200 years of age. Even the oldest specimens contained cyclotides in the preserved leaves, with no degradation products observable, confirming their place as one of the most stable proteins in nature. Over 200 samples covering 17 of the 23 genera in Violaceae were analysed, and cyclotides were positively identified in 150 species. Each species contained a unique set of between one and 25 cyclotides, with many exclusive to individual species. We estimate the number of different cyclotides in the Violaceae to be 5,000-25,000, and propose that cyclotides are ubiquitous among all Violaceae species. Twelve new cyclotides from eight phylogenetically dispersed genera were sequenced. Furthermore, the first glycosylated derivatives of cyclotides were identified and characterized, further increasing the diversity and complexity of this unique protein family.

  9. Comprehensive comparison of two image-based point clouds from aerial photos with airborne lidar for large-scale mapping : Door detection to envelope reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and

  10. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  11. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

    2014-03-13

    The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000-2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives might be needed.

  12. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). Methods On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000–2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. Results A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. Conclusions A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives

  13. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogoro Fujiki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+ requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs, each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS. Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to

  14. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  15. The Helix Nebula Viewed in HCO+: Large-scale Mapping of the J = 1 → 0 Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, N. R.; Zack, L. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    The J = 1 → 0 transition of HCO+ at 89 GHz has been mapped across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) with 70'' spatial resolution (1.68 km s-1 velocity resolution) using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 m telescope. This work is the first large-scale mapping project of a dense gas tracer (n(H2) ~ 105 cm-3) in old planetary nebulae. Observations of over 200 positions encompassing the classical optical image were conducted with a 3σ noise level of ~20 mK. HCO+ was detected at most positions, often exhibiting multiple velocity components indicative of complex kinematic structures in dense gas. The HCO+ spectra suggest that the Helix is composed of a bipolar, barrel-like structure with red- and blue-shifted halves, symmetric with respect to the central star and oriented ~10° east from the line of sight. A second bipolar, higher velocity outflow exists as well, situated along the direction of the Helix "plumes." The column density of HCO+ across the Helix is N tot ~ 1.5 × 1010-5.0 × 1011 cm-2, with an average value N ave ~ 1 × 1011 cm-2, corresponding to an abundance, relative to H2, of f ~ 1.4 × 10-8. This value is similar to that observed in young PN, and contradicts chemical models, which predict that the abundance of HCO+ decreases with nebular age. This study indicates that polyatomic molecules readily survive the ultraviolet field of the central white dwarf, and can be useful in tracing nebular morphology in the very late stages of stellar evolution.

  16. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE MAPPING WITH AN OMNIDIRECTIONAL CAMERA MOUNTED ON A VEHICLE TOWARDS LARGE SCALE 3D CITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today high resolution panoramic images with competitive quality have been widely used for rendering in some commercial systems. However the potential applications such as mapping, augmented reality and modelling which need accurate orientation information are still poorly studied. Urban models can be quickly obtained from aerial images or LIDAR, however with limited quality or efficiency due to low resolution textures and manual texture mapping work flow. We combine an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF with the traditional Structure from Motion (SFM method without any prior information based on a general camera model which can handle various kinds of omnidirectional and other kind of single perspective image sequences even with unconnected or weakly connected frames. The orientation results is then applied to mapping the textures from panoramas to the existing building models obtained from aerial photogrammetry. It turns out to largely improve the quality of the models and the efficiency of the modelling procedure.

  17. A design of irregular grid map for large-scale Wi-Fi LAN fingerprint positioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Min, Kyoung Sik; Yeo, Woon-Young

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of mobile communication and the proliferation of smartphones have drawn significant attention to location-based services (LBSs). One of the most important factors in the vitalization of LBSs is the accurate position estimation of a mobile device. The Wi-Fi positioning system (WPS) is a new positioning method that measures received signal strength indication (RSSI) data from all Wi-Fi access points (APs) and stores them in a large database as a form of radio fingerprint map. Because of the millions of APs in urban areas, radio fingerprints are seriously contaminated and confused. Moreover, the algorithmic advances for positioning face computational limitation. Therefore, we present a novel irregular grid structure and data analytics for efficient fingerprint map management. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is presented using the actual radio fingerprint measurements taken throughout Seoul, Korea.

  18. A Design of Irregular Grid Map for Large-Scale Wi-Fi LAN Fingerprint Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of mobile communication and the proliferation of smartphones have drawn significant attention to location-based services (LBSs. One of the most important factors in the vitalization of LBSs is the accurate position estimation of a mobile device. The Wi-Fi positioning system (WPS is a new positioning method that measures received signal strength indication (RSSI data from all Wi-Fi access points (APs and stores them in a large database as a form of radio fingerprint map. Because of the millions of APs in urban areas, radio fingerprints are seriously contaminated and confused. Moreover, the algorithmic advances for positioning face computational limitation. Therefore, we present a novel irregular grid structure and data analytics for efficient fingerprint map management. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is presented using the actual radio fingerprint measurements taken throughout Seoul, Korea.

  19. Using interpreted large scale aerial photo data to enhance satellite-based mapping and explore forest land definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2009-01-01

    The Interior-West, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), Nevada Photo-Based Inventory Pilot (NPIP), launched in 2004, involved acquisition, processing, and interpretation of large scale aerial photographs on a subset of FIA plots (both forest and nonforest) throughout the state of Nevada. Two objectives of the pilot were to use the interpreted photo data to enhance...

  20. Stormbow: A Cloud-Based Tool for Reads Mapping and Expression Quantification in Large-Scale RNA-Seq Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanrong; Prenger, Kurt; Smith, Lance

    2013-01-01

    RNA-Seq is becoming a promising replacement to microarrays in transcriptome profiling and differential gene expression study. Technical improvements have decreased sequencing costs and, as a result, the size and number of RNA-Seq datasets have increased rapidly. However, the increasing volume of data from large-scale RNA-Seq studies poses a practical challenge for data analysis in a local environment. To meet this challenge, we developed Stormbow, a cloud-based software package, to process large volumes of RNA-Seq data in parallel. The performance of Stormbow has been tested by practically applying it to analyse 178 RNA-Seq samples in the cloud. In our test, it took 6 to 8 hours to process an RNA-Seq sample with 100 million reads, and the average cost was $3.50 per sample. Utilizing Amazon Web Services as the infrastructure for Stormbow allows us to easily scale up to handle large datasets with on-demand computational resources. Stormbow is a scalable, cost effective, and open-source based tool for large-scale RNA-Seq data analysis. Stormbow can be freely downloaded and can be used out of box to process Illumina RNA-Seq datasets.

  1. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  2. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  3. Mapping change in large networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Change is a fundamental ingredient of interaction patterns in biology, technology, the economy, and science itself: Interactions within and between organisms change; transportation patterns by air, land, and sea all change; the global financial flow changes; and the frontiers of scientific research change. Networks and clustering methods have become important tools to comprehend instances of these large-scale structures, but without methods to distinguish between real trends and noisy data, these approaches are not useful for studying how networks change. Only if we can assign significance to the partitioning of single networks can we distinguish meaningful structural changes from random fluctuations. Here we show that bootstrap resampling accompanied by significance clustering provides a solution to this problem. To connect changing structures with the changing function of networks, we highlight and summarize the significant structural changes with alluvial diagrams and realize de Solla Price's vision of mapping change in science: studying the citation pattern between about 7000 scientific journals over the past decade, we find that neuroscience has transformed from an interdisciplinary specialty to a mature and stand-alone discipline.

  4. New generation pharmacogenomic tools: a SNP linkage disequilibrium Map, validated SNP assay resource, and high-throughput instrumentation system for large-scale genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A

    2002-06-01

    Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries.

  5. A simple algorithm for large-scale mapping of evergreen forests in tropical America, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Chandrashekhar M. Biradar; Christina Czarnecki; Tunrayo Alabi; Michael Keller

    2009-01-01

    The areal extent and spatial distribution of evergreen forests in the tropical zones are important for the study of climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. However, frequent cloud cover in the tropical regions makes mapping evergreen forests a challenging task. In this study we developed a simple and novel mapping algorithm that is based on the temporal profile...

  6. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S de Vries

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8, the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.

  7. Large-scale development of SSR markers in tobacco and construction of a linkage map in flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhijun; Xiao, Bingguang; Jiao, Fangchan; Fang, Dunhuang; Zeng, Jianmin; Wu, Xingfu; Chen, Xuejun; Yang, Jiankang; Li, Yongping

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), particularly flue-cured tobacco, is one of the most economically important nonfood crops and is also an important model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available for genome analysis, genetic mapping, and breeding. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are one of the most widely-used molecular markers, having significant advantages including that they are generally co-dominant, easy to use, abundant in eukaryotic organisms, and produce highly reproducible results. In this study, based on the genome sequence data of flue-cured tobacco (K326), we developed a total of 13,645 mostly novel SSR markers, which were working in a set of eighteen tobacco varieties of four different types. A mapping population of 213 backcross (BC1) individuals, which were derived from an intra-type cross between two flue-cured tobacco varieties, Y3 and K326, was selected for mapping. Based on the newly developed SSR markers as well as published SSR markers, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 626 SSR loci distributed across 24 linkage groups and covering a total length of 1120.45 cM with an average distance of 1.79 cM between adjacent markers, which is the highest density map of flue-cured tobacco till date.

  8. Assessment of the effects and limitations of the 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map using a large population-based dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS are commonly used to quantify injury severities in trauma registries. To reflect contemporary trauma management and treatment, the most recent version of the AIS (AIS08 contains many codes which differ in severity from their equivalents in the earlier 1998 version (AIS98. Consequently, the adoption of AIS08 may impede comparisons between data coded using different AIS versions. It may also affect the number of patients classified as major trauma. Methods The entire AIS98-coded injury dataset of a large population based trauma registry was retrieved and mapped to AIS08 using the currently available AIS98-AIS08 dictionary map. The percentage of codes which had increased or decreased in severity, or could not be mapped, was examined in conjunction with the effect of these changes to the calculated ISS. The potential for free text information accompanying AIS coding to improve the quality of AIS mapping was explored. Results A total of 128280 AIS98-coded injuries were evaluated in 32134 patients, 15471 patients of whom were classified as major trauma. Although only 4.5% of dictionary codes decreased in severity from AIS98 to AIS08, this represented almost 13% of injuries in the registry. In 4.9% of patients, no injuries could be mapped. ISS was potentially unreliable in one-third of patients, as they had at least one AIS98 code which could not be mapped. Using AIS08, the number of patients classified as major trauma decreased by between 17.3% and 30.3%. Evaluation of free text descriptions for some injuries demonstrated the potential to improve mapping between AIS versions. Conclusions Converting AIS98-coded data to AIS08 results in a significant decrease in the number of patients classified as major trauma. Many AIS98 codes are missing from the

  9. Large-scale concentration and deposition maps for the Netherlands. Report on 2012; Grootschalige concentratie- en depositiekaarten Nederland. Rapportage 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Aben, J.M.M.; Jimmink, B.A.; Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Van der Swaluw, E.; De Vries, W.J.; Wesseling, J.; Van Zanten, M.C.

    2012-06-15

    RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) presents new concentration maps for the Netherlands, for eight air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter, for the period up to 2030. New deposition maps for nitrogen are also presented. These maps are produced annually and show a combined image of the air quality and level of deposition in the Netherlands. They are used in the national air quality collaboration programme (NSL) and in the programmatic approach to nitrogen (PAS) of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation. The maps are based both on measurements and model calculations. They have legal status and are considered a touchstone for new infrastructural projects [Dutch] Het RIVM presenteert de nieuwe kaarten waarin de concentraties van acht luchtverontreinigende stoffen (onder andere stikstofdioxide en fijn stof) in Nederland tot 2030 staan weergegeven. Hetzelfde geldt voor de mate waarin stikstof op de bodem neerslaat. Deze kaarten worden jaarlijks gemaakt en geven een beeld van de luchtkwaliteit en de neerslag van stikstof op de bodem in Nederland. Ze worden gebruikt in het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) en de Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof (PAS) van de ministeries van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) en Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI). De kaarten hebben een wettelijke status en gelden als toetssteen voor ruimtelijke ordeningsplannen. Ze zijn gemaakt op basis van metingen en modelberekeningen.

  10. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In...

  11. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  12. Preduction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Mechergui, Srinivas Sanikommu UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (#28138) Outline • Motivation ...Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (#28138) Motivation /NRMM • Mobility measures include: – Speed-made...Index (CI). – Terrain uphill grade. • Rest of the terrain parameters will be considered in future work. 4 Terrain map (22 km x 22 km) colored by

  13. Neurocognitive stages of spatial cognitive mapping measured during free exploration of a large-scale virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Kaestner, Erik; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Using a novel, fully mobile virtual reality paradigm, we investigated the EEG correlates of spatial representations formed during unsupervised exploration. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects by exploring a room and popping bubbles that hid the objects. On day 2, they again popped bubbles in the same environment. In most cases, the objects hidden underneath the bubbles were in the same place as on day 1. However, a varying third of them were misplaced in each block. Subjects indicated their certainty that the object was in the same location as the day before. Compared with bubble pops revealing correctly placed objects, bubble pops revealing misplaced objects evoked a decreased negativity starting at 145 ms, with scalp topography consistent with generation in medial parietal cortex. There was also an increased negativity starting at 515 ms to misplaced objects, with scalp topography consistent with generation in inferior temporal cortex. Additionally, misplaced objects elicited an increase in frontal midline theta power. These findings suggest that the successive neurocognitive stages of processing allocentric space may include an initial template matching, integration of the object within its spatial cognitive map, and memory recall, analogous to the processing negativity N400 and theta that support verbal cognitive maps in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  15. a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.

  16. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    -current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been......An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct...

  17. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Seafloor mapping of large areas using multibeam system - Indian experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A; Ramprasad, T.

    averaged and merged to produce large area maps. Maps were generated in the scale of 1 mil. and 1.5 mil covering area of about 2 mil. sq.km in single map. Also, depth contour interval were generated. A computer program was developed to convert the depth data...

  19. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  20. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  1. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate E.; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a thin, liquefied

  2. Large Spatial Scale Ground Displacement Mapping through the P-SBAS Processing of Sentinel-1 Data on a Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, F.; Bonano, M.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Zinno, I.

    2017-12-01

    Since its launch in 2014, the Sentinel-1 (S1) constellation has played a key role on SAR data availability and dissemination all over the World. Indeed, the free and open access data policy adopted by the European Copernicus program together with the global coverage acquisition strategy, make the Sentinel constellation as a game changer in the Earth Observation scenario. Being the SAR data become ubiquitous, the technological and scientific challenge is focused on maximizing the exploitation of such huge data flow. In this direction, the use of innovative processing algorithms and distributed computing infrastructures, such as the Cloud Computing platforms, can play a crucial role. In this work we present a Cloud Computing solution for the advanced interferometric (DInSAR) processing chain based on the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, aimed at processing S1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) data for the generation of large spatial scale deformation time series in efficient, automatic and systematic way. Such a DInSAR chain ingests Sentinel 1 SLC images and carries out several processing steps, to finally compute deformation time series and mean deformation velocity maps. Different parallel strategies have been designed ad hoc for each processing step of the P-SBAS S1 chain, encompassing both multi-core and multi-node programming techniques, in order to maximize the computational efficiency achieved within a Cloud Computing environment and cut down the relevant processing times. The presented P-SBAS S1 processing chain has been implemented on the Amazon Web Services platform and a thorough analysis of the attained parallel performances has been performed to identify and overcome the major bottlenecks to the scalability. The presented approach is used to perform national-scale DInSAR analyses over Italy, involving the processing of more than 3000 S1 IWS images acquired from both ascending and descending orbits. Such an experiment confirms the big advantage of

  3. Generation of large-scale forest height and disturbance maps through the fusion of NISAR and GEDI along with TanDEM-X/L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y.; Treuhaft, R. N.; Siqueira, P.; Torbick, N.; Lucas, R.; Keller, M. M.; Schmidt, M.; Ducey, M. J.; Salas, W.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale products of forest height and disturbance are essential for understanding the global carbon distribution as well as its changes in response to natural events and human activities. Regarding this scientific need, both NASA's GEDI and NASA-ISRO's NISAR are going to be launched in the 2018-2021 timeframe in parallel with DLR's current TanDEM-X and/or the proposed TanDEM-L, which provides a lot of potential for global ecosystem mapping. A new simple and efficient method of forest height mapping has been developed for combining spaceborne repeat-pass InSAR and lidar missions (e.g. NISAR and GEDI) which estimates temporal decorrelation parameters of repeat-pass InSAR and uses the lidar data as training samples. An open-access Python-based software has been developed for automated processing. As a result, a mosaic of forest height was generated for US states of Maine and New Hampshire (11.6 million ha) using JAXA's ALOS-1 and ALOS-2 HV-pol InSAR data and a small piece of lidar training samples (44,000 ha) with the height estimates validated against airborne lidar and field inventory data over both flat and mountainous areas. In addition, through estimating and correcting for the temporal decorrelation effects in the spaceborne repeat-pass InSAR coherence data and also utilizing the spaceborne single-pass InSAR phase data, forest disturbance such as selective logging is not only detected but also quantified in subtropical forests of Australia using ALOS-1 HH-pol InSAR data (validated against NASA's Landsat), as well as in tropics of Brazil using TanDEM-X and ALOS-2 HH-pol InSAR data (validated against field inventory data). The operational simplicity and efficiency make these methods a potential observing/processing prototype for the fusion of NISAR, GEDI and TanDEM-X/L.

  4. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  5. Gravitation on large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, E.

    A sample of dwarf and spiral galaxies with extended rotation curves is analysed, assuming that the fraction of dark matter is small. The objective of the paper is to prepare a framework for a theory, based on fundamental principles, that would give fits of the same quality as the phenomenology of dark halos. The following results are obtained: 1) The geodesics of massive systems with low density (Class I galaxies) can be described by the metric ds^2 = b^{-1}(r)dr^2 - b(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + gamma_f M^{1/2}) In this expression Gamma_f is a new fundamental constant which has been deduced from rotation curves of galaxies with circular velocity V_c^2 >= 2 {{GM} over r} for all r 2) The above metric is deduced from the conformal invariant metric ds^2 = B^{-1}(r)dr^2 - B(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where B(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + Gamma_f M^{1/2} + {1 over 3} {Gamma_f^2 over G}r) through a linear transform, u, of the linear special group SL(2, R) 3) The term {2 over c^2}Gamma_f M^{1/2} accounts for the difference between the observed rotation velocity and the Newtonian velocity. The term {2 over {3c^2}}{Gamma_f^2 over G}r is interpreted as a scale invariance between systems of different masses and sizes. 4) The metric B is a vacuum solution around a mass M deduced from the least action principle applied to the unique action I_a = -2 a int (-g)^{1/2} [R_{mu kappa}R^{ mu kappa} - 1/3(Ralphaalpha)^2] dx^4 built with the conformal Weyl tensor 5) For galaxies such that there is a radius, r_0, at which {{GM} over r_0} = Gamma M^{1/2} (Class II), the term Gamma M^{1/2} might be confined by the Newtonian potential yielding stationary solutions. 6) The analysed rotation curves of Class II galaxies are indeed well described with metrics of the form b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + (n + 1) Gamma_0 M^{1/2}) where n is an integer and Gamma_0 = {1 over the square root of 3}Gamma_f 7) The effective potential is determined and

  6. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  7. Map Archive Mining: Visual-Analytical Approaches to Explore Large Historical Map Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Uhl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical maps are unique sources of retrospective geographical information. Recently, several map archives containing map series covering large spatial and temporal extents have been systematically scanned and made available to the public. The geographical information contained in such data archives makes it possible to extend geospatial analysis retrospectively beyond the era of digital cartography. However, given the large data volumes of such archives (e.g., more than 200,000 map sheets in the United States Geological Survey topographic map archive and the low graphical quality of older, manually-produced map sheets, the process to extract geographical information from these map archives needs to be automated to the highest degree possible. To understand the potential challenges (e.g., salient map characteristics and data quality variations in automating large-scale information extraction tasks for map archives, it is useful to efficiently assess spatio-temporal coverage, approximate map content, and spatial accuracy of georeferenced map sheets at different map scales. Such preliminary analytical steps are often neglected or ignored in the map processing literature but represent critical phases that lay the foundation for any subsequent computational processes including recognition. Exemplified for the United States Geological Survey topographic map and the Sanborn fire insurance map archives, we demonstrate how such preliminary analyses can be systematically conducted using traditional analytical and cartographic techniques, as well as visual-analytical data mining tools originating from machine learning and data science.

  8. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  9. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  10. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  11. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  12. Planck intermediate results: XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete end-to-end simulat...

  13. Large-area mapping of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jennings, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The age of discovery, description, and classification of biodiversity is entering a new phase. In responding to the conservation imperative, we can now supplement the essential work of systematics with spatially explicit information on species and assemblages of species. This is possible because of recent conceptual, technical, and organizational progress in generating synoptic views of the earth's surface and a great deal of its biological content, at multiple scales of thematic as well as geographic resolution. The development of extensive spatial data on species distributions and vegetation types provides us with a framework for: (a) assessing what we know and where we know it at meso-scales, and (b) stratifying the biological universe so that higher-resolution surveys can be more efficiently implemented, coveting, for example, geographic adequacy of specimen collections, population abundance, reproductive success, and genetic dynamics. The land areas involved are very large, and the questions, such as resolution, scale, classification, and accuracy, are complex. In this paper, we provide examples from the United States Gap Analysis Program on the advantages and limitations of mapping the occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate species and dominant land-cover types over large areas as joint ventures and in multi-organizational partnerships, and how these cooperative efforts can be designed to implement results from data development and analyses as on-the-ground actions. Clearly, new frameworks for thinking about biogeographic information as well as organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The Gap Analysis experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  14. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  15. Bottom-Up Accountability Initiatives and Large-Scale Land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    fuel/energy, climate, and finance has occurred and one of the most ... this wave of large-scale land acquisitions. In fact, esti- ... Environmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth,. Nigeria ... map the differentiated impacts (gender, ethnicity,.

  16. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  17. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region

  18. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-12-14

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region.

  19. Large scale cross hole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.K.; Black, J.H.; Doe, T.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological properties of the major hydrogeological features. The SCV block is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is not smoothed out even over scales of hundreds of meters. Results of the interpretation validate the hypothesis of the major fracture zones, A, B and H; not much evidence of minor fracture zones is found. The uncertainty in the flow path, through the fractured rock, causes sever problems in interpretation. Derived values of hydraulic conductivity were found to be in a narrow range of two to three orders of magnitude. Test design did not allow fracture zones to be tested individually. This could be improved by testing the high hydraulic conductivity regions specifically. The Piezomac and single hole equipment worked well. Few, if any, of the tests ran long enough to approach equilibrium. Many observation boreholes showed no response. This could either be because there is no hydraulic connection, or there is a connection but a response is not seen within the time scale of the pumping test. The fractional dimension analysis yielded credible results, and the sinusoidal testing procedure provided an effective means of identifying the dominant hydraulic connections. (10 refs.) (au)

  20. Quantitative Mapping of Large Area Graphene Conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present quantitative mapping of large area graphene conductance by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four point probe. We observe a clear correlation between the techniques and identify the observed systematic differences to be directly related to imperfections of the graphene sheet...

  1. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  2. Conference on Large Scale Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, D; Pardalos, P

    1994-01-01

    On February 15-17, 1993, a conference on Large Scale Optimization, hosted by the Center for Applied Optimization, was held at the University of Florida. The con­ ference was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Army Research Office, and the University of Florida, with endorsements from SIAM, MPS, ORSA and IMACS. Forty one invited speakers presented papers on mathematical program­ ming and optimal control topics with an emphasis on algorithm development, real world applications and numerical results. Participants from Canada, Japan, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark gave the meeting an important international component. At­ tendees also included representatives from IBM, American Airlines, US Air, United Parcel Serice, AT & T Bell Labs, Thinking Machines, Army High Performance Com­ puting Research Center, and Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the NSF sponsored attendance of thirteen graduate students from universities in the United States and abro...

  3. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  4. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  5. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high-resolution ...... the present state of this technology, it appears well suited to large-scale maritime archaeological mapping....

  6. Do you kiss your mother with that mouth? An authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience in mapping the human oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Daly, Joshua N; Willner, Dana L; Patil, Jayee; Hall, Roy A; Schembri, Mark A; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Clinical microbiology testing is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of community and hospital-acquired infections. Laboratory scientists need to utilize technical and problem-solving skills to select from a wide array of microbial identification techniques. The inquiry-driven laboratory training required to prepare microbiology graduates for this professional environment can be difficult to replicate within undergraduate curricula, especially in courses that accommodate large student cohorts. We aimed to improve undergraduate scientific training by engaging hundreds of introductory microbiology students in an Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience (ALURE). The ALURE aimed to characterize the microorganisms that reside in the healthy human oral cavity-the oral microbiome-by analyzing hundreds of samples obtained from student volunteers within the course. Students were able to choose from selective and differential culture media, Gram-staining, microscopy, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, in order to collect, analyze, and interpret novel data to determine the collective oral microbiome of the student cohort. Pre- and postsurvey analysis of student learning gains across two iterations of the course (2012-2013) revealed significantly higher student confidence in laboratory skills following the completion of the ALURE (p < 0.05 using the Mann-Whitney U-test). Learning objectives on effective scientific communication were also met through effective student performance in laboratory reports describing the research outcomes of the project. The integration of undergraduate research in clinical microbiology has the capacity to deliver authentic research experiences and improve scientific training for large cohorts of undergraduate students.

  7. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.T.

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. On hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analyzed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population. (author)

  8. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  9. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  10. Reviving large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiront, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the past decade, most large-scale hydro development projects in northern Quebec have been put on hold due to land disputes with First Nations. Hydroelectric projects have recently been revived following an agreement signed with Aboriginal communities in the province who recognized the need to find new sources of revenue for future generations. Many Cree are working on the project to harness the waters of the Eastmain River located in the middle of their territory. The work involves building an 890 foot long dam, 30 dikes enclosing a 603 square-km reservoir, a spillway, and a power house with 3 generating units with a total capacity of 480 MW of power for start-up in 2007. The project will require the use of 2,400 workers in total. The Cree Construction and Development Company is working on relations between Quebec's 14,000 Crees and the James Bay Energy Corporation, the subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec which is developing the project. Approximately 10 per cent of the $735-million project has been designated for the environmental component. Inspectors ensure that the project complies fully with environmental protection guidelines. Total development costs for Eastmain-1 are in the order of $2 billion of which $735 million will cover work on site and the remainder will cover generating units, transportation and financial charges. Under the treaty known as the Peace of the Braves, signed in February 2002, the Quebec government and Hydro-Quebec will pay the Cree $70 million annually for 50 years for the right to exploit hydro, mining and forest resources within their territory. The project comes at a time when electricity export volumes to the New England states are down due to growth in Quebec's domestic demand. Hydropower is a renewable and non-polluting source of energy that is one of the most acceptable forms of energy where the Kyoto Protocol is concerned. It was emphasized that large-scale hydro-electric projects are needed to provide sufficient energy to meet both

  11. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. Do You Kiss Your Mother with That Mouth? An Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience in Mapping the Human Oral Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T.H. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical microbiology testing is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of community and hospital-acquired infections. Laboratory scientists need to utilize technical and problem-solving skills to select from a wide array of microbial identification techniques. The inquiry-driven laboratory training required to prepare microbiology graduates for this professional environment can be difficult to replicate within undergraduate curricula, especially in courses that accommodate large student cohorts. We aimed to improve undergraduate scientific training by engaging hundreds of introductory microbiology students in an Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience (ALURE. The ALURE aimed to characterize the microorganisms that reside in the healthy human oral cavity—the oral microbiome—by analyzing hundreds of samples obtained from student volunteers within the course. Students were able to choose from selective and differential culture media, Gram-staining, microscopy, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, in order to collect, analyze, and interpret novel data to determine the collective oral microbiome of the student cohort. Pre- and postsurvey analysis of student learning gains across two iterations of the course (2012–2013 revealed significantly higher student confidence in laboratory skills following the completion of the ALURE (p < 0.05 using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Learning objectives on effective scientific communication were also met through effective student performance in laboratory reports describing the research outcomes of the project. The integration of undergraduate research in clinical microbiology has the capacity to deliver authentic research experiences and improve scientific training for large cohorts of undergraduate students. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques

  13. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  14. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  15. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  16. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriage, Tobias; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John; Bennett, Charles; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  17. Geostatistical and multivariate modelling for large scale quantitative mapping of seafloor sediments using sparse datasets, a case study from the Cleaverbank area (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alevizos, Evangelos; Siemes, K.; Janmaat, J.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.; Greinert, J

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative mapping of seafloor sediment properties (eg. grain size) requires the input of comprehensive Multi-Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) datasets along with adequate ground truth for establishing a functional relation between them. MBES surveys in extensive shallow shelf areas can be a rather

  18. ESTIMAP: Ecosystem services mapping at European scale

    OpenAIRE

    ZULIAN GRAZIA; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa; MAES JOACHIM; LIQUETE GARCIA MARIA DEL CAMINO

    2013-01-01

    Mapping, visualization and the access to suitable data as a means to facilitate the dialogue among scientists, policy makers and the general public are among the most challenging issues within current ecosystem service science and application. Recently the attention on spatially explicit ways to map ecosystem services, at local, regional and global scale is increasing. This report presents ESTIMAP: a suite of models for a spatially explicit assessment of three ecosystem services (recreati...

  19. Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethurst, Mark Andrew; Strand, Terje; Sundal, Aud Venke; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2008-01-01

    We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km 2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium daughters in the near surface of the ground and regions with high incidence of elevated radon concentrations in dwellings. This correlation permits cautious use of the airborne data in radon hazard evaluation where direct measurements of indoor radon concentrations are few or absent. In radon hazard evaluation there is a natural synergy between the mapping of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping and airborne gamma ray surveying. We produce radon hazard forecast maps for the Oslofjord region based on a spatial union of hazard indicators from all four of these data sources. Indication of elevated radon hazard in any one of the data sets leads to the classification of a region as having an elevated radon hazard potential. This approach is inclusive in nature and we find that the majority of actual radon hazards lie in the assumed elevated risk regions

  20. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  1. Large-scale dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere during the MAP/WINE campaign winter 1983 to 1984 in comparison with other winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, K.

    1989-04-01

    For the MAP/WINE winter temperature and wind measurements of rockets were combined with SSU radiances (Stratospheric Sounder Unit onboard the NOAA satellites) and stratopause heights from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) to get a retrieved data set including all available information. By means of this data set a hemispheric geopotential height, temperature and geostrophic wind fields eddy transports for wave mean flow interaction and potential vorticity for the interpretation of nonlinear wave breaking could be computed. Wave reflection at critical lines was investigated with respect of stratospheric warmings. The meridional gradient of the potential vorticity and focusing of wave activity is compared with derived data from satellite observations during other winters.

  2. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Stine Bjerrum

    2015-01-01

    : The present data indicate that positive as well as negative beliefs are involved in the tendency to ruminate about angry emotions. Clinical interventions may benefit from an exploration of the patient´s experience of anger, as structured by the MAP's factors and their interrelationships. The psychometric...... preliminary studies was to apply a metacognitive framework to anger and put forward a new anger self-report scale, the Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale, intended as a supplement to existing measures of anger disposition and to enhance anger treatment targets. METHOD: The new measure was tested...... in a nonclinical and a clinical sample together with measures of anger and metacognition to establish factor structure, reliability, concurrent, and convergent validity. RESULTS: The MAP showed a reliable factor structure with three factors - Positive Beliefs about anger, Negative Beliefs about anger...

  3. Large-scale stochasticity in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Large scale stochasticity (L.S.S.) in Hamiltonian systems is defined on the paradigm Hamiltonian H(v,x,t) =v 2 /2-M cos x-P cos k(x-t) which describes the motion of one particle in two electrostatic waves. A renormalization transformation Tsub(r) is described which acts as a microscope that focusses on a given KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) torus in phase space. Though approximate, Tsub(r) yields the threshold of L.S.S. in H with an error of 5-10%. The universal behaviour of KAM tori is predicted: for instance the scale invariance of KAM tori and the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponent of Cantori. The Fourier expansion of KAM tori is computed and several conjectures by L. Kadanoff and S. Shenker are proved. Chirikov's standard mapping for stochastic layers is derived in a simpler way and the width of the layers is computed. A simpler renormalization scheme for these layers is defined. A Mathieu equation for describing the stability of a discrete family of cycles is derived. When combined with Tsub(r), it allows to prove the link between KAM tori and nearby cycles, conjectured by J. Greene and, in particular, to compute the mean residue of a torus. The fractal diagrams defined by G. Schmidt are computed. A sketch of a methodology for computing the L.S.S. threshold in any two-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system is given. (Auth.)

  4. Exploiting Growing Stock Volume Maps for Large Scale Forest Resource Assessment: Cross-Comparisons of ASAR- and PALSAR-Based GSV Estimates with Forest Inventory in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hüttich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing stock volume is an important biophysical parameter describing the state and dynamics of the Boreal zone. Validation of growing stock volume (GSV maps based on satellite remote sensing is challenging due to the lack of consistent ground reference data. The monitoring and assessment of the remote Russian forest resources of Siberia can only be done by integrating remote sensing techniques and interdisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we assess the information content of GSV estimates in Central Siberian forests obtained at 25 m from ALOS-PALSAR and 1 km from ENVISAT-ASAR backscatter data. The estimates have been cross-compared with respect to forest inventory data showing 34% relative RMSE for the ASAR-based GSV retrievals and 39.4% for the PALSAR-based estimates of GSV. Fragmentation analyses using a MODIS-based land cover dataset revealed an increase of retrieval error with increasing fragmentation of the landscape. Cross-comparisons of multiple SAR-based GSV estimates helped to detect inconsistencies in the forest inventory data and can support an update of outdated forest inventory stands.

  5. Ethics of large-scale change

    OpenAIRE

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

      The subject of this paper is long-term large-scale changes in human society. Some very significant examples of large-scale change are presented: human population growth, human appropriation of land and primary production, the human use of fossil fuels, and climate change. The question is posed, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, th...

  6. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of superconductors capable of carrying large current densities in large-scale electrical devices are examined. Discussions are included on critical current density, superconducting materials available, and future prospects for improved superconducting materials. (JRD)

  7. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  8. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...

  9. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  10. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig

  11. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that

  12. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    problem is formulated as a centralized large-scale optimization problem but is then decomposed into smaller subproblems that are solved locally by each unit connected to an aggregator. For large-scale systems the method is faster than solving the full problem and can be distributed to include an arbitrary...

  13. Analysis using large-scale ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie, S. R.

    2004-06-01

    survival and recruitment estimates from the French CES scheme to assess the relative contributions of survival and recruitment to overall population changes. He develops a novel approach to modelling survival rates from such multi–site data by using within–year recaptures to provide a covariate of between–year recapture rates. This provided parsimonious models of variation in recapture probabilities between sites and years. The approach provides promising results for the four species investigated and can potentially be extended to similar data from other CES/MAPS schemes. The final paper by Blandine Doligez, David Thomson and Arie van Noordwijk (Doligez et al., 2004 illustrates how large-scale studies of population dynamics can be important for evaluating the effects of conservation measures. Their study is concerned with the reintroduction of White Stork populations to the Netherlands where a re–introduction programme started in 1969 had resulted in a breeding population of 396 pairs by 2000. They demonstrate the need to consider a wide range of models in order to account for potential age, time, cohort and “trap–happiness” effects. As the data are based on resightings such trap–happiness must reflect some form of heterogeneity in resighting probabilities. Perhaps surprisingly, the provision of supplementary food did not influence survival, but it may havehad an indirect effect via the alteration of migratory behaviour. Spatially explicit modelling of data gathered at many sites inevitably results in starting models with very large numbers of parameters. The problem is often complicated further by having relatively sparse data at each site, even where the total amount of data gathered is very large. Both Julliard (2004 and Doligez et al. (2004 give explicit examples of problems caused by needing to handle very large numbers of parameters and show how they overcame them for their particular data sets. Such problems involve both the choice of appropriate

  14. Large-scale grid management; Storskala Nettforvaltning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-07-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series.

  15. Updating Geospatial Data from Large Scale Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Chen, J.; Wang, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; Ai, T.

    2011-08-01

    In the past decades, many geospatial databases have been established at national, regional and municipal levels over the world. Nowadays, it has been widely recognized that how to update these established geo-spatial database and keep them up to date is most critical for the value of geo-spatial database. So, more and more efforts have been devoted to the continuous updating of these geospatial databases. Currently, there exist two main types of methods for Geo-spatial database updating: directly updating with remote sensing images or field surveying materials, and indirectly updating with other updated data result such as larger scale newly updated data. The former method is the basis because the update data sources in the two methods finally root from field surveying and remote sensing. The later method is often more economical and faster than the former. Therefore, after the larger scale database is updated, the smaller scale database should be updated correspondingly in order to keep the consistency of multi-scale geo-spatial database. In this situation, it is very reasonable to apply map generalization technology into the process of geo-spatial database updating. The latter is recognized as one of most promising methods of geo-spatial database updating, especially in collaborative updating environment in terms of map scale, i.e , different scale database are produced and maintained separately by different level organizations such as in China. This paper is focused on applying digital map generalization into the updating of geo-spatial database from large scale in the collaborative updating environment for SDI. The requirements of the application of map generalization into spatial database updating are analyzed firstly. A brief review on geospatial data updating based digital map generalization is then given. Based on the requirements analysis and review, we analyze the key factors for implementing updating geospatial data from large scale including technical

  16. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  17. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  18. Large-scale computing with Quantum Espresso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannozzi, P.; Cavazzoni, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a short introduction to Quantum Espresso: a distribution of software for atomistic simulations in condensed-matter physics, chemical physics, materials science, and to its usage in large-scale parallel computing.

  19. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era

  20. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobov, A. V., E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com; Rubin, S. G., E-mail: sgrubin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  1. Political consultation and large-scale research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Folkers, H.

    1977-01-01

    Large-scale research and policy consulting have an intermediary position between sociological sub-systems. While large-scale research coordinates science, policy, and production, policy consulting coordinates science, policy and political spheres. In this very position, large-scale research and policy consulting lack of institutional guarantees and rational back-ground guarantee which are characteristic for their sociological environment. This large-scale research can neither deal with the production of innovative goods under consideration of rentability, nor can it hope for full recognition by the basis-oriented scientific community. Policy consulting knows neither the competence assignment of the political system to make decisions nor can it judge succesfully by the critical standards of the established social science, at least as far as the present situation is concerned. This intermediary position of large-scale research and policy consulting has, in three points, a consequence supporting the thesis which states that this is a new form of institutionalization of science: These are: 1) external control, 2) the organization form, 3) the theoretical conception of large-scale research and policy consulting. (orig.) [de

  2. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  3. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data

  4. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Torres, Marco A; Martina, Mario L V

    2018-02-14

    Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data-such as municipality-level records of crop seeding-for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using "good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem

  5. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dell’Acqua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data—such as municipality-level records of crop seeding—for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using “good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The

  6. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  7. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  8. Growth Limits in Large Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    limitations. The rising complexity of network management with the convergence of communications platforms is shown as problematic for both automatic management feasibility and for manpower resource management. In the fourth step the scope is extended to include the present society with the DDN project as its......The Subject of large scale networks is approached from the perspective of the network planner. An analysis of the long term planning problems is presented with the main focus on the changing requirements for large scale networks and the potential problems in meeting these requirements. The problems...... the fundamental technological resources in network technologies are analysed for scalability. Here several technological limits to continued growth are presented. The third step involves a survey of major problems in managing large scale networks given the growth of user requirements and the technological...

  9. Managing large-scale models: DBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    A set of fundamental management tools for developing and operating a large scale model and data base system is presented. Based on experience in operating and developing a large scale computerized system, the only reasonable way to gain strong management control of such a system is to implement appropriate controls and procedures. Chapter I discusses the purpose of the book. Chapter II classifies a broad range of generic management problems into three groups: documentation, operations, and maintenance. First, system problems are identified then solutions for gaining management control are disucssed. Chapters III, IV, and V present practical methods for dealing with these problems. These methods were developed for managing SEAS but have general application for large scale models and data bases

  10. Accelerating sustainability in large-scale facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research centres and large-scale facilities are intrinsically energy intensive, but how can big science improve its energy management and eventually contribute to the environmental cause with new cleantech? CERN’s commitment to providing tangible answers to these questions was sealed in the first workshop on energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures held in Lund, Sweden, on the 13-14 October.   Participants at the energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures workshop. The workshop, co-organised with the European Spallation Source (ESS) and  the European Association of National Research Facilities (ERF), tackled a recognised need for addressing energy issues in relation with science and technology policies. It brought together more than 150 representatives of Research Infrastrutures (RIs) and energy experts from Europe and North America. “Without compromising our scientific projects, we can ...

  11. Large-scale Complex IT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that identifies the major challen...

  12. Large-scale complex IT systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2012-01-01

    12 pages, 2 figures This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that ident...

  13. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  14. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  15. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications

  16. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  17. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments. Pavel Ambrož, Astronomical Institute of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165. Ondrejov, The Czech Republic. e-mail: pambroz@asu.cas.cz. Alfred Schroll, Kanzelhöehe Solar Observatory of the University of Graz, A-9521 Treffen,. Austria. e-mail: schroll@solobskh.ac.at.

  18. Sensitivity analysis for large-scale problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    The development of efficient techniques for calculating sensitivity derivatives is studied. The objective is to present a computational procedure for calculating sensitivity derivatives as part of performing structural reanalysis for large-scale problems. The scope is limited to framed type structures. Both linear static analysis and free-vibration eigenvalue problems are considered.

  19. Ethics of large-scale change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

    , which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, the neoclassical economists' approach, and finally the so-called Concentric Circle Theories approach...

  20. The origin of large scale cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Palmer, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the origin of large scale cosmic structure. The evolution of density perturbations, the nonlinear regime (Zel'dovich's solution and others), the Gott and Rees clustering hierarchy, the spectrum of condensations, and biassed galaxy formation, are all discussed. (UK)

  1. Learning from large scale neural simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale neural simulations have the marks of a distinct methodology which can be fruitfully deployed to advance scientific understanding of the human brain. Computer simulation studies can be used to produce surrogate observational data for better conceptual models and new how...

  2. Stability of large scale interconnected dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpan, E.P.

    1993-07-01

    Large scale systems modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations are considered and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniform asymptotic connective stability of the systems using the method of cone-valued Lyapunov functions. It is shown that this model significantly improves the existing models. (author). 9 refs

  3. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems, discussed at the ''Large-scale Structure of the Universe'' symposium are considered on a popular level. Described are the cell structure of galaxy distribution in the Universe, principles of mathematical galaxy distribution modelling. The images of cell structures, obtained after reprocessing with the computer are given. Discussed are three hypothesis - vortical, entropic, adiabatic, suggesting various processes of galaxy and galaxy clusters origin. A considerable advantage of the adiabatic hypothesis is recognized. The relict radiation, as a method of direct studying the processes taking place in the Universe is considered. The large-scale peculiarities and small-scale fluctuations of the relict radiation temperature enable one to estimate the turbance properties at the pre-galaxy stage. The discussion of problems, pertaining to studying the hot gas, contained in galaxy clusters, the interactions within galaxy clusters and with the inter-galaxy medium, is recognized to be a notable contribution into the development of theoretical and observational cosmology

  4. Functional cortical mapping of scale illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-qun; Kuriki, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We have studied cortical activation using 1.5 T fMRI during 'Scale Illusion', a kind of auditory illusion, in which subjects perceive smooth melodies while listening to dichotic irregular pitch sequences consisting of scale tones, in repeated phrases composed of eight tones. Four male and four female subjects listened to different stimuli, that including illusion-inducing tone sequence, monaural tone sequence and perceived pitch sequence with a control of white noises delivered to the right and left ears in random order. 32 scans with a repetition time (TR) 3 s Between 3 s interval for each type of the four stimuli were performed. In BOLD signals, activation was observed in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, parietal lobule and occipital areas by first-level group analysis. However, there existed large intersubject variability such that systematic tendency of the activation was not clear. The study will be continued to obtain larger number of subjects for group analysis. (author)

  5. Characterising large scenario earthquakes and their influence on NDSHA maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Andrea; Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2016-04-01

    The neo-deterministic approach to seismic zoning, NDSHA, relies on physically sound modelling of ground shaking from a large set of credible scenario earthquakes, which can be defined based on seismic history and seismotectonics, as well as incorporating information from a wide set of geological and geophysical data (e.g. morphostructural features and present day deformation processes identified by Earth observations). NDSHA is based on the calculation of complete synthetic seismograms; hence it does not make use of empirical attenuation models (i.e. ground motion prediction equations). From the set of synthetic seismograms, maps of seismic hazard that describe the maximum of different ground shaking parameters at the bedrock can be produced. As a rule, the NDSHA, defines the hazard as the envelope ground shaking at the site, computed from all of the defined seismic sources; accordingly, the simplest outcome of this method is a map where the maximum of a given seismic parameter is associated to each site. In this way, the standard NDSHA maps permit to account for the largest observed or credible earthquake sources identified in the region in a quite straightforward manner. This study aims to assess the influence of unavoidable uncertainties in the characterisation of large scenario earthquakes on the NDSHA estimates. The treatment of uncertainties is performed by sensitivity analyses for key modelling parameters and accounts for the uncertainty in the prediction of fault radiation and in the use of Green's function for a given medium. Results from sensitivity analyses with respect to the definition of possible seismic sources are discussed. A key parameter is the magnitude of seismic sources used in the simulation, which is based on information from earthquake catalogue, seismogenic zones and seismogenic nodes. The largest part of the existing Italian catalogues is based on macroseismic intensities, a rough estimate of the error in peak values of ground motion can

  6. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  7. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  8. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  9. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.. We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  10. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  11. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  12. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  13. Puzzles of large scale structure and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the puzzle of cosmic voids bounded by two-dimensional structures of galactic clusters as also a puzzle pointed out by Weinberg: How can the mass of a typical elementary particle depend on a cosmic parameter like the Hubble constant? An answer to the first puzzle is proposed in terms of 'Scaled' Quantum Mechanical like behaviour which appears at large scales. The second puzzle can be answered by showing that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle has a Machian character (see Ahmed N. Cantorian small worked, Mach's principle and the universal mass network. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(4))

  14. Adaptive visualization for large-scale graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Shinano, Yuji; Ohzahata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    We propose an adoptive visualization technique for representing a large-scale hierarchical dataset within limited display space. A hierarchical dataset has nodes and links showing the parent-child relationship between the nodes. These nodes and links are described using graphics primitives. When the number of these primitives is large, it is difficult to recognize the structure of the hierarchical data because many primitives are overlapped within a limited region. To overcome this difficulty, we propose an adaptive visualization technique for hierarchical datasets. The proposed technique selects an appropriate graph style according to the nodal density in each area. (author)

  15. Stabilization Algorithms for Large-Scale Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the project is on stabilization of large-scale inverse problems where structured models and iterative algorithms are necessary for computing approximate solutions. For this purpose, we study various iterative Krylov methods and their abilities to produce regularized solutions. Some......-curve. This heuristic is implemented as a part of a larger algorithm which is developed in collaboration with G. Rodriguez and P. C. Hansen. Last, but not least, a large part of the project has, in different ways, revolved around the object-oriented Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools developed by PhD Michael Jacobsen. New...

  16. Challenges for Large Scale Structure Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I will describe some of the outstanding questions in Cosmology where answers could be provided by observations of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe at late times.I will discuss some of the theoretical challenges which will have to be overcome to extract this information from the observations. I will describe some of the theoretical tools that might be useful to achieve this goal. 

  17. Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305 METHODS FOR LARGE-SCALE NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION by Philip E. Gill, Waiter Murray, I Michael A. Saunden, and Masgaret H. Wright...typical iteration can be partitioned so that where B is an m X m basise matrix. This partition effectively divides the vari- ables into three classes... attention is given to the standard of the coding or the documentation. A much better way of obtaining mathematical software is from a software library

  18. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  19. Fires in large scale ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; White, B.W.; Nichols, B.D.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.; Blythe, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained simulating fires in large scale ventilation systems patterned after ventilation systems found in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The series of experiments discussed included: (1) combustion aerosol loading of 0.61x0.61 m HEPA filters with the combustion products of two organic fuels, polystyrene and polymethylemethacrylate; (2) gas dynamic and heat transport through a large scale ventilation system consisting of a 0.61x0.61 m duct 90 m in length, with dampers, HEPA filters, blowers, etc.; (3) gas dynamic and simultaneous transport of heat and solid particulate (consisting of glass beads with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10μ) through the large scale ventilation system; and (4) the transport of heat and soot, generated by kerosene pool fires, through the large scale ventilation system. The FIRAC computer code, designed to predict fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems, was used to predict the results of experiments (2) through (4). In general, the results of the predictions were satisfactory. The code predictions for the gas dynamics, heat transport, and particulate transport and deposition were within 10% of the experimentally measured values. However, the code was less successful in predicting the amount of soot generation from kerosene pool fires, probably due to the fire module of the code being a one-dimensional zone model. The experiments revealed a complicated three-dimensional combustion pattern within the fire room of the ventilation system. Further refinement of the fire module within FIRAC is needed. (orig.)

  20. LAVA: Large scale Automated Vulnerability Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    LAVA: Large-scale Automated Vulnerability Addition Brendan Dolan -Gavitt∗, Patrick Hulin†, Tim Leek†, Fredrich Ulrich†, Ryan Whelan† (Authors listed...released, and thus rapidly become stale. We can expect tools to have been trained to detect bugs that have been released. Given the commercial price tag...low TCN) and dead (low liveness) program data is a powerful one for vulnera- bility injection. The DUAs it identifies are internal program quantities

  1. Large-Scale Transit Signal Priority Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin S.; Lozner, Bailey

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) deployed Transit Signal Priority (TSP) at 195 intersections in highly urbanized areas of Washington, DC. In collaboration with a broader regional implementation, and in partnership with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), DDOT set out to apply a systems engineering–driven process to identify, design, test, and accept a large-scale TSP system. This presentation will highlight project successes and lessons learned.

  2. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  3. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  4. Large-Scale Structure Behind The Milky Way with ALFAZOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Barrantes, Monica; Henning, Patricia A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; McIntyre, Travis; Minchin, Robert F.

    2018-06-01

    The region of the sky behind the Milky Way (the Zone of Avoidance; ZOA) is not well studied due to high obscuration from gas and dust in our galaxy as well as stellar confusion, which results in low detection rate of galaxies in this region. Because of this, little is known about the distribution of galaxies in the ZOA, and other all sky redshift surveys have incomplete maps (e.g. the 2MASS Redshift survey in NIR has a gap of 5-8 deg around the Galactic plane). There is still controversy about the dipole anisotropy calculated from the comparison between the CMB and galaxy and redshift surveys, in part due to the incomplete sky mapping and redshift depth of these surveys. Fortunately, there is no ZOA at radio wavelengths because such wavelengths can pass unimpeded through dust and are not affected by stellar confusion. Therefore, we can detect and make a map of the distribution of obscured galaxies that contain the 21cm neutral hydrogen emission line, and trace the large-scale structure across the Galactic plane. The Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFAZOA) survey is a blind HI survey for galaxies behind the Milky Way that covers more than 1000 square degrees of the sky, conducted in two phases: shallow (completed) and deep (ongoing). We show the results of the finished shallow phase of the survey, which mapped a region between the galactic longitude l=30-75 deg, and latitude b <|10 deg|, and detected 418 galaxies to about 12,000 km/s, including galaxy properties and mapped large-scale structure. We do the same for new results from the deep phase, which is ongoing and covers 30 < l < 75 deg and b < |2| deg for the inner galaxy and 175 < l < 207 deg, with -2 < b < 1 for the outer galaxy.

  5. Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, Karen [MIT; Marzouk, Youssef [MIT

    2013-11-12

    The SAGUARO (Scalable Algorithms for Groundwater Uncertainty Analysis and Robust Optimization) Project focused on the development of scalable numerical algorithms for large-scale Bayesian inversion in complex systems that capitalize on advances in large-scale simulation-based optimization and inversion methods. The project was a collaborative effort among MIT, the University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Sandia National Laboratories. The research was directed in three complementary areas: efficient approximations of the Hessian operator, reductions in complexity of forward simulations via stochastic spectral approximations and model reduction, and employing large-scale optimization concepts to accelerate sampling. The MIT--Sandia component of the SAGUARO Project addressed the intractability of conventional sampling methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems by devising reduced-order models that are faithful to the full-order model over a wide range of parameter values; sampling then employs the reduced model rather than the full model, resulting in very large computational savings. Results indicate little effect on the computed posterior distribution. On the other hand, in the Texas--Georgia Tech component of the project, we retain the full-order model, but exploit inverse problem structure (adjoint-based gradients and partial Hessian information of the parameter-to-observation map) to implicitly extract lower dimensional information on the posterior distribution; this greatly speeds up sampling methods, so that fewer sampling points are needed. We can think of these two approaches as ``reduce then sample'' and ``sample then reduce.'' In fact, these two approaches are complementary, and can be used in conjunction with each other. Moreover, they both exploit deterministic inverse problem structure, in the form of adjoint-based gradient and Hessian information of the underlying parameter-to-observation map, to

  6. Extending SME to Handle Large-Scale Cognitive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D; Ferguson, Ronald W; Lovett, Andrew; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-07-01

    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine (SME) since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence for SME as a process model, and summarize its role in simulating similarity-based retrieval and generalization. Then we describe five techniques now incorporated into the SME that have enabled it to tackle large-scale modeling tasks: (a) Greedy merging rapidly constructs one or more best interpretations of a match in polynomial time: O(n 2 log(n)); (b) Incremental operation enables mappings to be extended as new information is retrieved or derived about the base or target, to model situations where information in a task is updated over time; (c) Ubiquitous predicates model the varying degrees to which items may suggest alignment; (d) Structural evaluation of analogical inferences models aspects of plausibility judgments; (e) Match filters enable large-scale task models to communicate constraints to SME to influence the mapping process. We illustrate via examples from published studies how these enable it to capture a broader range of psychological phenomena than before. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. RESTRUCTURING OF THE LARGE-SCALE SPRINKLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kozaczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the best ways for agriculture to become independent from shortages of precipitation is irrigation. In the seventies and eighties of the last century a number of large-scale sprinklers in Wielkopolska was built. At the end of 1970’s in the Poznan province 67 sprinklers with a total area of 6400 ha were installed. The average size of the sprinkler reached 95 ha. In 1989 there were 98 sprinklers, and the area which was armed with them was more than 10 130 ha. The study was conducted on 7 large sprinklers with the area ranging from 230 to 520 hectares in 1986÷1998. After the introduction of the market economy in the early 90’s and ownership changes in agriculture, large-scale sprinklers have gone under a significant or total devastation. Land on the State Farms of the State Agricultural Property Agency has leased or sold and the new owners used the existing sprinklers to a very small extent. This involved a change in crop structure, demand structure and an increase in operating costs. There has also been a threefold increase in electricity prices. Operation of large-scale irrigation encountered all kinds of barriers in practice and limitations of system solutions, supply difficulties, high levels of equipment failure which is not inclined to rational use of available sprinklers. An effect of a vision of the local area was to show the current status of the remaining irrigation infrastructure. The adopted scheme for the restructuring of Polish agriculture was not the best solution, causing massive destruction of assets previously invested in the sprinkler system.

  8. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  9. Status: Large-scale subatmospheric cryogenic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1960's and early 1970's an interest in testing and operating RF cavities at 1.8K motivated the development and construction of four large (300 Watt) 1.8K refrigeration systems. in the past decade, development of successful superconducting RF cavities and interest in obtaining higher magnetic fields with the improved Niobium-Titanium superconductors has once again created interest in large-scale 1.8K refrigeration systems. The L'Air Liquide plant for Tore Supra is a recently commissioned 300 Watt 1.8K system which incorporates new technology, cold compressors, to obtain the low vapor pressure for low temperature cooling. CEBAF proposes to use cold compressors to obtain 5KW at 2.0K. Magnetic refrigerators of 10 Watt capacity or higher at 1.8K are now being developed. The state of the art of large-scale refrigeration in the range under 4K will be reviewed. 28 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. A map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing the large-scale fluctuations (the quadrupole and octopole) isolated by an analysis done partly by theorists at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A recent analysis, in part by theorists working at CERN, suggests a new view of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It seems the solar system, rather than the universe, causes the radiation's large-scale fluctuations, similar to the bass in a song.

  11. The Software Reliability of Large Scale Integration Circuit and Very Large Scale Integration Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Artem Ganiyev; Jan Vitasek

    2010-01-01

    This article describes evaluation method of faultless function of large scale integration circuits (LSI) and very large scale integration circuits (VLSI). In the article there is a comparative analysis of factors which determine faultless of integrated circuits, analysis of already existing methods and model of faultless function evaluation of LSI and VLSI. The main part describes a proposed algorithm and program for analysis of fault rate in LSI and VLSI circuits.

  12. Constructing sites on a large scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Tietjen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the regional scale has regained importance in urban and landscape design. In parallel, the focus in design tasks has shifted from master plans for urban extension to strategic urban transformation projects. A prominent example of a contemporary spatial development approach...... for setting the design brief in a large scale urban landscape in Norway, the Jaeren region around the city of Stavanger. In this paper, we first outline the methodological challenges and then present and discuss the proposed method based on our teaching experiences. On this basis, we discuss aspects...... is the IBA Emscher Park in the Ruhr area in Germany. Over a 10 years period (1988-1998), more than a 100 local transformation projects contributed to the transformation from an industrial to a post-industrial region. The current paradigm of planning by projects reinforces the role of the design disciplines...

  13. Large Scale Self-Organizing Information Distribution System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates issues in "large-scale" networks. Here "large-scale" refers to networks with large number of high capacity nodes and transmission links, and shared by a large number of users...

  14. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos

  15. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Daniel J. Eisenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS #20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos.

  16. Concepts for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Daniel; Åtland, Vegar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a techno-economic analysis of large-scale, carbon-lean hydrogen production in Norway, in order to evaluate various production methods and estimate a breakeven price level. Norway possesses vast energy resources and the export of oil and gas is vital to the country s economy. The results of this thesis indicate that hydrogen represents a viable, carbon-lean opportunity to utilize these resources, which can prove key in the future of Norwegian energy e...

  17. Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials

  18. Large Scale Community Detection Using a Small World Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Behera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a social network, small or large communities within the network play a major role in deciding the functionalities of the network. Despite of diverse definitions, communities in the network may be defined as the group of nodes that are more densely connected as compared to nodes outside the group. Revealing such hidden communities is one of the challenging research problems. A real world social network follows small world phenomena, which indicates that any two social entities can be reachable in a small number of steps. In this paper, nodes are mapped into communities based on the random walk in the network. However, uncovering communities in large-scale networks is a challenging task due to its unprecedented growth in the size of social networks. A good number of community detection algorithms based on random walk exist in literature. In addition, when large-scale social networks are being considered, these algorithms are observed to take considerably longer time. In this work, with an objective to improve the efficiency of algorithms, parallel programming framework like Map-Reduce has been considered for uncovering the hidden communities in social network. The proposed approach has been compared with some standard existing community detection algorithms for both synthetic and real-world datasets in order to examine its performance, and it is observed that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the existing ones.

  19. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  20. Large scale integration of photovoltaics in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalka, Aneta; Alam, Nazmul; Duminil, Eric; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We implement the photovoltaics on a large scale. ► We use three-dimensional modelling for accurate photovoltaic simulations. ► We consider the shadowing effect in the photovoltaic simulation. ► We validate the simulated results using detailed hourly measured data. - Abstract: For a large scale implementation of photovoltaics (PV) in the urban environment, building integration is a major issue. This includes installations on roof or facade surfaces with orientations that are not ideal for maximum energy production. To evaluate the performance of PV systems in urban settings and compare it with the building user’s electricity consumption, three-dimensional geometry modelling was combined with photovoltaic system simulations. As an example, the modern residential district of Scharnhauser Park (SHP) near Stuttgart/Germany was used to calculate the potential of photovoltaic energy and to evaluate the local own consumption of the energy produced. For most buildings of the district only annual electrical consumption data was available and only selected buildings have electronic metering equipment. The available roof area for one of these multi-family case study buildings was used for a detailed hourly simulation of the PV power production, which was then compared to the hourly measured electricity consumption. The results were extrapolated to all buildings of the analyzed area by normalizing them to the annual consumption data. The PV systems can produce 35% of the quarter’s total electricity consumption and half of this generated electricity is directly used within the buildings.

  1. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  2. Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D.; Tentner, A.

    1995-06-01

    A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  3. Radiations: large scale monitoring in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, M.; Khalatbari, A.

    2011-01-01

    As the consequences of radioactive leaks on their health are a matter of concern for Japanese people, a large scale epidemiological study has been launched by the Fukushima medical university. It concerns the two millions inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture. On the national level and with the support of public funds, medical care and follow-up, as well as systematic controls are foreseen, notably to check the thyroid of 360.000 young people less than 18 year old and of 20.000 pregnant women in the Fukushima Prefecture. Some measurements have already been performed on young children. Despite the sometimes rather low measures, and because they know that some parts of the area are at least as much contaminated as it was the case around Chernobyl, some people are reluctant to go back home

  4. Large-scale digitizer system, analog converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Wagner, L.J.

    1976-10-01

    Analog to digital converter circuits that are based on the sharing of common resources, including those which are critical to the linearity and stability of the individual channels, are described. Simplicity of circuit composition is valued over other more costly approaches. These are intended to be applied in a large-scale processing and digitizing system for use with high-energy physics detectors such as drift-chambers or phototube-scintillator arrays. Signal distribution techniques are of paramount importance in maintaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Noise in both amplitude and time-jitter senses is held sufficiently low so that conversions with 10-bit charge resolution and 12-bit time resolution are achieved

  5. Engineering management of large scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  6. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  7. Large - scale Rectangular Ruler Automated Verification Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chang, Luping; Xing, Minjian; Xie, Xie

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces a large-scale rectangular ruler automated verification device, which consists of photoelectric autocollimator and self-designed mechanical drive car and data automatic acquisition system. The design of mechanical structure part of the device refer to optical axis design, drive part, fixture device and wheel design. The design of control system of the device refer to hardware design and software design, and the hardware mainly uses singlechip system, and the software design is the process of the photoelectric autocollimator and the automatic data acquisition process. This devices can automated achieve vertical measurement data. The reliability of the device is verified by experimental comparison. The conclusion meets the requirement of the right angle test procedure.

  8. Testing Einstein's Gravity on Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    A little over a decade has passed since two teams studying high redshift Type Ia supernovae announced the discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating. After all this time, we?re still not sure how cosmic acceleration fits into the theory that tells us about the large-scale universe: General Relativity (GR). As part of our search for answers, we have been forced to question GR itself. But how will we test our ideas? We are fortunate enough to be entering the era of precision cosmology, where the standard model of gravity can be subjected to more rigorous testing. Various techniques will be employed over the next decade or two in the effort to better understand cosmic acceleration and the theory behind it. In this talk, I will describe cosmic acceleration, current proposals to explain it, and weak gravitational lensing, an observational effect that allows us to do the necessary precision cosmology.

  9. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  10. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  11. Large Scale EOF Analysis of Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, M.; Gittens, A.; Kashinath, K.; Cavanaugh, N. R.; Mahoney, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a distributed approach towards extracting EOFs from 3D climate data. We implement the method in Apache Spark, and process multi-TB sized datasets on O(1000-10,000) cores. We apply this method to latitude-weighted ocean temperature data from CSFR, a 2.2 terabyte-sized data set comprising ocean and subsurface reanalysis measurements collected at 41 levels in the ocean, at 6 hour intervals over 31 years. We extract the first 100 EOFs of this full data set and compare to the EOFs computed simply on the surface temperature field. Our analyses provide evidence of Kelvin and Rossy waves and components of large-scale modes of oscillation including the ENSO and PDO that are not visible in the usual SST EOFs. Further, they provide information on the the most influential parts of the ocean, such as the thermocline, that exist below the surface. Work is ongoing to understand the factors determining the depth-varying spatial patterns observed in the EOFs. We will experiment with weighting schemes to appropriately account for the differing depths of the observations. We also plan to apply the same distributed approach to analysis of analysis of 3D atmospheric climatic data sets, including multiple variables. Because the atmosphere changes on a quicker time-scale than the ocean, we expect that the results will demonstrate an even greater advantage to computing 3D EOFs in lieu of 2D EOFs.

  12. PREFERENCE FOR MAP SCALE OF IN-CAR ROUTE GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques Ramos

    Full Text Available Usability issues of maps presented in-car Route Guidance and Navigation System (RGNS may result in serious impacts on traffic safety. To obtain effective RGNS, evaluation of 'user satisfaction' with the system has played a prominent role, since designers can quantify drivers' acceptance about presented information. An important variable related to design of RGNS interfaces refers to select appropriate scale for maps, since it interferes on legibility of maps. Map with good legibility may support drivers comprehend information easily and take decisions during driving task quickly. This paper evaluates drivers' preference for scales used in maps of RGNS. A total of 52 subjects participated of an experiment performed in a parked car. Maps were designed at four different scales 1:1,000, 1:3,000, 1:6,000 and 1:10,000 for a route composed of 13 junctions. Map design was based on cartographic communication principles, such as perceptive grouping and figure-ground segregation. Based on studies cases, we conclude intermediate scales (1:6,000 and 1:3,000 were more acceptable among drivers compared to large scales (1:1,000 and small (1:10,000. RGNS should select scales for maps which supports drivers to quickly identify direction of the maneuver and, simultaneously, get information about surroundings of route. More results are presented and implications discussed

  13. Digital geologic map in the scale 1:50 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacer, S.; Antalik, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation authors present preparation of new digital geologic map of the Slovak Republic. This map is prepared by the State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur as a part of the project Geological information system GeoIS. One of the basic information geologic layers, which will be accessible on the web-site will be digital geologic map of the Slovak Republic in the scale 1: 50 000

  14. Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Bouchet, François R., E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: bouchet@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-02-01

    Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = O(1) × 10{sup −6} match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.

  15. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  16. A multi-scale method of mapping urban influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham; Nicola Zacarelli; Kurt H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Urban development can impact environmental quality and ecosystem services well beyond urban extent. Many methods to map urban areas have been developed and used in the past, but most have simply tried to map existing extent of urban development, and all have been single-scale techniques. The method presented here uses a clustering approach to look beyond the extant...

  17. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  18. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  19. Large scale particle simulations in a virtual memory computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Million, R.; Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.

    1983-01-01

    Virtual memory computers are capable of executing large-scale particle simulations even when the memory requirements exceeds the computer core size. The required address space is automatically mapped onto slow disc memory the the operating system. When the simulation size is very large, frequent random accesses to slow memory occur during the charge accumulation and particle pushing processes. Assesses to slow memory significantly reduce the excecution rate of the simulation. We demonstrate in this paper that with the proper choice of sorting algorithm, a nominal amount of sorting to keep physically adjacent particles near particles with neighboring array indices can reduce random access to slow memory, increase the efficiency of the I/O system, and hence, reduce the required computing time. (orig.)

  20. Multidimensional scaling for large genomic data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Henry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS is aimed to represent high dimensional data in a low dimensional space with preservation of the similarities between data points. This reduction in dimensionality is crucial for analyzing and revealing the genuine structure hidden in the data. For noisy data, dimension reduction can effectively reduce the effect of noise on the embedded structure. For large data set, dimension reduction can effectively reduce information retrieval complexity. Thus, MDS techniques are used in many applications of data mining and gene network research. However, although there have been a number of studies that applied MDS techniques to genomics research, the number of analyzed data points was restricted by the high computational complexity of MDS. In general, a non-metric MDS method is faster than a metric MDS, but it does not preserve the true relationships. The computational complexity of most metric MDS methods is over O(N2, so that it is difficult to process a data set of a large number of genes N, such as in the case of whole genome microarray data. Results We developed a new rapid metric MDS method with a low computational complexity, making metric MDS applicable for large data sets. Computer simulation showed that the new method of split-and-combine MDS (SC-MDS is fast, accurate and efficient. Our empirical studies using microarray data on the yeast cell cycle showed that the performance of K-means in the reduced dimensional space is similar to or slightly better than that of K-means in the original space, but about three times faster to obtain the clustering results. Our clustering results using SC-MDS are more stable than those in the original space. Hence, the proposed SC-MDS is useful for analyzing whole genome data. Conclusion Our new method reduces the computational complexity from O(N3 to O(N when the dimension of the feature space is far less than the number of genes N, and it successfully

  1. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  2. Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep

    2014-05-01

    Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) cause negative impacts socially, economically, and environmentally. Considering these facts, forecasting EWEs is crucial work. Indonesia has been identified as being among the countries most vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters, such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. Current forecasting of extreme events in Indonesia is carried out by interpreting synoptic maps for several fields without taking into account the link between the observed events in the 'target' area with remote conditions. This situation may cause misidentification of the event leading to an inaccurate prediction. Grotjahn and Faure (2008) compute composite maps from extreme events (including heat waves and intense rainfall) to help forecasters identify such events in model output. The composite maps show large scale meteorological patterns (LSMP) that occurred during historical EWEs. Some vital information about the EWEs can be acquired from studying such maps, in addition to providing forecaster guidance. Such maps have robust mid-latitude meteorological patterns (for Sacramento and California Central Valley, USA EWEs). We study the performance of the composite approach for tropical weather condition such as Indonesia. Initially, the composite maps are developed to identify and forecast the extreme weather events in Indramayu district- West Java, the main producer of rice in Indonesia and contributes to about 60% of the national total rice production. Studying extreme weather events happening in Indramayu is important since EWEs there affect national agricultural and fisheries activities. During a recent EWE more than a thousand houses in Indramayu suffered from serious flooding with each home more than one meter underwater. The flood also destroyed a thousand hectares of rice plantings in 5 regencies. Identifying the dates of extreme events is one of the most important steps and has to be carried out carefully. An approach has been applied to identify the

  3. Large scale analysis of signal reachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Gabr, Haitham; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2014-06-15

    Major disorders, such as leukemia, have been shown to alter the transcription of genes. Understanding how gene regulation is affected by such aberrations is of utmost importance. One promising strategy toward this objective is to compute whether signals can reach to the transcription factors through the transcription regulatory network (TRN). Due to the uncertainty of the regulatory interactions, this is a #P-complete problem and thus solving it for very large TRNs remains to be a challenge. We develop a novel and scalable method to compute the probability that a signal originating at any given set of source genes can arrive at any given set of target genes (i.e., transcription factors) when the topology of the underlying signaling network is uncertain. Our method tackles this problem for large networks while providing a provably accurate result. Our method follows a divide-and-conquer strategy. We break down the given network into a sequence of non-overlapping subnetworks such that reachability can be computed autonomously and sequentially on each subnetwork. We represent each interaction using a small polynomial. The product of these polynomials express different scenarios when a signal can or cannot reach to target genes from the source genes. We introduce polynomial collapsing operators for each subnetwork. These operators reduce the size of the resulting polynomial and thus the computational complexity dramatically. We show that our method scales to entire human regulatory networks in only seconds, while the existing methods fail beyond a few tens of genes and interactions. We demonstrate that our method can successfully characterize key reachability characteristics of the entire transcriptions regulatory networks of patients affected by eight different subtypes of leukemia, as well as those from healthy control samples. All the datasets and code used in this article are available at bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/PReach/scalable.htm. © The Author 2014

  4. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe.

    Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines.

    The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  5. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe. Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines. The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  6. Large scale molecular simulations of nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of nanomaterials in biomedical applications has been accompanied by an increasing interest in understanding their interactions with tissues, cells, and biomolecules, and in particular, on how they might affect the integrity of cell membranes and proteins. In this mini-review, we present a summary of some of the recent studies on this important subject, especially from the point of view of large scale molecular simulations. The carbon-based nanomaterials and noble metal nanoparticles are the main focus, with additional discussions on quantum dots and other nanoparticles as well. The driving forces for adsorption of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene nanosheets onto proteins or cell membranes are found to be mainly hydrophobic interactions and the so-called π-π stacking (between aromatic rings), while for the noble metal nanoparticles the long-range electrostatic interactions play a bigger role. More interestingly, there are also growing evidences showing that nanotoxicity can have implications in de novo design of nanomedicine. For example, the endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ is shown to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting enzyme MMP-9, and graphene is illustrated to disrupt bacteria cell membranes by insertion/cutting as well as destructive extraction of lipid molecules. These recent findings have provided a better understanding of nanotoxicity at the molecular level and also suggested therapeutic potential by using the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles against cancer or bacteria cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Large-scale tides in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: iphys@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Density perturbations in cosmology, i.e. spherically symmetric adiabatic perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime, are locally exactly equivalent to a different FLRW solution, as long as their wavelength is much larger than the sound horizon of all fluid components. This fact is known as the 'separate universe' paradigm. However, no such relation is known for anisotropic adiabatic perturbations, which correspond to an FLRW spacetime with large-scale tidal fields. Here, we provide a closed, fully relativistic set of evolutionary equations for the nonlinear evolution of such modes, based on the conformal Fermi (CFC) frame. We show explicitly that the tidal effects are encoded by the Weyl tensor, and are hence entirely different from an anisotropic Bianchi I spacetime, where the anisotropy is sourced by the Ricci tensor. In order to close the system, certain higher derivative terms have to be dropped. We show that this approximation is equivalent to the local tidal approximation of Hui and Bertschinger [1]. We also show that this very simple set of equations matches the exact evolution of the density field at second order, but fails at third and higher order. This provides a useful, easy-to-use framework for computing the fully relativistic growth of structure at second order.

  8. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristina Rulli, Maria; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300–550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190–370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations. (letter)

  9. Large-scale assembly of colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta

    This study reports a simple, roll-to-roll compatible coating technology for producing three-dimensional highly ordered colloidal crystal-polymer composites, colloidal crystals, and macroporous polymer membranes. A vertically beveled doctor blade is utilized to shear align silica microsphere-monomer suspensions to form large-area composites in a single step. The polymer matrix and the silica microspheres can be selectively removed to create colloidal crystals and self-standing macroporous polymer membranes. The thickness of the shear-aligned crystal is correlated with the viscosity of the colloidal suspension and the coating speed, and the correlations can be qualitatively explained by adapting the mechanisms developed for conventional doctor blade coating. Five important research topics related to the application of large-scale three-dimensional highly ordered macroporous films by doctor blade coating are covered in this study. The first topic describes the invention in large area and low cost color reflective displays. This invention is inspired by the heat pipe technology. The self-standing macroporous polymer films exhibit brilliant colors which originate from the Bragg diffractive of visible light form the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities. The colors can be easily changed by tuning the size of the air cavities to cover the whole visible spectrum. When the air cavities are filled with a solvent which has the same refractive index as that of the polymer, the macroporous polymer films become completely transparent due to the index matching. When the solvent trapped in the cavities is evaporated by in-situ heating, the sample color changes back to brilliant color. This process is highly reversible and reproducible for thousands of cycles. The second topic reports the achievement of rapid and reversible vapor detection by using 3-D macroporous photonic crystals. Capillary condensation of a condensable vapor in the interconnected macropores leads to the

  10. Large-scale parallel genome assembler over cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya Kusum; Koppa, Praveen Kumar; Goswami, Sayan; Platania, Richard; Park, Seung-Jong

    2017-06-01

    The size of high throughput DNA sequencing data has already reached the terabyte scale. To manage this huge volume of data, many downstream sequencing applications started using locality-based computing over different cloud infrastructures to take advantage of elastic (pay as you go) resources at a lower cost. However, the locality-based programming model (e.g. MapReduce) is relatively new. Consequently, developing scalable data-intensive bioinformatics applications using this model and understanding the hardware environment that these applications require for good performance, both require further research. In this paper, we present a de Bruijn graph oriented Parallel Giraph-based Genome Assembler (GiGA), as well as the hardware platform required for its optimal performance. GiGA uses the power of Hadoop (MapReduce) and Giraph (large-scale graph analysis) to achieve high scalability over hundreds of compute nodes by collocating the computation and data. GiGA achieves significantly higher scalability with competitive assembly quality compared to contemporary parallel assemblers (e.g. ABySS and Contrail) over traditional HPC cluster. Moreover, we show that the performance of GiGA is significantly improved by using an SSD-based private cloud infrastructure over traditional HPC cluster. We observe that the performance of GiGA on 256 cores of this SSD-based cloud infrastructure closely matches that of 512 cores of traditional HPC cluster.

  11. Scaling laws for mode lockings in circle maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, P.; Shraiman, B.; Soederberg, B.

    1985-06-01

    The self-similar structure of mode lockings for circle maps is studied by means of the associated Farey trees. We investigate numerically several classes of scaling relations implicit in the Farey organization of mode lockings and discuss the extent to which they lead to universal scaling laws. (orig.)

  12. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first

  13. Large-scale fuel cycle centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy center concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey - 1975 (NECSS-75) -- an important study mandated by the U.S. Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For the study, NRC defined fuel cycle centers to consist of fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle center sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000 - 300,000 MWe. The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle center permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centers in enhancing safeguarding of strategic special nuclear materials -- plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting of fuel cycle centers presents a considerably smaller problem than the siting of reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the United States (1500-2000 MT/yr) can reprocess the fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000 MWe. Only two or three fuel cycle centers of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the United States by the year 2000 . The NECSS-75 fuel cycle center evaluations showed that large scale fuel cycle centers present no real technical difficulties in siting from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be attainable with fuel cycle centers; such centers offer opportunities for improved waste management systems. Combined centers consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centers can eliminate not only shipment of plutonium, but also mixed oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centers unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of plutonium-burning reactors could reduce any

  14. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  15. On Building and Processing of Large Digitalized Map Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Simunek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A tall list of problems needs to be solved during a long-time work on a virtual model of Prague aim of which is to show historical development of the city in virtual reality. This paper presents an integrated solution to digitalizing, cataloguing and processing of a large number of maps from different periods and from variety of sources. A specialized (GIS software application was developed to allow for a fast georeferencing (using an evolutionary algorithm, for cataloguing in an internal database, and subsequently for an easy lookup of relevant maps. So the maps could be processed further to serve as a main input for a proper modeling of a changing face of the city through times.

  16. Probes of large-scale structure in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gorski, K.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in observational techniques has made it possible to confront quantitatively various models for the large-scale structure of the Universe with detailed observational data. We develop a general formalism to show that the gravitational instability theory for the origin of large-scale structure is now capable of critically confronting observational results on cosmic microwave background radiation angular anisotropies, large-scale bulk motions and large-scale clumpiness in the galaxy counts. (author)

  17. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  18. Mapping Soil Age at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E.; Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil age controls the balance between weathered and unweathered minerals in soil, and thus strongly influences many of the biological, geochemical, and hydrological functions of the critical zone. However, most quantitative models of soil development do not represent soil age. Instead, they rely on a steady-state assumption: physical erosion controls the residence time of unweathered minerals in soil, and thus fixes the chemical weathering rate. This assumption may hold true in mountainous landscapes, where physical erosion rates are high. However, the steady-state assumption may fail in low-relief landscapes, where physical erosion rates have been insufficient to remove unweathered minerals left by glaciation and dust deposition since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To test the applicability of the steady-state assumption at continental scales, we developed an empirical predictor for physical erosion, and then simulated soil development since LGM with a numerical model. We calibrated the physical erosion predictor using a compilation of watershed-scale sediment yield data, and in-situ 10Be denudation measurements corrected for weathering by Zr/Ti mass-balance. Physical erosion rates can be predicted using a power-law function of local relief and peak ground acceleration, a proxy for tectonic activity. Coupling physical erosion rates with the numerical model reveals that extensive low-relief areas of North America may depart from steady-state because they were glaciated, or received high dust fluxes during LGM. These LGM legacy effects are reflected in topsoil Ca:Al and Quartz:Feldspar ratios derived from United States Geological Survey data, and in a global compilation of soil pH measurements. Our results quantitatively support the classic idea that soils in the mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are "young", in the sense that they are undergoing transient response to LGM conditions. Where they occur, such departures from steady-state likely increase

  19. Large scale dynamics of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthune, William

    2017-08-01

    Planets form in the gaseous and dusty disks orbiting young stars. These protoplanetary disks are dispersed in a few million years, being accreted onto the central star or evaporated into the interstellar medium. To explain the observed accretion rates, it is commonly assumed that matter is transported through the disk by turbulence, although the mechanism sustaining turbulence is uncertain. On the other side, irradiation by the central star could heat up the disk surface and trigger a photoevaporative wind, but thermal effects cannot account for the observed acceleration and collimation of the wind into a narrow jet perpendicular to the disk plane. Both issues can be solved if the disk is sensitive to magnetic fields. Weak fields lead to the magnetorotational instability, whose outcome is a state of sustained turbulence. Strong fields can slow down the disk, causing it to accrete while launching a collimated wind. However, the coupling between the disk and the neutral gas is done via electric charges, each of which is outnumbered by several billion neutral molecules. The imperfect coupling between the magnetic field and the neutral gas is described in terms of "non-ideal" effects, introducing new dynamical behaviors. This thesis is devoted to the transport processes happening inside weakly ionized and weakly magnetized accretion disks; the role of microphysical effects on the large-scale dynamics of the disk is of primary importance. As a first step, I exclude the wind and examine the impact of non-ideal effects on the turbulent properties near the disk midplane. I show that the flow can spontaneously organize itself if the ionization fraction is low enough; in this case, accretion is halted and the disk exhibits axisymmetric structures, with possible consequences on planetary formation. As a second step, I study the launching of disk winds via a global model of stratified disk embedded in a warm atmosphere. This model is the first to compute non-ideal effects from

  20. Subgrid-scale stresses and scalar fluxes constructed by the multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Bairmani, Sukaina; Li, Yi; Rosales, Carlos; Xie, Zheng-tong

    2017-04-01

    The multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, "Anomalous scaling and intermittency in three-dimensional synthetic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] uses nested multi-scale Lagrangian advection of fluid particles to distort a Gaussian velocity field and, as a result, generate non-Gaussian synthetic velocity fields. Passive scalar fields can be generated with the procedure when the fluid particles carry a scalar property [C. Rosales, "Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map," Phys. Fluids 23, 075106 (2011)]. The synthetic fields have been shown to possess highly realistic statistics characterizing small scale intermittency, geometrical structures, and vortex dynamics. In this paper, we present a study of the synthetic fields using the filtering approach. This approach, which has not been pursued so far, provides insights on the potential applications of the synthetic fields in large eddy simulations and subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling. The MTLM method is first generalized to model scalar fields produced by an imposed linear mean profile. We then calculate the subgrid-scale stress, SGS scalar flux, SGS scalar variance, as well as related quantities from the synthetic fields. Comparison with direct numerical simulations (DNSs) shows that the synthetic fields reproduce the probability distributions of the SGS energy and scalar dissipation rather well. Related geometrical statistics also display close agreement with DNS results. The synthetic fields slightly under-estimate the mean SGS energy dissipation and slightly over-predict the mean SGS scalar variance dissipation. In general, the synthetic fields tend to slightly under-estimate the probability of large fluctuations for most quantities we have examined. Small scale anisotropy in the scalar field originated from the imposed mean gradient is captured. The sensitivity of the synthetic fields on the input spectra is assessed by

  1. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing Auger surface array data sample of the highest energy cosmic rays, large scale anisotropy studies at this part of the spectrum become a promising path towards the understanding of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic particles. We describe the methods underlying the search for distortions in the cosmic rays arrival directions over large angular scales, that is, bigger than those commonly employed in the search for correlations with point-like sources. The widely used tools, known as coverage maps, are described and some of the issues involved in their calculations are presented through Monte Carlo based studies. Coverage computation requires a deep knowledge on the local detection efficiency, including the influence of weather parameters like temperature and pressure. Particular attention is devoted to a new proposed method to extract the coverage, based upon the assumption of time factorization of an extensive air shower detector acceptance. We use Auger monitoring data to test the goodness of such a hypothesis. We finally show the necessity of using more than one coverage to extract any possible anisotropic pattern on the sky, by pointing to some of the biases present in commonly used methods based, for example, on the scrambling of the UTC arrival times for each event. (author)

  2. Large scale injection test (LASGIT) modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedo, D.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With the objective of understanding the gas flow processes through clay barriers in schemes of radioactive waste disposal, the Lasgit in situ experiment was planned and is currently in progress. The modelling of the experiment will permit to better understand of the responses, to confirm hypothesis of mechanisms and processes and to learn in order to design future experiments. The experiment and modelling activities are included in the project FORGE (FP7). The in situ large scale injection test Lasgit is currently being performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory by SKB and BGS. An schematic layout of the test is shown. The deposition hole follows the KBS3 scheme. A copper canister is installed in the axe of the deposition hole, surrounded by blocks of highly compacted MX-80 bentonite. A concrete plug is placed at the top of the buffer. A metallic lid anchored to the surrounding host rock is included in order to prevent vertical movements of the whole system during gas injection stages (high gas injection pressures are expected to be reached). Hydration of the buffer material is achieved by injecting water through filter mats, two placed at the rock walls and two at the interfaces between bentonite blocks. Water is also injected through the 12 canister filters. Gas injection stages are performed injecting gas to some of the canister injection filters. Since the water pressure and the stresses (swelling pressure development) will be high during gas injection, it is necessary to inject at high gas pressures. This implies mechanical couplings as gas penetrates after the gas entry pressure is achieved and may produce deformations which in turn lead to permeability increments. A 3D hydro-mechanical numerical model of the test using CODE-BRIGHT is presented. The domain considered for the modelling is shown. The materials considered in the simulation are the MX-80 bentonite blocks (cylinders and rings), the concrete plug

  3. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  4. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  5. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele

    2015-08-23

    The interaction between scales is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer. The large-scale amplitude modulation of the small scales already observed in other works depends on the crosswise location. Large-scale positive fluctuations correlate with a stronger activity of the small scales on the low speed-side of the mixing layer, and a reduced activity on the high speed-side. However, from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  6. Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Hybrid inflation; Higgs scalar field; structure formation; curvation. ... We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which ... May 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board ...

  7. Fast symplectic map tracking for the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan T. Abell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracking simulations remain the essential tool for evaluating how multipolar imperfections in ring magnets restrict the domain of stable phase-space motion. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN, particles circulate at the injection energy, when multipole errors are most significant, for more than 10^{7} turns, but systematic tracking studies are limited to a small fraction of this total time—even on modern computers. A considerable speedup is expected by replacing element-by-element tracking with the use of a symplectified one-turn map. We have applied this method to the realistic LHC lattice, version 6, and report here our results for various map orders, with special emphasis on precision and speed.

  8. Comparison Between Overtopping Discharge in Small and Large Scale Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents overtopping measurements from small scale model test performed at the Haudraulic & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark and large scale model tests performed at the Largde Wave Channel,Hannover, Germany. Comparison between results obtained from...... small and large scale model tests show no clear evidence of scale effects for overtopping above a threshold value. In the large scale model no overtopping was measured for waveheights below Hs = 0.5m as the water sunk into the voids between the stones on the crest. For low overtopping scale effects...

  9. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  10. Automatic management software for large-scale cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Yunjian; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    At present, the large-scale cluster system faces to the difficult management. For example the manager has large work load. It needs to cost much time on the management and the maintenance of large-scale cluster system. The nodes in large-scale cluster system are very easy to be chaotic. Thousands of nodes are put in big rooms so that some managers are very easy to make the confusion with machines. How do effectively carry on accurate management under the large-scale cluster system? The article introduces ELFms in the large-scale cluster system. Furthermore, it is proposed to realize the large-scale cluster system automatic management. (authors)

  11. Real-Time Large Scale 3d Reconstruction by Fusing Kinect and Imu Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yilmaz, A.

    2015-08-01

    Kinect-style RGB-D cameras have been used to build large scale dense 3D maps for indoor environments. These maps can serve many purposes such as robot navigation, and augmented reality. However, to generate dense 3D maps of large scale environments is still very challenging. In this paper, we present a mapping system for 3D reconstruction that fuses measurements from a Kinect and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to estimate motion. Our major achievements include: (i) Large scale consistent 3D reconstruction is realized by volume shifting and loop closure; (ii) The coarse-to-fine iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, the SIFT odometry, and IMU odometry are combined to robustly and precisely estimate pose. In particular, ICP runs routinely to track the Kinect motion. If ICP fails in planar areas, the SIFT odometry provides incremental motion estimate. If both ICP and the SIFT odometry fail, e.g., upon abrupt motion or inadequate features, the incremental motion is estimated by the IMU. Additionally, the IMU also observes the roll and pitch angles which can reduce long-term drift of the sensor assembly. In experiments on a consumer laptop, our system estimates motion at 8Hz on average while integrating color images to the local map and saving volumes of meshes concurrently. Moreover, it is immune to tracking failures, and has smaller drift than the state-of-the-art systems in large scale reconstruction.

  12. A comparison of multidimensional scaling methods for perceptual mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.

    Multidimensional scaling has been applied to a wide range of marketing problems, in particular to perceptual mapping based on dissimilarity judgments. The introduction of methods based on the maximum likelihood principle is one of the most important developments. In this article, the authors compare

  13. Optimization of Large-Scale Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F. M.

    solutions to small problems with one or two variables to the optimization of large structures such as bridges, ships and offshore structures. The methods used for salving these problems have evolved from being classical differential calculus and calculus of variation to very advanced numerical techniques...

  14. Metastrategies in large-scale bargaining settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennes, D.; Jong, S. de; Tuyls, K.; Gal, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents novel methods for representing and analyzing a special class of multiagent bargaining settings that feature multiple players, large action spaces, and a relationship among players' goals, tasks, and resources. We show how to reduce these interactions to a set of bilateral

  15. Large scale processing of dielectric electroactive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu

    Efficient processing techniques are vital to the success of any manufacturing industry. The processing techniques determine the quality of the products and thus to a large extent the performance and reliability of the products that are manufactured. The dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP...

  16. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  17. BFAST: an alignment tool for large scale genome resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Homer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of massively parallel DNA sequencers, combined with the challenge of whole human genome resequencing, result in the need for rapid and accurate alignment of billions of short DNA sequence reads to a large reference genome. Speed is obviously of great importance, but equally important is maintaining alignment accuracy of short reads, in the 25-100 base range, in the presence of errors and true biological variation.We introduce a new algorithm specifically optimized for this task, as well as a freely available implementation, BFAST, which can align data produced by any of current sequencing platforms, allows for user-customizable levels of speed and accuracy, supports paired end data, and provides for efficient parallel and multi-threaded computation on a computer cluster. The new method is based on creating flexible, efficient whole genome indexes to rapidly map reads to candidate alignment locations, with arbitrary multiple independent indexes allowed to achieve robustness against read errors and sequence variants. The final local alignment uses a Smith-Waterman method, with gaps to support the detection of small indels.We compare BFAST to a selection of large-scale alignment tools -- BLAT, MAQ, SHRiMP, and SOAP -- in terms of both speed and accuracy, using simulated and real-world datasets. We show BFAST can achieve substantially greater sensitivity of alignment in the context of errors and true variants, especially insertions and deletions, and minimize false mappings, while maintaining adequate speed compared to other current methods. We show BFAST can align the amount of data needed to fully resequence a human genome, one billion reads, with high sensitivity and accuracy, on a modest computer cluster in less than 24 hours. BFAST is available at (http://bfast.sourceforge.net.

  18. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  19. LARGE-SCALE FLOWS IN PROMINENCE CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Gibson, S. E.; Tomczyk, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Brooks, D. H.; Williams, D. R.; Tripathi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of rarefied density often form cavities above quiescent prominences. We observed two different cavities with the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter on 2005 April 21 and with Hinode/EIS on 2008 November 8. Inside both of these cavities, we find coherent velocity structures based on spectral Doppler shifts. These flows have speeds of 5-10 km s -1 , occur over length scales of tens of megameters, and persist for at least 1 hr. Flows in cavities are an example of the nonstatic nature of quiescent structures in the solar atmosphere.

  20. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  1. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed

  2. Large Scale Demand Response of Thermostatic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana

    This study is concerned with large populations of residential thermostatic loads (e.g. refrigerators, air conditioning or heat pumps). The purpose is to gain control over the aggregate power consumption in order to provide balancing services for the electrical grid. Without affecting the temperat......This study is concerned with large populations of residential thermostatic loads (e.g. refrigerators, air conditioning or heat pumps). The purpose is to gain control over the aggregate power consumption in order to provide balancing services for the electrical grid. Without affecting....... The control architecture is defined by parsimonious communication requirements that also have a high level data privacy, and it furthermore guarantees a robust and secure local operation. Mathematical models are put forward, and the effectiveness is shown by numerical simulations. A case study of 10000...

  3. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-07-25

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed.

  4. Large-scale preparation of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, J S; Elbing, K L; Brent, R

    2001-05-01

    Although the need for large quantities of plasmid DNA has diminished as techniques for manipulating small quantities of DNA have improved, occasionally large amounts of high-quality plasmid DNA are desired. This unit describes the preparation of milligram quantities of highly purified plasmid DNA. The first part of the unit describes three methods for preparing crude lysates enriched in plasmid DNA from bacterial cells grown in liquid culture: alkaline lysis, boiling, and Triton lysis. The second part describes four methods for purifying plasmid DNA in such lysates away from contaminating RNA and protein: CsCl/ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography.

  5. Large scale calculations for hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The talk reviews some recent Monte Carlo calculations for Quantum Chromodynamics, performed on Euclidean lattices of rather large extent. Purpose of the calculations is to provide accurate determinations of quantities, such as interquark potentials or mass eigenvalues, which are relevant for hadronic spectroscopy. Results obtained in quenched QCD on 16 3 x 32 lattices are illustrated, and a discussion of computational resources and techniques required for the calculations is presented. 18 refs.,3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  7. Large scale flow in the dayside magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The degree of control over plasma flow direction exerted by the compressed magnetic field in the dayside magnetosheath is examined by comparing ISEE 1 LEPEDEA data with hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic predictions. Measured flow directions projected toward the subsolar region pass within approx.1 R/sub E/ of the aberrated theoretical hydrodynamic stagnation point in 11 of 20 cases analyzed. The remaining nine cases pass within approx.2-3 R/sub E/ of the stagnation point. One case with large deflection has been studied in detail with large-time-resolution plasma and magnetic field data both from ISEE 1 and from ISEE 3, in the role of a solar wind monitor. The deflected flow is persitent over a period of 1 1/2 hours, and its direction is consistent with a stagnation point displacement resulting from increased, asymmetric magnetic field pressure contributions during periods of low Alfven Mach number, as predicted by Russell et al. Of the other eight cases with large deflections, four are associated with flux transfer events identified independently by Berchem and Russell. The observed deflections in these cases are consistent with either the subsolar merging line or the antiparallel merging hypothesis, but not exclusively with one or the other. The results relating to the formation of a stagnation line rather than a stagnation point are inconclusive

  8. Numerically modelling the large scale coronal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Mayukh; Nandi, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    The solar corona spews out vast amounts of magnetized plasma into the heliosphere which has a direct impact on the Earth's magnetosphere. Thus it is important that we develop an understanding of the dynamics of the solar corona. With our present technology it has not been possible to generate 3D magnetic maps of the solar corona; this warrants the use of numerical simulations to study the coronal magnetic field. A very popular method of doing this, is to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field using NLFF or PFSS codes. However the extrapolations at different time intervals are completely independent of each other and do not capture the temporal evolution of magnetic fields. On the other hand full MHD simulations of the global coronal field, apart from being computationally very expensive would be physically less transparent, owing to the large number of free parameters that are typically used in such codes. This brings us to the Magneto-frictional model which is relatively simpler and computationally more economic. We have developed a Magnetofrictional Model, in 3D spherical polar co-ordinates to study the large scale global coronal field. Here we present studies of changing connectivities between active regions, in response to photospheric motions.

  9. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  10. Responses in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: barreira@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ''bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients , which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k . Further, the responses up to n -th order completely describe the ( n +2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance Cov{sup NG}{sub ℓ=0}( k {sub 1}, k {sub 2}), in the limit where one of the modes, say k {sub 2}, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k {sub 2} ∼< 0.06 h Mpc{sup −1}, and for any k {sub 1} ∼> 2 k {sub 2}. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  11. Responses in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ``bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients, which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k. Further, the responses up to n-th order completely describe the (n+2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance CovNGl=0(k1,k2), in the limit where one of the modes, say k2, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k2 lesssim 0.06 h Mpc-1, and for any k1 gtrsim 2k2. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  12. Large-scale modelling of neuronal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, G.; Verondini, E.; Giampieri, E.; Bersani, F.; Remondini, D.; Milanesi, L.; Zironi, I.

    2009-01-01

    The brain is, without any doubt, the most, complex system of the human body. Its complexity is also due to the extremely high number of neurons, as well as the huge number of synapses connecting them. Each neuron is capable to perform complex tasks, like learning and memorizing a large class of patterns. The simulation of large neuronal systems is challenging for both technological and computational reasons, and can open new perspectives for the comprehension of brain functioning. A well-known and widely accepted model of bidirectional synaptic plasticity, the BCM model, is stated by a differential equation approach based on bistability and selectivity properties. We have modified the BCM model extending it from a single-neuron to a whole-network model. This new model is capable to generate interesting network topologies starting from a small number of local parameters, describing the interaction between incoming and outgoing links from each neuron. We have characterized this model in terms of complex network theory, showing how this, learning rule can be a support For network generation.

  13. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  14. Self-Organization in Coupled Map Scale-Free Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Ming, Liang; Zong-Hua, Liu; Hua-Ping, Lü

    2008-01-01

    We study the self-organization of phase synchronization in coupled map scale-free networks with chaotic logistic map at each node and find that a variety of ordered spatiotemporal patterns emerge spontaneously in a regime of coupling strength. These ordered behaviours will change with the increase of the average links and are robust to both the system size and parameter mismatch. A heuristic theory is given to explain the mechanism of self-organization and to figure out the regime of coupling for the ordered spatiotemporal patterns

  15. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  16. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  18. A Large-Scale Study of Misophonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Erfanian, Mercede

    2018-03-01

    We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Most participants indicated that their symptoms started in childhood or early teenage years. Severity of misophonic responses increases over time. One third of participants reported having family members with similar symptoms. Half of our participants reported no comorbid clinical conditions, and the other half reported a variety of conditions. Only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to the severity of the misophonic symptoms. Remarkably, half of the participants reported experiencing euphoric, relaxing, and tingling sensations with particular sounds or sights, a relatively unfamiliar phenomenon called autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR). It is unlikely that another "real" underlying clinical, psychiatric, or psychological disorder can explain away the misophonia. The possible relationship with PTSD and ASMR warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. EPFM verification by a large scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Hidaka, T.; Sato, M.; Urabe, Y.; Iida, M.

    1993-01-01

    Step B test was carried out as one of the elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFR) study in Japanese PTS integrity research project. In step B test bending load was applied to the large flat specimen with thermal shock. Tensile load was kept constant during the test. Estimated stable crack growth at the deepest point of the crack was 3 times larger than the experimental value in the previous analysis. In order to diminish the difference between them from the point of FEM modeling, more precise FEM mesh was introduced. According to the new analysis, the difference considerably decreased. That is, stable crack growth evaluation was improved by adopting precise FEM model near the crack tip and the difference was almost same order as that in the NKS4-1 test analysis by MPA. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  1. Large-Scale Pattern Discovery in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin-Mahieux, Thierry

    This work focuses on extracting patterns in musical data from very large collections. The problem is split in two parts. First, we build such a large collection, the Million Song Dataset, to provide researchers access to commercial-size datasets. Second, we use this collection to study cover song recognition which involves finding harmonic patterns from audio features. Regarding the Million Song Dataset, we detail how we built the original collection from an online API, and how we encouraged other organizations to participate in the project. The result is the largest research dataset with heterogeneous sources of data available to music technology researchers. We demonstrate some of its potential and discuss the impact it already has on the field. On cover song recognition, we must revisit the existing literature since there are no publicly available results on a dataset of more than a few thousand entries. We present two solutions to tackle the problem, one using a hashing method, and one using a higher-level feature computed from the chromagram (dubbed the 2DFTM). We further investigate the 2DFTM since it has potential to be a relevant representation for any task involving audio harmonic content. Finally, we discuss the future of the dataset and the hope of seeing more work making use of the different sources of data that are linked in the Million Song Dataset. Regarding cover songs, we explain how this might be a first step towards defining a harmonic manifold of music, a space where harmonic similarities between songs would be more apparent.

  2. Noise pollution mapping approach and accuracy on landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Merchan, Carlos; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Noise mapping allows the characterization of environmental variables, such as noise pollution or soundscape, depending on the task. Strategic noise mapping (as per Directive 2002/49/EC, 2002) is a tool intended for the assessment of noise pollution at the European level every five years. These maps are based on common methods and procedures intended for human exposure assessment in the European Union that could be also be adapted for assessing environmental noise pollution in natural parks. However, given the size of such areas, there could be an alternative approach to soundscape characterization rather than using human noise exposure procedures. It is possible to optimize the size of the mapping grid used for such work by taking into account the attributes of the area to be studied and the desired outcome. This would then optimize the mapping time and the cost. This type of optimization is important in noise assessment as well as in the study of other environmental variables. This study compares 15 models, using different grid sizes, to assess the accuracy of the noise mapping of the road traffic noise at a landscape scale, with respect to noise and landscape indicators. In a study area located in the Manzanares High River Basin Regional Park in Spain, different accuracy levels (Kappa index values from 0.725 to 0.987) were obtained depending on the terrain and noise source properties. The time taken for the calculations and the noise mapping accuracy results reveal the potential for setting the map resolution in line with decision-makers' criteria and budget considerations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  4. Features of the method of large-scale paleolandscape reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Erman, Natalia; Graves, Irina

    2017-04-01

    The method of paleolandscape reconstructions was tested in the key area of the basin of the Central Dubna, located at the junction of the Taldom and Sergiev Posad districts of the Moscow region. A series of maps was created which shows paleoreconstructions of the original (indigenous) living environment of initial settlers during main time periods of the Holocene age and features of human interaction with landscapes at the early stages of economic development of the territory (in the early and middle Holocene). The sequence of these works is as follows. 1. Comprehensive analysis of topographic maps of different scales and aerial and satellite images, stock materials of geological and hydrological surveys and prospecting of peat deposits, archaeological evidence on ancient settlements, palynological and osteological analysis, analysis of complex landscape and archaeological studies. 2. Mapping of factual material and analyzing of the spatial distribution of archaeological sites were performed. 3. Running of a large-scale field landscape mapping (sample areas) and compiling of maps of the modern landscape structure. On this basis, edaphic properties of the main types of natural boundaries were analyzed and their resource base was determined. 4. Reconstruction of lake-river system during the main periods of the Holocene. The boundaries of restored paleolakes were determined based on power and territorial confinement of decay ooze. 5. On the basis of landscape and edaphic method the actual paleolandscape reconstructions for the main periods of the Holocene were performed. During the reconstructions of the original, indigenous flora we relied on data of palynological studies conducted on the studied area or in similar landscape conditions. 6. The result was a retrospective analysis and periodization of the settlement process, economic development and the formation of the first anthropogenically transformed landscape complexes. The reconstruction of the dynamics of the

  5. Irradiation of onions on a large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji; Hayashi, Toru; Uozumi, J.; Sugimoto, Toshio; Aoki, Shohei

    1984-01-01

    A large number of onions of var. Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were irradiated in September followed by storage at 0 deg C or 5 deg C. The onions were shifted from cold-storage facilities to room temperature in mid-March or in mid-April in the following year. Their sprouting, rooting, spoilage characteristics and sugar content were observed during storage at room temperature. Most of the unirradiated onions sprouted either outside or inside bulbs during storage at room temperature, and almost all of the irradiated ones showed small buds with browning inside the bulb in mid-April irrespective of the storage temperature. Rooting and/or expansion of bottom were observed in the unirradiated samples. Although the irradiated materials did not have root, they showed expansion of bottom to some extent. Both the irradiated and unirradiated onions spoiled slightly unless they sprouted, and sprouted onions got easily spoiled. There was no difference in the glucose content between the unirradiated and irradiated onions, but the irradiated ones yielded higher sucrose content when stored at room temperature. Irradiation treatment did not have an obvious effect on the quality of freeze-dried onion slices. (author)

  6. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Significant improvements in the properties of superconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements are being incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapes that are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devices include new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusion power experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines. These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applications that utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments such as ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising new materials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied in order to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, we will review the key developments that are leading to these new applications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factor is improved understanding or development of materials with significantly improved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Sn for use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, the development is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort to develop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materials that can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications of these two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order for new applications to be realized

  7. Software for large scale tracking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1984-05-01

    Over the past few years, Brookhaven accelerator physicists have been adapting particle tracking programs in planning local storage rings, and lately for SSC reference designs. In addition, the Laboratory is actively considering upgrades to its AGS capabilities aimed at higher proton intensity, polarized proton beams, and heavy ion acceleration. Further activity concerns heavy ion transfer, a proposed booster, and most recently design studies for a heavy ion collider to join to this complex. Circumstances have thus encouraged a search for common features among design and modeling programs and their data, and the corresponding controls efforts among present and tentative machines. Using a version of PATRICIA with nonlinear forces as a vehicle, we have experimented with formal ways to describe accelerator lattice problems to computers as well as to speed up the calculations for large storage ring models. Code treated by straightforward reorganization has served for SSC explorations. The representation work has led to a relational data base centered program, LILA, which has desirable properties for dealing with the many thousands of rapidly changing variables in tracking and other model programs. 13 references

  8. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-05-06

    Significant improvements in the properties ofsuperconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements arebeing incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapesthat are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devicesinclude new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusionpower experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines.These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applicationsthat utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments suchas ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising newmaterials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied inorder to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, wewill review the key developments that are leading to these newapplications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factoris improved understanding or development of materials with significantlyimproved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Snfor use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, thedevelopment is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort todevelop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materialsthat can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications ofthese two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, wewill discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order fornew applications to be realized.

  9. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  10. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.

    2015-01-01

    from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  11. Experience from large scale use of the EuroGenomics custom SNP chip in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boichard, Didier A; Boussaha, Mekki; Capitan, Aurélien

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the strategy to evaluate candidate mutations underlying QTL or responsible for genetic defects, based upon the design and large-scale use of the Eurogenomics custom SNP chip set up for bovine genomic selection. Some variants under study originated from mapping genetic defect...

  12. Progressive Amalgamation of Building Clusters for Map Generalization Based on Scaling Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization utilizes transformation operations to derive smaller-scale maps from larger-scale maps, and is a key procedure for the modelling and understanding of geographic space. Studies to date have largely applied a fixed tolerance to aggregate clustered buildings into a single object, resulting in the loss of details that meet cartographic constraints and may be of importance for users. This study aims to develop a method that amalgamates clustered buildings gradually without significant modification of geometry, while preserving the map details as much as possible under cartographic constraints. The amalgamation process consists of three key steps. First, individual buildings are grouped into distinct clusters by using the graph-based spatial clustering application with random forest (GSCARF method. Second, building clusters are decomposed into scaling subgroups according to homogeneity with regard to the mean distance of subgroups. Thus, hierarchies of building clusters can be derived based on scaling subgroups. Finally, an amalgamation operation is progressively performed from the bottom-level subgroups to the top-level subgroups using the maximum distance of each subgroup as the amalgamating tolerance instead of using a fixed tolerance. As a consequence of this step, generalized intermediate scaling results are available, which can form the multi-scale representation of buildings. The experimental results show that the proposed method can generate amalgams with correct details, statistical area balance and orthogonal shape while satisfying cartographic constraints (e.g., minimum distance and minimum area.

  13. Magnetic Multi-Scale Mapping to Characterize Anthropogenic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, P.; Munschy, M.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of buried anthropic objects on construction sites can cause delays and/or dangers for workers and for the public. Indeed, every year 500 tons of Unexploded-ordnance are discovered in France. Magnetic measurements are useful to localize magnetized objects. Moreover, it is the cheapest geophysical method which does not impact environment and which is relatively fast to perform. Fluxgate magnetometers (three components) are used to measure magnetic properties bellow the ground. These magnetic sensors are not absolute, so they need to be calibrated before the onset of the measurements. The advantage is that they allow magnetic compensation of the equipment attached to the sensor. So the choice of this kind sensor gives the opportunity to install the equipment aboard different magnetized supports: boat, quad bike, unmanned aerial vehicle, aircraft,... Indeed, this methodology permits to perform magnetic mapping with different scale and different elevation above ground level. An old French aerial military plant was chosen to perform this multi-scale approach. The advantage of the site is that it contains a lot of different targets with variable sizes and depth, e.g. buildings, unexploded-ordnances of the two world wars, trenches, pipes,… By comparison between the different magnetic anomaly maps at different elevations some of the geometric parameters of the magnetic sources can be characterized. The comparison between measured maps at different elevations and the prolonged map highlights the maximum distance for the target's detection (figure).

  14. Habitat Scale Mapping of Fisheries Ecosystem Service Values in Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. O'Higgins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the variability of ecosystem service values at spatial scales most relevant to local decision makers. Competing definitions of ecosystem services, the paucity of ecological and economic information, and the lack of standardization in methodology are major obstacles to applying the ecosystem-services approach at the estuary scale. We present a standardized method that combines habitat maps and habitat-faunal associations to estimate ecosystem service values for recreational and commercial fisheries in estuaries. Three case studies in estuaries on the U.S. west coast (Yaquina Bay, Oregon, east coast (Lagoon Pond, Massachusetts, and the Gulf of Mexico (Weeks Bay, Alabama are presented to illustrate our method's rigor and limitations using available data. The resulting spatially explicit maps of fisheries ecosystem service values show within and between estuary variations in the value of estuarine habitat types that can be used to make better informed resource-management decisions.

  15. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  16. Large-scale matrix-handling subroutines 'ATLAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fujita, Keiichi; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Tahara, Nobuo

    1978-03-01

    Subroutine package ''ATLAS'' has been developed for handling large-scale matrices. The package is composed of four kinds of subroutines, i.e., basic arithmetic routines, routines for solving linear simultaneous equations and for solving general eigenvalue problems and utility routines. The subroutines are useful in large scale plasma-fluid simulations. (auth.)

  17. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine large-scale agricultural land acquisitions in nine West African countries -Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Benin, Mali, Togo, Senegal, Niger, and Côte d'Ivoire. ... They will use the results to increase public awareness and knowledge about the consequences of large-scale land acquisitions.

  18. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Elsawy, Hesham; Gharbieh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Adinoyi, Abdulkareem; Alshaalan, Furaih

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end

  19. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure and chemical purity of 99⋅1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale. Keywords. Sol–gel; yttria-stabilized zirconia; large scale; nanopowder; Pechini method. 1. Introduction. Zirconia has attracted the attention of many scientists because of its tremendous thermal, mechanical ...

  20. NaviCell: a web-based environment for navigation, curation and maintenance of large molecular interaction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperstein, Inna; Cohen, David P A; Pook, Stuart; Viara, Eric; Calzone, Laurence; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2013-10-07

    Molecular biology knowledge can be formalized and systematically represented in a computer-readable form as a comprehensive map of molecular interactions. There exist an increasing number of maps of molecular interactions containing detailed and step-wise description of various cell mechanisms. It is difficult to explore these large maps, to organize discussion of their content and to maintain them. Several efforts were recently made to combine these capabilities together in one environment, and NaviCell is one of them. NaviCell is a web-based environment for exploiting large maps of molecular interactions, created in CellDesigner, allowing their easy exploration, curation and maintenance. It is characterized by a combination of three essential features: (1) efficient map browsing based on Google Maps; (2) semantic zooming for viewing different levels of details or of abstraction of the map and (3) integrated web-based blog for collecting community feedback. NaviCell can be easily used by experts in the field of molecular biology for studying molecular entities of interest in the context of signaling pathways and crosstalk between pathways within a global signaling network. NaviCell allows both exploration of detailed molecular mechanisms represented on the map and a more abstract view of the map up to a top-level modular representation. NaviCell greatly facilitates curation, maintenance and updating the comprehensive maps of molecular interactions in an interactive and user-friendly fashion due to an imbedded blogging system. NaviCell provides user-friendly exploration of large-scale maps of molecular interactions, thanks to Google Maps and WordPress interfaces, with which many users are already familiar. Semantic zooming which is used for navigating geographical maps is adopted for molecular maps in NaviCell, making any level of visualization readable. In addition, NaviCell provides a framework for community-based curation of maps.

  1. Open quantum maps from complex scaling of kicked scattering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertig, Normann; Shudo, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We derive open quantum maps from periodically kicked scattering systems and discuss the computation of their resonance spectra in terms of theoretically grounded methods, such as complex scaling and sufficiently weak absorbing potentials. In contrast, we also show that current implementations of open quantum maps, based on strong absorptive or even projective openings, fail to produce the resonance spectra of kicked scattering systems. This comparison pinpoints flaws in current implementations of open quantum maps, namely, the inability to separate resonance eigenvalues from the continuum as well as the presence of diffraction effects due to strong absorption. The reported deviations from the true resonance spectra appear, even if the openings do not affect the classical trapped set, and become appreciable for shorter-lived resonances, e.g., those associated with chaotic orbits. This makes the open quantum maps, which we derive in this paper, a valuable alternative for future explorations of quantum-chaotic scattering systems, for example, in the context of the fractal Weyl law. The results are illustrated for a quantum map model whose classical dynamics exhibits key features of ionization and a trapped set which is organized by a topological horseshoe.

  2. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  3. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  4. Algorithm 896: LSA: Algorithms for Large-Scale Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), 16-1-16-29 ISSN 0098-3500 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405; GA ČR GP201/06/P397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : algorithms * design * large-scale optimization * large-scale nonsmooth optimization * large-scale nonlinear least squares * large-scale nonlinear minimax * large-scale systems of nonlinear equations * sparse pro blems * partially separable pro blems * limited-memory methods * discrete Newton methods * quasi-Newton methods * primal interior-point methods Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2009

  5. A large-scale chromosome-specific SNP discovery guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Lucas, Stuart; Budak, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most prevalent type of variation in genomes that are increasingly being used as molecular markers in diversity analyses, mapping and cloning of genes, and germplasm characterization. However, only a few studies reported large-scale SNP discovery in Aegilops tauschii, restricting their potential use as markers for the low-polymorphic D genome. Here, we report 68,592 SNPs found on the gene-related sequences of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii genotype MvGB589 using genomic and transcriptomic sequences from seven Ae. tauschii accessions, including AL8/78, the only genotype for which a draft genome sequence is available at present. We also suggest a workflow to compare SNP positions in homologous regions on the 5D chromosome of Triticum aestivum, bread wheat, to mark single nucleotide variations between these closely related species. Overall, the identified SNPs define a density of 4.49 SNPs per kilobyte, among the highest reported for the genic regions of Ae. tauschii so far. To our knowledge, this study also presents the first chromosome-specific SNP catalog in Ae. tauschii that should facilitate the association of these SNPs with morphological traits on chromosome 5D to be ultimately targeted for wheat improvement.

  6. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  7. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  8. The very large research infrastructures: the French road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled that the notion of TGIR (Tres Grande Infrastructure de Recherche, Very large research infrastructure) has evolved in time and now encompasses many different realities in terms of domain or size, this document briefly presents the main challenging fields of research: the planet, the universe seen from the Earth, particles and nuclei, matter, information, communication, computing and data services, human and social sciences, life sciences and health. It indicates TGIRs which have been selected for the French road-map: some already exist and operational (46), some are not yet operational but have been decided in terms of financing (19) and some are still projected but with different levels of priority. Appendices give selection criteria, working group compositions for different domains, and description sheets for these TGIRs (nature, localisation, scientific tools, spin-offs and impacts, international value, concerned scientific community, budget)

  9. Large-Scale Image Analytics Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Basu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution land cover classification maps are needed to increase the accuracy of current Land ecosystem and climate model outputs. Limited studies are in place that demonstrates the state-of-the-art in deriving very high resolution (VHR) land cover products. In addition, most methods heavily rely on commercial softwares that are difficult to scale given the region of study (e.g. continents to globe). Complexities in present approaches relate to (a) scalability of the algorithm, (b) large image data processing (compute and memory intensive), (c) computational cost, (d) massively parallel architecture, and (e) machine learning automation. In addition, VHR satellite datasets are of the order of terabytes and features extracted from these datasets are of the order of petabytes. In our present study, we have acquired the National Agricultural Imaging Program (NAIP) dataset for the Continental United States at a spatial resolution of 1-m. This data comes as image tiles (a total of quarter million image scenes with ~60 million pixels) and has a total size of ~100 terabytes for a single acquisition. Features extracted from the entire dataset would amount to ~8-10 petabytes. In our proposed approach, we have implemented a novel semi-automated machine learning algorithm rooted on the principles of "deep learning" to delineate the percentage of tree cover. In order to perform image analytics in such a granular system, it is mandatory to devise an intelligent archiving and query system for image retrieval, file structuring, metadata processing and filtering of all available image scenes. Using the Open NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) initiative, which is a partnership with Amazon Web Services (AWS), we have developed an end-to-end architecture for designing the database and the deep belief network (following the distbelief computing model) to solve a grand challenge of scaling this process across quarter million NAIP tiles that cover the entire Continental United States. The

  10. Quantitative Mapping of Precursory Seismic Quiescence Before Large Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukomm, S.; Wiemer, S.; Giardini, D.

    2002-12-01

    A relative decrease of aftershock activity before the occurrence of large aftershocks to M6+ mainshocks is one of only few earthquake precursors accepted for the IASPEI preliminary list of significant earthquake precursors. If one considers earthquake rate to be dependent on stressing rate, aftershocks sequences offer in fact an ideal environment to detect precursory quiescence before large earthquakes: The numerous aftershocks allow a much higher spatial and temporal resolution of transients in seismicity than possible with the average background rate of micro-earthquakes. Past studies of precursory quiescence before larger aftershocks, however, have largely been based on bulk value. The aim of this study is to map the temporal and spatial variability of activity rate within several rich aftershock sequences, and, possibly, exploit the results for improving real time probabilistic aftershock hazard assessment. We introduce a new algorithm based on fitting the modified Omori law to the aftershock sequences. At arbitrarily chosen grid points, the Omori parameters of the sub-samples containing all aftershock within 5 or 10 km of the node are estimated at time t. We calculate the number of aftershocks N +/- dN in the time interval t + dt using the relevant four Omori parameters (p, c and k) parameters and their corresponding standard deviations estimated using a bootstrap analysis. The difference between the forecasted and the observed number of aftershocks, normalized by the standard deviation of the forecast, is our estimator of rate change. The algorithm is tested on synthetic aftershock sequences containing artificial quiescences in order to calibrate the free parameters for optimal detection of precursory quiescence. We then perform our spatial and temporal mapping for several prominent Californian and Japanese aftershock sequences (Landers, Hector Mine, Northridge, Loma Prieta, Kobe, Western Tottori and Hokkaido). Preliminary results suggest that we cannot

  11. Mapping the electrical properties of large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Whelan, Patrick R.; Petersen, Dirch H.; Due Buron, Jonas; Zurutuza, Amaia; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Jepsen, Peter U.

    2017-12-01

    The significant progress in terms of fabricating large-area graphene films for transparent electrodes, barriers, electronics, telecommunication and other applications has not yet been accompanied by efficient methods for characterizing the electrical properties of large-area graphene. While in the early prototyping as well as research and development phases, electrical test devices created by conventional lithography have provided adequate insights, this approach is becoming increasingly problematic due to complications such as irreversible damage to the original graphene film, contamination, and a high measurement effort per device. In this topical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the issues that need to be addressed by any large-area characterisation method for electrical key performance indicators, with emphasis on electrical uniformity and on how this can be used to provide a more accurate analysis of the graphene film. We review and compare three different, but complementary approaches that rely either on fixed contacts (dry laser lithography), movable contacts (micro four point probes) and non-contact (terahertz time-domain spectroscopy) between the probe and the graphene film, all of which have been optimized for maximal throughput and accuracy, and minimal damage to the graphene film. Of these three, the main emphasis is on THz time-domain spectroscopy, which is non-destructive, highly accurate and allows both conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility to be mapped across arbitrarily large areas at rates that by far exceed any other known method. We also detail how the THz conductivity spectra give insights on the scattering mechanisms, and through that, the microstructure of graphene films subject to different growth and transfer processes. The perspectives for upscaling to realistic production environments are discussed.

  12. Large-Scale 3D Printing: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassmi, Hamad Al; Najjar, Fady Al; Ismail Mourad, Abdel-Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Research on small-scale 3D printing has rapidly evolved, where numerous industrial products have been tested and successfully applied. Nonetheless, research on large-scale 3D printing, directed to large-scale applications such as construction and automotive manufacturing, yet demands a great a great deal of efforts. Large-scale 3D printing is considered an interdisciplinary topic and requires establishing a blended knowledge base from numerous research fields including structural engineering, materials science, mechatronics, software engineering, artificial intelligence and architectural engineering. This review article summarizes key topics of relevance to new research trends on large-scale 3D printing, particularly pertaining (1) technological solutions of additive construction (i.e. the 3D printers themselves), (2) materials science challenges, and (3) new design opportunities.

  13. Scale interactions in a mixing layer – the role of the large-scale gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-02-15

    © 2016 Cambridge University Press. The interaction between the large and the small scales of turbulence is investigated in a mixing layer, at a Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale of , via direct numerical simulations. The analysis is performed in physical space, and the local vorticity root-mean-square (r.m.s.) is taken as a measure of the small-scale activity. It is found that positive large-scale velocity fluctuations correspond to large vorticity r.m.s. on the low-speed side of the mixing layer, whereas, they correspond to low vorticity r.m.s. on the high-speed side. The relationship between large and small scales thus depends on position if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity fluctuations. On the contrary, the correlation coefficient is nearly constant throughout the mixing layer and close to unity if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity gradients. Therefore, the small-scale activity appears closely related to large-scale gradients, while the correlation between the small-scale activity and the large-scale velocity fluctuations is shown to reflect a property of the large scales. Furthermore, the vorticity from unfiltered (small scales) and from low pass filtered (large scales) velocity fields tend to be aligned when examined within vortical tubes. These results provide evidence for the so-called \\'scale invariance\\' (Meneveau & Katz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 32, 2000, pp. 1-32), and suggest that some of the large-scale characteristics are not lost at the small scales, at least at the Reynolds number achieved in the present simulation.

  14. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  15. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqun Ao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04% of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and medaka (Oryzias latipes. Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker.

  16. Large-region acoustic source mapping using a movable array and sparse covariance fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengkui; Tuna, Cagdas; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Tho; Jones, Douglas L

    2017-01-01

    Large-region acoustic source mapping is important for city-scale noise monitoring. Approaches using a single-position measurement scheme to scan large regions using small arrays cannot provide clean acoustic source maps, while deploying large arrays spanning the entire region of interest is prohibitively expensive. A multiple-position measurement scheme is applied to scan large regions at multiple spatial positions using a movable array of small size. Based on the multiple-position measurement scheme, a sparse-constrained multiple-position vectorized covariance matrix fitting approach is presented. In the proposed approach, the overall sample covariance matrix of the incoherent virtual array is first estimated using the multiple-position array data and then vectorized using the Khatri-Rao (KR) product. A linear model is then constructed for fitting the vectorized covariance matrix and a sparse-constrained reconstruction algorithm is proposed for recovering source powers from the model. The user parameter settings are discussed. The proposed approach is tested on a 30 m × 40 m region and a 60 m × 40 m region using simulated and measured data. Much cleaner acoustic source maps and lower sound pressure level errors are obtained compared to the beamforming approaches and the previous sparse approach [Zhao, Tuna, Nguyen, and Jones, Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2016)].

  17. Large scale stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.; Drost, N.; Schmitz, O.; Jong, K. de; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model

  18. An Novel Architecture of Large-scale Communication in IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wubin; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, many scholars have done a great deal of research on the development of Internet of Things and networked physical systems. However, few people have made the detailed visualization of the large-scale communications architecture in the IOT. In fact, the non-uniform technology between IPv6 and access points has led to a lack of broad principles of large-scale communications architectures. Therefore, this paper presents the Uni-IPv6 Access and Information Exchange Method (UAIEM), a new architecture and algorithm that addresses large-scale communications in the IOT.

  19. Large scale and big data processing and management

    CERN Document Server

    Sakr, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Large Scale and Big Data: Processing and Management provides readers with a central source of reference on the data management techniques currently available for large-scale data processing. Presenting chapters written by leading researchers, academics, and practitioners, it addresses the fundamental challenges associated with Big Data processing tools and techniques across a range of computing environments.The book begins by discussing the basic concepts and tools of large-scale Big Data processing and cloud computing. It also provides an overview of different programming models and cloud-bas

  20. Phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome patchiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackenberg Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome structure (i.e. mosaic compositional patchiness has been explored mainly by analytical ultracentrifugation of bulk DNA. However, with the availability of large, good-quality chromosome sequences, and the recently developed computational methods to directly analyze patchiness on the genome sequence, an evolutionary comparative analysis can be carried out at the sequence level. Results The local variations in the scaling exponent of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis are used here to analyze large-scale genome structure and directly uncover the characteristic scales present in genome sequences. Furthermore, through shuffling experiments of selected genome regions, computationally-identified, isochore-like regions were identified as the biological source for the uncovered large-scale genome structure. The phylogenetic distribution of short- and large-scale patchiness was determined in the best-sequenced genome assemblies from eleven eukaryotic genomes: mammals (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Canis familiaris, birds (Gallus gallus, fishes (Danio rerio, invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found large-scale patchiness of genome structure, associated with in silico determined, isochore-like regions, throughout this wide phylogenetic range. Conclusion Large-scale genome structure is detected by directly analyzing DNA sequences in a wide range of eukaryotic chromosome sequences, from human to yeast. In all these genomes, large-scale patchiness can be associated with the isochore-like regions, as directly detected in silico at the sequence level.

  1. Mapping neighborhood scale survey responses with uncertainty metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Ehlschlaeger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be retained. By keeping individual survey cases as the atomic unit of data representation, this methodology ensures that important covariates are retained and that ecological inference fallacy is eliminated. These techniques are demonstrated with a case study from the Chittagong Division in Bangladesh. The results provide a population-centric understanding of many social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics desired in humanitarian aid and disaster relief planning and operations wherever long term familiarity is lacking. Of critical importance is that the resulting products have easy to use explicit representation of the errors and uncertainties of each of the input sources via the automatically generated summary statistics created at the application's geographic scale.

  2. Large-scale land transformations in Indonesia: The role of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... enable timely responses to the impacts of large-scale land transformations in Central Kalimantan ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  3. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  4. Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of Lusu ... in terms of socio economic, health, education, employment, safe drinking water, ... The data were analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Science (SPSS).

  5. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    , the impact of large-scale agriculture and outgrower schemes on productivity, household welfare and wages in developing countries is highly contentious. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides an introduction to the study, while also reviewing the key debate in the contemporary land ‘grabbing’ and historical large...... sugarcane outgrower scheme on household income and asset stocks. Chapter 5 examines the wages and working conditions in ‘formal’ large-scale and ‘informal’ small-scale irrigated agriculture. The results in Chapter 2 show that moisture stress, the use of untested planting materials, and conflict over land...... commands a higher wage than ‘formal’ large-scale agriculture, while rather different wage determination mechanisms exist in the two sectors. Human capital characteristics (education and experience) partly explain the differences in wages within the formal sector, but play no significant role...

  6. Personalized Opportunistic Computing for CMS at Large Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    **Douglas Thain** is an Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, where he designs large scale distributed computing systems to power the needs of advanced science and...

  7. Large-scale linear programs in planning and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale linear programs are at the core of many traffic-related optimization problems in both planning and prediction. Moreover, many of these involve significant uncertainty, and hence are modeled using either chance constraints, or robust optim...

  8. Bottom-Up Accountability Initiatives and Large-Scale Land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Security can help increase accountability for large-scale land acquisitions in ... to build decent economic livelihoods and participate meaningfully in decisions ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  9. No Large Scale Curvature Perturbations during Waterfall of Hybrid Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depend crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical back-reactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the clas...

  10. Bayesian hierarchical model for large-scale covariance matrix estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongxiao; Hero, Alfred O

    2007-12-01

    Many bioinformatics problems implicitly depend on estimating large-scale covariance matrix. The traditional approaches tend to give rise to high variance and low accuracy due to "overfitting." We cast the large-scale covariance matrix estimation problem into the Bayesian hierarchical model framework, and introduce dependency between covariance parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of our approaches over the traditional approaches using simulations and OMICS data analysis.

  11. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    pump flow meters, sediment trap weigh tanks , and beach profiling lidar. A detailed discussion of the original LSTF features and capabilities can be...ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-88 April 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport...describes the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) and recent upgrades to the measurement systems. The purpose of these upgrades was to increase

  12. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  13. Large-scale coastal impact induced by a catastrophic storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    breaching. Our results demonstrate that violent, millennial-scale storms can trigger significant large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coasts, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with a single extreme storm event....

  14. Penalized Estimation in Large-Scale Generalized Linear Array Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Adam; Vincent, Martin; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale generalized linear array models (GLAMs) can be challenging to fit. Computation and storage of its tensor product design matrix can be impossible due to time and memory constraints, and previously considered design matrix free algorithms do not scale well with the dimension...

  15. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kuehn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations. (orig.)

  16. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kühn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus

    2009-03-01

    The application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.

  17. Trends in large-scale testing of reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale tests of reactor structures have been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories since the late 1970s. This paper describes a number of different large-scale impact tests, pressurization tests of models of containment structures, and thermal-pressure tests of models of reactor pressure vessels. The advantages of large-scale testing are evident, but cost, in particular limits its use. As computer models have grown in size, such as number of degrees of freedom, the advent of computer graphics has made possible very realistic representation of results - results that may not accurately represent reality. A necessary condition to avoiding this pitfall is the validation of the analytical methods and underlying physical representations. Ironically, the immensely larger computer models sometimes increase the need for large-scale testing, because the modeling is applied to increasing more complex structural systems and/or more complex physical phenomena. Unfortunately, the cost of large-scale tests is a disadvantage that will likely severely limit similar testing in the future. International collaborations may provide the best mechanism for funding future programs with large-scale tests. (author)

  18. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  19. Exciton Mapping at Subwavelength Scales in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2015-03-01

    Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is performed at diffuse interfaces between MoS2 and MoSe2 single layers. With a monochromated electron source (20 meV) we successfully probe excitons near the interface by obtaining the low loss spectra at the nanometer scale. The exciton maps clearly show variations even with a 10 nm separation between measurements; consequently, the optical band gap can be measured with nanometer-scale resolution, which is 50 times smaller than the wavelength of the emitted photons. By performing core-loss EELS at the same regions, we observe that variations in the excitonic signature follow the chemical composition. The exciton peaks are observed to be broader at interfaces and heterogeneous regions, possibly due to interface roughness and alloying effects. Moreover, we do not observe shifts of the exciton peak across the interface, possibly because the interface width is not much larger than the exciton Bohr radius.

  20. Planck intermediate results XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured ...

  1. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  2. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  3. Optimization and analysis of large chemical kinetic mechanisms using the solution mapping method - Combustion of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael; Wang, Hai; Rabinowitz, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    A method of systematic optimization, solution mapping, as applied to a large-scale dynamic model is presented. The basis of the technique is parameterization of model responses in terms of model parameters by simple algebraic expressions. These expressions are obtained by computer experiments arranged in a factorial design. The developed parameterized responses are then used in a joint multiparameter multidata-set optimization. A brief review of the mathematical background of the technique is given. The concept of active parameters is discussed. The technique is applied to determine an optimum set of parameters for a methane combustion mechanism. Five independent responses - comprising ignition delay times, pre-ignition methyl radical concentration profiles, and laminar premixed flame velocities - were optimized with respect to thirteen reaction rate parameters. The numerical predictions of the optimized model are compared to those computed with several recent literature mechanisms. The utility of the solution mapping technique in situations where the optimum is not unique is also demonstrated.

  4. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  5. Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.

  6. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  7. Prototype Vector Machine for Large Scale Semi-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Kwok, James T.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-29

    Practicaldataminingrarelyfalls exactlyinto the supervisedlearning scenario. Rather, the growing amount of unlabeled data poses a big challenge to large-scale semi-supervised learning (SSL). We note that the computationalintensivenessofgraph-based SSLarises largely from the manifold or graph regularization, which in turn lead to large models that are dificult to handle. To alleviate this, we proposed the prototype vector machine (PVM), a highlyscalable,graph-based algorithm for large-scale SSL. Our key innovation is the use of"prototypes vectors" for effcient approximation on both the graph-based regularizer and model representation. The choice of prototypes are grounded upon two important criteria: they not only perform effective low-rank approximation of the kernel matrix, but also span a model suffering the minimum information loss compared with the complete model. We demonstrate encouraging performance and appealing scaling properties of the PVM on a number of machine learning benchmark data sets.

  8. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  9. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  10. Sub-bottom profiling for large-scale maritime archaeological survey An experience-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    and wrecks partially or wholly embedded in the sea-floor sediments demands the application of highresolution sub-bottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for the cost-effective large-scale mapping of unknown sedimentembedded sites such as submerged Stone Age settlements or wrecks, based on sub...... of the submerged cultural heritage. Elements such as archaeological wreck sites exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multi-beam techniques. These can also provide information on bathymetric patterns representing potential Stone Age settlements, whereas the detection of such archaeological sites...

  11. Large Scale Processes and Extreme Floods in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent large scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation and ocean state have been associated with heavy rainfall and extreme floods in water basins of different sizes across the world. Such studies have emerged in the last years as a new tool to improve the traditional, stationary based approach in flood frequency analysis and flood prediction. Here we seek to advance previous studies by evaluating the dominance of large scale processes (e.g. atmospheric rivers/moisture transport) over local processes (e.g. local convection) in producing floods. We consider flood-prone regions in Brazil as case studies and the role of large scale climate processes in generating extreme floods in such regions is explored by means of observed streamflow, reanalysis data and machine learning methods. The dynamics of the large scale atmospheric circulation in the days prior to the flood events are evaluated based on the vertically integrated moisture flux and its divergence field, which are interpreted in a low-dimensional space as obtained by machine learning techniques, particularly supervised kernel principal component analysis. In such reduced dimensional space, clusters are obtained in order to better understand the role of regional moisture recycling or teleconnected moisture in producing floods of a given magnitude. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) is also used as a measure of local convection activities. We investigate for individual sites the exceedance probability in which large scale atmospheric fluxes dominate the flood process. Finally, we analyze regional patterns of floods and how the scaling law of floods with drainage area responds to changes in the climate forcing mechanisms (e.g. local vs large scale).

  12. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  13. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  14. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  15. Systematic methods for defining coarse-grained maps in large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Large biomolecules are involved in many important biological processes. It would be difficult to use large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the functional motions of these systems because of the computational expense. Therefore various coarse-grained (CG) approaches have attracted rapidly growing interest, which enable simulations of large biomolecules over longer effective timescales than all-atom MD simulations. The first issue in CG modeling is to construct CG maps from atomic structures. In this chapter, we review the recent development of a novel and systematic method for constructing CG representations of arbitrarily complex biomolecules, in order to preserve large-scale and functionally relevant essential dynamics (ED) at the CG level. In this ED-CG scheme, the essential dynamics can be characterized by principal component analysis (PCA) on a structural ensemble, or elastic network model (ENM) of a single atomic structure. Validation and applications of the method cover various biological systems, such as multi-domain proteins, protein complexes, and even biomolecular machines. The results demonstrate that the ED-CG method may serve as a very useful tool for identifying functional dynamics of large biomolecules at the CG level.

  16. Investigating the Role of Large-Scale Domain Dynamics in Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Milles, Sigrid; Huang, Jie-Rong; Bouvier, Denis; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Sattler, Michael; Hart, Darren J; Blackledge, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated with mapping the large-scale domain dynamics and describe two recent examples where solution state methods, in particular NMR spectroscopy, are used to investigate conformational exchange on very different timescales.

  17. Investigating the Role of Large-Scale Domain Dynamics in Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Delaforge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated with mapping the large-scale domain dynamics and describe two recent examples where solution state methods, in particular NMR spectroscopy, are used to investigate conformational exchange on very different timescales.

  18. TensorFlow: A system for large-scale machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Martín; Barham, Paul; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Zhifeng; Davis, Andy; Dean, Jeffrey; Devin, Matthieu; Ghemawat, Sanjay; Irving, Geoffrey; Isard, Michael; Kudlur, Manjunath; Levenberg, Josh; Monga, Rajat; Moore, Sherry; Murray, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    TensorFlow is a machine learning system that operates at large scale and in heterogeneous environments. TensorFlow uses dataflow graphs to represent computation, shared state, and the operations that mutate that state. It maps the nodes of a dataflow graph across many machines in a cluster, and within a machine across multiple computational devices, including multicore CPUs, general-purpose GPUs, and custom designed ASICs known as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). This architecture gives flexib...

  19. A family of conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexiang Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we present a family of conjugate gradient projection methods for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. At each iteration, it needs low storage and the subproblem can be easily solved. Compared with the existing solution methods for solving the problem, its global convergence is established without the restriction of the Lipschitz continuity on the underlying mapping. Preliminary numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. A family of conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dexiang; Sun, Min; Wang, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a family of conjugate gradient projection methods for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. At each iteration, it needs low storage and the subproblem can be easily solved. Compared with the existing solution methods for solving the problem, its global convergence is established without the restriction of the Lipschitz continuity on the underlying mapping. Preliminary numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. PKI security in large-scale healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    During the past few years a lot of PKI (Public Key Infrastructures) infrastructures have been proposed for healthcare networks in order to ensure secure communication services and exchange of data among healthcare professionals. However, there is a plethora of challenges in these healthcare PKI infrastructures. Especially, there are a lot of challenges for PKI infrastructures deployed over large-scale healthcare networks. In this paper, we propose a PKI infrastructure to ensure security in a large-scale Internet-based healthcare network connecting a wide spectrum of healthcare units geographically distributed within a wide region. Furthermore, the proposed PKI infrastructure facilitates the trust issues that arise in a large-scale healthcare network including multi-domain PKI infrastructures.

  2. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  3. The role of large scale motions on passive scalar transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarathne, Suranga; Araya, Guillermo; Tutkun, Murat; Leonardi, Stefano; Castillo, Luciano

    2014-11-01

    We study direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 394 to investigate effect of large scale motions on fluctuating temperature field which forms a passive scalar field. Statistical description of the large scale features of the turbulent channel flow is obtained using two-point correlations of velocity components. Two-point correlations of fluctuating temperature field is also examined in order to identify possible similarities between velocity and temperature fields. The two-point cross-correlations betwen the velocity and temperature fluctuations are further analyzed to establish connections between these two fields. In addition, we use proper orhtogonal decompotion (POD) to extract most dominant modes of the fields and discuss the coupling of large scale features of turbulence and the temperature field.

  4. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  5. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  6. Rotation invariant fast features for large-scale recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Gabriel; Chandrasekhar, Vijay; Tsai, Sam; Chen, David; Grzeszczuk, Radek; Girod, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    We present an end-to-end feature description pipeline which uses a novel interest point detector and Rotation- Invariant Fast Feature (RIFF) descriptors. The proposed RIFF algorithm is 15× faster than SURF1 while producing large-scale retrieval results that are comparable to SIFT.2 Such high-speed features benefit a range of applications from Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) to web-scale image retrieval and analysis.

  7. Mapping Submarine Groundwater Discharge - how to investigate spatial discharge variability on coastal and beach scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, T. C.; Burnett, W. C.; Rapaglia, J.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now increasingly recognized as an important component in the water balance, water quality and ecology of the coastal zone. A multitude of methods are currently employed to study SGD, ranging from point flux measurements with seepage meters to methods integrating over various spatial and temporal scales such as hydrological models, geophysical techniques or surface water tracer approaches. From studies in a large variety of hydrogeological settings, researchers in this field have come to expect that SGD is rarely uniformly distributed. Here we discuss the application of: (a) the mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity in a discharge zone on a beach; and (b) the large-scale mapping of radon in coastal surface water to improving our understanding of SGD and its spatial variability. On a beach scale, as part of intercomparison studies of a UNESCO/IAEA working group, mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity in a beach face have elucidated the non-uniform distribution of SGD associated with rock fractures, volcanic settings and man-made structures (e.g., piers, jetties). Variations in direct point measurements of SGD flux with seepage meters were linked to the subsurface conductivity distribution. We demonstrate how the combination of these two techniques may complement one another to better constrain SGD measurements. On kilometer to hundred kilometer scales, the spatial distribution and regional importance of SGD can be investigated by mapping relevant tracers in the coastal ocean. The radon isotope Rn-222 is a commonly used tracer for SGD investigations due to its significant enrichment in groundwater, and continuous mapping of this tracer, in combination with ocean water salinity, can be used to efficiently infer locations of SGD along a coastline on large scales. We use a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup installed on a moving vessel. This tool was used in various coastal environments, e

  8. Spatiotemporal property and predictability of large-scale human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Tao; Fu, Dongfei; Xu, Bowen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of human mobility emerging from complexity on individual scale have been extensively studied due to the application potential on human behavior prediction and recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and investigate a comprehensive data set of human activities on large geographical scales, including both websites browse and mobile towers visit. Numerical results show that the degree of activity decays as a power law, indicating that human behaviors are reminiscent of scale-free random walks known as Lévy flight. More significantly, this study suggests that human activities on large geographical scales have specific non-Markovian characteristics, such as a two-segment power-law distribution of dwelling time and a high possibility for prediction. Furthermore, a scale-free featured mobility model with two essential ingredients, i.e., preferential return and exploration, and a Gaussian distribution assumption on the exploration tendency parameter is proposed, which outperforms existing human mobility models under scenarios of large geographical scales.

  9. Report of the LASCAR forum: Large scale reprocessing plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on the studies which were carried out from 1988 to 1992 under the auspices of the multinational forum known as Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards (LASCAR) on safeguards for four large scale reprocessing plants operated or planned to be operated in the 1990s. The report summarizes all of the essential results of these studies. The participants in LASCAR were from France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Commission of the European Communities - Euratom, and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  10. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order. (paper)

  11. Large-scale structure in the universe: Theory vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Jones, B.J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of observations constrain models of the origin of large scale cosmic structures. We review here the elements of current theories and comment in detail on which of the current observational data provide the principal constraints. We point out that enough observational data have accumulated to constrain (and perhaps determine) the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations over a very large range of scales. We discuss the theories in the light of observational data and focus on the potential of future observations in providing even (and ever) tighter constraints. (orig.)

  12. Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....

  13. Fatigue Analysis of Large-scale Wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper does research on top flange fatigue damage of large-scale wind turbine generator. It establishes finite element model of top flange connection system with finite element analysis software MSC. Marc/Mentat, analyzes its fatigue strain, implements load simulation of flange fatigue working condition with Bladed software, acquires flange fatigue load spectrum with rain-flow counting method, finally, it realizes fatigue analysis of top flange with fatigue analysis software MSC. Fatigue and Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory. The analysis result indicates that its result provides new thinking for flange fatigue analysis of large-scale wind turbine generator, and possesses some practical engineering value.

  14. Generation of large-scale vortives in compressible helical turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiani, O.G.; Gvaramadze, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    We consider generation of large-scale vortices in compressible self-gravitating turbulent medium. The closed equation describing evolution of the large-scale vortices in helical turbulence with finite correlation time is obtained. This equation has the form similar to the hydromagnetic dynamo equation, which allows us to call the vortx genertation effect the vortex dynamo. It is possible that principally the same mechanism is responsible both for amplification and maintenance of density waves and magnetic fields in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. (author). 29 refs

  15. Parallel clustering algorithm for large-scale biological data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minchao; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Wang; Dai, Dongbo; Zhang, Huiran; Xie, Hao; Chen, Luonan; Guo, Yike; Xie, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent explosion of biological data brings a great challenge for the traditional clustering algorithms. With increasing scale of data sets, much larger memory and longer runtime are required for the cluster identification problems. The affinity propagation algorithm outperforms many other classical clustering algorithms and is widely applied into the biological researches. However, the time and space complexity become a great bottleneck when handling the large-scale data sets. Moreover, the similarity matrix, whose constructing procedure takes long runtime, is required before running the affinity propagation algorithm, since the algorithm clusters data sets based on the similarities between data pairs. Two types of parallel architectures are proposed in this paper to accelerate the similarity matrix constructing procedure and the affinity propagation algorithm. The memory-shared architecture is used to construct the similarity matrix, and the distributed system is taken for the affinity propagation algorithm, because of its large memory size and great computing capacity. An appropriate way of data partition and reduction is designed in our method, in order to minimize the global communication cost among processes. A speedup of 100 is gained with 128 cores. The runtime is reduced from serval hours to a few seconds, which indicates that parallel algorithm is capable of handling large-scale data sets effectively. The parallel affinity propagation also achieves a good performance when clustering large-scale gene data (microarray) and detecting families in large protein superfamilies.

  16. Large Scale Visual Recommendations From Street Fashion Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh, Vignesh; Piramuthu, Robinson; Bhardwaj, Anurag; Di, Wei; Sundaresan, Neel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a completely automated large scale visual recommendation system for fashion. Our focus is to efficiently harness the availability of large quantities of online fashion images and their rich meta-data. Specifically, we propose four data driven models in the form of Complementary Nearest Neighbor Consensus, Gaussian Mixture Models, Texture Agnostic Retrieval and Markov Chain LDA for solving this problem. We analyze relative merits and pitfalls of these algorithms through extensive e...

  17. Evolutionary leap in large-scale flood risk assessment needed

    OpenAIRE

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Bates, Paul D.; de Bruijn, Karin; Castellarin, Attilio; Kreibich, Heidi; Priest, Sally J.; Schröter, Kai; Bagli, Stefano; Blöschl, Günter; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Gouldby, Ben; Klijn, Frans; Lammersen, Rita; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Ridder, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems and socio-economic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. However, reliable risk estimates are required for prioritizing national investments in flood risk mitigation or for appraisal and management of insura...

  18. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  19. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  20. Similitude and scaling of large structural elements: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shehadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scaled down models are widely used for experimental investigations of large structures due to the limitation in the capacities of testing facilities along with the expenses of the experimentation. The modeling accuracy depends upon the model material properties, fabrication accuracy and loading techniques. In the present work the Buckingham π theorem is used to develop the relations (i.e. geometry, loading and properties between the model and a large structural element as that is present in the huge existing petroleum oil drilling rigs. The model is to be designed, loaded and treated according to a set of similitude requirements that relate the model to the large structural element. Three independent scale factors which represent three fundamental dimensions, namely mass, length and time need to be selected for designing the scaled down model. Numerical prediction of the stress distribution within the model and its elastic deformation under steady loading is to be made. The results are compared with those obtained from the full scale structure numerical computations. The effect of scaled down model size and material on the accuracy of the modeling technique is thoroughly examined.

  1. Large-scale fracture mechancis testing -- requirements and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of fracture mechanics to very important and/or complicated structures, like reactor pressure vessels, brings also some questions about the reliability and precision of such calculations. These problems become more pronounced in cases of elastic-plastic conditions of loading and/or in parts with non-homogeneous materials (base metal and austenitic cladding, property gradient changes through material thickness) or with non-homogeneous stress fields (nozzles, bolt threads, residual stresses etc.). For such special cases some verification by large-scale testing is necessary and valuable. This paper discusses problems connected with planning of such experiments with respect to their limitations, requirements to a good transfer of received results to an actual vessel. At the same time, an analysis of possibilities of small-scale model experiments is also shown, mostly in connection with application of results between standard, small-scale and large-scale experiments. Experience from 30 years of large-scale testing in SKODA is used as an example to support this analysis. 1 fig

  2. Large-scale Lurgi plant would be uneconomic: study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-21

    Gas Council and National Coal Board agreed that building of large scale Lurgi plant on the basis of study is not at present acceptable on economic grounds. The committee considered that new processes based on naphtha offered more economic sources of base and peak load production. Tables listing data provided in contractors' design studies and summary of contractors' process designs are included.

  3. Origin of large-scale cell structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Y.B.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative explanation is offered for the characteristic global structure of the universe, wherein ''black'' regions devoid of galaxies are surrounded on all sides by closed, comparatively thin, ''bright'' layers populated by galaxies. The interpretation rests on some very general arguments regarding the growth of large-scale perturbations in a cold gas

  4. Large-Scale Systems Control Design via LMI Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rehák, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2015), s. 247-253 ISSN 1392-124X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Combinatorial linear matrix inequalities * large-scale system * decentralized control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2015

  5. Identification of low order models for large scale processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattamwar, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are complex, multi-phase and large scale in nature. These processes are characterized by various nonlinear physiochemical effects and fluid flows. Such processes often show coexistence of fast and slow dynamics during their time evolutions. The increasing demand

  6. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... Fullscreen Fullscreen Off. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463.

  7. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463 · AJOL African Journals ...

  8. Success Factors of Large Scale ERP Implementation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rotchanakitumnuai; Siriluck

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the determinants of ERP implementation success factors of ERP implementation. The result indicates that large scale ERP implementation success consist of eight factors: project management competence, knowledge sharing, ERP system quality , understanding, user involvement, business process re-engineering, top management support, organization readiness.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    We describe the instrument architecture of the Johns Hopkins University-led CLASS instrument, a groundbased cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that will measure the large-scale polarization of the CMB in several frequency bands to search for evidence of inflation.

  10. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred; Douglas, Craig C.; Haase, Gundolf; Horvá th, Zoltá n

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one

  11. Breakdown of large-scale circulation in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent rotating convection in a cylinder is investigated both numerically and experimentally at Rayleigh number Ra = $10^9$ and Prandtl number $\\sigma$ = 6.4. In this Letter we discuss two topics: the breakdown under rotation of the domain-filling large-scale circulation (LSC) typical for

  12. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena

  13. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-01-01

    structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination

  14. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior. 355. Figure 2. Zonal and meridional components of the time-dependent residual velocity at a few selected depths as marked above each panel, are plotted as contours of constant velocity in the longitude-latitude plane. The left panels show the zonal component, ...

  15. Facile Large-Scale Synthesis of 5- and 6-Carboxyfluoresceins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Peter; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Harris, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    A series of fluorescein dyes have been prepared from a common precursor through a very simple synthetic procedure, giving access to important precursors for fluorescent probes. The method has proven an efficient access to regioisomerically pure 5- and 6-carboxyfluoresceins on a large scale, in good...

  16. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  17. Newton Methods for Large Scale Problems in Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Samantha Leigh

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on practical ways of designing optimization algorithms for minimizing large-scale nonlinear functions with applications in machine learning. Chapter 1 introduces the overarching ideas in the thesis. Chapters 2 and 3 are geared towards supervised machine learning applications that involve minimizing a sum of loss…

  18. Large-Scale Machine Learning for Classification and Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, nowadays tremendous amounts of data including images and videos, up to millions or billions, can be collected for training machine learning models. Inspired by this trend, this thesis is dedicated to developing large-scale machine learning techniques for the purpose of making classification and nearest…

  19. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  20. Proceedings of the meeting on large scale computer simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The meeting to summarize the collaboration activities for FY2003 on the Large Scale Computer Simulation Research was held January 15-16, 2004 at Theory and Computer Simulation Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science. Recent simulation results, methodologies and other related topics were presented. (author)

  1. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the

  2. Dynamic Modeling, Optimization, and Advanced Control for Large Scale Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail

    with a complex conversion route. Computational fluid dynamics is used to model transport phenomena in large reactors capturing tank profiles, and delays due to plug flows. This work publishes for the first time demonstration scale real data for validation showing that the model library is suitable...

  3. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  4. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe - Is the Cosmological Principle Valid? A K Mittal T R Seshadri. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 39-47 ...

  5. LARGE-SCALE COMMERCIAL INVESTMENTS IN LAND: SEEKING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extent of large-scale investment in land or to assess its impact on the people in recipient countries. .... favorable lease terms, apparently based on a belief that this is necessary to .... Harm to the rights of local occupiers of land can result from a dearth. 24. ..... applies to a self-identified group based on the group's traditions.

  6. Mixing Metaphors: Building Infrastructure for Large Scale School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Neumerski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to increase understanding of the possibilities and challenges of building educational infrastructure--the basic, foundational structures, systems, and resources--to support large-scale school turnaround. Building educational infrastructure often exceeds the capacity of schools, districts, and state education…

  7. Reconsidering Replication: New Perspectives on Large-Scale School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Glazer, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to reconsider organizational replication as a strategy for large-scale school improvement: a strategy that features a "hub" organization collaborating with "outlet" schools to enact school-wide designs for improvement. To do so, we synthesize a leading line of research on commercial replication to construct a…

  8. Technologies and challenges in large-scale phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2013-01-01

    become the main technique for discovery and characterization of phosphoproteins in a nonhypothesis driven fashion. In this review, we describe methods for state-of-the-art MS-based analysis of protein phosphorylation as well as the strategies employed in large-scale phosphoproteomic experiments...... with focus on the various challenges and limitations this field currently faces....

  9. Solving Large Scale Crew Scheduling Problems in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin); L. Albino; T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); J. Roussado; R.L. Saldanha

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with large-scale crew scheduling problems arising at the Dutch railway operator, Netherlands Railways (NS). NS operates about 30,000 trains a week. All these trains need a driver and a certain number of guards. Some labor rules restrict the duties of a certain crew base

  10. The large scale microwave background anisotropy in decaying particle cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, M.

    1987-06-01

    We investigate the large-scale anisotropy of the microwave background radiation in cosmological models with decaying particles. The observed value of the quadrupole moment combined with other constraints gives an upper limit on the redshift of the decay z/sub d/ < 3-5. 12 refs., 2 figs

  11. Dual Decomposition for Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Dual decomposition is applied to power balancing of exible thermal storage units. The centralized large-scale problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems and solved locallyby each unit in the Smart Grid. Convergence is achieved by coordinating the units consumption through a negotiation...

  12. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2017-01-01

    and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...

  13. Assessment of climate change impacts on rainfall using large scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many of the applied techniques in water resources management can be directly or indirectly influenced by ... is based on large scale climate signals data around the world. In order ... predictand relationships are often very complex. .... constraints to solve the optimization problem. ..... social, and environmental sustainability.

  14. Factors Influencing Uptake of a Large Scale Curriculum Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Philip S.

    Educational research has all too often failed to be implemented on a large-scale basis. This paper describes the multiplier effect of a professional development program for teachers and for trainers in the United Kingdom, and how that program was developed, monitored, and evaluated. Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) is a…

  15. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.

  16. New Visions for Large Scale Networks: Research and Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This paper documents the findings of the March 12-14, 2001 Workshop on New Visions for Large-Scale Networks: Research and Applications. The workshops objectives were...

  17. Large-scale silviculture experiments of western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Poage; Paul D. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    We review 12 large-scale silviculture experiments (LSSEs) in western Washington and Oregon with which the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service is substantially involved. We compiled and arrayed information about the LSSEs as a series of matrices in a relational database, which is included on the compact disc published with this report and...

  18. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  19. Variability in large-scale wind power generation: Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Weir, David [Energy Department, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo Norway; Scharff, Richard [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Söder, Lennart [Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Menemenlis, Nickie [Institut de recherche Hydro-Québec, Montreal Canada; Cutululis, Nicolaos A. [DTU, Wind Energy, Roskilde Denmark; Danti Lopez, Irene [Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin Ireland; Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto California USA; Estanqueiro, Ana [LNEG, Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, UESEO, Lisbon Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Renewable Energy Research Institute and DIEEAC/EDII-AB, Castilla-La Mancha University, Albacete Spain; Zhang, Qin [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing China; Bai, Jianhua [State Grid Energy Research Institute Beijing, Beijing China; Wan, Yih-Huei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA

    2015-10-25

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net load events. The comparison shows regions with low variability (Sweden, Spain and Germany), medium variability (Portugal, Ireland, Finland and Denmark) and regions with higher variability (Quebec, Bonneville Power Administration and Electric Reliability Council of Texas in North America; Gansu, Jilin and Liaoning in China; and Norway and offshore wind power in Denmark). For regions with low variability, the maximum 1 h wind ramps are below 10% of nominal capacity, and for regions with high variability, they may be close to 30%. Wind power variability is mainly explained by the extent of geographical spread, but also higher capacity factor causes higher variability. It was also shown how wind power ramps are autocorrelated and dependent on the operating output level. When wind power was concentrated in smaller area, there were outliers with high changes in wind output, which were not present in large areas with well-dispersed wind power.

  20. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamony, Ram [IBM Research, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  1. The Large-scale Effect of Environment on Galactic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuangpeng; Guo, Qi; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Lacey, Cedric G.; Pan, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We use a volume-limited galaxy sample from the SDSS Data Release 7 to explore the dependence of galactic conformity on the large-scale environment, measured on ˜ 4 Mpc scales. We find that the star formation activity of neighbour galaxies depends more strongly on the environment than on the activity of their primary galaxies. In under-dense regions most neighbour galaxies tend to be active, while in over-dense regions neighbour galaxies are mostly passive, regardless of the activity of their primary galaxies. At a given stellar mass, passive primary galaxies reside in higher density regions than active primary galaxies, leading to the apparently strong conformity signal. The dependence of the activity of neighbour galaxies on environment can be explained by the corresponding dependence of the fraction of satellite galaxies. Similar results are found for galaxies in a semi-analytical model, suggesting that no new physics is required to explain the observed large-scale conformity.

  2. Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik; Sandberg, Sveinung; Pedersen, Willy

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 15-20 years, domestic cultivation of cannabis has been established in a number of European countries. New techniques have made such cultivation easier; however, the bulk of growers remain small-scale. In this study, we explore the factors that prevent small-scale growers from increasing their production. The study is based on 1 year of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted with 45 Norwegian cannabis growers, 10 of whom were growing on a large-scale and 35 on a small-scale. The study identifies five mechanisms that prevent small-scale indoor growers from going large-scale. First, large-scale operations involve a number of people, large sums of money, a high work-load and a high risk of detection, and thus demand a higher level of organizational skills than for small growing operations. Second, financial assets are needed to start a large 'grow-site'. Housing rent, electricity, equipment and nutrients are expensive. Third, to be able to sell large quantities of cannabis, growers need access to an illegal distribution network and knowledge of how to act according to black market norms and structures. Fourth, large-scale operations require advanced horticultural skills to maximize yield and quality, which demands greater skills and knowledge than does small-scale cultivation. Fifth, small-scale growers are often embedded in the 'cannabis culture', which emphasizes anti-commercialism, anti-violence and ecological and community values. Hence, starting up large-scale production will imply having to renegotiate or abandon these values. Going from small- to large-scale cannabis production is a demanding task-ideologically, technically, economically and personally. The many obstacles that small-scale growers face and the lack of interest and motivation for going large-scale suggest that the risk of a 'slippery slope' from small-scale to large-scale growing is limited. Possible political implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright

  3. The geological map of Canelones Department scale 1:1000.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological map of Canelones Department (Uruguay), scale 1:100.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  4. The geological map of Montevideo Department scale 1:50.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological map of Montevideo Department (Uruguay), scale 1:50.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  5. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  6. Large-scale motions in the universe: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The expansion of the universe can be retarded in localised regions within the universe both by the presence of gravity and by non-gravitational motions generated in the post-recombination universe. The motions of galaxies thus generated are called 'peculiar motions', and the amplitudes, size scales and coherence of these peculiar motions are among the most direct records of the structure of the universe. As such, measurements of these properties of the present-day universe provide some of the severest tests of cosmological theories. This is a review of the current evidence for large-scale motions of galaxies out to a distance of ∼5000 km s -1 (in an expanding universe, distance is proportional to radial velocity). 'Large-scale' in this context refers to motions that are correlated over size scales larger than the typical sizes of groups of galaxies, up to and including the size of the volume surveyed. To orient the reader into this relatively new field of study, a short modern history is given together with an explanation of the terminology. Careful consideration is given to the data used to measure the distances, and hence the peculiar motions, of galaxies. The evidence for large-scale motions is presented in a graphical fashion, using only the most reliable data for galaxies spanning a wide range in optical properties and over the complete range of galactic environments. The kinds of systematic errors that can affect this analysis are discussed, and the reliability of these motions is assessed. The predictions of two models of large-scale motion are compared to the observations, and special emphasis is placed on those motions in which our own Galaxy directly partakes. (author)

  7. Measuring Cosmic Expansion and Large Scale Structure with Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2007-01-01

    Destiny is a simple, direct, low cost mission to determine the properties of dark energy by obtaining a cosmologically deep supernova (SN) type Ia Hubble diagram and by measuring the large-scale mass power spectrum over time. Its science instrument is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared survey camera/spectrometer with a large field of view. During its first two years, Destiny will detect, observe, and characterize 23000 SN Ia events over the redshift interval 0.4Destiny will be used in its third year as a high resolution, wide-field imager to conduct a weak lensing survey covering >lo00 square degrees to measure the large-scale mass power spectrum. The combination of surveys is much more powerful than either technique on its own, and will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than will be provided by ongoing ground-based projects.

  8. Decoupling local mechanics from large-scale structure in modular metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Silverberg, Jesse L.

    2017-04-01

    A defining feature of mechanical metamaterials is that their properties are determined by the organization of internal structure instead of the raw fabrication materials. This shift of attention to engineering internal degrees of freedom has coaxed relatively simple materials into exhibiting a wide range of remarkable mechanical properties. For practical applications to be realized, however, this nascent understanding of metamaterial design must be translated into a capacity for engineering large-scale structures with prescribed mechanical functionality. Thus, the challenge is to systematically map desired functionality of large-scale structures backward into a design scheme while using finite parameter domains. Such “inverse design” is often complicated by the deep coupling between large-scale structure and local mechanical function, which limits the available design space. Here, we introduce a design strategy for constructing 1D, 2D, and 3D mechanical metamaterials inspired by modular origami and kirigami. Our approach is to assemble a number of modules into a voxelized large-scale structure, where the module’s design has a greater number of mechanical design parameters than the number of constraints imposed by bulk assembly. This inequality allows each voxel in the bulk structure to be uniquely assigned mechanical properties independent from its ability to connect and deform with its neighbors. In studying specific examples of large-scale metamaterial structures we show that a decoupling of global structure from local mechanical function allows for a variety of mechanically and topologically complex designs.

  9. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  10. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  11. Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)

  12. Islands of biogeodiversity in arid lands on a polygons map study: Detecting scale invariance patterns from natural resources maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J J; Pérez-Gómez, R; Brevik, Eric C; Cerdà, A

    2016-12-15

    Many maps (geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, etc.) are created to inventory natural resources. Each of these resources is mapped using a unique set of criteria, including scales and taxonomies. Past research indicates that comparing results of related maps (e.g., soil and geology maps) may aid in identifying mapping deficiencies. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Almeria Province, Spain to (i) compare the underlying map structures of soil and vegetation maps and (ii) investigate if a vegetation map can provide useful soil information that was not shown on a soil map. Soil and vegetation maps were imported into ArcGIS 10.1 for spatial analysis, and results then exported to Microsoft Excel worksheets for statistical analyses to evaluate fits to linear and power law regression models. Vegetative units were grouped according to the driving forces that determined their presence or absence: (i) climatophilous (ii) lithologic-climate; and (iii) edaphophylous. The rank abundance plots for both the soil and vegetation maps conformed to Willis or Hollow Curves, meaning the underlying structures of both maps were the same. Edaphophylous map units, which represent 58.5% of the vegetation units in the study area, did not show a good correlation with the soil map. Further investigation revealed that 87% of the edaphohygrophilous units were found in ramblas, ephemeral riverbeds that are not typically classified and mapped as soils in modern systems, even though they meet the definition of soil given by the most commonly used and most modern soil taxonomic systems. Furthermore, these edaphophylous map units tend to be islands of biodiversity that are threatened by anthropogenic activity in the region. Therefore, this study revealed areas that need to be revisited and studied pedologically. The vegetation mapped in these areas and the soils that support it are key components of the earth's critical zone that must be studied, understood, and preserved. Copyright © 2016

  13. Task-Management Method Using R-Tree Spatial Cloaking for Large-Scale Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of sensor technology and the popularization of the data-driven service paradigm, spatial crowdsourcing systems have become an important way of collecting map-based location data. However, large-scale task management and location privacy are important factors for participants in spatial crowdsourcing. In this paper, we propose the use of an R-tree spatial cloaking-based task-assignment method for large-scale spatial crowdsourcing. We use an estimated R-tree based on the requested crowdsourcing tasks to reduce the crowdsourcing server-side inserting cost and enable the scalability. By using Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR-based spatial anonymous data without exact position data, this method preserves the location privacy of participants in a simple way. In our experiment, we showed that our proposed method is faster than the current method, and is very efficient when the scale is increased.

  14. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  15. Study of a large scale neutron measurement channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarouayache, Anissa; Ben Hadid, Hayet.

    1982-12-01

    A large scale measurement channel allows the processing of the signal coming from an unique neutronic sensor, during three different running modes: impulses, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - A theoretical study of the large scale channel and its brief description are given. The results obtained till now in that domain are presented. - The fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied and the improvements to be done are defined. The study of a fluctuation linear channel with an automatic commutation of scales is described and the results of the tests are given. In this large scale channel, the method of data processing is analogical. - To become independent of the problems generated by the use of a an analogical processing of the fluctuation signal, a digital method of data processing is tested. The validity of that method is improved. The results obtained on a test system realized according to this method are given and a preliminary plan for further research is defined [fr

  16. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quinby, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caulfield, Emmet [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Diffendorfer, Jay [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Haines, Seth [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  17. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  18. The higher order flux mapping method in large size PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, A.K.; Balaraman, V.; Purandare, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new higher order method is proposed for obtaining flux map using single set of expansion mode. In this procedure, one can make use of the difference between predicted value of detector reading and their actual values for determining the strength of local fluxes around detector site. The local fluxes are arising due to constant perturbation changes (both extrinsic and intrinsic) taking place in the reactor. (author)

  19. Road network selection for small-scale maps using an improved centrality-based algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The road network is one of the key feature classes in topographic maps and databases. In the task of deriving road networks for products at smaller scales, road network selection forms a prerequisite for all other generalization operators, and is thus a fundamental operation in the overall process of topographic map and database production. The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm for automated road network selection from a large-scale (1:10,000 to a small-scale database (1:200,000. The project was pursued in collaboration with swisstopo, the national mapping agency of Switzerland, with generic mapping requirements in mind. Preliminary experiments suggested that a selection algorithm based on betweenness centrality performed best for this purpose, yet also exposed problems. The main contribution of this paper thus consists of four extensions that address deficiencies of the basic centrality-based algorithm and lead to a significant improvement of the results. The first two extensions improve the formation of strokes concatenating the road segments, which is crucial since strokes provide the foundation upon which the network centrality measure is computed. Thus, the first extension ensures that roundabouts are detected and collapsed, thus avoiding interruptions of strokes by roundabouts, while the second introduces additional semantics in the process of stroke formation, allowing longer and more plausible strokes to built. The third extension detects areas of high road density (i.e., urban areas using density-based clustering and then locally increases the threshold of the centrality measure used to select road segments, such that more thinning takes place in those areas. Finally, since the basic algorithm tends to create dead-ends—which however are not tolerated in small-scale maps—the fourth extension reconnects these dead-ends to the main network, searching for the best path in the main heading of the dead-end.

  20. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...

  1. Large Scale Emerging Properties from Non Hamiltonian Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bianucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “large scale” depends obviously on the phenomenon we are interested in. For example, in the field of foundation of Thermodynamics from microscopic dynamics, the spatial and time large scales are order of fraction of millimetres and microseconds, respectively, or lesser, and are defined in relation to the spatial and time scales of the microscopic systems. In large scale oceanography or global climate dynamics problems the time scales of interest are order of thousands of kilometres, for space, and many years for time, and are compared to the local and daily/monthly times scales of atmosphere and ocean dynamics. In all the cases a Zwanzig projection approach is, at least in principle, an effective tool to obtain class of universal smooth “large scale” dynamics for few degrees of freedom of interest, starting from the complex dynamics of the whole (usually many degrees of freedom system. The projection approach leads to a very complex calculus with differential operators, that is drastically simplified when the basic dynamics of the system of interest is Hamiltonian, as it happens in Foundation of Thermodynamics problems. However, in geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Biology, and in most of the physical problems the building block fundamental equations of motions have a non Hamiltonian structure. Thus, to continue to apply the useful projection approach also in these cases, we exploit the generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism given by the Lie algebra of dissipative differential operators. In this way, we are able to analytically deal with the series of the differential operators stemming from the projection approach applied to these general cases. Then we shall apply this formalism to obtain some relevant results concerning the statistical properties of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

  2. Solving large scale structure in ten easy steps with COLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassev, Svetlin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: stassev@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu, E-mail: deisenstein@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100 Mpc/h with particles of mass ≈ 5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub s}un/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10{sup 11}M{sub s}un/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obtained with LPT. A standard detailed N-body run is orders of magnitude slower than our COLA-based code. The speed-up we obtain with COLA is due to the fact that we calculate the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT, while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos. Achieving a similar level of accuracy in halo statistics without the COLA method requires at least 3 times more timesteps than when COLA is employed.

  3. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif

    2017-01-07

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  4. Less is more: regularization perspectives on large scale machine learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning based techniques provide a possible solution at the expanse of theoretical guidance and, especially, of computational requirements. It is then a key challenge for large scale machine learning to devise approaches guaranteed to be accurate and yet computationally efficient. In this talk, we will consider a regularization perspectives on machine learning appealing to classical ideas in linear algebra and inverse problems to scale-up dramatically nonparametric methods such as kernel methods, often dismissed because of prohibitive costs. Our analysis derives optimal theoretical guarantees while providing experimental results at par or out-performing state of the art approaches.

  5. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif; Orakzai, Faisal Moeen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  6. Novel algorithm of large-scale simultaneous linear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, T; Hoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Sogabe, T; Zhang, S-L

    2010-01-01

    We review our recently developed methods of solving large-scale simultaneous linear equations and applications to electronic structure calculations both in one-electron theory and many-electron theory. This is the shifted COCG (conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient) method based on the Krylov subspace, and the most important issue for applications is the shift equation and the seed switching method, which greatly reduce the computational cost. The applications to nano-scale Si crystals and the double orbital extended Hubbard model are presented.

  7. Hydrometeorological variability on a large french catchment and its relation to large-scale circulation across temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Nicolas; Dieppois, Bastien; Fritier, Nicolas; Laignel, Benoit; Debret, Maxime; Lavers, David; Hannah, David

    2015-04-01

    In the present context of global changes, considerable efforts have been deployed by the hydrological scientific community to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate fluctuations on water resources. Both observational and modeling studies have been extensively employed to characterize hydrological changes and trends, assess the impact of climate variability or provide future scenarios of water resources. In the aim of a better understanding of hydrological changes, it is of crucial importance to determine how and to what extent trends and long-term oscillations detectable in hydrological variables are linked to global climate oscillations. In this work, we develop an approach associating large-scale/local-scale correlation, enmpirical statistical downscaling and wavelet multiresolution decomposition of monthly precipitation and streamflow over the Seine river watershed, and the North Atlantic sea level pressure (SLP) in order to gain additional insights on the atmospheric patterns associated with the regional hydrology. We hypothesized that: i) atmospheric patterns may change according to the different temporal wavelengths defining the variability of the signals; and ii) definition of those hydrological/circulation relationships for each temporal wavelength may improve the determination of large-scale predictors of local variations. The results showed that the large-scale/local-scale links were not necessarily constant according to time-scale (i.e. for the different frequencies characterizing the signals), resulting in changing spatial patterns across scales. This was then taken into account by developing an empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) modeling approach which integrated discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis for reconstructing local hydrometeorological processes (predictand : precipitation and streamflow on the Seine river catchment) based on a large-scale predictor (SLP over the Euro-Atlantic sector) on a monthly time-step. This approach

  8. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  9. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented

  10. On the ecological relevance of landscape mapping and its application in the spatial planning of very large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin

    2018-06-01

    In recent years very large marine protected areas (VLMPAs) have become the dominant form of spatial protection in the marine environment. Whilst seen as a holistic and geopolitically achievable approach to conservation, there is currently a mismatch between the size of VLMPAs, and the data available to underpin their establishment and inform on their management. Habitat mapping has increasingly been adopted as a means of addressing paucity in biological data, through use of environmental proxies to estimate species and community distribution. Small-scale studies have demonstrated environmental-biological links in marine systems. Such links, however, are rarely demonstrated across larger spatial scales in the benthic environment. As such, the utility of habitat mapping as an effective approach to the ecosystem-based management of VLMPAs remains, thus far, largely undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological relevance of broadscale landscape mapping. Specifically we test the relationship between broad-scale marine landscapes and the structure of their benthic faunal communities. We focussed our work at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, site of one of the largest MPAs in the world. We demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between environmentally derived landscape mapping clusters, and the composition of presence-only species data from the region. To demonstrate this relationship required specific re-sampling of historical species occurrence data to balance biological rarity, biological cosmopolitism, range-restricted sampling and fine-scale heterogeneity between sampling stations. The relationship reveals a distinct biological signature in the faunal composition of individual landscapes, attributing ecological relevance to South Georgia's environmentally derived marine landscape map. We argue therefore, that landscape mapping represents an effective framework for ensuring representative protection of habitats in management

  11. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino Bellugi; William E. Dietrich; Jonathan Stock; Jim McKean; Brian Kazian; Paul Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so...

  12. Nearly incompressible fluids: Hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Shaikh, D.

    2006-01-01

    A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as 'nearly incompressible hydrodynamics', is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term 'locally incompressible' to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term 'nearly incompressible', which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly

  13. Divergence of perturbation theory in large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Enrico; van der Woude, Drian

    2018-05-01

    We make progress towards an analytical understanding of the regime of validity of perturbation theory for large scale structures and the nature of some non-perturbative corrections. We restrict ourselves to 1D gravitational collapse, for which exact solutions before shell crossing are known. We review the convergence of perturbation theory for the power spectrum, recently proven by McQuinn and White [1], and extend it to non-Gaussian initial conditions and the bispectrum. In contrast, we prove that perturbation theory diverges for the real space two-point correlation function and for the probability density function (PDF) of the density averaged in cells and all the cumulants derived from it. We attribute these divergences to the statistical averaging intrinsic to cosmological observables, which, even on very large and "perturbative" scales, gives non-vanishing weight to all extreme fluctuations. Finally, we discuss some general properties of non-perturbative effects in real space and Fourier space.

  14. GAIA: A WINDOW TO LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusser, Adi [Physics Department and the Asher Space Science Institute-Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Branchini, Enzo [Department of Physics, Universita Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Davis, Marc, E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it, E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Using redshifts as a proxy for galaxy distances, estimates of the two-dimensional (2D) transverse peculiar velocities of distant galaxies could be obtained from future measurements of proper motions. We provide the mathematical framework for analyzing 2D transverse motions and show that they offer several advantages over traditional probes of large-scale motions. They are completely independent of any intrinsic relations between galaxy properties; hence, they are essentially free of selection biases. They are free from homogeneous and inhomogeneous Malmquist biases that typically plague distance indicator catalogs. They provide additional information to traditional probes that yield line-of-sight peculiar velocities only. Further, because of their 2D nature, fundamental questions regarding vorticity of large-scale flows can be addressed. Gaia, for example, is expected to provide proper motions of at least bright galaxies with high central surface brightness, making proper motions a likely contender for traditional probes based on current and future distance indicator measurements.

  15. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  16. Large Scale GW Calculations on the Cori System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslippe, Jack; Del Ben, Mauro; da Jornada, Felipe; Canning, Andrew; Louie, Steven

    The NERSC Cori system, powered by 9000+ Intel Xeon-Phi processors, represents one of the largest HPC systems for open-science in the United States and the world. We discuss the optimization of the GW methodology for this system, including both node level and system-scale optimizations. We highlight multiple large scale (thousands of atoms) case studies and discuss both absolute application performance and comparison to calculations on more traditional HPC architectures. We find that the GW method is particularly well suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism across many layers of the system. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, as part of the Computational Materials Sciences Program.

  17. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  18. Cosmic ray acceleration by large scale galactic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Lagage, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration may account for the existence of galactic cosmic rays detailed application to stellar wind shocks and especially to supernova shocks have been developed. Existing models can usually deal with the energetics or the spectral slope, but the observed energy range of cosmic rays is not explained. Therefore it seems worthwhile to examine the effect that large scale, long-lived galactic shocks may have on galactic cosmic rays, in the frame of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Large scale fast shocks can only be expected to exist in the galactic halo. We consider three situations where they may arise: expansion of a supernova shock in the halo, galactic wind, galactic infall; and discuss the possible existence of these shocks and their role in accelerating cosmic rays

  19. Efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making for large scale settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2011-01-01

    to bring about more effective and more efficient retrieval systems that support the users' decision making process. We sketch promising research directions for more efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making, especially for large scale systems.......Collaborative decision making is a successful approach in settings where data analysis and querying can be done interactively. In large scale systems with huge data volumes or many users, collaboration is often hindered by impractical runtimes. Existing work on improving collaboration focuses...... on avoiding redundancy for users working on the same task. While this improves the effectiveness of the user work process, the underlying query processing engine is typically considered a "black box" and left unchanged. Research in multiple query processing, on the other hand, ignores the application...

  20. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  1. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Therefore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon

  2. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    The present trend on investing in renewable ways of producing electricity in the detriment of conventional fossil fuel-based plants will lead to a certain point where these plants have to provide ancillary services and contribute to overall grid stability. Photovoltaic (PV) power has the fastest...... growth among all renewable energies and managed to reach high penetration levels creating instabilities which at the moment are corrected by the conventional generation. This paradigm will change in the future scenarios where most of the power is supplied by large scale renewable plants and parts...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...

  3. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  4. Quantum cosmological origin of large scale structures of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anini, Y.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, the initial quantum state of matter perturbations about de Sitter minisuperspace model is found. For a large class of boundary conditions (bcs), including those of Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin, the resulting quantum state is the de Sitter invariant vacuum. This result is found to depend only on the regularity requirement at the euclidean origin of spacetime which is common to all reasonable (bcs). The initial value of the density perturbations implied by these quantum fluctuations are found and evaluated at the initial horizon crossing. The perturbations are found to have an almost scale independent spectrum, and an amplitude which depends on the scale at which inflation took place. The amplitude would have the right value if the scale of inflation is H ≤ 10 15 Gev. (author). 9 refs

  5. Some Statistics for Measuring Large-Scale Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Kaplan, David M.; A, Stephen; Ramsey

    1993-01-01

    Good statistics for measuring large-scale structure in the Universe must be able to distinguish between different models of structure formation. In this paper, two and three dimensional ``counts in cell" statistics and a new ``discrete genus statistic" are applied to toy versions of several popular theories of structure formation: random phase cold dark matter model, cosmic string models, and global texture scenario. All three statistics appear quite promising in terms of differentiating betw...

  6. Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Edward Y

    2011-01-01

    "Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval - Mathematics of Perception" covers knowledge representation and semantic analysis of multimedia data and scalability in signal extraction, data mining, and indexing. The book is divided into two parts: Part I - Knowledge Representation and Semantic Analysis focuses on the key components of mathematics of perception as it applies to data management and retrieval. These include feature selection/reduction, knowledge representation, semantic analysis, distance function formulation for measuring similarity, and

  7. PKI security in large-scale healthcare networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Komninos, N.

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years a lot of PKI (Public Key Infrastructures) infrastructures have been proposed for healthcare networks in order to ensure secure communication services and exchange of data among healthcare professionals. However, there is a plethora of challenges in these healthcare PKI infrastructures. Especially, there are a lot of challenges for PKI infrastructures deployed over large-scale healthcare networks. In this paper, we propose a PKI infrastructure to ensure security in a ...

  8. Experimental simulation of microinteractions in large scale explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Luo, R.; Yuen, W.W.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data and analysis of recent experiments conducted in the SIGMA-2000 facility to simulate microinteractions in large scale explosions. Specifically, the fragmentation behavior of a high temperature molten steel drop under high pressure (beyond critical) conditions are investigated. The current data demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of high pressure in suppressing the thermal effect of fragmentation under supercritical conditions. The results support the microinteractions idea, and the ESPROSE.m prediction of fragmentation rate. (author)

  9. A Classification Framework for Large-Scale Face Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ziheng; Deravi, Farzin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a generic classification framework for large-scale face recognition systems. Within the framework, a data sampling strategy is proposed to tackle the data imbalance when image pairs are sampled from thousands of face images for preparing a training dataset. A modified kernel Fisher discriminant classifier is proposed to make it computationally feasible to train the kernel-based classification method using tens of thousands of training samples. The framework is tested in an...

  10. Design study on sodium cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Hishida, Masahiko; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2004-07-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2, design improvement for further cost reduction of establishment of the plant concept has been performed. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2003, which is the third year of Phase 2. In the JFY2003 design study, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity and thermal hydraulics which found in the last fiscal year has been examined and the plant concept has been modified. Furthermore, fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set and economy has been evaluated. In addition, as the interim evaluation of the candidate concept of the FBR fuel cycle is to be conducted, cost effectiveness and achievability for the development goal were evaluated and the data of the three large-scale reactor candidate concepts were prepared. As a results of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  11. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  12. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessments Of Selected Large-Scale Projects...Volatile EvolutioN MEP Mars Exploration Program MIB Mishap Investigation Board MMRTG Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator MMS Magnetospheric...probes designed to explore the Martian surface, to satellites equipped with advanced sensors to study the earth , to telescopes intended to explore the

  13. Perturbation theory instead of large scale shell model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Mankos, P.

    1977-01-01

    Results of large scale shell model calculations for (sd)-shell nuclei are compared with a perturbation theory provides an excellent approximation when the SU(3)-basis is used as a starting point. The results indicate that perturbation theory treatment in an SU(3)-basis including 2hω excitations should be preferable to a full diagonalization within the (sd)-shell. (orig.) [de

  14. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar; Bellini, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2009-04-20

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0}. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A{sub 0}=0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  15. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ0. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A0 = 0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  16. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ 0 . Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A 0 =0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  17. Investigation of the large scale regional hydrogeological situation at Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghammar, A.; Grundfelt, B.; Hartley, L.

    1997-11-01

    The present study forms part of the large-scale groundwater flow studies within the SR 97 project. The site of interest is Ceberg. Within the present study two different regional scale groundwater models have been constructed, one large regional model with an areal extent of about 300 km 2 and one semi-regional model with an areal extent of about 50 km 2 . Different types of boundary conditions have been applied to the models. Topography driven pressures, constant infiltration rates, non-linear infiltration combined specified pressure boundary conditions, and transfer of groundwater pressures from the larger model to the semi-regional model. The present model has shown that: -Groundwater flow paths are mainly local. Large-scale groundwater flow paths are only seen below the depth of the hypothetical repository (below 500 meters) and are very slow. -Locations of recharge and discharge, to and from the site area are in the close vicinity of the site. -The low contrast between major structures and the rock mass means that the factor having the major effect on the flowpaths is the topography. -A sufficiently large model, to incorporate the recharge and discharge areas to the local site is in the order of kilometres. -A uniform infiltration rate boundary condition does not give a good representation of the groundwater movements in the model. -A local site model may be located to cover the site area and a few kilometers of the surrounding region. In order to incorporate all recharge and discharge areas within the site model, the model will be somewhat larger than site scale models at other sites. This is caused by the fact that the discharge areas are divided into three distinct areas to the east, south and west of the site. -Boundary conditions may be supplied to the site model by means of transferring groundwater pressures obtained with the semi-regional model

  18. Concurrent Programming Using Actors: Exploiting Large-Scale Parallelism,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-07

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK* Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA Is WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square...D-R162 422 CONCURRENT PROGRMMIZNG USING f"OS XL?ITP TEH l’ LARGE-SCALE PARALLELISH(U) NASI AC E Al CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE L. G AGHA ET AL...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDA.RDS - -96 A -E. __ _ __ __’ .,*- - -- •. - MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL

  19. On a Game of Large-Scale Projects Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2009-09-01

    The paper is devoted to game-theoretical control problems motivated by economic decision making situations arising in realization of large-scale projects, such as designing and putting into operations the new gas or oil pipelines. A non-cooperative two player game is considered with payoff functions of special type for which standard existence theorems and algorithms for searching Nash equilibrium solutions are not applicable. The paper is based on and develops the results obtained in [1]-[5].

  20. Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-20

    We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.