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Sample records for large primordial undegassed

  1. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar; Bellini, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)], E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2009-04-20

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0}. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A{sub 0}=0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  2. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ0. Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A0 = 0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  3. Primordial large-scale electromagnetic fields from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of primordial electric and magnetic fields in the early universe, when the expansion is governed by a cosmological constant Λ 0 . Using the gravitoelectromagnetic inflationary formalism with A 0 =0, we obtain the power of spectrums for large-scale magnetic fields and the inflaton field fluctuations during inflation. A very important fact is that our formalism is naturally non-conformally invariant.

  4. Primordial domains in the depleted upper mantle identified by noble gases in MORBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Langmuir, C. H.; Hamelin, C.; Fuentes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of noble gas isotopic compositions in the mantle provides important constraints on the large-scale mantle evolution, as noble gases can trace the interaction between degassed, or processed, mantle domains and undegassed, or primitive, mantle domains. Data from the radiogenic He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic systems have shown that plume-related lavas sample relatively undegassed mantle domains, and the recent identification of isotopic anomalies in the short-lived I-Xe and Hf-W isotopic systems in plume-related lavas further suggests that these domains may be ancient, dating back to Earth's accretion. However, little is known about the potential variability of the heavy noble gas systems and the distribution of undegassed domains in the ambient upper mantle not influenced by plumes. Here, we present new high-precision He, Ne, Ar, and Xe isotopic data for a series of MORBs from a depleted section of the subtropical north Mid-Atlantic Ridge, distant from any known plume influence. Some samples have extremely low (unradiogenic) 4He/3He, 21Ne/22Ne, 40Ar/36Ar, and 129Xe/130Xe ratios, including some of the lowest values ever determined for MORBs. Such unradiogenic compositions are reminiscent of OIBs and plume-influenced E-MORBs, suggesting the presence of a relatively undegassed or primitive reservoir in the source of these depleted MORBs. The He, Ne, and Ar isotopic systems are sensitive to the long-term degassing history, suggesting that this domain in the MORB source is ancient. The 129Xe/130Xe ratio is sensitive to degassing only during the first 100 Ma of Earth history, suggesting that some of the isotopic character of these samples has been preserved since Earth's accretion. Together, these observations suggest that primordial or undegassed material is not only sampled in plumes-related lavas, but also normal, depleted MORBs. Along with data from E-MORBs in the southern EPR (Kurz et al., 2005), southern MAR (Sarda et al., 2000), and equatorial MAR

  5. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Dvorkin, Cora; Huang, Zhiqi; Verde, Licia

    2016-01-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  6. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Verde, Licia, E-mail: xingang.chen@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dvorkin@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: huangzhq25@sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: mohammad.namjoo@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and ICC-UB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  7. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ΛCDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ΛCDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f NL in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology

  8. Cosmic microwave background bispectrum from primordial magnetic fields on large angular scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-08-21

    Primordial magnetic fields lead to non-Gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) even at the lowest order, as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. In contrast, CMB non-Gaussianity due to inflationary scalar perturbations arises only as a higher-order effect. We propose a novel probe of stochastic primordial magnetic fields that exploits the characteristic CMB non-Gaussianity that they induce. We compute the CMB bispectrum (b(l1l2l3)) induced by such fields on large angular scales. We find a typical value of l1(l1 + 1)l3(l3 + 1)b(l1l2l3) approximately 10(-22), for magnetic fields of strength B0 approximately 3 nG and with a nearly scale invariant magnetic spectrum. Observational limits on the bispectrum allow us to set upper limits on B0 approximately 35 nG.

  9. Primordial Non-Gaussianity in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Desjacques

    2010-01-01

    generated the cosmological fluctuations observed today. Any detection of significant non-Gaussianity would thus have profound implications for our understanding of cosmic structure formation. The large-scale mass distribution in the Universe is a sensitive probe of the nature of initial conditions. Recent theoretical progress together with rapid developments in observational techniques will enable us to critically confront predictions of inflationary scenarios and set constraints as competitive as those from the Cosmic Microwave Background. In this paper, we review past and current efforts in the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure of the Universe.

  10. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter epsilon (> 0.001), a positive detection of trans......-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10^-4. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound...

  11. SPINS OF LARGE ASTEROIDS: A HINT OF A PRIMORDIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THEIR SPIN RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-04-15

    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  12. Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai G. Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.

  13. Primordial Dwarfism

    Science.gov (United States)

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  14. Primordial Non-Gaussianity and Bispectrum Measurements in the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large-Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Liguori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most direct probe of non-Gaussian initial conditions has come from bispectrum measurements of temperature fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background and of the matter and galaxy distribution at large scales. Such bispectrum estimators are expected to continue to provide the best constraints on the non-Gaussian parameters in future observations. We review and compare the theoretical and observational problems, current results, and future prospects for the detection of a nonvanishing primordial component in the bispectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background and large-scale structure, and the relation to specific predictions from different inflationary models.

  15. Influence of large local and non-local bispectra on primordial black hole abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sam; Regan, Donough; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial black holes represent a unique probe to constrain the early universe on small scales—providing the only constraints on the primordial power spectrum on the majority of scales. However, these constraints are strongly dependent on even small amounts of non-Gaussianity, which is unconstrained on scales significantly smaller than those visible in the CMB. This paper goes beyond previous considerations to consider the effects of a bispectrum of the equilateral, orthogonal and local shapes with arbitrary magnitude upon the abundance of primordial black holes. Non-Gaussian density maps of the early universe are generated from a given bispectrum and used to place constraints on the small scale power spectrum. When small, we show that the skewness provides an accurate estimate for how the constraint depends on non-Gaussianity, independently of the shape of the bispectrum. We show that the orthogonal template of non-Gaussianity has an order of magnitude weaker effect on the constraints than the local and equilateral templates

  16. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenni, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J., E-mail: andrea.ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  17. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from Local Primordial Black Holes with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, C.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Palatiello, M.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Valverde, J.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.

    2018-04-01

    Black holes with masses below approximately 1015 g are expected to emit gamma-rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early universe and are therefore called primordial black holes (PBHs). Previous searches for PBHs have focused on either short-timescale bursts or the contribution of PBHs to the isotropic gamma-ray emission. We show that, in cases of individual PBHs, the Fermi-LAT is most sensitive to PBHs with temperatures above approximately 16 GeV and masses 6 × 1011 g, which it can detect out to a distance of about 0.03 pc. These PBHs have a remaining lifetime of months to years at the start of the Fermi mission. They would appear as potentially moving point sources with gamma-ray emission that become spectrally harder and brighter with time until the PBH completely evaporates. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to detect the proper motion of gamma-ray point sources, and apply it to 318 unassociated point sources at a high galactic latitude in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog. None of the unassociated point sources with spectra consistent with PBH evaporation show significant proper motion. Using the nondetection of PBH candidates, we derive a 99% confidence limit on the PBH evaporation rate in the vicinity of Earth, {\\dot{ρ }}PBH}< 7.2× {10}3 {pc}}-3 {yr}}-1. This limit is similar to the limits obtained with ground-based gamma-ray observatories.

  18. Primordial nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D N

    1998-01-06

    With the advent of the new extragalactic deuterium observations, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is on the verge of undergoing a transformation. In the past, the emphasis has been on demonstrating the concordance of the BBN model with the abundances of the light isotopes extrapolated back to their primordial values by using stellar and galactic evolution theories. As a direct measure of primordial deuterium is converged upon, the nature of the field will shift to using the much more precise primordial D/H to constrain the more flexible stellar and galactic evolution models (although the question of potential systematic error in 4He abundance determinations remains open). The remarkable success of the theory to date in establishing the concordance has led to the very robust conclusion of BBN regarding the baryon density. This robustness remains even through major model variations such as an assumed first-order quark-hadron phase transition. The BBN constraints on the cosmological baryon density are reviewed and demonstrate that the bulk of the baryons are dark and also that the bulk of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic. Comparison of baryonic density arguments from Lyman-alpha clouds, x-ray gas in clusters, and the microwave anisotropy are made.

  19. Primordial Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis, or Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), is one of the three evidences for the Big-Bang model, together with the expansion of the Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background. There is a good global agreement over a range of nine orders of magnitude between abundances of 4 He, D, 3 He and 7 Li deduced from observations, and calculated in primordial nucleosynthesis. This comparison was used to determine the baryonic density of the Universe. For this purpose, it is now superseded by the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation anisotropies. However, there remain, a yet unexplained, discrepancy of a factor 3-5, between the calculated and observed lithium primordial abundances, that has not been reduced, neither by recent nuclear physics experiments, nor by new observations. We review here the nuclear physics aspects of BBN for the production of 4 He, D, 3 He and 7 Li, but also 6 Li, 9 Be, 11 B and up to CNO isotopes. These are, for instance, important for the initial composition of the matter at the origin of the first stars. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, that has been used, to first constrain the baryonic density, and the number of neutrino families, remains, a valuable tool to probe the physics of the early Universe, like variation of ''constants'' or alternative theories of gravity.

  20. Primordial Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coc, Alain

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is now a parameter free theory whose predictions are in good overall agreement with observations. However, the 7Li calculated abundance is significantly higher than the one deduced from spectroscopic observations. Most solutions to this lithium problem involve a source of extra neutrons that inevitably leads to an increase of the deuterium abundance. This seems now to be excluded by recent deuterium observations that have drastically reduced the uncertainty on D/H and also calls for improved precision on thermonuclear reaction rates.

  1. Primordial nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The recent detection of intergalactic helium by NASA's Astro-2 mission backs up two earlier measurements by ESA and the University of California, San Diego, using instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Taken together, these results give strong evidence that this helium is primordial, confirming a key prediction of the Big Bang theory. The amount of helium the results imply could also account for some of the Universe's invisible dark matter - material which affects galactic motion but is otherwise undetectable. According to theory, helium nuclei formed at around 100 seconds after the Big Bang, but the amount of helium depended on even earlier events. Initially, protons turned into neutrons with the same probability that neutrons turned into protons. But after about one second, the Universe had cooled down enough for the weak interaction to freeze out. Neutrons continued to decay into the slightly lighter protons, whilst the opposite reaction became much more scarce. At around 100 seconds, thermonuclear fusion reactions could begin, and all the neutrons that were left became absorbed into helium nuclei, leaving the remaining protons locked up in hydrogen. The ratio of helium to hydrogen was therefore determined by events occurring when the Universe was just one second old. Standard models of primordial nucleosynthesis fix this ratio at slightly less than 2 5% by mass. All heavier elements were cooked up much later in the stars, and amount to less than 1 % of the Universe's mass. These predictions have been borne out remarkably well by observation, although proof of the primordial origins of hydrogen and helium has remained elusive until now. Big Bang nucleosynthesis goes on to estimate that primordial baryonic matter in the form of light nuclei could account for around 10% of the Universe's dark matter. All three recent measurements used the same technique of looking at distant quasars, some of the most luminous objects in the Universe, to

  2. Primordial Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Waaijman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the primordial spirituality of the Bible, as expressed in names, narratives and prayers. It looks at the nomadic families of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob, Lea and Rachel, moving around from Mesopotamia via Canaan into Egypt and vice versa (see Gn 11:31–32; 12:4–5; 27:43; 28:10; 29:4; Gn 24 and 29–31. It analyses their experiences, covering the span between birth and death and listens to their parental concerns about education as survival. It also follows their journeys along the margins of the deserts. It shares their community life as it takes shape in mutual solidarity, mercy and compassion.

  3. Extreme incompatibility of helium during mantle melting: Evidence from undegassed mid-ocean ridge basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David W.; Michael, Peter J.; Shea, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We report total helium concentrations (vesicles + glass) for a suite of thirteen ultradepleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (UD-MORBs) that were previously studied for volatile contents (CO2, H2O) plus major and trace elements. The selected basalts are undersaturated in CO2 + H2O at their depths of eruption and represent rare cases of undegassed MORBs. Sample localities from the Atlantic (2), Indian (1) and Pacific (7) Oceans collectively show excellent linear correlations (r2 = 0.75- 0.92) between the concentrations of helium and the highly incompatible elements C, K, Rb, Ba, Nb, Th and U. Three basalts from Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic were also studied but show anomalous behavior marked by excess lithophile trace element abundances. In the Atlantic-Pacific-Indian suite, incompatible element concentrations vary by factors of 3-4.3, while helium concentration varies by a factor of 13. The strong correlations between the concentrations of helium and incompatible elements are explained by helium behavior as the most incompatible element during mantle melting. Partial melting of an ultradepleted mantle source, formed as a residue of earlier melt extraction, accounts for the observed concentrations. The earlier melting event involved removal of a small degree melt (∼1%) at low but non-zero porosity (0.01-0.5%), leading to a small amount of melt retention that strongly leveraged the incompatible element budget of the ultradepleted mantle source. Equilibrium melting models that produce the range of trace element and helium concentrations from this source require a bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium that is lower than that for other incompatible elements by about a factor of ten. Alternatively, the bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium could be similar to or even larger than that for other incompatible elements, but the much larger diffusivity of helium in peridotite leads to its more effective incompatibility and efficient extraction from a

  4. Primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavino, C.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Trezzi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of light nuclei in the early phases of the Universe. For this, precise knowledge of the cosmological parameters, such as the baryon density, as well as the cross section of the fusion reactions involved are needed. In general, the energies of interest for BBN are so low (E < 1 MeV) that nuclear cross section measurements are practically unfeasible at the Earth's surface. As of today, LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been the only facility in the world available to perform direct measurements of small cross section in a very low background radiation. Owing to the background suppression provided by about 1400 meters of rock at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, and to the high current offered by the LUNA accelerator, it has been possible to investigate cross sections at energies of interest for Big Bang nucleosynthesis using protons, 3 He and alpha particles as projectiles. The main reaction studied in the past at LUNA is the 2 H( 4 He, γ) 6 Li. Its cross section was measured directly, for the first time, in the BBN energy range. Other processes like 2 H(p, γ) 3 He, 3 He( 2 H, p) 4 He and 3 He( 4 He, γ) 7 Be were also studied at LUNA, thus enabling to reduce the uncertainty on the overall reaction rate and consequently on the determination of primordial abundances. The improvements on BBN due to the LUNA experimental data will be discussed and a perspective of future measurements will be outlined. (orig.)

  5. The primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    This review of the primordial nucleosynthesis is divided in three chapters. In the first the author attempts to determine the primordial abundances of the lightest elements which can be formed by the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The second is a summary of the Standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. This simple and attractive model might be found in difficulty in the case of a primordial abundance of He <= 0.24 and/or in the case of models of galactic evolution allowing infall of external matter having a primordial composition. Finally, in the third, two alternative proposals to the Standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis are summarized. (Auth.)

  6. Primordial chemistry: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, Monique; Puy, Denis

    1999-01-01

    In the standard Big Bang model, the light elements in the cosmos -hydrogen and helium but also deuterium and lithium- were created in the very early Universe. The main problem is to connect what we can actually observe to day with the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis predictions essentially because of uncertainties in modeling their evolution since the Big Bang. After a brief review of the primordial nucleosynthesis -predictions and observations of the primordial abundances- we present the preliminary studies of the primordial chemistry: molecular formation and evolution in the early Universe

  7. Primordial dwarfism: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-02-01

    To review the recent advances in the clinical and molecular characterization of primordial dwarfism, an extreme growth deficiency disorder that has its onset during embryonic development and persists throughout life. The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented acceleration in the discovery of genes mutated in primordial dwarfism, from one gene to more than a dozen genes. These genetic discoveries have confirmed the notion that primordial dwarfism is caused by defects in basic cellular processes, most notably centriolar biology and DNA damage response. Fortunately, the increasing number of reported clinical primordial dwarfism subtypes has been accompanied by more accurate molecular classification. Qualitative defects of centrioles with resulting abnormal mitosis dynamics, reduced proliferation, and increased apoptosis represent the predominant molecular pathogenic mechanism in primordial dwarfism. Impaired DNA damage response is another important mechanism, which we now know is not mutually exclusive to abnormal centrioles. Molecular characterization of primordial dwarfism is helping families by enabling more reproductive choices and may pave the way for the future development of therapeutics.

  8. Before primordial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanopoulos, D. V.; Srednicki, M.

    1983-12-01

    We show that, before the onset of primordial inflation, there is plenty of time for fields with very flat potentials and very weak couplings (such as the local supersymmetry breaking field and the axion field) to roll to the global minima of their potentials. Thus there is no energy stored in these fields today and hence no constraint (such as faxion USA.

  9. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel [DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: assassi@ias.edu, E-mail: D.D.Baumann@uva.nl, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation.

  10. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation

  11. Photinos and primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.

    1986-07-01

    Photinos are among the most interesting particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. If they exist they should influence in many ways the results of the primordial nucleosynthesis i.e. the predicted primordial abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He (and 7 Li). If photinos are stable, cosmological constraints restrict their possible mass to be either very light (M∼ γ γ > a few GeV), depending on the slepton and squark masses. In the case where photinos are unstable, they could create high energy photons able to photodisintegrate the light elements. The comparison between the predicted and the observed abundances allows to restrict significantly the photino mass-lifetime range: roughly speaking photinos of relatively high mass (M∼ γ > 150 MeV) and low time scale ( 3 sec) are compatible with these abundances

  12. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  13. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  14. Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T

    2009-09-11

    A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes.

  15. Searching for Primordial Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Scientists are on the hunt for evidence of antimatter - matter's arch nemesis - leftover from the very early Universe. New results using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory suggest the search may have just become even more difficult. Antimatter is made up of elementary particles, each of which has the same mass as their corresponding matter counterparts --protons, neutrons and electrons -- but the opposite charges and magnetic properties. When matter and antimatter particles collide, they annihilate each other and produce energy according to Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2. According to the Big Bang model, the Universe was awash in particles of both matter and antimatter shortly after the Big Bang. Most of this material annihilated, but because there was slightly more matter than antimatter - less than one part per billion - only matter was left behind, at least in the local Universe. Trace amounts of antimatter are believed to be produced by powerful phenomena such as relativistic jets powered by black holes and pulsars, but no evidence has yet been found for antimatter remaining from the infant Universe. How could any primordial antimatter have survived? Just after the Big Bang there was believed to be an extraordinary period, called inflation, when the Universe expanded exponentially in just a fraction of a second. "If clumps of matter and antimatter existed next to each other before inflation, they may now be separated by more than the scale of the observable Universe, so we would never see them meet," said Gary Steigman of The Ohio State University, who conducted the study. "But, they might be separated on smaller scales, such as those of superclusters or clusters, which is a much more interesting possibility." X-rayChandra X-ray Image In that case, collisions between two galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the Universe, might show evidence for antimatter. X-ray emission shows how much hot

  16. Finite temperature effects in primordial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, G. B.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, K. A.

    1983-11-01

    We present a detailed study of a recently proposed model for primordial inflation based on an N=1 locally supersymmetric potential. For a large class of parameters with which all cosmological constraints are satisfied, the temperature corrections can be neglected during the inflation period. At higher temperatures, the minimum is not at the origin, but very close to it. Address after July 1, 1983: Theory Group, Fermilab, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA.

  17. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  18. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; Chluba, Jens; Fixsen, Dale J.; Meyer, Stephan; Spergel, David

    2016-07-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to open new windows on the early universe through measurements of the polarization and absolute frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE will measure the gravitational-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint in linear polarization, and characterize the thermal history of the universe through precision measurements of distortions in the blackbody spectrum. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning over 7 octaves in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce systematic errors to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6° and sensitivity 70 nK per 1° square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r complements anticipated ground-based polarization measurements such as CMB- S4, providing a cosmic-variance-limited determination of the large-scale E-mode signal to measure the optical depth, constrain models of reionization, and provide a firm detection of the neutrino mass (the last unknown parameter in the Standard Model of particle physics). In addition, PIXIE will measure the absolute frequency spectrum to characterize deviations from a blackbody with sensitivity 3 orders of magnitude beyond the seminal COBE/FIRAS limits. The sky cannot be black at this level; the expected results will constrain physical processes ranging from inflation to the nature of the first stars and the

  19. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-05-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.

  20. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations

  1. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y p . The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y p . In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y p = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y p = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination

  2. Resolving primordial physics through correlated signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Enqvist, Kari; Mulryne, David J.; Nurmi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    We discuss correlations among spectral observables as a new tool for differentiating between models for the primordial perturbation. We show that if generated in the isocurvature sector, a running of the scalar spectral index is correlated with the statistical properties of non-Gaussianities. In particular, we find a large running will inevitably be accompanied by a large running of $f_{\\rm NL}$ and enhanced $g_{\\rm NL}$, with $g_{\\rm NL}\\gg f_{\\rm NL}^2$. If the tensor to scalar ratio is lar...

  3. The role of residual (undegassed) and environmental waters in pyroclastic volcanic glass in nature and experiments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Seligman, A. N.; Nolan, G. S.; Lundstrom, C.; Martin, E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Palandri, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The advent and calibration of the Thermal Combustion Element Analyzer (TCEA) continuous flow system coupled with the large-radius mass spectrometer, at the University of Oregon, permits precise (×0.02 wt.% H2O, ×1-3‰ D/H) measurements in 1-10 mg of volcanic glass (0.1 wt.% H2O requires ~10 mg glass). This is a 10-100 time reduction in sample size over previous methods, which permits the targeting of small amounts of the freshest concentrate. In combination with the FTIR, we use the TCEA to research problems involving the mechanisms and timescales of volcanic ash hydration on both natural and laboratory timescales using isotopically-labeled water, D/H-H2O pathways of volcanic degassing, water content and D/H in recently erupted volcanic ash, and the mechanisms of tephra-hydration by isotopically-distinct rain and glacial meltwaters. The talk will review new results: 1) Water content determined by FTIR (OH and H2O) and TCEA give excellent correspondence for basaltic and rhyolitic glasses, including FTIR measurements for irregular ash particles mixed in equal proportion with KBr and molded into pellets. 2) Nominally-anhydrous (hydrated ash (4 wt.% water) leads to neglegeable δD exchange, signifying nearly zero-fractionation upon loss of predominantly H2Omol water. 5) Glacial vs. intergacial water can be recognized in hydrated glasses. 6) Subaqueous perlites from Yellowstone have an onion-skin distribution of water with water-poor cores, as determined by the scanning FTIR technique. 7) Thermal diffusion experiments achieve up to a 144‰ range in δD across a 300-600°C temperature change; this has implications for explaining natural variations in δD in high temperature environments due to high diffusivity of hydrogen. 8) We report results of δ18O in extracted water in glass and discuss isotopic offsets due to incomplete oxygen extraction from OH groups. 9) We apply these methods to submarine glasses, and degassing tephra products of the same eruption.

  4. Inflation and dark matter primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfani, Encieh

    2012-09-01

    In this thesis a broad range of single field models of inflation are analyzed in light of all relevant recent cosmological data, checking whether they can lead to the formation of long-lived Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. To that end we calculate the spectral index of the power spectrum of primordial perturbations as well as its first and second derivatives. PBH formation is possible only if the spectral index increases significantly at small scales, i.e. large wave number k. Since current data indicate that the first derivative α S of the spectral index n S (k pivot ) is negative at the pivot scale k pivot , PBH formation is only possible in the presence of a sizable and positive second derivative (''running of the running'') β S . Among the three small-field and five large-field inflation models we analyze, only one small-field model, the ''running-mass'' model, allows PBH formation, for a narrow range of parameters. We also note that none of the models we analyze can accord for a large and negative value of α S , which is weakly preferred by current data. Similarly, proving conclusively that the second derivative of the spectral index is positive would exclude all the large-field models we investigated.

  5. Inflation and dark matter primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfani, Encieh

    2012-09-15

    In this thesis a broad range of single field models of inflation are analyzed in light of all relevant recent cosmological data, checking whether they can lead to the formation of long-lived Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. To that end we calculate the spectral index of the power spectrum of primordial perturbations as well as its first and second derivatives. PBH formation is possible only if the spectral index increases significantly at small scales, i.e. large wave number k. Since current data indicate that the first derivative {alpha}{sub S} of the spectral index n{sub S}(k{sub pivot}) is negative at the pivot scale k{sub pivot}, PBH formation is only possible in the presence of a sizable and positive second derivative (''running of the running'') {beta}{sub S}. Among the three small-field and five large-field inflation models we analyze, only one small-field model, the ''running-mass'' model, allows PBH formation, for a narrow range of parameters. We also note that none of the models we analyze can accord for a large and negative value of {alpha}{sub S}, which is weakly preferred by current data. Similarly, proving conclusively that the second derivative of the spectral index is positive would exclude all the large-field models we investigated.

  6. Identifying the inflaton with primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Damien A; Powell, Brian A

    2011-05-13

    We explore the ability of experimental physics to uncover the underlying structure of the gravitational Lagrangian describing inflation. While the observable degeneracy of the inflationary parameter space is large, future measurements of observables beyond the adiabatic and tensor two-point functions, such as non-gaussianity or isocurvature modes, might reduce this degeneracy. We show that, even in the absence of such observables, the range of possible inflaton potentials can be reduced with a precision measurement of the tensor spectral index, as might be possible with a direct detection of primordial gravitational waves.

  7. Lifting Primordial Non-Gaussianity Above the Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Yvette; Woude, Drian van der; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) in Large Scale Structures is obfuscated by the many additional sources of non-linearity. Within the Effective Field Theory approach to Standard Perturbation Theory, we show that matter non-linearities in the bispectrum can be modeled sufficiently well to strengthen

  8. Late baryogenesis faces primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Audouze, J.; Salati, P.

    1991-11-01

    Since the sphalleron mechanism present in the standard theory of electro-weak interactions violates B+L, models have been suggested where baryogenesis takes place at late epochs and is concomitant with primordial nucleosynthesis. The possibility for the baryon asymmetry to be generated was numerically investigated at the same time as the light elements are cooked. The primordial yields of D, 3 He, 4 He and 7 Li were shown to exceed the upper limits inferred from observation, unless baryogenesis is anterior to the freeze-out of the weak interactions. This implies strong constraints on scenarios where the baryon asymmetry originates from the late decay of massive gravitinos. (author) 18 refs., 6 figs

  9. Primordial Kaluza-Klein inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    In a higher-dimensional version of the gravitational action with higher-derivative terms and logarithmic dependence on the curvature scalar, in addition to the four-dimensional gravitational action integral, the non-gravitational Coleman-Weinberg effective potential that governs primordial inflation is obtained. Also, it is obtained that the length scale for the internal space decreases monotonously during the inflationary era, at a similar rate as the three spacelike dimensions grow. (orig.)

  10. Cosmic microwave background trispectrum and primordial magnetic field limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pranjal; Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2012-06-08

    Primordial magnetic fields will generate non-gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. We compute a new measure of magnetic non-gaussianity, the CMB trispectrum, on large angular scales, sourced via the Sachs-Wolfe effect. The trispectra induced by magnetic energy density and by magnetic scalar anisotropic stress are found to have typical magnitudes of approximately a few times 10(-29) and 10(-19), respectively. Observational limits on CMB non-gaussianity from WMAP data allow us to conservatively set upper limits of a nG, and plausibly sub-nG, on the present value of the primordial cosmic magnetic field. This represents the tightest limit so far on the strength of primordial magnetic fields, on Mpc scales, and is better than limits from the CMB bispectrum and all modes in the CMB power spectrum. Thus, the CMB trispectrum is a new and more sensitive probe of primordial magnetic fields on large scales.

  11. Primordial inflation and the monopole problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the cosmological abundance of magnetic monopoles in locally supersymmetry grand unified theories (GUTs) and primordial inflation. It is shown how the magnetic monopole problem can be solved in variants of broken N=1 supergravity primordial inflation. The monopole problem and its solution in inflationary models is reviewed. It is demonstrated that the monopole problem can be solved by coupling primordial inflation to supersymmetric SU(5) breaking

  12. Neutron oscillations and the primordial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has been claimed that a primordial magnetic field must exist in order to suppress possible oscillations of neutrons into antineutrons which would otherwise affect the cosmological synthesis of helium. We demonstrate that such oscillations, even if they do occur, have a negligible effect on primordial nucleosynthesis, thus refuting the above claim. Hence the possible existence of a primordial magnetic field, relevant to current speculations concerning superconducting 'cosmic strings', remains an open question. (author)

  13. Schwinger-Keldysh diagrammatics for primordial perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    We present a systematic introduction to the diagrammatic method for practical calculations in inflationary cosmology, based on Schwinger-Keldysh path integral formalism. We show in particular that the diagrammatic rules can be derived directly from a classical Lagrangian even in the presence of derivative couplings. Furthermore, we use a quasi-single-field inflation model as an example to show how this formalism, combined with the trick of mixed propagator, can significantly simplify the calculation of some in-in correlation functions. The resulting bispectrum includes the lighter scalar case (mcase (m>3H/2) that has not been explicitly computed for this model. The latter provides a concrete example of quantum primordial standard clocks, in which the clock signals can be observably large.

  14. QCD pairing in primordial nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.

  15. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  16. Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan

    2010-05-21

    The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.

  17. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  18. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; Chluba, Jens; Fixsen, Dale J.; Meyer, Stephan; Spergel, David

    2016-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to open new windows on the early universe through measurements of the polarization and absolute frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE will measure the gravitational-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint in linear polarization, and characterize the thermal history of the universe through precision measurements of distortions in the blackbody spectrum. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning over 7 octaves in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce systematic errors to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 degrees and sensitivity 70 nK per 1degree square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r inflation to the nature of the first stars and the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture required to measure the CMB to the limits imposed by astrophysical foregrounds.

  19. Primordial gravitational waves induced by magnetic fields in an ekpyrotic scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Ito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.

  20. Fluctuations in models with primordial inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.; Brandenberger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed general framework for calculating the growth of primordial energy density fluctuations in cosmological models is applied to two models of phenomenological interest in which the cosmological evolution differs crucially from that in new inflationary universe models. Both in a model of primordial supersymmetric inflation and in Linde's proposal of chaotic inflation we verify the conjectured results. (orig.)

  1. Chameleon-photon mixing in a primordial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelpe, Camilla A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of a sizable, O(10 -10 -10 -9 G), cosmological magnetic field in the early Universe has been postulated as a necessary step in certain formation scenarios for the large-scale O(μG) magnetic fields found in galaxies and galaxy clusters. If this field exists then it may induce significant mixing between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) in the early Universe. The resonant conversion of photons into ALPs in a primordial magnetic field has been studied elsewhere by Mirizzi, Redondo and Sigl (2009). Here we consider the nonresonant mixing between photons and scalar ALPs with masses much less than the plasma frequency along the path, with specific reference to the chameleon scalar field model. The mixing would alter the intensity and polarization state of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We find that the average modification to the CMB polarization modes is negligible. However the average modification to the CMB intensity spectrum is more significant and we compare this to high-precision measurements of the CMB monopole made by the far infrared absolute spectrophotometer on board the COBE satellite. The resulting 95% confidence limit on the scalar-photon conversion probability in the primordial field (at 100 GHz) is P γ↔φ -2 . This corresponds to a degenerate constraint on the photon-scalar coupling strength, g eff , and the magnitude of the primordial magnetic field. Taking the upper bound on the strength of the primordial magnetic field derived from the CMB power spectra, B λ ≤5.0x10 -9 G, this would imply an upper bound on the photon-scalar coupling strength in the range g eff -13 GeV -1 to g eff -14 GeV -1 , depending on the power spectrum of the primordial magnetic field.

  2. Primordial nucleosynthesis in inhomogeneous cosmologies: Ω = 1 with baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Sale, K.E.

    1986-09-01

    We consider the constraints on Ω from primordial nucleosynthesis in inhomogeneous cosmologies. We find that allowance for isothermal fluctuations significantly weakens the upper bound on the average value of Ω derived from the standard big bang. Under the plausible additional assumption that regions of high baryon density are preferentially absorbed into cold dark matter, the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis can be satisfied for large values of Ω, including Ω = 1. 22 refs., 2 figs

  3. Galaxy bispectrum, primordial non-Gaussianity and redshift space distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellarini, Matteo; Ross, Ashley J.; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Tasinato, Gianmassimo, E-mail: matteo.tellarini@port.ac.uk, E-mail: ross.1333@osu.edu, E-mail: g.tasinato@swansea.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field have the power to considerably improve our understanding of the physics of inflation. Indeed, if we can increase the precision of current measurements by an order of magnitude, a null-detection would rule out many classes of scenarios for generating primordial fluctuations. Large-scale galaxy redshift surveys represent experiments that hold the promise to realise this goal. Thus, we model the galaxy bispectrum and forecast the accuracy with which it will probe the parameter f {sub NL}, which represents the degree of primordial local-type non Gaussianity. Specifically, we address the problem of modelling redshift space distortions (RSD) in the tree-level galaxy bispectrum including f {sub NL}. We find novel contributions associated with RSD, with the characteristic large scale amplification induced by local-type non-Gaussianity. These RSD effects must be properly accounted for in order to obtain un-biased measurements of f {sub NL} from the galaxy bispectrum. We propose an analytic template for the monopole which can be used to fit against data on large scales, extending models used in the recent measurements. Finally, we perform idealised forecasts on σ {sub f} {sub N{sub L}}—the accuracy of the determination of local non-linear parameter f {sub NL}—from measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. Our findings suggest that current surveys can in principle provide f {sub NL} constraints competitive with Planck , and future surveys could improve them further.

  4. Galaxy bispectrum, primordial non-Gaussianity and redshift space distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellarini, Matteo; Ross, Ashley J.; Wands, David; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field have the power to considerably improve our understanding of the physics of inflation. Indeed, if we can increase the precision of current measurements by an order of magnitude, a null-detection would rule out many classes of scenarios for generating primordial fluctuations. Large-scale galaxy redshift surveys represent experiments that hold the promise to realise this goal. Thus, we model the galaxy bispectrum and forecast the accuracy with which it will probe the parameter f NL , which represents the degree of primordial local-type non Gaussianity. Specifically, we address the problem of modelling redshift space distortions (RSD) in the tree-level galaxy bispectrum including f NL . We find novel contributions associated with RSD, with the characteristic large scale amplification induced by local-type non-Gaussianity. These RSD effects must be properly accounted for in order to obtain un-biased measurements of f NL from the galaxy bispectrum. We propose an analytic template for the monopole which can be used to fit against data on large scales, extending models used in the recent measurements. Finally, we perform idealised forecasts on σ f NL —the accuracy of the determination of local non-linear parameter f NL —from measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. Our findings suggest that current surveys can in principle provide f NL constraints competitive with Planck , and future surveys could improve them further.

  5. Primordial nucleosynthesis: Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis merits continued study for several reasons. First and foremost are the important implications determined from primordial nucleosynthesis regarding the composition of the matter in the universe. Second, the production and the subsequent observation of the primordial isotopes is the most direct experimental link with the early (t approx-lt 1 sec) universe. Third, studies of primordial nucleosynthesis allow for important, and otherwise unattainable, constraints on many aspects of particle physics. Finally, there is tentative evidence which suggests that the Standard Big Bang (SBB) model is incorrect in that it cannot reproduce the inferred primordial abundances for a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. Reviewed here are some aspects of non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis which mostly overlap with the authors own personal interest. He begins with a short discussion of the SBB nucleosynthesis theory, high-lighting some recent related developments. Next he discusses how recent observations of helium and lithium abundances may indicate looming problems for the SBB model. He then discusses how the QCD phase transition, neutrinos, and cosmic strings can influence primordial nucleosynthesis. He concludes with a short discussion of the multitude of other non-standard nucleosynthesis models found in the literature, and make some comments on possible progress in the future. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Primordial black holes from fifth forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Luca; Rubio, Javier; Wetterich, Christof

    2018-04-01

    Primordial black holes can be produced by a long-range attractive fifth force stronger than gravity, mediated by a light scalar field interacting with nonrelativistic "heavy" particles. As soon as the energy fraction of heavy particles reaches a threshold, the fluctuations rapidly become nonlinear. The overdensities collapse into black holes or similar screened objects, without the need for any particular feature in the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations generated during inflation. We discuss whether such primordial black holes can constitute the total dark matter component in the Universe.

  7. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Ng, Kin-Wang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We show that primordial black holes are naturally produced during inflation with a steep trapping potential. In particular, we have given a recipe for an inflaton potential with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger. At the end, we have given an attempt to realize the required inflaton potential in the axion monodromy inflation, and discussed the gravitational waves sourced by the particle production.

  8. Constraints on amplitudes of curvature perturbations from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the primordial black hole (PBH) mass spectrum produced from a collapse of the primordial density fluctuations in the early Universe using, as an input, several theoretical models giving the curvature perturbation power spectra P R (k) with large (∼10 -2 -10 -1 ) values at some scale of comoving wave numbers k. In the calculation we take into account the explicit dependence of gravitational (Bardeen) potential on time. Using the PBH mass spectra, we further calculate the neutrino and photon energy spectra in extragalactic space from evaporation of light PBHs, and the energy density fraction contained in PBHs today (for heavier PBHs). We obtain the constraints on the model parameters using available experimental data (including data on neutrino and photon cosmic backgrounds). We briefly discuss the possibility that the observed 511 keV line from the Galactic center is produced by annihilation of positrons evaporated by PBHs.

  9. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from frequencies 30 GHz to 6 THz (I cm to 50 I-tm wavelength). PIXIE uses a polarizing Michelson interferometer with 2.7 K optics to measure the difference spectrum between two orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view either the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. The multimoded optics and high etendu provide sensitivity comparable to kilo-pixel focal plane arrays, but with greatly expanded frequency coverage while using only 4 detectors total. PIXIE builds on the highly successful COBEIFIRAS design by adding large-area polarization-sensitive detectors whose fully symmetric optics are maintained in thermal equilibrium with the CMB. The highly symmetric nulled design provides redundant rejection of major sources of systematic uncertainty. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much less than 10(exp -3). PIXIE will also return a rich data set constraining physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology, reionization, and large-scale structure to the local interstellar medium. Keywords: cosmic microwave background, polarization, FTS, bolometer

  10. Running of featureful primordial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Miralles, Victor; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi

    2017-06-01

    Current measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropy power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) seem to indicate that the naive expectation for the slow-roll hierarchy within the most simple inflationary paradigm may not be respected in nature. We show that a primordial power spectrum with localized features could in principle give rise to the observed slow-roll anarchy when fitted to a featureless power spectrum. From a model comparison perspective, and assuming that nature has chosen a featureless primordial power spectrum, we find that, while with mock Planck data there is only weak evidence against a model with localized features, upcoming CMB missions may provide compelling evidence against such a nonstandard primordial power spectrum. This evidence could be reinforced if a featureless primordial power spectrum is independently confirmed from bispectrum and/or galaxy clustering measurements.

  11. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) type I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... Seckel syndrome, microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarf- ism (MOPD) type ... tures of elbow and knee joints, thin dry skin with marked decreased ... lashes and eyebrows, protruding eyes, prominent nose with a flat.

  12. Primordial gravitational waves, BICEP2 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Observations of the imprints of primordial gravitational waves on the ... the cosmic microwave background can provide us with unambiguous clues to the ... by the stress–energy tensor) can be classified, for instance, based on ...

  13. Primordial Noble Gases from Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Lu, X.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent partitioning experiment suggests helium is more compatible in iron melt than in molten silicates at high pressures (> 10 GPa) (1), thus provide the possibility of the core as being the primordial noble gases warehouse that is responsible for the high primordial/radiogenic noble gas isotopic ratios observed in plume-related basalts. However, the possible transportation mechanism of the noble gases from the core to the overlying mantle is still ambiguous, understanding how this process would affect the noble gas isotopic characteristics of the mantle is critical to validate this core reservoir model. As diffusion is a dominant mass transport process that plays an important role in chemical exchange at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), we have determined the diffusion coefficients of helium, neon and argon in major lower mantle minerals, i.e. periclase (MgO), bridgemanite (MgSiO3-Pv) and post-perovskite (MgSiO3-PPv), by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT). As expected, the diffusion rate of helium is the fastest at the CMB, which is in the range of 3 × 10-10 to 1 × 10-8 m2/s. The neon diffusion is slightly slower, from 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-9 m2/s. Argon diffuses slowest at the rate from 1 × 10-10 to 2 × 10-10 m2/s. We have further simulated the evolution of noble gas isotopic ratios in the mantle near the CMB. Considering its close relationship with the mantle plumes and very likely to be the direct source of "hot-spot" basalts, we took a close investigation on the large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs). Under reasonable assumptions based on our diffusion parameters, the modelling results indicate that LLSVP is capable of generating all the noble gas isotope signals, e.g., 3He/4He = 55 Ra, 3He/22Ne = 3.1, 3He/36Ar = 0.82, 40Ar/36Ar = 9500, that are in good agreement with the observed values in "hot-spot" basalts (2). Therefore, this core-reservior hypothesis is a self-consistent model that can fits in multiple noble gas

  14. Assumptions of the primordial spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    The observables of the perturbed universe, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and large structures depend on a set of cosmological parameters, as well as the assumed nature of primordial perturbations. In particular, the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) is, at best, a well-motivated assumption. It is known that the assumed functional form of the PPS in cosmological parameter estimation can affect the best-fit-parameters and their relative confidence limits. In this paper, we demonstrate that a specific assumed form actually drives the best-fit parameters into distinct basins of likelihood in the space of cosmological parameters where the likelihood resists improvement via modifications to the PPS. The regions where considerably better likelihoods are obtained allowing free-form PPS lie outside these basins. In the absence of a preferred model of inflation, this raises a concern that current cosmological parameter estimates are strongly prejudiced by the assumed form of PPS. Our results strongly motivate approaches toward simultaneous estimation of the cosmological parameters and the shape of the primordial spectrum from upcoming cosmological data. It is equally important for theorists to keep an open mind towards early universe scenarios that produce features in the PPS. (paper)

  15. Reconstructing the size distribution of the primordial Main Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Morbidelli, A.; Delbo, M.; Tsiganis, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we aim to constrain the slope of the size distribution of main-belt asteroids, at their primordial state. To do so we turn out attention to the part of the main asteroid belt between 2.82 and 2.96 AU, the so-called "pristine zone", which has a low number density of asteroids and few, well separated asteroid families. Exploiting these unique characteristics, and using a modified version of the hierarchical clustering method we are able to remove the majority of asteroid family members from the region. The remaining, background asteroids should be of primordial origin, as the strong 5/2 and 7/3 mean-motion resonances with Jupiter inhibit transfer of asteroids to and from the neighboring regions. The size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the size range 17 size distribution slope q = - 1.43 . In addition, applying the same 'family extraction' method to the neighboring regions, i.e. the middle and outer belts, and comparing the size distributions of the respective background populations, we find statistical evidence that no large asteroid families of primordial origin had formed in the middle or pristine zones.

  16. Primordial non-Gaussianity from LAMOST surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yan; Wang Xin; Chen Xuelei; Zheng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) in the matter density perturbation is a very powerful probe of the physics of the very early Universe. The local PNG can induce a distinct scale-dependent bias on the large scale structure distribution of galaxies and quasars, which could be used for constraining it. We study the detection limits of PNG from the surveys of the LAMOST telescope. The cases of the main galaxy survey, the luminous red galaxy (LRG) survey, and the quasar survey of different magnitude limits are considered. We find that the Main1 sample (i.e. the main galaxy survey which is one magnitude deeper than the SDSS main galaxy survey, or r NL are |f NL | NL | NL | is between 50 and 103, depending on the magnitude limit of the survey. With Planck-like priors on cosmological parameters, the quasar survey with g NL | < 43 (2σ). We also discuss the possibility of further tightening the constraint by using the relative bias method proposed by Seljak.

  17. On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya

    2008-01-01

    The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters

  18. Implications of a primordial origin for the dispersion in D/H in quasar absorption systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copi, C J; Olive, K A; Schramm, D N

    1998-03-17

    We explore the difficulties with a primordial origin of variations of D/H in quasar absorption systems. In particular we examine options such as a very large-scale inhomogeneity in the baryon content of the universe. We show that very large-scale (much larger than 1 Mpc) isocurvature perturbations are excluded by current cosmic microwave background observations. Smaller-scale ad hoc perturbations (approximately 1 Mpc) still may lead to a large dispersion in primordial abundances but are subject to other constraints.

  19. Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Casey; Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Given a power spectrum from inflation, our goal is to calculate, from first principles, the number density and mass spectrum of primordial black holes that form in the early universe. Previously, these have been calculated using the Press- Schechter formalism and some demonstrably dubious rules of thumb regarding predictions of black hole collapse. Instead, we use Monte Carlo integration methods to sample field configurations from a power spectrum combined with numerical relativity simulations to obtain a more accurate picture of primordial black hole formation. We demonstrate how this can be applied for both Gaussian perturbations and the more interesting (for primordial black holes) theory of hybrid inflation. One of the tools that we employ is a variant of the BBKS formalism for computing the statistics of density peaks in the early universe. We discuss the issue of overcounting due to subpeaks that can arise from this approach (the ``cloud-in-cloud'' problem). MIT UROP Office- Paul E. Gray (1954) Endowed Fund.

  20. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Kajino, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Kusakabe, M.; Cheoun, M.-K.

    2014-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field

  1. Loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Sibel; Kahya, E. O.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss quantum gravitational loop effects to observable quantities such as curvature power spectrum and primordial non-Gaussianity of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We first review the previously shown case where one gets a time dependence for zeta-zeta correlator due to loop corrections. Then we investigate the effect of loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity of CMB. We conclude that, even with a single scalar inflaton, one might get a huge value for non-Gaussianity which would exceed the observed value by at least 30 orders of magnitude. Finally we discuss the consequences of this result for scalar driven inflationary models.

  2. The statistics of maxima in primordial density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Heavens, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the hypothesis that protogalaxies/protoclusters form at the sites of maxima in a primordial field of normally distributed density perturbations. Using a mixture of analytic and numerical techniques, the properties of the maxima, have been studied. The results provide a natural mechanism for biased galaxy formation in which galaxies do not necessarily follow the large-scale density. Methods for obtained the true autocorrelation function of the density field and implications for Microwave Background studies are discussed. (author)

  3. Observational constraints on the primordial curvature power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Razieh; Smoot, George F.

    2018-01-01

    CMB temperature fluctuation observations provide a precise measurement of the primordial power spectrum on large scales, corresponding to wavenumbers 10‑3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.1 Mpc‑1, [1-7, 11]. Luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters probe the matter power spectrum on overlapping scales (0.02 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.7 Mpc‑1 [10, 12-20]), while the Lyman-alpha forest reaches slightly smaller scales (0.3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 3 Mpc‑1 [22]). These observations indicate that the primordial power spectrum is nearly scale-invariant with an amplitude close to 2 × 10‑9, [5, 23-28]. These observations strongly support Inflation and motivate us to obtain observations and constraints reaching to smaller scales on the primordial curvature power spectrum and by implication on Inflation. We are able to obtain limits to much higher values of k lesssim 105 Mpc‑1 and with less sensitivity even higher k lesssim 1019‑ 1023 Mpc‑1 using limits from CMB spectral distortions and other limits on ultracompact minihalo objects (UCMHs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs are one of the known candidates for the Dark Matter (DM). Due to their very early formation, they could give us valuable information about the primordial curvature perturbations. These are complementary to other cosmological bounds on the amplitude of the primordial fluctuations. In this paper, we revisit and collect all the published constraints on both PBHs and UCMHs. We show that unless one uses the CMB spectral distortion, PBHs give us a very relaxed bounds on the primordial curvature perturbations. UCMHs, on the other hand, are very informative over a reasonable k range (3 lesssim k lesssim 106 Mpc‑1) and lead to significant upper-bounds on the curvature spectrum. We review the conditions under which the tighter constraints on the UCMHs could imply extremely strong bounds on the fraction of DM that could be PBHs in reasonable models. Failure to satisfy these conditions would

  4. arXiv Light Primordial Exotic Compact Objects as All Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi

    2018-06-13

    The radiation emitted by horizonless exotic compact objects (ECOs), such as wormholes, 2-2-holes, fuzzballs, gravastars, boson stars, collapsed polymers, superspinars etc., is expected to be strongly suppressed when compared to the radiation of black holes. If large primordial curvature fluctuations collapse into such objects instead of black holes, they do not evaporate or evaporate much slower than black holes and could thus constitute all of the dark matter with masses below $M < 10^{-16}M_\\odot.$ We reevaluate the relevant experimental constraints for light ECOs in this mass range and show that very large new parameter space down to ECO masses $M\\sim 10\\,{\\rm TeV}$ opens up for light primordial dark matter. A new dedicated experimental program is needed to test this mass range of primordial dark matter.

  5. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  6. Single field double inflation and primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, K.; Marzola, L.; Raidal, M.; Veermäe, H., E-mail: kristjan.kannike@cern.ch, E-mail: luca.marzola@cern.ch, E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch, E-mail: hardi.veermae@cern.ch [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of scalar-tensor theories, we study the conditions that allow single field inflation dynamics on small cosmological scales to significantly differ from that of the large scales probed by the observations of cosmic microwave background. The resulting single field double inflation scenario is characterised by two consequent inflation eras, usually separated by a period where the slow-roll approximation fails. At large field values the dynamics of the inflaton is dominated by the interplay between its non-minimal coupling to gravity and the radiative corrections to the inflaton self-coupling. For small field values the potential is, instead, dominated by a polynomial that results in a hilltop inflation. Without relying on the slow-roll approximation, which is invalidated by the appearance of the intermediate stage, we propose a concrete model that matches the current measurements of inflationary observables and employs the freedom granted by the framework on small cosmological scales to give rise to a sizeable population of primordial black holes generated by large curvature fluctuations. We find that these features generally require a potential with a local minimum. We show that the associated primordial black hole mass function is only approximately lognormal.

  7. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  8. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2013-12-01

    Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

  9. Primordial Prevention of Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Meryem A; Agirbasli, Mehmet; Berenson, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Fetal life and childhood are important in the development of cardiometabolic risk and later clinical disease of atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Molecular and environmental conditions leading to cardiometabolic risk in early life bring us a challenge to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in children and later disease. It is important that prevention strategies begin at an early age to reduce future CV morbidity and mortality. Pioneering work from longitudinal studies such as Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), the Finnish Youth Study and other programs provide an awareness of the need for public and health services to begin primordial prevention. The impending CV risk beginning in childhood has a significant socioeconomic burden. Directions to achieve primordial prevention of cardiometabolic risk in children have been developed by prior longitudinal studies. Based on those studies that show risk factors in childhood as precursors of adult CV risk, implementation of primordial prevention will have effects at broad levels. Considering the epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiometabolic risk, prevention early in life is valuable. Comprehensive health education, such as 'Health Ahead/Heart Smart', for all elementary school age children is one approach to begin primordial prevention and can be included in public education beginning in kindergarten along with the traditional education subject matter.

  10. Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...

  11. Primordial tensor modes from quantum corrected inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    . Finally we confront these theories with the Planck and BICEP2 data. We demonstrate that the discovery of primordial tensor modes by BICEP2 require the presence of sizable quantum departures from the $\\phi^4$-Inflaton model for the non-minimally coupled scenario which we parametrize and quantify. We...

  12. Non-standard primordial fluctuations and nongaussianity in string inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Cicoli, M.; Gomez-Reino, M.; Tasinato, G.; Zavala, I.

    2010-05-01

    Inflationary scenarios in string theory often involve a large number of light scalar fields, whose presence can enrich the post-inflationary evolution of primordial fluctuations generated during the inflationary epoch. We provide a simple example of such post-inflationary processing within an explicit string-inflationary construction, using a Kaehler modulus as the inflaton within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. We argue that inflationary models within this broad category often have a selection of scalars that are light enough to be cosmologically relevant, whose contributions to the primordial fluctuation spectrum can compete with those generated in the standard way by the inflaton. These models consequently often predict nongaussianity at a level, f NL ≅O(10), potentially observable by the Planck satellite, with a bi-spectrum maximized by triangles with squeezed shape in a string realization of the curvaton scenario. We argue that the observation of such a signal would robustly prefer string cosmologies such as these that predict a multi-field dynamics during the very early universe. (orig.)

  13. Non-Standard Primordial Fluctuations and Nongaussianity in String Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Cicoli, M.; Gomez-Reino, M.; Quevedo, F.; Tasinato, G.; Zavala, I.

    2010-05-01

    Inflationary scenarios in string theory often involve a large number of light scalar fields, whose presence can enrich the post-inflationary evolution of primordial fluctuations generated during the inflationary epoch. We provide a simple example of such post-inflationary processing within an explicit string-inflationary construction, using a Kaehler modulus as the inflaton within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. We argue that inflationary models within this broad category often have a selection of scalars that are light enough to be cosmologically relevant, whose contributions to the primordial fluctuation spectrum can compete with those generated in the standard way by the inflaton. These models consequently often predict nongaussianity at a level, f NL ≅ O(10), potentially observable by the Planck satellite, with a bi-spectrum maximized by triangles with squeezed shape in a string realization of the curvaton scenario. We argue that the observation of such a signal would robustly prefer string cosmologies such as these that predict a multi-field dynamics during the very early universe. (author)

  14. Relativistic effects and primordial non-Gaussianity in the galaxy bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with observables, one needs to generalize the bias relation between the observed galaxy fluctuation field to the underlying matter distribution in a gauge-invariant way. We provide such relation at second-order in perturbation theory adopting the local Eulerian bias model and starting from the observationally motivated uniform-redshift gauge. Our computation includes the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. We show that large scale-dependent relativistic effects in the Eulerian bias arise independently from the presence of some primordial non-Gaussianity. Furthermore, the Eulerian bias inherits from the primordial non-Gaussianity not only a scale-dependence, but also a modulation with the angle of observation when sources with different biases are correlated

  15. Searching for Primordial Black Holes in the Radio and X-Ray Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco; Calore, Francesca; Connors, Riley M T; Lovell, Mark; Markoff, Sera; Storm, Emma

    2017-06-16

    We model the accretion of gas onto a population of massive primordial black holes in the Milky Way and compare the predicted radio and x-ray emission with observational data. We show that, under conservative assumptions on the accretion process, the possibility that O(10)M_{⊙} primordial black holes can account for all of the dark matter in the Milky Way is excluded at 5σ by a comparison with a Very Large Array radio catalog at 1.4 GHz and at ≃40σ by a comparison with a Chandra x-ray catalog (0.5-8 keV). We argue that this method can be used to identify such a population of primordial black holes with more sensitive future radio and x-ray surveys.

  16. The Primordial Soup Algorithm : a systematic approach to the specification of parallel parsers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Wil; Janssen, W.P.M.; Poel, Mannes; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Zwiers, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    A general framework for parallel parsing is presented, which allows for a unitied, systematic approach to parallel parsing. The Primordial Soup Algorithm creates trees by allowing partial parse trees to combine arbitrarily. By adding constraints to the general algorithm, a large, class of parallel

  17. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  18. Are cometary nuclei primordial rubble piles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Whipple's icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus has had considerable sucess in explaining a variety of cometary phenomena such as gas production rates and nongravitational forces. However, as discussed here, both observational evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or even frequent disruptive events. The proposed model is analogous to the 'rubble pile' model suggested for the larger main-belt asteroids, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case. The concept of cometary nuclei as primordial rubble piles is proposed as a modification of the basic Whipple model, not as a replacement for it.

  19. Shapes and features of the primordial bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Cheongam-ro 67, Pohang, 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sypsas, Spyros, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: s.sypsas@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago, 837.0415 Chile (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    If time-dependent disruptions from slow-roll occur during inflation, the correlation functions of the primordial curvature perturbation should have scale-dependent features, a case which is marginally supported from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We offer a new approach to analyze the appearance of such features in the primordial bispectrum that yields new consistency relations and justifies the search of oscillating patterns modulated by orthogonal and local templates. Under the assumption of sharp features, we find that the cubic couplings of the curvature perturbation can be expressed in terms of the bispectrum in two specific momentum configurations, for example local and equilateral. This allows us to derive consistency relations among different bispectrum shapes, which in principle could be tested in future CMB surveys. Furthermore, based on the form of the consistency relations, we construct new two-parameter templates for features that include all the known shapes.

  20. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  1. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, Luis; Maharana, Anshuman

    2017-01-01

    We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  2. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Luis, E-mail: laparici@ictp.it [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Maharana, Anshuman, E-mail: anshumanmaharana@hri.res.in [Harish Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chattnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

    2017-05-10

    We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  3. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  4. Constraining the primordial power spectrum from SNIa lensing dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kalaydzhyan, Tigran [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-09-15

    The (absence of detecting) lensing dispersion of Supernovae type Ia (SNIa) can be used as a novel and extremely efficient probe of cosmology. In this preliminary example we analyze its consequences for the primordial power spectrum. The main setback is the knowledge of the power spectrum in the non-linear regime, 1 Mpc{sup -1}primordial power spectrum. The probe extends our handle on the spectrum to a total of 12-15 inflation e-folds. These constraints are so strong that they are already ruling out a large portion of the parameter space allowed by PLANCK for running {alpha}{identical_to}dn{sub s}/d ln k and running of running {beta}{identical_to}d{sup 2}n{sub s}/d ln k{sup 2}. The bounds follow a linear relation to a very good accuracy. A conservative bound disfavours any enhancement above the line {beta}(k{sub 0})=0.032-0.41{alpha}(k{sub 0}) and a realistic estimate disfavours any enhancement above the line {beta}(k{sub 0})=0.019-0.45{alpha}(k{sub 0}).

  5. Nuclear reaction rates and primordial 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollett, K.M.; Schramm, D.N.; Lemoine, M.; Schramm, D.N.; Lemoine, M.; Schramm, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the possibility that big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) may produce nontrivial amounts of 6 Li. If a primordial component of this isotope could be observed, it would provide a new fundamental test of big-bang cosmology, as well as new constraints on the baryon density of the universe. At present, however, theoretical predictions of the primordial 6 Li abundance are extremely uncertain due to difficulties in both theoretical estimates and experimental determinations of the 2 H(α,γ) 6 Li radiative capture reaction cross section. We also argue that present observational capabilities do not yet allow the detection of primeval 6 Li in very metal-poor stars of the galactic halo. However, if the critical cross section is very high in its plausible range and the baryon density is relatively low, then improvements in 6 Li detection capabilities may allow the establishment of 6 Li as another product of BBN. It is also noted that a primordial 6 Li detection could help resolve current concerns about the extragalactic D/H determination. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Quantum inflaton, primordial perturbations, and CMB fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F.J.; Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow-roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of (m 2 /NH 2 ), where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at the moment of horizon crossing. An upper estimate turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it

  7. Primordial nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzone R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN requires several nuclear physics inputs and nuclear reaction rates. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,pt, d(d,n3He and 3He(d,p4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E-factor. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01primordial nucleosynthesis calculations in order to evaluate their impact on the calculated primordial abundances of D, 3,4He and 7Li. These were compared with the observational primordial abundance estimates in different astrophysical sites. A comparison was also performed with calculations using other reaction rates compilations available in literature.

  8. The standard and degenerate primordial nucleosynthesis versus recent experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, S.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pisanti, O.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) based on an updated code, with accuracy of the order of 0.1% on He4 abundance, compared with the predictions of other recent similar analysis. We discuss the compatibility of the theoretical results, for vanishing neutrino chemical potentials, with the observational data. Bounds on the number of relativistic neutrinos and baryon abundance are obtained by a likelihood analysis. We also analyze the effect of large neutrino chemical potentials on primordial nucleosynthesis, motivated by the recent results on the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation spectrum. The BBN exclusion plots for electron neutrino chemical potential and the effective number of relativistic neutrinos are reported. We find that the standard BBN seems to be only marginally in agreement with the recent BOOMERANG and MAXIMA-1 results, while the agreement is much better for degenerate BBN scenarios for large effective number of neutrinos, N ν ∼ 10. (author)

  9. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  10. Chiral primordial gravitational waves from a Lifshitz point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2009-06-12

    We study primordial gravitational waves produced during inflation in quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point proposed by Horava. Assuming power-counting renormalizability, foliation-preserving diffeomorphism invariance, and the condition of detailed balance, we show that primordial gravitational waves are circularly polarized due to parity violation. The chirality of primordial gravitational waves is a quite robust prediction of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point which can be tested through observations of cosmic microwave background radiation and stochastic gravitational waves.

  11. Fingerprints of primordial universe paradigms as features in density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm. These signals present special opportunities and challenges for experiments and data analyses.

  12. Lifting primordial non-Gaussianity above the noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, Yvette; Woude, Drian van der; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) in Large Scale Structures is obfuscated by the many additional sources of non-linearity. Within the Effective Field Theory approach to Standard Perturbation Theory, we show that matter non-linearities in the bispectrum can be modeled sufficiently well to strengthen current bounds with near future surveys, such as Euclid. We find that the EFT corrections are crucial to this improvement in sensitivity. Yet, our understanding of non-linearities is still insufficient to reach important theoretical benchmarks for equilateral PNG, while, for local PNG, our forecast is more optimistic. We consistently account for the theoretical error intrinsic to the perturbative approach and discuss the details of its implementation in Fisher forecasts.

  13. Nuclear Physics Solutions to the Primordial Lithium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primordial lithium problem is one of the major outstanding issues in the standard model of the Big Bang. Measurements of the baryon to photon ratio in the cosmic microwave background constrain model predictions, giving abundances of 7Li two to four times larger than observed via spectroscopic measurements of metal-poor stars. In an attempt to reconcile this discrepancy, significant effort has been directed at measuring reaction cross sections of light nuclei at astrophysically relevant energies. However, there remain reaction cross sections with large uncertainties, and some that have not yet been measured. Particularly relevant are those involving the destruction of 7Be, a progenitor of 7Li. Key issues that can be improved by nuclear physics input will be highlighted, and the applicability of detectors and event reconstruction techniques recently developed at the ANU will be discussed.

  14. Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-07-21

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 10^{23}  g. We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.

  15. Primordial black holes from passive density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we show that if passive fluctuations are considered, primordial black holes (PBHs) can be easily produced in the framework of single-field, slow-roll inflation models. The formation of PBHs is due to the blue spectrum of passive fluctuations and an enhancement of the spectral range which exits horizon near the end of inflation. Therefore the PBHs are light with masses ≲10 15 g depending on the number of e-folds when the scale of our observable universe leaves horizon. These PBHs are likely to have evaporated and cannot be a candidate for dark matter but they may still affect the early universe.

  16. Primordial black holes from passive density fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Min; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we show that if passive fluctuations are considered, primordial black holes (PBHs) can be easily produced in the framework of single-field, slow-roll inflation models. The formation of PBHs is due to the blue spectrum of passive fluctuations and an enhancement of the spectral range which exits horizon near the end of inflation. Therefore the PBHs are light with masses $\\lesssim 10^{15}g$ depending on the number of e-folds when the scale of our observable universe leaves horizon...

  17. Primordial hadrosynthesis in the Little Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    The present status of soft hadron production in high energy heavy-ion collisions is summarized. In spite of strong evidence for extensive dynamical evolution and collective expansion of the fireball before freeze-out I argue that its chemical composition is hardly changed by hadronic final state interactions. The measured hadron yields thus reflect the primordial conditions at hadronization. The observed production pattern is consistent with statistical hadronization at the Hagedorn temperature from a state of uncorrelated, color deconfined quarks and antiquarks, but requires non-trivial chemical evolution of the fireball in a prehadronic (presumably QGP) stage before hadron formation.

  18. Gravitational wave production by Hawking radiation from rotating primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan, E-mail: ruifengd@buffalo.edu, E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu, E-mail: ds77@buffalo.edu [HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyze in detail a rarely discussed question of gravity wave production from evaporating primordial black holes. These black holes emit gravitons which are, at classical level, registered as gravity waves. We use the latest constraints on their abundance, and calculate the power emitted in gravitons at the time of their evaporation. We then solve the coupled system of equations that gives us the evolution of the frequency and amplitude of gravity waves during the expansion of the universe. The spectrum of gravitational waves that can be detected today depends on multiple factors: fraction of the total energy density which was occupied by primordial black holes, the epoch in which they were formed, and quantities like their mass and angular momentum. We conclude that very small primordial black holes which evaporate before the big-bang nucleosynthesis emit gravitons whose spectral energy fraction today can be as large as 10{sup −7.5}. On the other hand, those which are massive enough so that they still exist now can yield a signal as high as 10{sup −6.5}. However, typical frequencies of the gravity waves from primordial black holes are still too high to be observed with the current and near future gravity wave observations.

  19. From electroweak theory to the primordial universe. A synthesis of some experimental results; De la theorie electrofaible a l'univers primordial. Synthese de quelques resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ealet, A

    2004-12-15

    Particle physic is based on a theory which can be tested on the current large colliders. Measurements are in a very good agreement with this electroweak theory and no deviation is observed to indicate new physics. What is surprising today is that none of its results agrees with what is known from our universe, neither to explain the primordial baryogenesis, neither to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. In this work, I come back on some results obtained in the Lep collider, to test the electroweak theory (Higgs and W boson production) and on some measurements of CP violation. I compare them with what can be extrapolated in term of primordial baryogenesis and dark energy density and show that there is no possible agreement in the Standard Model. I finish by some experimental and theoretical views to answer this fundamental question. (author)

  20. Gravitational waves from primordial black hole mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi, E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@kbfi.ee, E-mail: hardi.veermae@cern.ch [NICPB, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-09-01

    We study the production of primordial black hole (PBH) binaries and the resulting merger rate, accounting for an extended PBH mass function and the possibility of a clustered spatial distribution. Under the hypothesis that the gravitational wave events observed by LIGO were caused by PBH mergers, we show that it is possible to satisfy all present constraints on the PBH abundance, and find the viable parameter range for the lognormal PBH mass function. The non-observation of a gravitational wave background allows us to derive constraints on the fraction of dark matter in PBHs, which are stronger than any other current constraint in the PBH mass range 0.5−30 M {sub ⊙}. We show that the predicted gravitational wave background can be observed by the coming runs of LIGO, and its non-observation would indicate that the observed events are not of primordial origin. As the PBH mergers convert matter into radiation, they may have interesting cosmological implications, for example in the context of relieving the tension between high and low redshift measurements of the Hubble constant. However, we find that these effects are suppressed as, after recombination, no more that 1% of dark matter can be converted into gravitational waves.

  1. Jupiter's evolution with primordial composition gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazan, Allona; Helled, Ravit; Guillot, Tristan

    2018-02-01

    Recent formation and structure models of Jupiter suggest that the planet can have composition gradients and not be fully convective (adiabatic). This possibility directly affects our understanding of Jupiter's bulk composition and origin. In this Letter we present Jupiter's evolution with a primordial structure consisting of a relatively steep heavy-element gradient of 40 M⊕. We show that for a primordial structure with composition gradients, most of the mixing occurs in the outer part of the gradient during the early evolution (several 107 yr), leading to an adiabatic outer envelope (60% of Jupiter's mass). We find that the composition gradient in the deep interior persists, suggesting that 40% of Jupiter's mass can be non-adiabatic with a higher temperature than the one derived from Jupiter's atmospheric properties. The region that can potentially develop layered convection in Jupiter today is estimated to be limited to 10% of the mass. Movies associated to Figs. 1-3 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  2. The statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10 5 M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m -3 (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10 -4 s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s. (orig.) [de

  3. Summary of Recent Developments in Primordial Nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D N

    1993-06-01

    This paper summarizes the recent observational and theoretical results on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In particular, it is shown that the new Pop II (6)Li results strongly support the argument that the Spite Plateau lithium is a good estimate of the primordial value. The (6)Li is consistent with the Be and Be found in Pop II stars, assuming those elements are cosmic ray produced. The HST (2)D value tightens the (2)D arguments and the observation of the (3)He in planetary nebula strengthens the (3)He +(2)D argument as a lower bound on Ωb. The new low metalicity (4)He determinations slightly raise the best primordial (4)He number and thus make a better fit and avoid a potential problem. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ωb are possible vis-à-vis the homogeneous model; hence, the robustness of Ωb∼ 0.05 is now apparent. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ωb∼ 1 seems to be definitely excluded, so, if Ω= 1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required.

  4. Cosmological implications of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Bernal, José; Bellomo, Nicola; Raccanelli, Alvise; Verde, Licia, E-mail: joseluis.bernal@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: nicola.bellomo@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: alvise@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [ICC, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    The possibility that a relevant fraction of the dark matter might be comprised of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) has been seriously reconsidered after LIGO's detection of a ∼ 30 M {sub ⊙} binary black holes merger. Despite the strong interest in the model, there is a lack of studies on possible cosmological implications and effects on cosmological parameters inference. We investigate correlations with the other standard cosmological parameters using cosmic microwave background observations, finding significant degeneracies, especially with the tilt of the primordial power spectrum and the sound horizon at radiation drag. However, these degeneracies can be greatly reduced with the inclusion of small scale polarization data. We also explore if PBHs as dark matter in simple extensions of the standard ΛCDM cosmological model induces extra degeneracies, especially between the additional parameters and the PBH's ones. Finally, we present cosmic microwave background constraints on the fraction of dark matter in PBHs, not only for monochromatic PBH mass distributions but also for popular extended mass distributions. Our results show that extended mass distribution's constraints are tighter, but also that a considerable amount of constraining power comes from the high-ℓ polarization data. Moreover, we constrain the shape of such mass distributions in terms of the correspondent constraints on the PBH mass fraction.

  5. Statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1977-04-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10/sup 5/ M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m/sup -3/ (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10/sup -4/ s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s.

  6. Cosmological cosmic rays: Sharpening the primordial lithium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodanovic, Tijana; Fields, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic structure formation leads to large-scale shocked baryonic flows which are expected to produce a cosmological population of structure-formation cosmic rays (SFCRs). Interactions between SFCRs and ambient baryons will produce lithium isotopes via α+α→ 6,7 Li. This pre-galactic (but nonprimordial) lithium should contribute to the primordial 7 Li measured in halo stars and must be subtracted in order to arrive to the true observed primordial lithium abundance. In this paper we point out that the recent halo star 6 Li measurements can be used to place a strong constraint to the level of such contamination, because the exclusive astrophysical production of 6 Li is from cosmic-ray interactions. We find that the putative 6 Li plateau, if due to pre-galactic cosmic-ray interactions, implies that SFCR-produced lithium represents Li SFCR /Li plateau ≅15% of the observed elemental Li plateau. Taking the remaining plateau Li to be cosmological 7 Li, we find a revised (and slightly worsened) discrepancy between the Li observations and big bang nucleosynthesis predictions by a factor of 7 Li BBN / 7 Li plateau ≅3.7. Moreover, SFCRs would also contribute to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) through neutral pion production. This gamma-ray production is tightly related to the amount of lithium produced by the same cosmic rays; the 6 Li plateau limits the pre-galactic (high-redshift) SFCR contribution to be at the level of I γ π SFCR /I EGRB < or approx. 5% of the currently observed EGRB

  7. Magnification bias as a novel probe for primordial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, S.; Fedeli, C.; Moscardini, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate magnetic fields generated in the early Universe. These fields are important candidates at explaining the origin of astrophysical magnetism observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters, whose genesis is still by and large unclear. Compared to the standard inflationary power spectrum, intermediate to small scales would experience further substantial matter clustering, were a cosmological magnetic field present prior to recombination. As a consequence, the bias and redshift distribution of galaxies would also be modified. Hitherto, primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) have been tested and constrained with a number of cosmological observables, e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy clustering and, more recently, weak gravitational lensing. Here, we explore the constraining potential of the density fluctuation bias induced by gravitational lensing magnification onto the galaxy-galaxy angular power spectrum. Such an effect is known as magnification bias. Compared to the usual galaxy clustering approach, magnification bias helps in lifting the pathological degeneracy present amongst power spectrum normalisation and galaxy bias. This is because magnification bias cross-correlates galaxy number density fluctuations of nearby objects with weak lensing distortions of high-redshift sources. Thus, it takes advantage of the gravitational deflection of light, which is insensitive to galaxy bias but powerful in constraining the density fluctuation amplitude. To scrutinise the potentiality of this method, we adopt a deep and wide-field spectroscopic galaxy survey. We show that magnification bias does contain important information on primordial magnetism, which will be useful in combination with galaxy clustering and shear. We find we shall be able to rule out at 95.4% CL amplitudes of PMFs larger than 5 × 10 −4 nG for values of the PMF power spectral index n B ∼ 0

  8. Electroweak baryogenesis with primordial hypermagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Pallares, Gabriel; Besprosvany, Jaime; Piccinelli, Gabriella

    2002-01-01

    Primordial magnetic fields, independently of their origin, could have had a significant influence over several physical processes that took place during the evolution of the early universe, in particular baryogenesis. Recall that for temperatures above the electroweak phase transition (T > 100 GeV), the symmetry of the standard model corresponded to the U(1)y hypercharge group, instead of the U(1)em electromagnetic group and are therefore properly called hypermagnetic fields. In this work, we show that during a first order electroweak phase transition, the presence of hypermagnetic fields produces an axial charge segregation in the reflection and transmission of fermions off the true vacuum bubbles. We also comment on the possible consequences that these processes have for the generation of baryon number during the phase transition

  9. Primordial Evolution in the Finitary Process Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görnerup, Olof; Crutchfield, James P.

    A general and basic model of primordial evolution—a soup of reacting finitary and discrete processes—is employed to identify and analyze fundamental mechanisms that generate and maintain complex structures in prebiotic systems. The processes—ɛ-machines as defined in computational mechanics—and their interaction networks both provide well defined notions of structure. This enables us to quantitatively demonstrate hierarchical self-organization in the soup in terms of complexity. We found that replicating processes evolve the strategy of successively building higher levels of organization by autocatalysis. Moreover, this is facilitated by local components that have low structural complexity, but high generality. In effect, the finitary process soup spontaneously evolves a selection pressure that favors such components. In light of the finitary process soup's generality, these results suggest a fundamental law of hierarchical systems: global complexity requires local simplicity.

  10. The Search for Primordial Molecular Cloud Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M M E

    evolution. Some of the least altered, most primitive meteorites can give us clues to the original make-up of the interstellar molecular cloud from which the Sun and its surrounding planets formed, thus, permitting us to trace Solar System formation from its most early conditions. Using state......Our Solar System today presents a somewhat static picture compared to the turbulent start of its existence. Meteorites are the left-over building blocks of planet formation and allow us to probe the chemical and physical processes that occurred during the first few million years of Solar System...... prebiotic species such as amino acids, determining the formation pathways of this organic matter is of utmost importance to understanding the habitability of Earth as well as exoplanetary systems. Hence, further detailed analyses of organic matter in some of the meteorites with primordial signatures have...

  11. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Steven; Johnson, Aaron; Pearson, Waylon

    2016-06-16

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1) is an uncommon cause of microcephaly and intrauterine growth retardation in a newborn. Early identifying features include but are not limited to sloping forehead, micrognathia, sparse hair, including of eyebrows and short limbs. Immediate radiological findings may include partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, interhemispheric cyst and shallow acetabula leading to dislocation. Genetic testing displaying a mutation in RNU4ATAC gene is necessary for definitive diagnosis. Early identification is important as MOPD1 is an autosomal recessive condition and could present in subsequent pregnancies. The purpose of this case is to both identify and describe some common physical findings related to MOPD1. We present a case of MOPD1 in a girl born to non-consanguineous parents that was distinct for subglottic stenosis and laryngeal cleft. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Spectrum evolution of primordial cosmic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of primordial cosmic turbulence prior to the epoch of plasma recombination is investigated numerically using the Wiener-Hermite expansion technique which gives reasonable results for laboratory turbulence. It is found that the Kolmogorov spectrum is established only within a narrow range of wavenumber space for reasonable parameter sets, because the expansion of the Universe has a tendency to suppress an energy cascade from larger eddies to smaller ones. The present result does not agree with that obtained by Kurskov and Ozernoi, who computed the decay of turbulence in a fictitious non-expanding frame using the Heisenberg closure hypothesis, while it was done in a physical frame in the present work. (author)

  13. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  14. Primordial nucleosynthesis in the new cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyburt, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies independently predict the universal baryon density. Comparing their predictions will provide a fundamental test on cosmology. Using BBN and the CMB together, we will be able to constrain particle physics, and predict the primordial, light element abundances. These future analyses hinge on new experimental and observational data. New experimental data on nuclear cross sections will help reduce theoretical uncertainties in BBN's predictions. New observations of light element abundances will further sharpen BBN's probe of the baryon density. Observations from the MAP and PLANCK satellites will measure the fluctuations in the CMB to unprecedented accuracy, allowing the precise determination of the baryon density. When combined, this data will present us with the opportunity to perform precision cosmology

  15. Primordial black holes from polynomial potentials in single field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Yamada, Masaki

    2018-04-01

    Within canonical single field inflation models, we provide a method to reverse engineer and reconstruct the inflaton potential from a given power spectrum. This is not only a useful tool to find a potential from observational constraints, but also gives insight into how to generate a large amplitude spike in density perturbations, especially those that may lead to primordial black holes (PBHs). In accord with other works, we find that the usual slow-roll conditions need to be violated in order to generate a significant spike in the spectrum. We find that a way to achieve a very large amplitude spike in single field models is for the classical roll of the inflaton to overshoot a local minimum during inflation. We provide an example of a quintic polynomial potential that implements this idea and leads to the observed spectral index, observed amplitude of fluctuations on large scales, significant PBH formation on small scales, and is compatible with other observational constraints. We quantify how much fine-tuning is required to achieve this in a family of random polynomial potentials, which may be useful to estimate the probability of PBH formation in the string landscape.

  16. Formation of primordial black holes from non-Gaussian perturbations produced in a waterfall transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We consider the process of primordial black hole (PBH) formation originated from primordial curvature perturbations produced during waterfall transition (with tachyonic instability), at the end of hybrid inflation. It is known that in such inflation models, rather large values of curvature perturbation amplitudes can be reached, which can potentially cause a significant PBH production in the early Universe. The probability distributions of density perturbation amplitudes in this case can be strongly non-Gaussian, which requires a special treatment. We calculated PBH abundances and PBH mass spectra for the model and analyzed their dependence on model parameters. We obtained the constraints on the parameters of the inflationary potential, using the available limits on βPBH.

  17. From electroweak theory to the primordial universe. A synthesis of some experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealet, A.

    2004-12-01

    Particle physic is based on a theory which can be tested on the current large colliders. Measurements are in a very good agreement with this electroweak theory and no deviation is observed to indicate new physics. What is surprising today is that none of its results agrees with what is known from our universe, neither to explain the primordial baryogenesis, neither to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. In this work, I come back on some results obtained in the Lep collider, to test the electroweak theory (Higgs and W boson production) and on some measurements of CP violation. I compare them with what can be extrapolated in term of primordial baryogenesis and dark energy density and show that there is no possible agreement in the Standard Model. I finish by some experimental and theoretical views to answer this fundamental question. (author)

  18. Gravitational wave signatures of inflationary models from Primordial Black Hole dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Bellido, Juan [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonóma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049 Spain (Spain); Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner, E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, and Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBH) could be the cold dark matter of the universe. They could have arisen from large (order one) curvature fluctuations produced during inflation that reentered the horizon in the radiation era. At reentry, these fluctuations source gravitational waves (GW) via second order anisotropic stresses. These GW, together with those (possibly) sourced during inflation by the same mechanism responsible for the large curvature fluctuations, constitute a primordial stochastic GW background (SGWB) that unavoidably accompanies the PBH formation. We study how the amplitude and the range of frequencies of this signal depend on the statistics (Gaussian versus χ{sup 2}) of the primordial curvature fluctuations, and on the evolution of the PBH mass function due to accretion and merging. We then compare this signal with the sensitivity of present and future detectors, at PTA and LISA scales. We find that this SGWB will help to probe, or strongly constrain, the early universe mechanism of PBH production. The comparison between the peak mass of the PBH distribution and the peak frequency of this SGWB will provide important information on the merging and accretion evolution of the PBH mass distribution from their formation to the present era. Different assumptions on the statistics and on the PBH evolution also result in different amounts of CMB μ-distortions. Therefore the above results can be complemented by the detection (or the absence) of μ-distortions with an experiment such as PIXIE.

  19. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale struc......Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large...... content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant...... advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from...

  20. Quantum diffusion during inflation and primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, Chris; Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vennin, Vincent, E-mail: hooshyar.assadullahi@port.ac.uk, E-mail: christopher.pattison@port.ac.uk, E-mail: vincent.vennin@port.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, 75013 Paris (France)

    2017-10-01

    We calculate the full probability density function (PDF) of inflationary curvature perturbations, even in the presence of large quantum backreaction. Making use of the stochastic-δ N formalism, two complementary methods are developed, one based on solving an ordinary differential equation for the characteristic function of the PDF, and the other based on solving a heat equation for the PDF directly. In the classical limit where quantum diffusion is small, we develop an expansion scheme that not only recovers the standard Gaussian PDF at leading order, but also allows us to calculate the first non-Gaussian corrections to the usual result. In the opposite limit where quantum diffusion is large, we find that the PDF is given by an elliptic theta function, which is fully characterised by the ratio between the squared width and height (in Planck mass units) of the region where stochastic effects dominate. We then apply these results to the calculation of the mass fraction of primordial black holes from inflation, and show that no more than ∼ 1 e -fold can be spent in regions of the potential dominated by quantum diffusion. We explain how this requirement constrains inflationary potentials with two examples.

  1. Cosmic microwave background constraints on primordial black hole dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloni, Daniel; Blum, Kfir [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl 234, Rehovot (Israel); Flauger, Raphael, E-mail: daniel.aloni@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: kfir.blum@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive 0319, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 92093 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We revisit cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints on primordial black hole dark matter. Spectral distortion limits from COBE/FIRAS do not impose a relevant constraint. Planck CMB anisotropy power spectra imply that primordial black holes with m {sub BH}∼> 5 M {sub ⊙} are disfavored. However, this is susceptible to sizeable uncertainties due to the treatment of the black hole accretion process. These constraints are weaker than those quoted in earlier literature for the same observables.

  2. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  3. Super-horizon primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have a number of strange features. In particular, one has to define the black hole and cosmological horizons carefully and one then finds that the mass contained within the black hole event horizon decreases when the black hole is larger than the Friedmann cosmological apparent horizon, although its area always increases. These solutions involve two distinct future null infinities and are interpreted as the conversion of a white hole into a black hole. Although such solutions may not form from gravitational collapse in the same way as standard PBHs, there is nothing unphysical about them, since all energy and causality conditions are satisfied. Their conformal diagram is a natural amalgamation of the Kruskal diagram for the extended Schwarzschild solution and the conformal diagram for a black hole in a flat Friedmann background. In this paper, such solutions are obtained numerically for a spherically symmetric universe containing a massless scalar field, but it is likely that they exist for more general matter fields and less symmetric systems

  4. Primordial black hole detection through diffractive microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, T.; Mehrabi, A.; Rahvar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations of gravitational waves motivate investigations for the existence of primordial black holes (PBHs). We propose the observation of gravitational microlensing of distant quasars for the range of infrared to the submillimeter wavelengths by sublunar PBHs as lenses. The advantage of observations in the longer wavelengths, comparable to the Schwarzschild radius of the lens (i.e., Rsch≃λ ) is the detection of the wave optics features of the gravitational microlensing. The observation of diffraction pattern in the microlensing light curve of a quasar can break the degeneracy between the lens parameters and determine directly the lens mass as well as the distance of the lens from the observer. We estimate the wave optics optical-depth, also calculate the rate of ˜0.1 to ˜0.3 event per year per a quasar, assuming that hundred percent of dark matter is made of sublunar PBHs. Also, we propose a long-term survey of quasars with the cadence of almost one hour to few days to resolve the wave optics features of the light curves to discover PBHs and determine the fraction of dark matter made of sublunar PBHs as well as their mass function.

  5. The origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2016-07-01

    The universe is magnetized on all scales probed so far. On the largest scales, galaxies and galaxy clusters host magnetic fields at the micro Gauss level coherent on scales up to ten kpc. Recent observational evidence suggests that even the intergalactic medium in voids could host a weak  ∼  10(-16) Gauss magnetic field, coherent on Mpc scales. An intriguing possibility is that these observed magnetic fields are a relic from the early universe, albeit one which has been subsequently amplified and maintained by a dynamo in collapsed objects. We review here the origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields. After a brief summary of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe, we turn to magnetic field generation during inflation and phase transitions. We trace the linear and nonlinear evolution of the generated primordial fields through the radiation era, including viscous effects. Sensitive observational signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background, including current constraints from Planck, are discussed. After recombination, primordial magnetic fields could strongly influence structure formation, especially on dwarf galaxy scales. The resulting signatures on reionization, the redshifted 21 cm line, weak lensing and the Lyman-α forest are outlined. Constraints from radio and γ-ray astronomy are summarized. Astrophysical batteries and the role of dynamos in reshaping the primordial field are briefly considered. The review ends with some final thoughts on primordial magnetic fields.

  6. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  7. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  8. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2012-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these parameter determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and continue to better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasińska (2007). To improve the reliability of the determination, a high quality dataset is needed. In pursuit of this, a variety of cuts are explored. The efficacy of the He I λ4026 emission line as a constraint on the solutions is first examined, revealing the introduction of systematic bias through its absence. As a clear measure of the quality of the physical solution, a χ2 analysis proves instrumental in the selection of data compatible with the theoretical model. Nearly two-thirds of the observations fall outside a standard 95% confidence level cut, which highlights the care necessary in selecting systems and warrants further investigation into potential deficiencies of the model or data. In addition, the method also allows us to exclude systems for which parameter estimations are statistical outliers. As a result, the final selected dataset gains in reliability and exhibits improved consistency. Regression to zero metallicity yields Yp = 0.2534 ± 0.0083, in broad agreement

  9. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these parameter determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and continue to better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasińska (2007). To improve the reliability of the determination, a high quality dataset is needed. In pursuit of this, a variety of cuts are explored. The efficacy of the He I λ4026 emission line as a constraint on the solutions is first examined, revealing the introduction of systematic bias through its absence. As a clear measure of the quality of the physical solution, a χ 2 analysis proves instrumental in the selection of data compatible with the theoretical model. Nearly two-thirds of the observations fall outside a standard 95% confidence level cut, which highlights the care necessary in selecting systems and warrants further investigation into potential deficiencies of the model or data. In addition, the method also allows us to exclude systems for which parameter estimations are statistical outliers. As a result, the final selected dataset gains in reliability and exhibits improved consistency. Regression to zero metallicity yields Y p = 0.2534 ± 0.0083, in broad

  10. Primordial non-Gaussianity and power asymmetry with quantum gravitational effects in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin

    2018-02-01

    Loop quantum cosmology provides a resolution of the classical big bang singularity in the deep Planck era. The evolution, prior to the usual slow-roll inflation, naturally generates excited states at the onset of the slow-roll inflation. It is expected that these quantum gravitational effects could leave its fingerprints on the primordial perturbation spectrum and non-Gaussianity, and lead to some observational evidences in the cosmic microwave background. While the impact of the quantum effects on the primordial perturbation spectrum has been already studied and constrained by current data, in this paper we continue to study such effects but now on the non-Gaussianity of the primordial curvature perturbations. We present detailed and analytical calculations of the non-Gaussianity and show explicitly that the corrections due to the quantum effects are at the same magnitude of the slow-roll parameters in the observable scales and thus are well within current observational constraints. Despite this, we show that the non-Gaussianity in the squeezed limit can be enhanced at superhorizon scales and it is these effects that can yield a large statistical anisotropy on the power spectrum through the Erickcek-Kamionkowski-Carroll mechanism.

  11. Lyman-alpha clouds as a relic of primordial density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Szalay, A.S.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Primordial density fluctuations are studied using a CDM model and primordial clouds some of which are expanding, driven by pressure gradients created when the medium is photionized, and some of which are massive enough to continue collapsing in spite of the pressure. Normalization of CDM models to the clustering properties on large scales are used to predict the parameters of collapsing clouds of subgalactic mass at early epochs. It is shown that the abundance and dimensions of these clouds are comparable to those of the Lyman-alpha systems. The evolutionary history of the clouds is computed, utilizing a spherically symmetric hydrodynamics code with the dark matter treated as a collisionless fluid, and the H I column density distribution is evaluated as a function of N(H I) and redshift. The observed cloud parameters come out naturally in the CDM model and suggest that Lyman-alpha clouds are the missing link between primordial density fluctuations and the formation of galaxies. 31 references

  12. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Mousis, Olivier; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-01-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of ∼4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  13. Primordial black holes from single field models of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    Primordial black holes (PBH) have been shown to arise from high peaks in the matter power spectra of multi-field models of inflation. Here we show, with a simple toy model, that it is also possible to generate a peak in the curvature power spectrum of single-field inflation. We assume that the effective dynamics of the inflaton field presents a near-inflection point which slows down the field right before the end of inflation and gives rise to a prominent spike in the fluctuation power spectrum at scales much smaller than those probed by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) observations. This peak will give rise, upon reentry during the radiation era, to PBH via gravitational collapse. The mass and abundance of these PBH is such that they could constitute the totality of the Dark Matter today. We satisfy all CMB and LSS constraints and predict a very broad range of PBH masses. Some of these PBH are light enough that they will evaporate before structure formation, leaving behind a ...

  14. Curvature profiles as initial conditions for primordial black hole formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polnarev, Alexander G; Musco, Ilia

    2007-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing research programme to study possible primordial black hole (PBH) formation during the radiation-dominated era of the early universe. Working within spherical symmetry, we specify an initial configuration in terms of a curvature profile, which represents initial conditions for the large amplitude metric perturbations, away from the homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model, which are required for PBH formation. Using an asymptotic quasi-homogeneous solution, we relate the curvature profile with the density and velocity fields, which at an early enough time, when the length scale of the configuration is much larger than the cosmological horizon, can be treated as small perturbations of the background values. We present general analytic solutions for the density and velocity profiles. These solutions enable us to consider in a self-consistent way the formation of PBHs in a wide variety of cosmological situations with the cosmological fluid being treated as an arbitrary mixture of different components with different equations of state. We obtain the analytical solutions for the density and velocity profiles as functions of the initial time. We then use two different parametrizations for the curvature profile and follow numerically the evolution of initial configurations

  15. Testing for new physics: neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canac, Nicolas; Abazajian, Kevork N. [Department of Physics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Aslanyan, Grigor [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Easther, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Price, Layne C., E-mail: ncanac@uci.edu, E-mail: aslanyan@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kevork@uci.edu, E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz, E-mail: laynep@andrew.cmu.edu [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0} and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k . Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0}. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H{sub 0} measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.

  16. Reduced bispectrum seeded by helical primordial magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortúa, Héctor Javier [Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Bogotá, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Física, Carrera 30 Calle 45-03, C.P. 111321 Bogotá (Colombia); Castañeda, Leonardo, E-mail: hjhortuao@unal.edu.co, E-mail: lcastanedac@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Gravitación y Cosmología, Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, cra 45 No 26-85, Edificio Uriel Gutierréz, Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia)

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of helical primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) reduced bispectrum. We derive the full three-point statistics of helical magnetic fields and numerically calculate the even contribution in the collinear configuration. We then numerically compute the CMB reduced bispectrum induced by passive and compensated PMF modes on large angular scales. There is a negative signal on the bispectrum due to the helical terms of the fields and we also observe that the biggest contribution to the bispectrum comes from the non-zero IR cut-off for causal fields, unlike the two-point correlation case. For negative spectral indices, the reduced bispectrum is enhanced by the passive modes. This gives a lower value of the upper limit for the mean amplitude of the magnetic field on a given characteristic scale. However, high values of IR cut-off in the bispectrum, and the helical terms of the magnetic field relaxes this bound. This demonstrates the importance of the IR cut-off and helicity in the study of the nature of PMFs from CMB observations.

  17. Quantum origin of the primordial fluctuation spectrum and its statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Susana; León, Gabriel; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The usual account for the origin of cosmic structure during inflation is not fully satisfactory, as it lacks a physical mechanism capable of generating the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of our Universe, from an exactly homogeneous and isotropic initial state associated with the early inflationary regime. The proposal in [A. Perez, H. Sahlmann, and D. Sudarsky, Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 2317 (2006)] considers the spontaneous dynamical collapse of the wave function as a possible answer to that problem. In this work, we review briefly the difficulties facing the standard approach, as well as the answers provided by the above proposal and explore their relevance to the investigations concerning the characterization of the primordial spectrum and other statistical aspects of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale matter distribution. We will see that the new approach leads to novel ways of considering some of the relevant questions, and, in particular, to distinct characterizations of the non-Gaussianities that might have left imprints on the available data.

  18. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Abel, Tom; KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-01-01

    The scientific belief that the universe evolves in time is one of the legacies of the theory of the Big Bang. The concept that the universe has an history started to attract the interest of cosmologists soon after the first formulation of the theory: already Gamow (1948; 1949) investigated how and when galaxies could have been formed in the context of the expanding Universe. However, the specific topic of the formation (and of the fate) of the first objects dates to two decades later, when no objects with metallicities as low as those predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis (Z ∼ -10 ∼ 10 -8 Z # circle d ot#) were found. Such concerns were addressed in two seminal papers by Peebles and Dicke (1968; hereafter PD68) and by Doroshkevich, Zel'Dovich and Novikov (1967; hereafter DZN67), introducing the idea that some objects could have formed before the stars we presently observe. (1) Both PD68 and DZN67 suggest a mass of ∼ 10 5 M # circle d ot# for the first generation of bound systems, based on the considerations on the cosmological Jeans length (Gamow 1948; Peebles 1965) and the possible shape of the power spectrum. (2) They point out the role of thermal instabilities in the formation of the proto-galactic bound object, and of the cooling of the gas inside it; in particular, PD68 introduces H 2 cooling and chemistry in the calculations about the contraction of the gas. (3) Even if they do not specifically address the occurrence of fragmentation, these papers make two very different assumptions: PD68 assumes that the gas will fragment into ''normal'' stars to form globular clusters, while DZN67 assumes that fragmentation does not occur, and that a single ''super-star'' forms. (4) Finally, some feedback effects as considered (e.g. Peebles and Dicke considered the effects of supernovae). Today most of the research focuses on the issues when fragmentation may occur, what objects are formed and how they influence subsequent structure formation. In these notes we will

  19. Primordial power spectrum features and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, G.

    2014-03-01

    The present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy data is consistent with not only a power law scalar primordial power spectrum (PPS) with a small running but also with the scalar PPS having very sharp features. This has motivated inflationary models with such sharp features. Recently, even the possibility of having nulls in the power spectrum (at certain scales) has been considered. The existence of these nulls has been shown in linear perturbation theory. What shall be the effect of higher order corrections on such nulls? Inspired by this question, we have attempted to calculate quantum radiative corrections to the Fourier transform of the 2-point function in a toy field theory and address the issue of how these corrections to the power spectrum behave in models in which the tree-level power spectrum has a sharp dip (but not a null). In particular, we have considered the possibility of the relative enhancement of radiative corrections in a model in which the tree-level spectrum goes through a dip in power at a certain scale. The mode functions of the field (whose power spectrum is to be evaluated) are chosen such that they undergo the kind of dynamics that leads to a sharp dip in the tree level power spectrum. Next, we have considered the situation in which this field has quartic self interactions, and found one loop correction in a suitably chosen renormalization scheme. Thus, we have attempted to answer the following key question in the context of this toy model (which is as important in the realistic case): In the chosen renormalization scheme, can quantum radiative corrections be enhanced relative to tree-level power spectrum at scales, at which sharp dips appear in the tree-level spectrum?

  20. Some cosmological consequences of primordial black-hole evaporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    According to Hawking, primordial black holes of less than 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. This paper examines the way in which small primordial black holes could thereby have contributed to the background density of photons, nucleons, neutrinos, electrons, and gravitons in the universe. Any photons emitted late enough should maintain their emission temperature apart from a redshift effect: it is shown that the biggest contribution should come from primordial black holes of about 10 15 g, which evaporate in the present era, and it is argued that observations of the γ-ray background indicate that primordial black holes of this size must have a mean density less than 10 -8 times the critical density. Photons which were emitted sufficiently early to be thermalized could, in principle, have generated the 3 K background in an initially cold universe, but only if the density fluctuations in the early universe had a particular form and did not extend up to a mass scale of 10 15 g. Primordial black holes of less than 10 14 g should emit nucleons: it is shown that such nucleons could not contribute appreciably to the cosmic-ray background. However, nucleon emission could have generated the observed number density of baryons in an initially baryon-symmetric universe, provided some CP-violating process operates in black hole evaporations such that more baryons are always produced than antibaryons. We predict the spectrum of neutrinos, electrons, and gravitons which should result from primordial black-hole evaporations and show that the observational limits on the background electron flux might place a stronger limitation on the number of 10 15 g primordial black holes than the γ-ray observations. Finally, we examine the limits that various observations place on the strength of any long-range baryonic field whose existence might be hypothesized as a means of preserving baryon number in black-hole evaporations

  1. Primordial black hole production in Critical Higgs Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, Jose María; García-Bellido, Juan; Ruiz Morales, Ester

    2018-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBH) arise naturally from high peaks in the curvature power spectrum of near-inflection-point single-field inflation, and could constitute today the dominant component of the dark matter in the universe. In this letter we explore the possibility that a broad spectrum of PBH is formed in models of Critical Higgs Inflation (CHI), where the near-inflection point is related to the critical value of the RGE running of both the Higgs self-coupling λ (μ) and its non-minimal coupling to gravity ξ (μ). We show that, for a wide range of model parameters, a half-domed-shaped peak in the matter spectrum arises at sufficiently small scales that it passes all the constraints from large scale structure observations. The predicted cosmic microwave background spectrum at large scales is in agreement with Planck 2015 data, and has a relatively large tensor-to-scalar ratio that may soon be detected by B-mode polarization experiments. Moreover, the wide peak in the power spectrum gives an approximately lognormal PBH distribution in the range of masses 0.01- 100M⊙, which could explain the LIGO merger events, while passing all present PBH observational constraints. The stochastic background of gravitational waves coming from the unresolved black-hole-binary mergers could also be detected by LISA or PTA. Furthermore, the parameters of the CHI model are consistent, within 2σ, with the measured Higgs parameters at the LHC and their running. Future measurements of the PBH mass spectrum could allow us to obtain complementary information about the Higgs couplings at energies well above the EW scale, and thus constrain new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  2. Primordial black hole production in Critical Higgs Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Ezquiaga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primordial Black Holes (PBH arise naturally from high peaks in the curvature power spectrum of near-inflection-point single-field inflation, and could constitute today the dominant component of the dark matter in the universe. In this letter we explore the possibility that a broad spectrum of PBH is formed in models of Critical Higgs Inflation (CHI, where the near-inflection point is related to the critical value of the RGE running of both the Higgs self-coupling λ(μ and its non-minimal coupling to gravity ξ(μ. We show that, for a wide range of model parameters, a half-domed-shaped peak in the matter spectrum arises at sufficiently small scales that it passes all the constraints from large scale structure observations. The predicted cosmic microwave background spectrum at large scales is in agreement with Planck 2015 data, and has a relatively large tensor-to-scalar ratio that may soon be detected by B-mode polarization experiments. Moreover, the wide peak in the power spectrum gives an approximately lognormal PBH distribution in the range of masses 0.01–100M⊙, which could explain the LIGO merger events, while passing all present PBH observational constraints. The stochastic background of gravitational waves coming from the unresolved black-hole-binary mergers could also be detected by LISA or PTA. Furthermore, the parameters of the CHI model are consistent, within 2σ, with the measured Higgs parameters at the LHC and their running. Future measurements of the PBH mass spectrum could allow us to obtain complementary information about the Higgs couplings at energies well above the EW scale, and thus constrain new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  3. Morphological anomaly of primordial follicle in {gamma}-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Joo; Lee, Young Dal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Ovarian follicles are faced with one of two fates, atresia or development. Up to 99% of follicles become degenerated rather than ovulated in female life span. Thus, atresia occurs at all stages of follicle development in mammalian ovaries. In the present experiment, the effect of {gamma}-radiation on primordial follicles was morphologically analyzed in a mouse ovary. Thirty-seven percent of the primordial follicles in the non-irradiated control mice ovaries were abnormal. At day 8 post irradiation, most of primordial follicles became atretic. They lost their integrity of architecture in the follicular shape. Then, all the oocytes disappeared from the follicles. And only 3 to 4 granulosa cells lay down onto the basement membrane. Disappearance of granulosa cells or oocytes resulted from the radiation-induced apoptotic process. It is definitely clear that {gamma}-radiation induces rapid apoptotic degeneration of the primordial follicles. The morphological degeneration induced by radiation in the primordial follicles can be used as an experimental model to draw out a deeper insight for radioprotectant researches. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Merger rate of primordial black-hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been a candidate for the elusive dark matter (DM), and remain poorly constrained in the ˜20 - 100 M⊙ mass range. PBH binaries were recently suggested as the possible source of LIGO's first detections. In this paper, we thoroughly revisit existing estimates of the merger rate of PBH binaries. We compute the probability distribution of orbital parameters for PBH binaries formed in the early Universe, accounting for tidal torquing by all other PBHs, as well as standard large-scale adiabatic perturbations. We then check whether the orbital parameters of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe can be significantly affected between formation and merger. Our analytic estimates indicate that the tidal field of halos and interactions with other PBHs, as well as dynamical friction by unbound standard DM particles, do not do significant work on nor torque PBH binaries. We estimate the torque due to baryon accretion to be much weaker than previous calculations, albeit possibly large enough to significantly affect the eccentricity of typical PBH binaries. We also revisit the PBH-binary merger rate resulting from gravitational capture in present-day halos, accounting for Poisson fluctuations. If binaries formed in the early Universe survive to the present time, as suggested by our analytic estimates, they dominate the total PBH merger rate. Moreover, this merger rate would be orders of magnitude larger than LIGO's current upper limits if PBHs make a significant fraction of the dark matter. As a consequence, LIGO would constrain ˜10 - 300 M⊙ PBHs to constitute no more than ˜1 % of the dark matter. To make this conclusion fully robust, though, numerical study of several complex astrophysical processes—such as the formation of the first PBH halos and how they may affect PBH binaries, as well as the accretion of gas onto an extremely eccentric binary—is needed.

  5. Mechanisms and pathways of growth failure in primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Anna; Jackson, Andrew P

    2011-10-01

    The greatest difference between species is size; however, the developmental mechanisms determining organism growth remain poorly understood. Primordial dwarfism is a group of human single-gene disorders with extreme global growth failure (which includes Seckel syndrome, microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism I [MOPD] types I and II, and Meier-Gorlin syndrome). Ten genes have now been identified for microcephalic primordial dwarfism, encoding proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes including genome replication (ORC1 [origin recognition complex 1], ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6), DNA damage response (ATR [ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related]), mRNA splicing (U4atac), and centrosome function (CEP152, PCNT, and CPAP). Here, we review the cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions and address whether further study of these genes could provide novel insight into the physiological regulation of organism growth.

  6. [Persistence of the primordial vitreous body and buphthalmos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, P; Simionescu, C; Bosun, I

    1995-01-01

    Persistence of the hyperplasic primordial vitreous body is determined by a deletion of embryonal development of the vitreous body and of the hyaloid vascular system. Infant aged 3.5 years presents persistence of primordial vitreous body with crystalline dislocation in the camera aquosa and secondary buphthalmos of the left eye and microphthalmos with dislocation of the crystalline in the vitreous body of the right eye. At the back of the right eye we noticed a whitish mass, richly vascularized with vestiges from the hyaloid artery, but the posterior half of the vitreous cavity is filled with microscopic blood; the fibrovascular membrane is made of conjunctive tissue set in parallel layers and vessels with macrolipophagic degeneration. Microscopic investigation of retina reveals glial hyperplasia zones in the neighbourhood of the vitreous body. In the present paper the authors show the persistence of the primordial vitreous body in the left eye and bilateral dislocation of the crystalline, revealing multiple ocular malformations.

  7. Direct search for features in the primordial bispectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Appleby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study features in the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation correlated with the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from the observed cosmic microwave background temperature data. We first show how the bispectrum can be completely specified in terms of the power spectrum and its first two derivatives, valid for any configuration of interest. Then using a model-independent reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum from the Planck angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropies, we compute the bispectrum in different triangular configurations. We find that in the squeezed limit at k∼0.06 Mpc−1 and k∼0.014 Mpc−1 there are marginal 2σ deviations from the standard featureless bispectrum, which meanwhile is consistent with the reconstructed bispectrum in the equilateral configuration.

  8. Standard Clock in primordial density perturbations and cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Standard Clocks in the primordial epoch leave a special type of features in the primordial perturbations, which can be used to directly measure the scale factor of the primordial universe as a function of time a(t), thus discriminating between inflation and alternatives. We have started to search for such signals in the Planck 2013 data using the key predictions of the Standard Clock. In this Letter, we summarize the key predictions of the Standard Clock and present an interesting candidate example in Planck 2013 data. Motivated by this candidate, we construct and compute full Standard Clock models and use the more complete prediction to make more extensive comparison with data. Although this candidate is not yet statistically significant, we use it to illustrate how Standard Clocks appear in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and how they can be further tested by future data. We also use it to motivate more detailed theoretical model building

  9. Astrochemistry: From primordial gas to present-day clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Bovino, Stefano; Körtgen, Bastian; Grassi, Tommaso; Banerjee, Robi

    2017-01-01

    Astrochemistry plays a central role during the process of star formation, both in the primordial regime as well as in the present-day Universe. We revisit here the chemistry in both regimes, focusing first on the chemistry under close to primordial conditions, as observed in the so-called Caffau star SDSS J102915+172927, and subsequently discuss deuteration processes in present-day star-forming cores. In models of the high-redshift Universe, the chemistry is particularly relevant to determine...

  10. Chirality oscillation of primordial gravitational waves during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Yu-Tong [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Piao, Yun-Song [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-06

    We show that if the gravitational Chern-Simons term couples to a massive scalar field (m>H), the primordial gravitational waves (GWs) will show itself the chirality oscillation, i.e., the amplitudes of the left- and right-handed GWs modes will convert into each other and oscillate in their propagations. This oscillation will eventually develop a permanent difference of the amplitudes of both modes, which leads to nearly opposite oscillating shapes in the power spectra of the left- and right-handed primordial GWs. We discuss its implication to the CMB B-mode polarization.

  11. Primordial lithium and the standard model(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliyannis, C.P.; Demarque, P.; Kawaler, S.D.; Krauss, L.M.; Romanelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    We present the results of new theoretical work on surface 7 Li and 6 Li evolution in the oldest halo stars along with a new and refined analysis of the predicted primordial lithium abundance resulting from big-bang nucleosynthesis. This allows us to determine the constraints which can be imposed upon cosmology by a consideration of primordial lithium using both standard big-bang and standard stellar-evolution models. Such considerations lead to a constraint on the baryon density today of 0.0044 2 <0.025 (where the Hubble constant is 100h Km sec/sup -1/ Mpc /sup -1/), and impose limitations on alternative nucleosynthesis scenarios

  12. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yorke, Harold W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki, E-mail: takashi.hosokawa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  13. Time evolution of primordial magnetic fields and present day extragalactic magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The topic of the present thesis is the time evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields which have been generated in the Early Universe. Assuming this so-called Cosmological Scenario of magnetogenesis to be true, it is shown in the following that this would account for the present day Extragalactic Magnetic Fields. This is particularly important in light of recent gamma ray observations which are used to derive a lower limit for the corresponding magnetic field strength, even though also an alternative approach, claiming instead that these observations are due to interactions with the Intergalactic Medium, is possible and will be tested here with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to describe the aforementioned evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields, a set of general Master Equations for the spectral magnetic, kinetic and helical components of the system are derived and then solved numerically for the Early Universe. This semianalytical method allows it to perform a full quantitative study for the time development of the power spectra, in particular by fully taking into account the backreaction of the turbulent medium onto the magnetic fields. Applying the formalism to non-helical Primordial Magnetic Fields created on some characteristic length measure, it is shown that on large scales L their spectrum 5 builds up a slope which behaves as B∝L -(5)/(2) and governs the evolution of the coherence (or integral) scale. In addition, the claim of equipartition between the magnetic and the kinetic energy is found to be true. Extending the analysis to helical magnetic fields, it is observed that the time evolution changes dramatically, hence confirming quantitatively that an Inverse Cascade, i.e. an efficient transport of energy from small to large scales, as predicted in previous works, indeed does take place.

  14. The influence of primordial magnetic fields on the spherical collapse model in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibusawa, Y.; Ichiki, K.; Kadota, K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ever growing observational evidence for the existence of the large scale magnetic fields, their origin and the evolution are not fully understood. If the magnetic fields are of primordial origin, they result in the generation of the secondary matter density perturbations and the previous studies show that such density perturbations enhance the number of dark matter halos. We extend the conventional spherical collapse model by including the Lorentz force which has not been implemented in the previous analysis to study the evolution of density perturbations produced by primordial magnetic fields. The critical over-density δ c characterizing the halo mass function turns out to be a bigger value, δ c ≅ 1.78, than the conventional one δ c ≅ 1.69 for the perturbations evolved only by the gravitational force. The difference in δ c between our model and the fully matter dominated cosmological model is small at a low redshift and, hence, only the high mass tail of the mass function is affected by the magnetic fields. At a high redshift, on the other hand, the difference in δ c becomes large enough to suppress the halo abundance over a wide range of mass scales. The halo abundance is reduced for instance by as large a factor as ∼10 5 at z=9

  15. Molecular mechanisms governing primordial germ cell migration in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doitsidou, M.

    2005-01-01

    In most sexually reproducing organisms primordial germ cells (pGCs) are specified early in development in places that are distinct from the region where the somatic part of the gonad develops. From their places of specification they have to migrate towards the site where they associate with somatic

  16. Primordial germ cells and amnion development in the avian embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Melo Bernardo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitors of the gametes, responsible for transmitting genetic information from generation to generation. Although there is a long history of gamete biology research, there is still a lot to be learned about many of the mechanisms underlying germ cell

  17. Mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene cause primordial dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T.; Schindler, Detlev; Wick, Ursula; Crow, Yanick J.; Ekici, Arif B.; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Goecke, Timm O.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Zweier, Christiane; Brunner, Han G.; Becker, Kristin; Curry, Cynthia J.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dörfler, Arnd; Kinning, Esther; Megarbane, André; Meinecke, Peter; Semple, Robert K.; Spranger, Stephanie; Toutain, Annick; Trembath, Richard C.; Voss, Egbert; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul; de Zegher, Francis; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Reis, André

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental processes influencing human growth can be revealed by studying extreme short stature. Using genetic linkage analysis, we find that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin (PCNT) gene on chromosome 21q22.3 cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism

  18. Mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene cause primordial dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T.; Schindler, Detlev; Wick, Ursula; Crow, Yanick J.; Ekici, Arif B.; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Goecke, Timm O.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Zweier, Christiane; Brunner, Han G.; Becker, Kristin; Curry, Cynthia J.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Devriendt, Koenraad; Doerfler, Arnd; Kinning, Esther; Megarbane, Andre; Meinecke, Peter; Semple, Robert K.; Spranger, Stephanie; Toutain, Annick; Trembath, Richard C.; Voss, Egbert; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul; de Zegher, Francis; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Reis, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental processes influencing human growth can be revealed by studying extreme short stature. Using genetic linkage analysis, we find that biallelic loss- of- function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin ( PCNT) gene on chromosome 21q22.3 cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial

  19. Rewarming the Primordial Soup: Revisitations and Rediscoveries in Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    A short history of Campbell's primordial soup: In this essay we try to disclose some of the historical connections between the studies that have contributed to our current understanding of the emergence of catalytic RNA molecules and their components from an inanimate matter. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral, an...

  1. Selections from 2016: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.LIGO Gravitational Wave Detection, Primordial Black Holes, and the Near-IR Cosmic Infrared Background AnisotropiesPublished May2016Main takeaway:A study by Alexander Kashlinsky (NASA Goddard SFC) proposes that the cold dark matter that makes up the majority of the universes matter may be made of black holes. These black holes, Kashlinsky suggests, are primordial: they collapsed directly from dense regions of the universe soon after the Big Bang.Why its interesting:This model would simultaneously explain several observations. In particular, we see similarities in patterns between the cosmic infrared and X-ray backgrounds. This would make sense if accretion onto primordial black holes in halos produced the X-ray background in the same regions where the first stars also formed, producing the infrared background.What this means for current events:In Kashlinskys model, primordial black holes would occasionally form binary pairs and eventually spiral in and merge. The release of energy from such an event would then be observable by gravitational-wave detectors. Could the gravitational-wave signal that LIGO detected last year have been two primordial black holes merging? More observations will be needed to find out.CitationA. Kashlinsky 2016 ApJL 823 L25. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L25

  2. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2010-07-05

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  3. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang Xinmin

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n s =1 to n s =3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum (Lyα) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  4. 3D simulations with boosted primordial power spectra and ultracompact minihalos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosenca, Mateja; Adamek, Julian; Byrnes, Christian T.; Hotchkiss, Shaun

    2017-12-01

    We perform three-dimensional simulations of structure formation in the early Universe, when boosting the primordial power spectrum on ˜kpc scales. We demonstrate that our simulations are capable of producing power-law profiles close to the steep ρ ∝r-9 /4 halo profiles that are commonly assumed to be a good approximation to ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs). However, we show that for more realistic initial conditions in which halos are neither perfectly symmetric nor isolated the steep power-law profile is disrupted, and we find that the Navarro-Frenk-White profile is a better fit to most halos. In the presence of background fluctuations, even extreme, nearly spherical initial conditions do not remain exceptional. Nonetheless, boosting the amplitude of initial fluctuations causes all structures to form earlier and thus at larger densities. With a sufficiently large amplitude of fluctuations, we find that values for the concentration of typical halos in our simulations can become very large. However, despite the signal coming from dark matter annihilation inside the cores of these halos being enhanced, it is still orders of magnitude smaller compared to the usually assumed UCMH profile. The upper bound on the primordial power spectrum from the nonobservation of UCMHs should therefore be reevaluated.

  5. A new spin on primordial hydrogen recombination and a refined model for spinning dust radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haimoud, Yacine

    2011-08-01

    This thesis describes theoretical calculations in two subjects: the primordial recombination of the electron-proton plasma about 400,000 years after the Big Bang and electric dipole radiation from spinning dust grains in the present-day interstellar medium. Primordial hydrogen recombination has recently been the subject of a renewed attention because of the impact of its theoretical uncertainties on predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra. The physics of the primordial recombination problem can be divided into two qualitatively different aspects. On the one hand, a detailed treatment of the non-thermal radiation field in the optically thick Lyman lines is required for an accurate recombination history near the peak of the visibility function. On the other hand, stimulated recombinations and out-of equilibrium effects are important at late times and a multilevel calculation is required to correctly compute the low-redshift end of the ionization history. Another facet of the problem is the requirement of computational efficiency, as a large number of recombination histories must be evaluated in Markov chains when analyzing CMB data. In this thesis, an effective multilevel atom method is presented, that speeds up multilevel atom computations by more than 5 orders of magnitude. The impact of previously ignored radiative transfer effects is quantified, and explicitly shown to be negligible. Finally, the numerical implementation of a fast and highly accurate primordial recombination code partly written by the author is described. The second part of this thesis is devoted to one of the potential galactic foregrounds for CMB experiments: the rotational emission from small dust grains. The rotational state of dust grains is described, first classically, and assuming that grains are rotating about their axis of greatest inertia. This assumption is then lifted, and a quantum-mechanical calculation is presented for disk-like grains with a

  6. Primordial statistical anisotropy generated at the end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Soda, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    We present a new mechanism for generating primordial statistical anisotropy of curvature perturbations. We introduce a vector field which has a non-minimal kinetic term and couples with a waterfall field in a hybrid inflation model. In such a system, the vector field gives fluctuations of the end of inflation and hence induces a subcomponent of curvature perturbations. Since the vector has a preferred direction, the statistical anisotropy could appear in the fluctuations. We present the explicit formula for the statistical anisotropy in the primordial power spectrum and the bispectrum of curvature perturbations. Interestingly, there is the possibility that the statistical anisotropy does not appear in the power spectrum but does appear in the bispectrum. We also find that the statistical anisotropy provides the shape dependence to the bispectrum

  7. Primordial statistical anisotropy generated at the end of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shuichiro [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We present a new mechanism for generating primordial statistical anisotropy of curvature perturbations. We introduce a vector field which has a non-minimal kinetic term and couples with a waterfall field in a hybrid inflation model. In such a system, the vector field gives fluctuations of the end of inflation and hence induces a subcomponent of curvature perturbations. Since the vector has a preferred direction, the statistical anisotropy could appear in the fluctuations. We present the explicit formula for the statistical anisotropy in the primordial power spectrum and the bispectrum of curvature perturbations. Interestingly, there is the possibility that the statistical anisotropy does not appear in the power spectrum but does appear in the bispectrum. We also find that the statistical anisotropy provides the shape dependence to the bispectrum.

  8. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  9. Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II: a Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Jackson, Andrew P

    2017-04-01

    This review will provide an overview of the microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) class of disorders and provide the reader comprehensive clinical review with suggested care guidelines for patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPDII). Over the last 15 years, significant strides have been made in the diagnosis, natural history, and management of MOPDII. MOPDII is the most common and well described form of MPD. The classic features of the MPD group are severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, with marked microcephaly. In addition to these features, individuals with MOPDII have characteristic facies, skeletal dysplasia, abnormal dentition, and an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and insulin resistance. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the pericentrin gene cause MOPDII, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

  10. Primordial helium abundance determination using sulphur as metallicity tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Vital; Terlevich, Elena; Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2018-05-01

    The primordial helium abundance YP is calculated using sulphur as metallicity tracer in the classical methodology (with YP as an extrapolation of Y to zero metals). The calculated value, YP, S = 0.244 ± 0.006, is in good agreement with the estimate from the Planck experiment, as well as, determinations in the literature using oxygen as the metallicity tracer. The chemical analysis includes the sustraction of the nebular continuum and of the stellar continuum computed from simple stellar population synthesis grids. The S+2 content is measured from the near infrared [SIII]λλ9069Å, 9532Å lines, while an ICF(S3 +) is proposed based on the Ar3 +/Ar2 + fraction. Finally, we apply a multivariable linear regression using simultaneously oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur abundances for the same sample to determine the primordial helium abundance resulting in YP - O, N, S = 0.245 ± 0.007.

  11. Cosmological lepton asymmetry, primordial nucleosynthesis and sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork; Bell, Nicole F.; Fuller, George M.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2005-09-01

    We study post weak decoupling coherent active-sterile and active-active matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe. We show that flavor conversion efficiency at Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances is likely to be high (adiabatic evolution) for relevant neutrino parameters and energies. However, we point out that these resonances cannot sweep smoothly and continuously with the expansion of the Universe. We show how neutrino flavor conversion in this way can leave both the active and sterile neutrinos with nonthermal energy spectra, and how, in turn, these distorted energy spectra can affect the neutron-to-proton ratio, primordial nucleosynthesis, and cosmological mass/closure constraints on sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the existence of a light sterile neutrino which mixes with active neutrinos can change fundamentally the relationship between the cosmological lepton numbers and the primordial nucleosynthesis He4 yield.

  12. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  13. Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  14. On the evolution of the primordial cosmic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kenji.

    1980-09-01

    The evolution of the primordial cosmic turbulence in the big-bang universe is studied by numerical integration of the spectral equation derived by Nariai and closed by Heisenberg's hypothesis. In order to examine whether the turbulence can survive by the epoch of the plasma recombination, the equation is dealt with by taking full account of the viscosity effect. The main conclusion is that the resulting spectrum survived against the viscous decay depends on the initial spectral shape which is assumed at the epoch t sub(eq) when the density of matter is equal to that of radiation. The Taylor's micro-scale is also calculated which is available to determine the fate of the primordial cosmic turbulence. (author)

  15. Primordial non-Gaussian features from DBI Galileon inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik

    2015-01-01

    We have studied primordial non-Gaussian features of a model of potential-driven single field DBI Galileon inflation. We have computed the bispectrum from the three-point correlation function considering all possible cross correlations between the scalar and tensor modes of the proposed setup. Further, we have computed the trispectrum from a four-point correlation function considering the contribution from contact interaction, and scalar and graviton exchange diagrams in the in-in picture. Finally we have obtained the non-Gaussian consistency conditions from the four-point correlator, which results in partial violation of the Suyama-Yamaguchi four-point consistency relation. This further leads to the conclusion that sufficient primordial non-Gaussianities can be obtained from DBI Galileon inflation. (orig.)

  16. Primordial Regular Black Holes: Thermodynamics and Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio de Freitas Pacheco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that dark matter particles could be constituted by extreme regular primordial black holes is discussed. Extreme black holes have zero surface temperature, and are not subjected to the Hawking evaporation process. Assuming that the common horizon radius of these black holes is fixed by the minimum distance that is derived from the Riemann invariant computed from loop quantum gravity, the masses of these non-singular stable black holes are of the order of the Planck mass. However, if they are formed just after inflation, during reheating, their initial masses are about six orders of magnitude higher. After a short period of growth by the accretion of relativistic matter, they evaporate until reaching the extreme solution. Only a fraction of 3.8 × 10−22 of relativistic matter is required to be converted into primordial black holes (PBHs in order to explain the present abundance of dark matter particles.

  17. RTTN Mutations Cause Primary Microcephaly and Primordial Dwarfism in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldin, Hanan; Alazami, Anas M; Manning, Melanie; Hashem, Amal; Caluseiu, Oana; Tabarki, Brahim; Esplin, Edward; Schelley, Susan; Innes, A Micheil; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Lamont, Ryan; Majewski, Jacek; Bernier, Francois P; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-12-03

    Primary microcephaly is a developmental brain anomaly that results from defective proliferation of neuroprogenitors in the germinal periventricular zone. More than a dozen genes are known to be mutated in autosomal-recessive primary microcephaly in isolation or in association with a more generalized growth deficiency (microcephalic primordial dwarfism), but the genetic heterogeneity is probably more extensive. In a research protocol involving autozygome mapping and exome sequencing, we recruited a multiplex consanguineous family who is affected by severe microcephalic primordial dwarfism and tested negative on clinical exome sequencing. Two candidate autozygous intervals were identified, and the second round of exome sequencing revealed a single intronic variant therein (c.2885+8A>G [p.Ser963(∗)] in RTTN exon 23). RT-PCR confirmed that this change creates a cryptic splice donor and thus causes retention of the intervening 7 bp of the intron and leads to premature truncation. On the basis of this finding, we reanalyzed the exome file of a second consanguineous family affected by a similar phenotype and identified another homozygous change in RTTN as the likely causal mutation. Combined linkage analysis of the two families confirmed that RTTN maps to the only significant linkage peak. Finally, through international collaboration, a Canadian multiplex family affected by microcephalic primordial dwarfism and biallelic mutation of RTTN was identified. Our results expand the phenotype of RTTN-related disorders, hitherto limited to polymicrogyria, to include microcephalic primordial dwarfism with a complex brain phenotype involving simplified gyration. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracing primordial black holes in nonsingular bouncing cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie-Wen, E-mail: chjw@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, Junyu, E-mail: junyu@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Xu, Hao-Lan, E-mail: xhl1995@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Cai, Yi-Fu, E-mail: yifucai@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-06-10

    We in this paper investigate the formation and evolution of primordial black holes (PBHs) in nonsingular bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the formation of PBH in the contracting phase and calculate the PBH abundance as a function of the sound speed and Hubble parameter. Afterwards, by taking into account the subsequent PBH evolution during the bouncing phase, we derive the density of PBHs and their Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that nonsingular bounce models can be constrained from the backreaction of PBHs.

  19. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Vaishali, E-mail: vaidvavaishali24@gmail.com; Upadhyaya, G. K., E-mail: gopalujiain@yahoo.co.in [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain (India)

    2015-07-31

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  20. Gravitational waves at interferometer scales and primordial black holes in axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Bellido, Juan [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonóma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049 (Spain); Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner, E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, and Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We study the prospects of detection at terrestrial and space interferometers, as well as at pulsar timing array experiments, of a stochastic gravitational wave background which can be produced in models of axion inflation. This potential signal, and the development of these experiments, open a new window on inflation on scales much smaller than those currently probed with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure measurements. The sourced signal generated in axion inflation is an ideal candidate for such searches, since it naturally grows at small scales, and it has specific properties (chirality and non-gaussianity) that can distinguish it from an astrophysical background. We study under which conditions such a signal can be produced at an observable level, without the simultaneous overproduction of scalar perturbations in excess of what is allowed by the primordial black hole limits. We also explore the possibility that scalar perturbations generated in a modified version of this model may provide a distribution of primordial black holes compatible with the current bounds, that can act as a seeds of the present black holes in the universe.

  1. Angular momentum transfer in primordial discs and the rotation of the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Bromm, Volker

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the rotation velocity of the first stars by modelling the angular momentum transfer in the primordial accretion disc. Assessing the impact of magnetic braking, we consider the transition in angular momentum transport mode at the Alfvén radius, from the dynamically dominated free-fall accretion to the magnetically dominated solid-body one. The accreting protostar at the centre of the primordial star-forming cloud rotates with close to breakup speed in the case without magnetic fields. Considering a physically motivated model for small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification, we find that stellar rotation speed quickly declines if a large fraction of the initial turbulent energy is converted to magnetic energy (≳ 0.14). Alternatively, if the dynamo process were inefficient, for amplification due to flux freezing, stars would become slow rotators if the pre-galactic magnetic field strength is above a critical value, ≃10-8.2 G, evaluated at a scale of nH = 1 cm-3, which is significantly higher than plausible cosmological seed values (˜10-15 G). Because of the rapid decline of the stellar rotational speed over a narrow range in model parameters, the first stars encounter a bimodal fate: rapid rotation at almost the breakup level, or the near absence of any rotation.

  2. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, North-South Road, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: sy81@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R{sub c} in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k{sup 2}. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes.

  3. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T.; Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R c in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k 2 . We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes

  4. Quantum inflaton, primordial metric perturbations and CMB fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F J

    2007-01-01

    We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current WMAP observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of m 2 /[NH 2 ] where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at horizon crossing. This turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it

  5. Primordial perturbations with pre-inflationary bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Yu-Tong; Zhao, Jin-Yun; Piao, Yun-Song

    2018-05-01

    Based on the effective field theory (EFT) of nonsingular cosmologies, we build a stable model, without the ghost and gradient instabilities, of bounce-inflation (inflation is preceded by a cosmological bounce). We perform a full simulation for the evolution of scalar perturbation, and find that the perturbation spectrum has a large-scale suppression (as expected), which is consistent with the power deficit of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) TT-spectrum at low multipoles, but unexpectedly, it also shows itself one marked lower valley. The depth of valley is relevant with the physics around the bounce scale, which is model-dependent.

  6. A model of the primordial lunar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Lindy; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-09-01

    We create the first quantitative model for the early lunar atmosphere, coupled with a magma ocean crystallization model. Immediately after formation, the moon's surface was subject to a radiative environment that included contributions from the early Sun, a post-impact Earth that radiated like a mid-type M dwarf star, and a cooling global magma ocean. This radiative environment resulted in a largely Earth-side atmosphere on the Moon, ranging from ∼104 to ∼102 pascals, composed of heavy volatiles (Na and SiO). This atmosphere persisted through lid formation and was additionally characterized by supersonic winds that transported significant quantities of moderate volatiles and likely generated magma ocean waves. The existence of this atmosphere may have influenced the distribution of some moderate volatiles and created temperature asymmetries which influenced ocean flow and cooling. Such asymmetries may characterize young, tidally locked rocky bodies with global magma oceans and subject to intense irradiation.

  7. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramante, Joseph [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Unwin, James [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago,845 W Taylor St, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2017-02-23

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10{sup 10} GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  8. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10 10 GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  9. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: karami@ipm.ir, E-mail: t.rostami@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  10. Zearalenone exposure impairs ovarian primordial follicle formation via down-regulation of Lhx8 expression in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Sun, Xiao-Feng [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Feng, Yan-Zhong [Institute of Animal Sciences, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086 (China); Li, Bo [Chengguo Station of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Laizhou 261437 (China); Li, Ya-Peng; Yang, Fan [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Nyachoti, Charles Martin [Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Shen, Wei [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Sun, Shi-Duo, E-mail: ssdsm@tom.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Lan, E-mail: lilan9600@126.com [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly. Our results demonstrated that newborn mouse ovaries exposed to 10 or 30 μM ZEA in vitro had significantly less germ cell numbers compared to the control group. Moreover, the presence of ZEA in vitro increased the numbers of TUNEL and γH2AX positive cells within mouse ovaries and the ratio of mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, ZEA exposure reduced the mRNA of oocyte specific genes such as LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8), newborn ovary homeobox (Nobox), spermatogenesis and oogenesis helix-loop-helix (Sohlh2), and factor in the germline alpha (Figlα) in a dose dependent manner. Exposure to ZEA led to remarkable changes in the Lhx8 3′-UTR DNA methylation dynamics in oocytes and severely impaired folliculogenesis in ovaries after transplantation under the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, ZEA exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle formation in vitro. - Highlights: • First time to evaluate the impact of ZEA on primordial follicle formation • ZEA exposure increases oocyte apoptosis and delays germ cell cyst breakdown. • ZEA exposure impairs the expression of LHX8 by affecting its DNA methylation.

  11. Effect of vacuum energy on evolution of primordial black holes in Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibekananda; Jamil, Mubasher

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of primordial black holes by considering present universe is no more matter dominated rather vacuum energy dominated. We also consider the accretion of radiation, matter and vacuum energy during respective dominance period. In this scenario, we found that radiation accretion efficiency should be less than 0.366 and accretion rate is much larger than previous analysis by Nayak et al. (2009) . Thus here primordial black holes live longer than previous works Nayak and Singh (2011). Again matter accretion slightly increases the mass and lifetime of primordial black holes. However, the vacuum energy accretion is slightly complicated one, where accretion is possible only up to a critical time. If a primordial black hole lives beyond critical time, then its' lifespan increases due to vacuum energy accretion. But for presently evaporating primordial black holes, critical time comes much later than their evaporating time and thus vacuum energy could not affect those primordial black holes.

  12. Searching for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps using a combined estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, C.P.; Wuensche, C.A. [Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Bernui, A. [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, São Cristóvão, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, I.S., E-mail: camilapnovaes@gmail.com, E-mail: bernui@on.br, E-mail: ivan@fis.unb.br, E-mail: ca.wuensche@inpe.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, 70919-970, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The extensive search for deviations from Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is very important due to the information about the very early moments of the universe encoded there. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data do not exclude the presence of non-Gaussianity of small amplitude, although they are consistent with the Gaussian hypothesis. The use of different techniques is essential to provide information about types and amplitudes of non-Gaussianities in the CMB data. In particular, we find interesting to construct an estimator based upon the combination of two powerful statistical tools that appears to be sensitive enough to detect tiny deviations from Gaussianity in CMB maps. This estimator combines the Minkowski functionals with a Neural Network, maximizing a tool widely used to study non-Gaussian signals with a reinforcement of another tool designed to identify patterns in a data set. We test our estimator by analyzing simulated CMB maps contaminated with different amounts of local primordial non-Gaussianity quantified by the dimensionless parameter f{sub  NL}. We apply it to these sets of CMB maps and find ∼> 98% of chance of positive detection, even for small intensity local non-Gaussianity like f{sub  NL} = 38±18, the current limit from Planck data for large angular scales. Additionally, we test the suitability to distinguish between primary and secondary non-Gaussianities: first we train the Neural Network with two sets, one of nearly Gaussian CMB maps (|f{sub  NL}| ≤ 10) but contaminated with realistic inhomogeneous Planck noise (i.e., secondary non-Gaussianity) and the other of non-Gaussian CMB maps, that is, maps endowed with weak primordial non-Gaussianity (28 ≤ f{sub  NL} ≤ 48); after that we test an ensemble composed of CMB maps either with one of these non-Gaussian contaminations, and find out that our method successfully classifies ∼ 95% of the tested maps as being CMB maps containing primordial or

  13. The Cosmochemistry of Pluto: A Primordial Origin of Volatiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glein, C. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Pluto is a wonderland of volatiles. Nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide are the principal volatiles that maintain its tenuous atmosphere, and they have also created a mesmerizing landscape of icy geological features, including Pluto's iconic "heart". Recent data, particularly those returned by the New Horizons mission [1-3], allow us to begin testing hypotheses for the cosmochemical origins of these world-shaping species on Pluto. Here, we investigate if Pluto's volatiles could have been accreted in its building blocks. We take both bottom-up and top-down approaches in testing this hypothesis in terms of mass balance. We estimate Pluto's primordial inventory of volatiles by scaling a range of cometary abundances up to the ice mass fraction of Pluto. We also make estimates of the present and lost inventories of volatiles based on surface observations and interpretations, as well as different scenarios of atmospheric photochemistry and escape. We find that, if primordial Pluto resembled a giant comet with respect to volatile abundances, then the initial volatile inventory would have been sufficient to account for the estimated present and lost inventories. This consistency supports a primordial origin for Pluto's volatiles. However, the observed ratio of CO/N2 in Pluto's atmosphere [4] is several orders of magnitude lower than the nominal cometary value. We are currently using phase equilibrium and rate models to explore if volatile layering in Sputnik Planitia, or the destruction of CO in a past or present subsurface ocean of liquid water could explain the apparent depletion of CO on Pluto. References: [1] Moore et al. (2016) Science 351, 1284. [2] Grundy et al. (2016) Science 351, aad9189. [3] Gladstone et al. (2016) Science 351, aad8866. [4] Lellouch et al. (2017) Icarus 286, 289.

  14. The shape of the primordial power spectrum: A last stand before Planck data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    We present a minimally parametric reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using the most recent cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure data sets. Our goal is to constrain the shape of the power spectrum while simultaneously avoiding strong theoretical priors and over-fitting of the data. We find no evidence for any departure from a power-law spectral index. We also find that an exact scale-invariant power spectrum is disfavored by the data, but this conclusion is weaker than the corresponding result assuming a theoretically-motivated power-law spectral index prior. The reconstruction shows that better data are crucial to justify the adoption of such a strong theoretical prior observationally. These results can be used to determine the robustness of our present knowledge when compared with forthcoming precision data from Planck.

  15. Application of Bayesian model averaging to measurements of the primordial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, David; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological parameter uncertainties are often stated assuming a particular model, neglecting the model uncertainty, even when Bayesian model selection is unable to identify a conclusive best model. Bayesian model averaging is a method for assessing parameter uncertainties in situations where there is also uncertainty in the underlying model. We apply model averaging to the estimation of the parameters associated with the primordial power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations. We use CosmoNest and MultiNest to compute the model evidences and posteriors, using cosmic microwave data from WMAP, ACBAR, BOOMERanG, and CBI, plus large-scale structure data from the SDSS DR7. We find that the model-averaged 95% credible interval for the spectral index using all of the data is 0.940 s s is specified at a pivot scale 0.015 Mpc -1 . For the tensors model averaging can tighten the credible upper limit, depending on prior assumptions.

  16. Aerodynamic properties of fractal grains: implications for the primordial solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meakin, P.; Donn, B.

    1988-01-01

    Under conditions in the primordial solar nebula and dense interstellar clouds, small grains have low relative velocities. This is the condition for efficient sticking and formation of fractal aggregates. A calculation of the ratio of cross section, sigma, to number of primary particles, N, for fractal clusters yielded 1n sigma/N = 0.2635 + 0.5189N sup (-0.1748). This ratio decreases slowly with N and approaches a constant for large N. Under the usual assumption of collisions producing spherical compact, uniform density aggregates, sigma/N varies as N sup -1/3 and decreases rapidly. Fractal grains are therefore much more closely coupled to the gas than are compact aggregates. This has a significant effect on the aerodynamic behavior of aggregates and consequently on their evolution and that of the nebula

  17. A Bayesian analysis of inflationary primordial spectrum models using Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos da Costa, Simony; Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson

    2018-03-01

    The current available Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data show an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations at large angular scales (l power is not explained by the minimal ΛCDM model, and one of the possible mechanisms explored in the literature to address this problem is the presence of features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) motivated by the early universe physics. In this paper, we analyse a set of cutoff inflationary PPS models using a Bayesian model comparison approach in light of the latest CMB data from the Planck Collaboration. Our results show that the standard power-law parameterisation is preferred over all models considered in the analysis, which motivates the search for alternative explanations for the observed lack of power in the CMB anisotropy spectrum.

  18. Primordial black holes from scalar field evolution in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Scalar condensates with large expectation values can form in the early universe, for example, in theories with supersymmetry. The condensate can undergo fragmentation into Q-balls before decaying. If the Q-balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, statistical fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 1 023 g . For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over a much broader mass range, including the black holes with masses of 1-100 solar masses, which is relevant for LIGO observations of gravitational waves. Topological defects can lead to formation of PBH in a similar fashion.

  19. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...... risk factors among middle-aged men and women....

  20. Les Houches 1999 Summer School, Session 71 : The Primordial Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schäffer, R; Silk, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book reviews the interconnection of cosmology and particle physics over the last decade. It provides introductory courses in supersymmetry, superstring and M-theory, responding to an increasing interest to evaluate the cosmological consequences of these theories. Based on a series of extended courses providing an introduction to the physics of the very early universe, in the light of the most recent advances in our understanding of the fundamental interactions, it reviews all the classical issues (inflation, primordial fluctuations, dark matter, baryogenesis), but also introduces the most

  1. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1987-01-01

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  2. Cosmic gamma radiation of ultra high energy of primordial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Filho, F.G. de.

    1984-01-01

    The quantum mechanical effects near a collapsing black hole as shown by Stephen W.Hawking in 1974 to produce streaming particles through tunneling effect was explored in the context of cosmic gamma ray production. In this thesis, we show the possible production of gamma rays of high energies (ν approx 10 41 Hz) in the initial stages of the formation of the Universe by the explosion of primordial mini black holes. These mini black hole explosions happening at 10 -43 s to 10 -37 s after the start perhaps may account for the existing universal cosmic background radiation of 2.7 0 K. (Author) [pt

  3. Baryogenesis in extended inflation. II. Baryogenesis via primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This is the second of two papers devoted to the study of baryogenesis at the end of extended inflation. Extended inflation is brought to an end by the collisions of bubble walls surrounding regions of true vacuum, a process which produces particles well out of thermal equilibrium. In the first paper we considered baryogenesis via direct production and subsequent decay of baryon-number-violating bosons. In this paper we consider the further possibility that the wall collisions may provide a significant density of primordial black holes and examine their possible role in generating a baryon asymmetry

  4. Mutations in CENPE define a novel kinetochore-centromeric mechanism for microcephalic primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Vitre, Benjamin; Carpenter, Gillian; Abramowicz, Iga; Gleeson, Joseph G; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Cleveland, Don W; Dobyns, William B; O'Driscoll, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Defects in centrosome, centrosomal-associated and spindle-associated proteins are the most frequent cause of primary microcephaly (PM) and microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) syndromes in humans. Mitotic progression and segregation defects, microtubule spindle abnormalities and impaired DNA damage-induced G2-M cell cycle checkpoint proficiency have been documented in cell lines from these patients. This suggests that impaired mitotic entry, progression and exit strongly contribute to PM and MPD. Considering the vast protein networks involved in coordinating this cell cycle stage, the list of potential target genes that could underlie novel developmental disorders is large. One such complex network, with a direct microtubule-mediated physical connection to the centrosome, is the kinetochore. This centromeric-associated structure nucleates microtubule attachments onto mitotic chromosomes. Here, we described novel compound heterozygous variants in CENPE in two siblings who exhibit a profound MPD associated with developmental delay, simplified gyri and other isolated abnormalities. CENPE encodes centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E), a core kinetochore component functioning to mediate chromosome congression initially of misaligned chromosomes and in subsequent spindle microtubule capture during mitosis. Firstly, we present a comprehensive clinical description of these patients. Then, using patient cells we document abnormalities in spindle microtubule organization, mitotic progression and segregation, before modeling the cellular pathogenicity of these variants in an independent cell system. Our cellular analysis shows that a pathogenic defect in CENP-E, a kinetochore-core protein, largely phenocopies PCNT-mutated microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism-type II patient cells. PCNT encodes a centrosome-associated protein. These results highlight a common underlying pathomechanism. Our findings provide the first evidence for a kinetochore-based route to

  5. Primordial linkage of β2-microglobulin to the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Shiina, Takashi; Lohr, Rebecca L; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Pollin, Toni I; Heist, Edward J; Suzuki, Shingo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Flajnik, Martin F

    2011-03-15

    β2-Microglobulin (β2M) is believed to have arisen in a basal jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) and is the essential L chain that associates with most MHC class I molecules. It contains a distinctive molecular structure called a constant-1 Ig superfamily domain, which is shared with other adaptive immune molecules including MHC class I and class II. Despite its structural similarity to class I and class II and its conserved function, β2M is encoded outside the MHC in all examined species from bony fish to mammals, but it is assumed to have translocated from its original location within the MHC early in gnathostome evolution. We screened a nurse shark bacterial artificial chromosome library and isolated clones containing β2M genes. A gene present in the MHC of all other vertebrates (ring3) was found in the bacterial artificial chromosome clone, and the close linkage of ring3 and β2M to MHC class I and class II genes was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism and allele-specific PCR. This study satisfies the long-held conjecture that β2M was linked to the primordial MHC (Ur MHC); furthermore, the apparent stability of the shark genome may yield other genes predicted to have had a primordial association with the MHC specifically and with immunity in general.

  6. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  7. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNL^local= 2.7+/-5.8, fNL^equil= -42+/-75, and fNL^ortho= -25+\\-39 (68% CL statistical). NG is detected in the data; using skew-C_l statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the ISW-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the LambdaCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C_l, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, 3-dimensional...

  8. Towards Forming a Primordial Protostar in a Cosmological AMR Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2008-03-01

    Modeling the formation of the first stars in the universe is a well-posed problem and ideally suited for computational investigation.We have conducted high-resolution numerical studies of the formation of primordial stars. Beginning with primordial initial conditions appropriate for a ΛCDM model, we used the Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement code (Enzo) to achieve unprecedented numerical resolution, resolving cosmological scales as well as sub-stellar scales simultaneously. Building on the work of Abel, Bryan and Norman (2002), we followed the evolution of the first collapsing cloud until molecular hydrogen is optically thick to cooling radiation. In addition, the calculations account for the process of collision-induced emission (CIE) and add approximations to the optical depth in both molecular hydrogen roto-vibrational cooling and CIE. Also considered are the effects of chemical heating/cooling from the formation/destruction of molecular hydrogen. We present the results of these simulations, showing the formation of a 10 Jupiter-mass protostellar core bounded by a strongly aspherical accretion shock. Accretion rates are found to be as high as one solar mass per year.

  9. Primordial-like enzymes from bacteria with reduced genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Matteo P; Brewster, Jodi L; Hall, Kelsi R; Evans, Gary B; Patrick, Wayne M

    2017-08-01

    The first cells probably possessed rudimentary metabolic networks, built using a handful of multifunctional enzymes. The promiscuous activities of modern enzymes are often assumed to be relics of this primordial era; however, by definition these activities are no longer physiological. There are many fewer examples of enzymes using a single active site to catalyze multiple physiologically-relevant reactions. Previously, we characterized the promiscuous alanine racemase (ALR) activity of Escherichia coli cystathionine β-lyase (CBL). Now we have discovered that several bacteria with reduced genomes lack alr, but contain metC (encoding CBL). We characterized the CBL enzymes from three of these: Pelagibacter ubique, the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) and Thermotoga maritima. Each is a multifunctional CBL/ALR. However, we also show that CBL activity is no longer required in these bacteria. Instead, the wMel and T. maritima enzymes are physiologically bi-functional alanine/glutamate racemases. They are not highly active, but they are clearly sufficient. Given the abundance of the microorganisms using them, we suggest that much of the planet's biochemistry is carried out by enzymes that are quite different from the highly-active exemplars usually found in textbooks. Instead, primordial-like enzymes may be an essential part of the adaptive strategy associated with streamlining. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Reconstruction of a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum from Planck CMB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Amel; Hunt, Paul; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Sarkar, Subir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2018-02-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ~ 0.006 Mpc‑1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 <= k/Mpc‑1 <= 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 <= l <= 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.

  11. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  12. Issues on generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan, E-mail: emami@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation in models of inflation with gauge fields. To be specific we consider the charged hybrid inflation model where the waterfall field is charged under a U(1) gauge field so the surface of end of inflation is controlled both by inflaton and the gauge fields. Using δN formalism properly we find that the anisotropies generated at the end of inflation from the gauge field fluctuations are exponentially suppressed on cosmological scales. This is because the gauge field evolves exponentially during inflation while in order to generate appreciable anisotropies at the end of inflation the spectator gauge field has to be frozen. We argue that this is a generic feature, that is, one can not generate observable anisotropies at the end of inflation within an FRW background.

  13. Issues on generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation in models of inflation with gauge fields. To be specific we consider the charged hybrid inflation model where the waterfall field is charged under a U(1) gauge field so the surface of end of inflation is controlled both by inflaton and the gauge fields. Using δN formalism properly we find that the anisotropies generated at the end of inflation from the gauge field fluctuations are exponentially suppressed on cosmological scales. This is because the gauge field evolves exponentially during inflation while in order to generate appreciable anisotropies at the end of inflation the spectator gauge field has to be frozen. We argue that this is a generic feature, that is, one can not generate observable anisotropies at the end of inflation within an FRW background

  14. Sterile neutrinos, lepton asymmetries, primordial elements: How much of each?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yizen; Cirelli, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantitatively the extent to which having a primordial leptonic asymmetry (n ν ≠n ν ) relaxes the bounds on light sterile neutrinos imposed by BBN and LSS. We adopt a few assumptions that allow us to solve the neutrino evolution equations over a broad range of mixing parameters and asymmetries. For the general cases of sterile mixing with the electron or muon neutrino, we identify the regions that can be reopened. For the particular case of a LSND-like sterile neutrino, soon to be rejected or confirmed by MiniBooNE, we find that an asymmetry of the order of 10 -4 is needed to lift the conflicts with cosmology

  15. Primordial and Stellar Nucleosynthesis Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to early Universe cosmology, we present in some detail the results of primordial nucleosynthesis. Then we summarize the basic theory of nuclear reactions in stars and sketch the general rules of stellar evolution. We shortly review the subject of supernova explosions both by core collapse in massive stars (Type II) and carbon-deflagration in binary systems when one of the components is a White Dwarf accreting mass from the companion (Type Ia). We conclude the part dedicated to nucleosynthesis with elementary notions on the s- and r-process. Finally, we shortly address the topic of galactic chemical evolution and highlight some simple solutions aimed at understanding the main observational data on abundances and abundance ratios.

  16. Running-mass inflation model and primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, Manuel; Erfani, Encieh

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ''the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ''running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index

  17. The Primordial Role of Stories in Human Self-Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We now have a paradoxical situation where the place and status of stories is in decline within the humanities, while scientists are increasingly recognizing their importance. Here the attitude towards narratives of these scientists is defended. It is argued that stories play a primordial role in human self-creation, underpinning more abstract discourses such as mathematics, logic and science. To uphold the consistency of this claim, this thesis is defended by telling a story of the evolution of European culture from Ancient Greece to the present, including an account of the rise of the notion of culture and its relation to the development of history, thereby showing how stories function to justify beliefs, situate people as agents within history and orient them to create the future.

  18. Primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb and lunar soil maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The soil maturity index I/sub s//FeO does not apply to either 204 Pb/sub r/ or C/sub hyd/; both are directly correlated with the submicron Fe 0 (I/sub s/) content. They act as an index of soil maturity which is independent of soil composition. In contrast to primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb is lost during soil maturation. Radiogenic Pb is present in mineral grains and may be lost by solar wind sputtering (or volatilization) and not resupplied. 204 Pb coating grain surfaces acts as a reservoir to provide the 204 Pb being extracted in the Fe 0 formation process. Venting or some other volatile source may replenish the surface 204 Pb. 1 figure

  19. Globular cluster seeding by primordial black hole population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A. [ITEP, Bol. Cheremushkinsaya ul., 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr., 13, Moscow 119234 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) that form in the early Universe in the modified Affleck-Dine (AD) mechanism of baryogenesis should have intrinsic log-normal mass distribution of PBHs. We show that the parameters of this distribution adjusted to provide the required spatial density of massive seeds (≥ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) for early galaxy formation and not violating the dark matter density constraints, predict the existence of the population of intermediate-mass PBHs with a number density of 0∼ 100 Mpc{sup −3}. We argue that the population of intermediate-mass AD PBHs can also seed the formation of globular clusters in galaxies. In this scenario, each globular cluster should host an intermediate-mass black hole with a mass of a few thousand solar masses, and should not obligatorily be immersed in a massive dark matter halo.

  20. Nonthermal production of dark matter from primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dent, James; Osinski, Jacek

    2018-03-01

    We present a scenario for nonthermal production of dark matter from evaporation of primordial black holes. A period of very early matter domination leads to formation of black holes with a maximum mass of ≃2 ×108 g , whose subsequent evaporation prior to big bang nucleosynthesis can produce all of the dark matter in the Universe. We show that the correct relic abundance can be obtained in this way for thermally underproduced dark matter in the 100 GeV-10 TeV mass range. To achieve this, the scalar power spectrum at small scales relevant for black hole formation should be enhanced by a factor of O (105) relative to the scales accessible by the cosmic microwave background experiments.

  1. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed.

  2. Effect of nuclear reaction rates on primordial abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. The effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight has been investigated. Also the study have been taken of these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. Here it has been found that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of 6 Li and 7 Li

  3. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Primordial dwarfism: overview of clinical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Preeti; Das, Satrupa; Panigrahi, Inusha; Munshi, Anjana

    2016-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism is a group of genetic disorders which include Seckel Syndrome, Silver-Russell Syndrome, Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism types I/III, II and Meier-Gorlin Syndrome. This genetic disorder group is characterized by intra-uterine growth retardation and post-natal growth abnormalities which occur as a result of disorganized molecular and genomic changes in embryonic stage and, thus, it represents a unique area to study growth and developmental abnormalities. Lot of research has been carried out on different aspects; however, a consolidated review that discusses an overall spectrum of this disorder is not accessible. Recent research in this area points toward important molecular and cellular mechanisms in human body that regulate the complexity of growth process. Studies have emerged that have clearly associated with a number of abnormal chromosomal, genetic and epigenetic alterations that can predispose an embryo to develop PD-associated developmental defects. Finding and associating such fundamental changes to its subtypes will help in re-examination of alleged functions at both cellular and developmental levels and thus reveal the intrinsic mechanism that leads to a balanced growth. Although such findings have unraveled a subtle understanding of growth process, we further require active research in terms of identification of reliable biomarkers for different subtypes as an immediate requirement for clinical utilization. It is hoped that further study will advance the understanding of basic mechanisms regulating growth relevant to human health. Therefore, this review has been written with an aim to present an overview of chromosomal, molecular and epigenetic modifications reported to be associated with different subtypes of this heterogenous disorder. Further, latest findings with respect to clinical and molecular genetics research have been summarized to aid the medical fraternity in their clinical utility, for diagnosing disorders

  5. Primordial nucleosynthesis as a probe of particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author uses the success of the standard model of big-bang nucleosynthesis to examine the effects of interacting particle species and the effect of varying coupling constants, predicted by theories set in extra dimensions, on primordial nucleosynthesis. A review is given of the standard model and of the abundances of the light elements expected to be produced in the early Universe. The weakest piece of the concordance between the standard model of big-bang nucleosynthesis and observation is the production and primordial abundance of 7 Li. Therefore he discusses the production of 7 Li in astrophysical environments other than the early Universe and shows that the predictions of big-bang nucleosynthesis, when supplemented by those due to astrophysical sources, are in good agreement with observation. He then shows that the effect on big-bang nucleosynthesis of an additional particle species which remains coupled to either photons or light neutrinos can be quite different from that predicted by the equivalent number of neutrino species parameterization, which does work for decoupled additional species. In particular he considers the case of an additional axion-like particle and shows that its effect is to decrease the amount of 4 He produced in the big-bang. In addition, he considers the effects of varying coupling constants on 4 He production in the big-bang and shows that constraining Y p = 0.24 ± 0.01 leads to a constraint on the time variation of the fine-structure constant of |dln α/dt| ≤ x 10 -14

  6. Profound microcephaly, primordial dwarfism with developmental brain malformations: a new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Saleem, Sahar N; Ahmed, Mahmoud K H; Issa, Mahmoud; Effat, Laila K; Kayed, Hisham F; Zaki, Maha S; Gaber, Khaled R

    2012-08-01

    We describe two sibs with a lethal form of profound congenital microcephaly, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, subtle skeletal changes, and poorly developed brain. The sibs had striking absent cranial vault with sloping of the forehead, large beaked nose, relatively large ears, and mandibular micro-retrognathia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extremely simplified gyral pattern, large interhemispheric cyst and agenesis of corpus callosum, abnormally shaped hippocampus, and proportionately affected cerebellum and brainstem. In addition, fundus examination showed foveal hypoplasia with optic nerve atrophy. No abnormalities of the internal organs were found. This profound form of microcephaly was identified at 17 weeks gestation by ultrasound and fetal brain MRI helped in characterizing the developmental brain malformations in the second sib. Molecular analysis excluded mutations in potentially related genes such as RNU4ATAC, SLC25A19, and ASPM. These clinical and imaging findings are unlike that of any recognized severe forms of microcephaly which is believed to be a new microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) with developmental brain malformations with most probably autosomal recessive inheritance based on consanguinity and similarly affected male and female sibs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Constraints on Primordial Non-Gaussianity from 800 000 Photometric Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V; Roth, Nina

    2014-11-28

    We derive robust constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) using the clustering of 800 000 photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the redshift range 0.5quasar halo bias at the largest scales, while discarding as little as possible of the data. The standard local-type PNG parameters f_{NL} and g_{NL} both imprint a k^{-2} scale-dependent effect in the bias. Constraining these individually, we obtain -49quasar clustering to the underlying dark matter. These are the strongest constraints obtained to date on PNG using a single population of large-scale structure tracers, and are already at the level of pre-Planck constraints from the cosmic microwave background. A conservative forecast for a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like survey incorporating mode projection yields σ(f_{NL})∼5-competitive with the Planck result-highlighting the power of upcoming large scale structure surveys to probe the initial conditions of the Universe.

  8. Primordial blackholes and gravitational waves for an inflection-point model of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sayantan [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-02

    In this article we provide a new closed relationship between cosmic abundance of primordial gravitational waves and primordial blackholes that originated from initial inflationary perturbations for inflection-point models of inflation where inflation occurs below the Planck scale. The current Planck constraint on tensor-to-scalar ratio, running of the spectral tilt, and from the abundance of dark matter content in the universe, we can deduce a strict bound on the current abundance of primordial blackholes to be within a range, 9.99712×10{sup −3}<Ω{sub PBH}h{sup 2}<9.99736×10{sup −3}.

  9. Impact of stochastic primordial magnetic fields on the scalar contribution to cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, Fabio; Paci, Francesco; Paoletti, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields on the scalar contribution of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and on the matter power spectrum. We give the correct initial conditions for cosmological perturbations and the exact expressions for the energy density and Lorentz force associated to the stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields, given a power-law for their spectra cut at a damping scale. The dependence of the CMB temperature and polarization spectra on the relevant parameters of the primordial magnetic fields is illustrated.

  10. Is a step in the primordial spectral index favoured by CMB data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, Minu; Shafieloo, Arman; Sahni, Varun; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2009-01-01

    A sudden small change in the second derivative of the inflaton potential can result in a universal local feature in the spectrum of primordial perturbations generated during inflation. The exact solution describing this feature \\cite(minu) is characterized by a step in the spectral index modulated by characteristic oscillations and results in a large running of the spectral index localized over a few e-folds of scale. In this paper we confront this step-like feature with the 5 year WMAP results and demonstrate that it provides a better fit to this data than a featureless initial spectrum. If such a feature exists at all, then it should lie at sufficiently large scales k 0 ∼ −1 corresponding to l ∼ s localized near this scale. This feature could arise as a result of a 'mini-waterfall'-type fast second order phase transition experienced by an auxiliary heavy field during inflation, in a model similar to hybrid inflation (though for a different choice of parameters). If this is the case, then the auxiliary field should be positively coupled to the inflaton

  11. Is a step in the primordial spectral index favoured by CMB data?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, Minu; Shafieloo, Arman; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Starobinsky, Alexei A., E-mail: minujoy@alphonsacollege.ac.in, E-mail: a.shafieloo1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-01

    A sudden small change in the second derivative of the inflaton potential can result in a universal local feature in the spectrum of primordial perturbations generated during inflation. The exact solution describing this feature \\cite(minu) is characterized by a step in the spectral index modulated by characteristic oscillations and results in a large running of the spectral index localized over a few e-folds of scale. In this paper we confront this step-like feature with the 5 year WMAP results and demonstrate that it provides a better fit to this data than a featureless initial spectrum. If such a feature exists at all, then it should lie at sufficiently large scales k{sub 0} ∼< 0.003 Mpc{sup −1} corresponding to l ∼< 40. The sign of the effect is shown to correspond to the negative running of n{sub s} localized near this scale. This feature could arise as a result of a 'mini-waterfall'-type fast second order phase transition experienced by an auxiliary heavy field during inflation, in a model similar to hybrid inflation (though for a different choice of parameters). If this is the case, then the auxiliary field should be positively coupled to the inflaton.

  12. Massive primordial black holes from hybrid inflation as dark matter and the seeds of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new scenario where massive primordial black holes (PBHs) are produced from the collapse of large curvature perturbations generated during a mild-waterfall phase of hybrid inflation. We determine the values of the inflaton potential parameters leading to a PBH mass spectrum peaking on planetarylike masses at matter-radiation equality and producing abundances comparable to those of dark matter today, while the matter power spectrum on scales probed by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies agrees with Planck data. These PBHs could have acquired large stellar masses today, via merging, and the model passes both the constraints from CMB distortions and microlensing. This scenario is supported by Chandra observations of numerous BH candidates in the central region of Andromeda. Moreover, the tail of the PBH mass distribution could be responsible for the seeds of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, as well as for ultraluminous x-ray sources. We find that our effective hybrid potential can originate e.g. from D-term inflation with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term of the order of the Planck scale but sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field. Finally, we discuss the implications of quantum diffusion at the instability point of the potential, able to generate a Swiss-cheese-like structure of the Universe, eventually leading to apparent accelerated cosmic expansion.

  13. Biasing and the search for primordial non-Gaussianity beyond the local type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; De Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Green, Daniel, E-mail: jerome.l.gleyzes@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: rdputter@caltech.edu, E-mail: drgreen@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: olivier.p.dore@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California, 366 LeConte hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity encodes valuable information about the physics of inflation, including the spectrum of particles and interactions. Significant improvements in our understanding of non-Gaussanity beyond Planck require information from large-scale structure. The most promising approach to utilize this information comes from the scale-dependent bias of halos. For local non-Gaussanity, the improvements available are well studied but the potential for non-Gaussianity beyond the local type, including equilateral and quasi-single field inflation, is much less well understood. In this paper, we forecast the capabilities of large-scale structure surveys to detect general non-Gaussianity through galaxy/halo power spectra. We study how non-Gaussanity can be distinguished from a general biasing model and where the information is encoded. For quasi-single field inflation, significant improvements over Planck are possible in some regions of parameter space. We also show that the multi-tracer technique can significantly improve the sensitivity for all non-Gaussianity types, providing up to an order of magnitude improvement for equilateral non-Gaussianity over the single-tracer measurement.

  14. arXiv Quantum diffusion beyond slow-roll: implications for primordial black-hole production

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquiaga, Jose María

    Primordial black-holes (PBH) can be produced in single-field models of inflation with a quasi-inflection point in the potential. In these models, a large production of PBHs requires a deviation from the slow-roll (SR) trajectory. In turn, this SR violation can produce an exponential growth of quantum fluctuations. We study the back-reaction of these quantum modes on the inflationary dynamics using stochastic inflation in the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We develop a methodology to solve quantum diffusion beyond SR in terms of the statistical moments of the probability distribution. We apply these techniques to a toy model potential with a quasi-inflection point. We find that there is an enhancement of the power spectrum due to the dominance of the stochastic noise in the phase beyond SR. Moreover, non-Gaussian corrections become as well relevant with a large positive kurtosis. Altogether, this produces a significant boost of PBH production. We discuss how our results extend to other single-field models with sim...

  15. Follistatin288 Regulates Germ Cell Cyst Breakdown and Primordial Follicle Assembly in the Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengpin Wang

    Full Text Available In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family member activin (ACT contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST, during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries. Treatment with FST288 delayed germ cell nest breakdown, particularly near the periphery of the ovary, and dramatically decreased the percentage of primordial follicles. In addition, there was a dramatic decrease in proliferation of granulosa cells and somatic cell expression of Notch signaling was impaired. In conclusion, FST288 impacts germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle assembly by inhibiting somatic cell proliferation.

  16. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  17. Expanding the phenotypic and mutational spectrum in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Issa, Mahmoud; Magdy, Ahmed; El-Kotoury, Ahmed; Amr, Khalda

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I. It encodes U4atac, a small nuclear RNA that is a component of the minor spliceosome. Six distinct mutations in 30 patients diagnosed as microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I have been described. We report on three additional patients from two unrelated families presenting with a milder phenotype of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I and metopic synostosis. Patient 1 had two novel heterozygous mutations in the 3' prime stem-loop, g.66G > C and g.124G > A while Patients 2 and 3 had a homozygous mutation g.55G > A in the 5' prime stem-loop. Although they manifested the known spectrum of clinical features of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I, they lacked evidence of severe developmental delay and neurological symptoms. These findings expand the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. "Ocular moyamoya" syndrome in a patient with features of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Genie M; Kirmani, Salman; Patton, Alice; Pulido, Jose S; Brodsky, Michael C

    2013-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism refers to severely impaired growth beginning early in fetal life. There are many genetic causes of primordial dwarfism, including disorders classified as microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by small stature, bone and dental anomalies, and characteristic facies. Affected patients have a high risk of stroke secondary to progressive cerebral vascular anomalies, which often are classified as moyamoya disease. We present the case of a boy with features suggestive of MOPD II with unilateral moyamoya cerebrovascular changes and correlative moyamoya collaterals involving the iris of the ipsilateral eye. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  20. MAJEWSKI OSTEODYSPLASTIC PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM TYPE II: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND DENTAL MANAGEMENT OF A CHILD PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Çelebi, Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular prima...

  1. Pregnancy in a woman with proportionate (primordial) dwarfism: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, C E; Desmond, M; Robinson, A; Johns, J; Zacharin, M; Savarirayan, R; König, K; Warrillow, S; Walker, S P

    2012-01-01

    Primordial dwarfism is a rare form of severe proportionate dwarfism which poses significant challenges in pregnancy. A 27-year-old with primordial dwarfism (height 97 cm, weight 22 kg) and coexisting morbidities of familial hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension presented to our unit. Early pregnancy was complicated by difficult blood pressure control, sinus tachycardia, biochemical hyperthyroidism and insulin-requiring gestational diabetes. Delivery was indicated at 24 weeks with uncontrolla...

  2. Primordial lithium: New reaction rates, new abundances, new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, L.; Schramm, D.; Steigman, G.

    1986-12-01

    Newly measured nuclear reaction rates for 3 H(α,γ) 7 Li (higher than previous values) and 7 Li(p,α) 4 He (lower than previous values) are shown to increase the 7 Li yield from big bang nucleosynthesis for lower baryon to photon ratio (eta ≤ 4 x 10 -10 ); the yield for higher eta is not affected. New, independent determinations of Li abundances in extreme Pop II stars are in excellent agreement with the earlier work of the Spites and give continued confidence in the use of 7 Li in big bang baryon density determinations. The new 7 Li constraints imply a lower limit on eta of 2 x 10 -10 and an upper limit of 5 x 10 -10 . This lower limit to eta is concordant with that obtained from considerations of D + 3 He. The upper limit is consistent with, but even more restrictive than, the D bound. With the new rates, any observed primordial Li/H ratio below 10 -10 would be inexplicable by the standard big bang nucleosynthesis. A review is made of the strengths and possible weaknesses of utilizing conclusions drawn from big bang lithium considerations. An appendix discusses the null effect of a factor of 32 increase in the experimental rate for the D(d,γ) 4 He reaction. 28 refs., 1 fig

  3. Gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We propose that Gravitational Wave (GW) bursts with millisecond durations can be explained by the GW emission from the hyperbolic encounters of Primordial Black Holes in dense clusters. These bursts are single events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, and emitted in frequencies within the AdvLIGO sensitivity range. We provide expressions for the shape of the GW emission in terms of the peak frequency and amplitude, and estimate the rates of these events for a variety of mass and velocity configurations. We study the regions of parameter space that will allow detection by both AdvLIGO and, in the future, LISA. We find for realistic configurations, with total mass M∼60 M⊙, relative velocities v∼0.01c, and impact parameters b∼10−3 AU, for AdvLIGO an expected event rate is O(10) events/yr/Gpc^3 with millisecond durations. For LISA, the typical duration is in the range of minutes to hours and the event-rate is O(10^3) events/yr/Gpc^3 for both 10^3 M⊙ IMBH and 1...

  4. Primordial black holes formation from particle production during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfani, Encieh

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility that particle production during inflation can source the required power spectrum for dark matter (DM) primordial black holes (PBH) formation. We consider the scalar and the gauge quanta production in inflation models, where in the latter case, we focus in two sectors: inflaton coupled i) directly and ii) gravitationally to a U(1) gauge field. We do not assume any specific potential for the inflaton field. Hence, in the gauge production case, in a model independent way we show that the non-production of DM PBHs puts stronger upper bound on the particle production parameter. Our analysis show that this bound is more stringent than the bounds from the bispectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio derived by gauge production in these models. In the scenario where the inflaton field coupled to a scalar field, we put an upper bound on the amplitude of the generated scalar power spectrum by non-production of PBHs. As a by-product we also show that the required scalar power spectrum for PBHs formation is lower when the density perturbations are non-Gaussian in comparison to the Gaussian density perturbations

  5. Microcephalic primordial dwarfism in an Emirati patient with PNKP mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pratibha; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Mohamed, Madiha; Saif, Fatima; Tawfiq, Nafisa; El Halik, Majdi; Al-Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Bastaki, Fatma

    2016-08-01

    Microcephaly is a rare neurological condition, both in isolation and when it occurs as part of a syndrome. One of the syndromic forms of microcephaly is microcephaly, seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ) (OMIM #613402), a rare autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of phenotypic severity, and known to be caused by mutations in the polynucleotide kinase 3' phosphatase (PNKP) gene. The PNK protein is a key enzyme involved in the repair of single and double stranded DNA breaks, a process which is particularly important in the nervous system. We describe an Emirati patient who presented with microcephaly, short stature, uncontrollable tonic-clonic seizures, facial dysmorphism, and developmental delay, while at the same time showing evidence of brain atrophy and agenesis of the corpus callosum. We used whole exome sequencing to identify homozygosity for a missense c.1385G > C (p.Arg462Pro) mutation in PNKP in the patient and heterozygosity for this mutation in her consanguineous parents. The Arg 462 residue forms a part of the lid subdomain helix of the P-loop Kinase domain. Although our patient's phenotype resembled that of MCSZ, the short stature and evidence of brain atrophy distinguished it from other classic cases of the condition. The report raises the question of whether to consider this case as an atypical variant of MCSZ or as a novel form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primordial Terrestrial Xe from the Viewpoint of CFF-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, A. P.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.; Jessberger, E. K.

    1995-09-01

    We have already reported [7, 23] on the non-linear isotope mass-fractionation of fission Xe by migration of the precursors I, Te, Sn, and Sb and simultaneous fission of heavy nuclei. Xe with anomalous isotopic pattern was found in a number of meteorites and terrestrial materials and was named CFF-Xe (Chemically Fractionated Fission Xe). It is characterized by an up eightfold ^132Xe and ^131Xe excesses coupled with smaller ^134Xe and ^129Xe excesses. The present work is aimed to estimate the role of CFF-Xe in the terrestrial lithosphere and specifically deals with the problem of the isotopic composition of primordial terrestrial Xe. Due to variations of the migration conditions the isotopic structure of CFF-Xe is not well established and is even not reproducible in the same rock [2]. Nevertheless, we have tried to estimate the composition of CFF-Xe by investigating all available isotopic data of Xe of presumable mantle origin. This is Xe in MORB [29, 1, 12] and ocean island glasses [1, 28], in diamonds [17], in volcanic rocks [29, 8, 9, 21], in volcanic glasses from pillow basalts [16, 6], continental igneous rocks [1, 24, 10, 22], carbonatites and granitoids [1] as well as Xe in natural gases [3, 24, 11, 4, 15]. All data are plotted Fig. 1 where we also suggest end members of the observed scattering. Optimized slopes of CFF-lines are shown as well as the position of the initial points which we regard as primordial terrestrial Xe (Xe0). The isotopic composition of CFF-Xe and Xe0 are given in Tab. 1. The abundances of ^124Xe and ^126Xe in mantle derived samples are very uncertain, but since ^128Xe/^130Xe in Xea and Xe0 is very similar we propose the same ^124Xe/^130Xe and ^126Xe/^130Xe ratios for both Xea and Xe0. If so, AVCC-Xe is simply Xe0 with an admixture of L-Xe, and atmospheric xenon Xea consists of Xe0, CFF-Xe and a small amount of fission Xe (92.5%Xe0 + 5.3%CFF-Xe + 2.2%XeF). Thus, a number of old problems in xenology are removed. The hypothetic components U

  7. Primordial Black Holes and r-Process Nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, George M; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-08-11

    We show that some or all of the inventory of r-process nucleosynthesis can be produced in interactions of primordial black holes (PBHs) with neutron stars (NSs) if PBHs with masses 10^{-14}  M_{⊙}

  8. Primordial Black Holes as Generators of Cosmic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bernard; Silk, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) could provide the dark matter in various mass windows below 102M⊙ and those of 30M⊙ might explain the LIGO events. PBHs much larger than this might have important consequences even if they provide only a small fraction of the dark matter. In particular, they could generate cosmological structure either individually through the `seed' effect or collectively through the `Poisson' effect, thereby alleviating some problems associated with the standard CDM scenario. If the PBHs all have a similar mass and make a small contribution to the dark matter, then the seed effect dominates on small scales, in which case PBHs could generate the supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei or even galaxies themselves. If they have a similar mass and provide the dark matter, the Poisson effect dominates on all scales and the first bound clouds would form earlier than in the usual scenario, with interesting observational consequences. If the PBHs have an extended mass spectrum, which is more likely, they could fulfill all three roles - providing the dark matter, binding the first bound clouds and generating galaxies. In this case, the galactic mass function naturally has the observed form, with the galaxy mass being simply related to the black hole mass. The stochastic gravitational wave background from the PBHs in this scenario would extend continuously from the LIGO frequency to the LISA frequency, offering a potential goal for future surveys.

  9. A pilgrim's progress: Seeking meaning in primordial germ cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Andrea V; Laird, Diana J

    2017-10-01

    Comparative studies of primordial germ cell (PGC) development across organisms in many phyla reveal surprising diversity in the route of migration, timing and underlying molecular mechanisms, suggesting that the process of migration itself is conserved. However, beyond the perfunctory transport of cellular precursors to their later arising home of the gonads, does PGC migration serve a function? Here we propose that the process of migration plays an additional role in quality control, by eliminating PGCs incapable of completing migration as well as through mechanisms that favor PGCs capable of responding appropriately to migration cues. Focusing on PGCs in mice, we explore evidence for a selective capacity of migration, considering the tandem regulation of proliferation and migration, cell-intrinsic and extrinsic control, the potential for tumors derived from failed PGC migrants, the potential mechanisms by which migratory PGCs vary in their cellular behaviors, and corresponding effects on development. We discuss the implications of a selective role of PGC migration for in vitro gametogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic analysis of primordial dwarfism reveals novel disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Ansari, Shinu; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Shidi, Tarfa; Alomar, Rana; Sogaty, Sameera; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a disease in which severely impaired fetal growth persists throughout postnatal development and results in stunted adult size. The condition is highly heterogeneous clinically, but the use of certain phenotypic aspects such as head circumference and facial appearance has proven helpful in defining clinical subgroups. In this study, we present the results of clinical and genomic characterization of 16 new patients in whom a broad definition of PD was used (e.g., 3M syndrome was included). We report a novel PD syndrome with distinct facies in two unrelated patients, each with a different homozygous truncating mutation in CRIPT. Our analysis also reveals, in addition to mutations in known PD disease genes, the first instance of biallelic truncating BRCA2 mutation causing PD with normal bone marrow analysis. In addition, we have identified a novel locus for Seckel syndrome based on a consanguineous multiplex family and identified a homozygous truncating mutation in DNA2 as the likely cause. An additional novel PD disease candidate gene XRCC4 was identified by autozygome/exome analysis, and the knockout mouse phenotype is highly compatible with PD. Thus, we add a number of novel genes to the growing list of PD-linked genes, including one which we show to be linked to a novel PD syndrome with a distinct facial appearance. PD is extremely heterogeneous genetically and clinically, and genomic tools are often required to reach a molecular diagnosis.

  11. Primordial black hole formation during the QCD epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedamzik, K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the formation of horizon-size primordial black holes (PBH close-quote s) from pre-existing density fluctuations during cosmic phase transitions. It is pointed out that the formation of PBH close-quote s should be particularly efficient during the QCD epoch due to a substantial reduction of pressure forces during adiabatic collapse, or equivalently, a significant decrease in the effective speed of sound during the color-confinement transition. Our considerations imply that for generic initial density perturbation spectra PBH mass functions are expected to exhibit a pronounced peak on the QCD-horizon mass scale ∼1M circle-dot . This mass scale is roughly coincident with the estimated masses for compact objects recently observed in our galactic halo by the MACHO Collaboration. Black holes formed during the QCD epoch may offer an attractive explanation for the origin of halo dark matter evading possibly problematic nucleosynthesis and luminosity bounds on baryonic halo dark matter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. New cosmic microwave background constraint to primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristan L; Pierpaoli, Elena; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-07-14

    Primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with frequencies > or approximately equal to 10(-15) Hz contribute to the radiation density of the Universe at the time of decoupling of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This affects the CMB and matter power spectra in a manner identical to massless neutrinos, unless the initial density perturbation for the GWs is nonadiabatic, as may occur if such GWs are produced during inflation or some post-inflation phase transition. In either case, current observations provide a constraint to the GW amplitude that competes with that from big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), although it extends to much lower frequencies (approximately 10(-15) Hz rather than the approximately 10(-10) Hz from BBN): at 95% confidence level, omega(gw)h(2)

  13. Nuclear Reprogramming in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells: Epigenetic Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Felici

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique capability of germ cells to give rise to a new organism, allowing the transmission of primary genetic information from generation to generation, depends on their epigenetic reprogramming ability and underlying genomic totipotency. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide epigenetic modifications, referred to as “epigenetic reprogramming”, occur during the development of the gamete precursors termed primordial germ cells (PGCs in the embryo. This reprogramming is likely to be critical for the germ line development itself and necessary to erase the parental imprinting and setting the base for totipotency intrinsic to this cell lineage. The status of genome acquired during reprogramming and the associated expression of key pluripotency genes render PGCs susceptible to transform into pluripotent stem cells. This may occur in vivo under still undefined condition, and it is likely at the origin of the formation of germ cell tumors. The phenomenon appears to be reproduced under partly defined in vitro culture conditions, when PGCs are transformed into embryonic germ (EG cells. In the present paper, I will try to summarize the contribution that epigenetic modifications give to nuclear reprogramming in mouse PGCs.

  14. Relic gravitational waves from light primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Ejlli, Damian

    2011-01-01

    The energy density of relic gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by primordial black holes (PBHs) is calculated. We estimate the intensity of GWs produced at quantum and classical scattering of PBHs, the classical graviton emission from the PBH binaries in the early Universe, and the graviton emission due to PBH evaporation. If nonrelativistic PBHs dominated the cosmological energy density prior to their evaporation, the probability of formation of dense clusters of PBHs and their binaries in such clusters would be significant and the energy density of the generated gravitational waves in the present-day universe could exceed that produced by other known mechanisms. The intensity of these gravitational waves would be maximal in the GHz frequency band of the spectrum or higher and makes their observation very difficult by present detectors but also gives a rather good possibility to investigate it by present and future high-frequency gravitational waves electromagnetic detectors. However, the low-frequency part of the spectrum in the range f∼0.1-10 Hz may be detectable by the planned space interferometers DECIGO/BBO. For sufficiently long duration of the PBH matter-dominated stage, the cosmological energy fraction of GWs from inflation would be noticeably diluted.

  15. Planck 2015 results. XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis...

  16. Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background(CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity(NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone fNL^local=2.5+\\-5.7, fNL^equil=-16+\\-70 and fNL^ortho=-34+\\-33(68%CL). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain fNL^local=0.8+\\-5.0, fNL^equil=-4+\\-43 and fNL^ortho=-26+\\-21 (68%CL). The results are based on cross-validation of these estimators on simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with Minkowski functionals based measurements. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization da...

  17. The origin and migration of primordial germ cells in sturgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts.

  18. Cosmology on ultralarge scales with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission: limits on primordial non-Gaussianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Stefano; Santos, Mário G; Ferreira, Pedro G; Ferramacho, Luís

    2013-10-25

    The large-scale structure of the Universe supplies crucial information about the physical processes at play at early times. Unresolved maps of the intensity of 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen HI at redshifts z=/~1-5 are the best hope of accessing the ultralarge-scale information, directly related to the early Universe. A purpose-built HI intensity experiment may be used to detect the large scale effects of primordial non-Gaussianity, placing stringent bounds on different models of inflation. We argue that it may be possible to place tight constraints on the non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL), with an error close to σ(f(NL))~1.

  19. A study regarding the stability of the primordial crust of asteroid Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Michelangelo; Federico, Costanzo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; De Angelis, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Ceres is a particular object of the solar system, since it is a "transition body" between the icy satellites of the outer solar system and the rocky bodies of the inner part. Probably it is differentiated [1,2], i.e. it has a core made of "rock" (silicates) with a weak presence of metals, a large icy mantle and a rocky crust. In particular, it has been proposed the existence on the surface of the ammoniated phyllosilicates, compatible with an outer solar system origin [3]. Also water in clay minerals, brucite, and iron-rich serpentine have been proposed to exist on the surface [4]. Ice directly on the surface regolith seems to be very unstable: numerical simulations of [5] indicate that it can last for very few orbits. A crust made of a mixture of ice and rock is potentially unstable. In the solar system, for example, Callisto has such a crust but its surface temperature is below the critical temperature for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [6]: this seems not to be the case of Ceres. In this work, we verify the stability of the primordial crust, by assuming a certain initial composition (ice and rock) and thickness. We assume a post-differentiation Ceres, made of three layers (rocky core, icy mantle and crust). The key role is played by the viscosity of the layers, which influenced the survival or not of the primordial crust. We applied the method of the parametrized thermal convection widely diffused in literature. [1] McCord, T.B. and Sotin, C., 2005, JGR 110 [2] Castillo-Rogez, J.C., and McCord, T.B., 2010, Icarus 205, 443-459 [3] De Sanctis, M.C. et al., 2015, doi:10.1038/nature16172 [4] Rivkin, A.S., et al., 2014, Space Sci Rev, 95-116, 163, doi 10.1007/s11214-010-9677-4 [5] Formisano, M., et al., 2016, MRAS 455, 1892-1904 [6] Shoji, D. and Kurita, K., 2014, doi:10.1002/2014JE004695.

  20. Complete depletion of primordial germ cells in an All-female fish leads to Sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile All-male occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Shi-Zhu; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhong, Jian-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-11-18

    Gynogenesis is one of unisexual reproduction modes in vertebrates, and produces all-female individuals with identical genetic background. In sexual reproduction vertebrates, the roles of primordial germ cells on sexual dimorphism and gonadal differentiation have been largely studied, and two distinct functional models have been proposed. However, the role of primordial germ cells remains unknown in unisexual animals, and it is also unclear whether the functional models in sexual reproduction animals are common in unisexual animals. To solve these puzzles, we attempt to utilize the gynogenetic superiority of polyploid Carassius gibelio to create a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by a similar morpholino-mediated knockdown approach used in other examined sexual reproduction fishes. Through the germ cell-depleted gonad model, we have performed comprehensive and comparative transcriptome analysis, and revealed a complete alteration of sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the expression alteration leads to up-regulation of testis-biased genes and down-regulation of ovary-biased genes, and results in the occurrence of sterile all-males with testis-like gonads and secondary sex characteristics in the germ cell-depleted gynogenetic Carassius gibelio. Our current results have demonstrated that unisexual gynogenetic embryos remain keeping male sex determination information in the genome, and the complete depletion of primordial germ cells in the all-female fish leads to sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile all-male occurrence.

  1. Milagro Limits and HAWC Sensitivity for the Rate-Density of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of approx.5.0 x 10(exp 14) g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

  2. Testing a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum with observations of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yinzhe; Efstathiou, George; Challinor, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Statistical isotropy is often assumed in cosmology and should be tested rigorously against observational data. We construct simple quadratic estimators to reconstruct asymmetry in the primordial power spectrum from CMB temperature and polarization data and verify their accuracy using simulations with quadrupole power asymmetry. We show that the Planck mission, with its millions of signal-dominated modes of the temperature anisotropy, should be able to constrain the amplitude of any spherical multipole of a scale-invariant quadrupole asymmetry at the 0.01 level (2σ). Almost independent constraints can be obtained from polarization at the 0.03 level after four full-sky surveys, providing an important consistency test. If the amplitude of the asymmetry is large enough, constraining its scale dependence should become possible. In scale-free quadrupole models with 1% asymmetry, consistent with the current limits from WMAP temperature data (after correction for beam asymmetries), Planck should constrain the spectral index q of power-law departures from asymmetry to Δq=0.3. Finally, we show how to constrain models with axisymmetry in the same framework. For scale-free quadrupole models, Planck should constrain the direction of the asymmetry to a 1σ accuracy of about 2 degrees using one year of temperature data.

  3. Ultrastructural study of primordial germ cells, oogonia and oocytes in goat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Banan Khojasteh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to morphological evidences, primordial germ cells (PGCs are derived from the caudal endoderm of the yolk sac and migrate to embryonic gonads. After entering the gonads, first they differentiate to oogonia and then to oocytes. In the present study, ultrastructure of PGCs, oogonia and oocytes has been examined. Tissue samples were collected from posterior parts of the yolk sacs of fetuses in the early stages of development (with age of less than 1 month, and also gonads of fetuses at later developmental stages (with age of more than 1 month. Samples were studied using transmission electron microscopy after fixation, washing with buffers, dehydration, embedding and staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The Results indicated that PGCs were large with oval to spherical nuclei, reticular chromatin with nucleoli, and there were plenty of glycogen and also different organelles in their cytoplasm. Oogonia showed active mitotic divisions. These cells had regular plasma membranes and were observed as cellular clusters with spherical shape, euchromatin nucleus containing one or more nucleoli, round mitochondria and vacuoles with different sizes in cytoplasm. Oocytes had larger sizes in comparison with oogonia but didn't show cellular clusters.

  4. Conservation of Poultry Germplasm Through Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Setioko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundantly available genetic potential of local poultry that needs to be conserved for future use of poultry development. Live conservation of poultry, both in-situ and ex-situ, would be very expensive and has a risk of mortality due to diseases such as avian influenza. Cryopreservation of Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs, which are progenitor of eggs and spermatozoa, provides an alternative way to preserve both male and female genetic materials in poultry. PGCs in poultry can be specifically harvested from blatoderm or blood embryo, and preserved in a liquid nitrogen similar to sperm, ovum and embryo in large ruminant. Technique for producing germline chimeric chicken has been established by transferring PGCs into the circulated blood embryo where the original PGCs have been removed or inactivated. Mating of germline chimeras yields offsprings that are derived entirely from the donor stock. Conservation of genetic materials of Indonesian indigenous poultry through preservation of PGCs could be used for future poultry improvement.

  5. Constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with bispectrum and power spectrum from upcoming optical and radio surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Dionysios; Lazanu, Andrei; Liguori, Michele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Verde, Licia

    2018-07-01

    We forecast constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) and bias parameters from measurements of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future radio continuum and optical surveys. In the galaxy bispectrum, we consider a comprehensive list of effects, including the bias expansion for non-Gaussian initial conditions up to second order, redshift space distortions, redshift uncertainties and theoretical errors. These effects are all combined in a single PNG forecast for the first time. Moreover, we improve the bispectrum modelling over previous forecasts, by accounting for trispectrum contributions. All effects have an impact on final predicted bounds, which varies with the type of survey. We find that the bispectrum can lead to improvements up to a factor ˜5 over bounds based on the power spectrum alone, leading to significantly better constraints for local-type PNG, with respect to current limits from Planck. Future radio and photometric surveys could obtain a measurement error of σ (f_{NL}^{loc}) ≈ 0.2. In the case of equilateral PNG, galaxy bispectrum can improve upon present bounds only if significant improvements in the redshift determinations of future, large volume, photometric or radio surveys could be achieved. For orthogonal non-Gaussianity, expected constraints are generally comparable to current ones.

  6. Constraining Primordial non-Gaussianity with Bispectrum and Power Spectum from Upcoming Optical and Radio Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Dionysios; Lazanu, Andrei; Liguori, Michele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Verde, Licia

    2018-04-01

    We forecast constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) and bias parameters from measurements of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future radio continuum and optical surveys. In the galaxy bispectrum, we consider a comprehensive list of effects, including the bias expansion for non-Gaussian initial conditions up to second order, redshift space distortions, redshift uncertainties and theoretical errors. These effects are all combined in a single PNG forecast for the first time. Moreover, we improve the bispectrum modelling over previous forecasts, by accounting for trispectrum contributions. All effects have an impact on final predicted bounds, which varies with the type of survey. We find that the bispectrum can lead to improvements up to a factor ˜5 over bounds based on the power spectrum alone, leading to significantly better constraints for local-type PNG, with respect to current limits from Planck. Future radio and photometric surveys could obtain a measurement error of σ (f_{NL}^{loc}) ≈ 0.2. In the case of equilateral PNG, galaxy bispectrum can improve upon present bounds only if significant improvements in the redshift determinations of future, large volume, photometric or radio surveys could be achieved. For orthogonal non-Gaussianity, expected constraints are generally comparable to current ones.

  7. Primordial black holes and uncertainties in the choice of the window function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kenta; Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-05-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be produced by the perturbations that exit the horizon during the inflationary phase. While inflation models predict the power spectrum of the perturbations in Fourier space, the PBH abundance depends on the probability distribution function of density perturbations in real space. To estimate the PBH abundance in a given inflation model, we must relate the power spectrum in Fourier space to the probability density function in real space by coarse graining the perturbations with a window function. However, there are uncertainties on what window function should be used, which could change the relation between the PBH abundance and the power spectrum. This is particularly important in considering PBHs with mass 30 M⊙, which account for the LIGO events because the required power spectrum is severely constrained by the observations. In this paper, we investigate how large an influence the uncertainties on the choice of a window function has over the power spectrum required for LIGO PBHs. As a result, it is found that the uncertainties significantly affect the prediction for the stochastic gravitational waves induced by the second-order effect of the perturbations. In particular, the pulsar timing array constraints on the produced gravitational waves could disappear for the real-space top-hat window function.

  8. WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE DARK MATTER AND FIRST STARS: SUPPRESSION OF FRAGMENTATION IN PRIMORDIAL STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Iocco, Fabio; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial minihalos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modeled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. We find that the gas can collapse to high densities despite the additional energy input from the dark matter. No objects supported purely by dark matter annihilation heating are formed in our simulations. However, we find that dark matter annihilation heating has a large effect on the evolution of the gas following the formation of the first protostar. Previous simulations without dark matter annihilation found that protostellar disks around Population III stars rapidly fragmented, forming multiple protostars that underwent mergers or ejections. When dark matter annihilation is included, however, these disks become stable to radii of 1000 AU or more. In the cases where fragmentation does occur, it is a wide binary that is formed.

  9. The development of primordial black holes and a possibility of the black-holes dominant era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byalko, A.V.

    1977-12-01

    The equation, describing primordial black-holes (PBH) with small masses in a media with high density and temperature is suggested. Its solution for a single PBH-mass in an early stage of the universe is increasing when the temperature of the media is greater than PBH-temperature, and then descreasing due to the Hawking evaporation. The case of a great number of PBH with equal and extremely large masses is examined. We suggest that the evaporation process is symmetric with respect to particle-antiparticle creation and mainly baryons existed in the very beginning of the universe. Only one parameter zeta = N 0 (2PI 0 )sup(-3/2) (where N 0 is the PBH number in a 3 volume and PI 0 = d(a 2 /2)/dt| sub(t→0)) describes all the functions of time: PBH-mass m(t), the PBH average energy density, the rate of the cosmic expansion and the ratio of baryons to radiation densities α(t). Case of zeta -8 that only small PBH with maximum masses of order of 10 2 gr were existing and they died before t sub(fin) -- 10 -23 s. The process of collision of black holes is hot studied here. Case of any other PBH-masses destribution only decreases the values of m sub(max) and t sub(fin) if the final baryon-radiation ratio is fixed. (auth.)

  10. Volatile inventories in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I; Picaud, Sylvain; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The examination of ambient thermodynamic conditions suggests that clathrate hydrates could exist in the Martian permafrost, on the surface and in the interior of Titan, as well as in other icy satellites. Clathrate hydrates are probably formed in a significant fraction of planetesimals in the solar system. Thus, these crystalline solids may have been accreted in comets, in the forming giant planets and in their surrounding satellite systems. In this work, we use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of clathrate hydrates that may have formed in the primordial nebula. In our approach, we consider the formation sequence of the different ices occurring during the cooling of the nebula, a reasonable idealization of the process by which volatiles are trapped in planetesimals. We then determine the fractional occupancies of guests in each clathrate hydrate formed at a given temperature. The major ingredient of our model is the description of the guest-clathrate hydrate interaction by a spherically averaged Kihara potential with a nominal set of parameters, most of which are fitted to experimental equilibrium data. Our model allows us to find that Kr, Ar and N2 can be efficiently encaged in clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures higher than approximately 48.5 K in the primitive nebula, instead of forming pure condensates below 30 K. However, we find at the same time that the determination of the relative abundances of guest species incorporated in these clathrate hydrates strongly depends on the choice of the parameters of the Kihara potential and also on the adopted size of cages. Indeed, by testing different potential parameters, we have noted that even minor dispersions between the different existing sets can lead to non-negligible variations in the determination of the volatiles trapped in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula. However, these variations are not found to be strong enough to reverse the relative abundances

  11. Probing Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovetz, Ely D

    2017-09-29

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been suggested as a candidate for making up some or all of the dark matter in the Universe. Most of the theoretically possible mass range for PBH dark matter has been ruled out with various null observations of expected signatures of their interaction with standard astrophysical objects. However, current constraints are significantly less robust in the 20  M_{⊙}≲M_{PBH}≲100  M_{⊙} mass window, which has received much attention recently, following the detection of merging black holes with estimated masses of ∼30  M_{⊙} by LIGO and the suggestion that these could be black holes formed in the early Universe. We consider the potential of advanced LIGO (aLIGO) operating at design sensitivity to probe this mass range by looking for peaks in the mass spectrum of detected events. To quantify the background, which is due to black holes that are formed from dying stars, we model the shape of the stellar-black-hole mass function and calibrate its amplitude to match the O1 results. Adopting very conservative assumptions about the PBH and stellar-black-hole merger rates, we show that ∼5  yr of aLIGO data can be used to detect a contribution of >20  M_{⊙} PBHs to dark matter down to f_{PBH}99.9% confidence level. Combined with other probes that already suggest tension with f_{PBH}=1, the obtainable independent limits from aLIGO will thus enable a firm test of the scenario that PBHs make up all of dark matter.

  12. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  13. Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennie E; van der Burg, Mirjam; IJspeert, Hanna; Carroll, Paula; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Leitch, Andrea; Miller, Edward S; Kysela, Boris; Jawad, Alireza; Bottani, Armand; Brancati, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Deshpande, Charu; Faqeih, Eissa A; Graham, Gail E; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Blundell, Tom L; Jackson, Andrew P; Stewart, Grant S; Bicknell, Louise S

    2015-03-05

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  15. Hip pathology in Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Bober, Michael B; Rogers, Kenneth; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen P; Mackenzie, William G

    2014-09-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth failure with microcephaly, characteristic skeletal dysplasia, an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease, and insulin resistance. MOPDII is caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene and is inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner. This study aimed to determine the incidence of hip pathology in patients with molecularly confirmed MOPDII and to describe the functional outcomes of surgical treatment. Thirty-three enrolled patients had a clinical diagnosis of MOPDII. Biallelic PCNT mutations or absent pericentrin protein was confirmed in 25 of these patients. Twelve patients (7 female) had appropriate clinical and radiographic records at this institution and were included in this study. The data collected included age at presentation, age at surgery, sex, body weight and height, weight-bearing status at diagnosis, and the clinical examination. Four patients (31%) had coxa vara: 3 unilateral and 1 bilateral. Three unilateral patients had in situ pinning at a mean age 4 years. The patient with bilateral coxa vara had valgus osteotomy at the age of 5 years. Two children had bilateral hip dysplasia and subluxation with no surgery. One patient had bilateral developmental hip dislocations. The patient was treated by open reduction-spica cast and 2 years after surgery, coxa valga was noted. Another patient was diagnosed at an age of 12 years with bilateral avascular necrosis of the hips. Four patients did not have hip pathology. Hip pathology is common among children with MOPDII; coxa vara is the most frequent diagnosis. Routine clinical and radiographic hip evaluation is important. The capital femoral epiphysis appears to slip down along the shaft, giving the appearance of a proximal femoral epiphysiolysis. A hip diagnosed with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in early life may progress to severe coxa vara. Level IV.

  16. Specification of primordial germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Erez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primordial germ cells (PGCs give rise to gametes that are responsible for the development of a new organism in the next generation. Two modes of germ line specification have been described: the inheritance of asymmetrically-localized maternally provided cytoplasmic determinants and the induction of the PGC fate by other cell types. PGCs specification in zebrafish appears to depend on inheritance of germ plasm in which several RNA molecules such as vasa and nanos reside. Whether the specification mode of PGCs found in zebrafish is general for other fish species was brought into question upon analysis of olvas expression – the vasa homologue in another teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes. Here, in contrast to the findings in zebrafish, the PGCs are found in a predictable position relative to a somatic structure, the embryonic shield. This finding, coupled with the fact that vasa mRNA, which is localized to the germ plasm of zebrafish but does not label a similar structure in medaka opened the possibility of fundamentally different mechanisms governing PGC specification in these two fish species. Results In this study we addressed the question concerning the mode of PGC specification in medaka using embryological experiments, analysis of RNA stability in the PGCs and electron microscopy observations. Dramatic alterations in the somatic environment, i.e. induction of a secondary axis or mesoderm formation alteration, did not affect the PGC number. Furthermore, the PGCs of medaka are capable of protecting specific RNA molecules from degradation and could therefore exhibit a specific mRNA expression pattern controlled by posttrancriptional mechanisms. Subsequent analysis of 4-cell stage medaka embryos using electron microscopy revealed germ plasm-like structures located at a region corresponding to that of zebrafish germ plasm. Conclusion Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea that in medaka the inheritance of

  17. THE ACCRETION OF DARK MATTER SUBHALOS WITHIN THE COSMIC WEB: PRIMORDIAL ANISOTROPIC DISTRIBUTION AND ITS UNIVERSALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xi; Wang, Peng, E-mail: kangxi@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of galaxies displays anisotropy on different scales and it is often referred to as galaxy alignment. To understand the origin of galaxy alignments on small scales, one must investigate how galaxies were accreted in the early universe and quantify their primordial anisotropy at the time of accretion. In this paper we use N-body simulations to investigate the accretion of subhalos, focusing on their alignment with halo shape and the orientation of mass distribution on the large scale, defined using the Hessian matrix of the density field. The large/small (e1/e3) eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix define the fast/slow collapse direction of matter on the large scale. We find that: (1) the halo major axis is well aligned with the e3 (slow collapse) direction, and it is stronger for massive halos; (2) subhalos are predominantly accreted along the major axis of the host halo, and the alignment increases with the host halo mass. Most importantly, this alignment is universal; (3) accretion of subhalos with respect to the e3 direction is not universal. In massive halos, subhalos are accreted along the e3 (even more strongly than the alignment with the halo major axis), but in low-mass halos subhalos are accreted perpendicular to e3. The transitional mass is lower at high redshift. The last result well explains the puzzling correlation (both in recent observations and simulations) that massive galaxies/halos have their spin perpendicular to the filament, and the spin of low-mass galaxies/halos is slightly aligned with the filament, under the assumption that the orbital angular momentum of subhalos is converted to halo spin.

  18. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.

  19. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE PRIMORDIAL POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Carvalho, C. Sofia [IPFN, IST, Av. RoviscoPais, 1049-001Lisboa, Portugal and RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, 11-527 Athens (Greece); Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Irwin, Kent D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in combination with measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and a prior on the Hubble constant. The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k {approx_equal} 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from cosmic microwave background measurements (which probe the power spectrum in the linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances, and weak-lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurements of the matter power spectrum.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovaries Reveals That Primordial Follicle Formation and Transition Are Differentially Regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primordial follicle formation represents a critical phase of the initiation of embryonic reproductive organ development, while the primordial follicle transition into primary follicle determines whether oestrus or ovulation will occur in female animals. To identify molecular mechanism of new proteins which are involved in ovarian development, we employed 2D-DIGE to compare the protein expression profiles of primordial follicles and primary follicles of fetal ovaries in pigs. Fetal ovaries were collected at distinct time-points of the gestation cycle (g55 and g90. The identified proteins at the g55 time-point are mainly involved in the development of anatomical structures [reticulocalbin-1 (RCN1, reticulocalbin-3 (RCN3], cell differentiation (actin, and stress response [heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (HNRNPK]. Meanwhile, at the g90 stage, the isolated proteins with altered expression levels were mainly associated with cell proliferation [major vault protein (MVP] and stress response [heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2]. In conclusion, our work revealed that primordial follicle formation is regulated by RCN1, RCN3, actin, and HNRNPK, while the primordial follicle transformation to primary follicle is regulated by MVP and HSPA2. Therefore, our results provide further information for the prospective understanding of the molecular mechanism(s involved in the regulation of the ovarian follicle development.

  1. Effects of rotation on the evolution of primordial stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.; Maeder, A.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Although still beyond our observational abilities, Population III stars are interesting objects from many perspectives. They are responsible for the re-ionisation of the inter-galactic medium. They also left their chemical imprint in the early Universe, which can be deciphered in the most metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy. Aims: Rotation has been shown to play a determinant role at very low metallicity, bringing heavy mass loss where almost none was expected. Is this still true when the metallicity strictly equals zero? The aim of our study is to answer this question, and to determine how rotation changes the evolution and the chemical signature of the primordial stars. Methods: We have calculated seven differentially-rotating stellar models at zero metallicity, with masses between 9 and 200 M⊙. For each mass, we also calculated a corresponding model without rotation. The evolution is followed up to the pre-supernova stage. Results: We find that Z=0 models rotate with an internal profile Ω(r) close to local angular momentum conservation, because of a very weak core-envelope coupling. Rotational mixing drives an H-shell boost due to a sudden onset of the CNO cycle in the shell. This boost leads to a high 14N production, which can be as much as 106 times higher than the production of the non-rotating models. Generally, the rotating models produce much more metal than their non-rotating counterparts. The mass loss is very low, even for the models that reach critical velocity during the main sequence. It may however have an impact on the chemical enrichment of the Universe, because some of the stars are supposed to collapse directly into black holes. They would contribute to the enrichment only through their winds. While in that case non-rotating stars would not contribute at all, rotating stars may leave an imprint on their surrounding. Due to the low mass loss and the weak coupling, the core retains a high angular momentum at the end of the

  2. Effect of accretion on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, B.; Singh, L. P.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect of accretion of radiation in the early Universe on primordial black holes in Brans-Dicke theory. The rate of growth of a primordial black hole due to accretion of radiation in Brans-Dicke theory is considerably smaller than the rate of growth of the cosmological horizon, thus making available sufficient radiation density for the black hole to accrete causally. We show that accretion of radiation by Brans-Dicke black holes overrides the effect of Hawking evaporation during the radiation dominated era. The subsequent evaporation of the black holes in later eras is further modified due to the variable gravitational 'constant', and they could survive up to longer times compared to the case of standard cosmology. We estimate the impact of accretion on modification of the constraint on their initial mass fraction obtained from the γ-ray background limit from presently evaporating primordial black holes.

  3. Imprint of primordial non-Gaussianity on dark matter halo profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Dodelson, Scott; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity on the density profile of dark matter halos by using the semi-analytical model introduced recently by Dalal {\\it et al.} which relates the peaks of the initial linear density field to the final density profile of dark matter halos. Models with primordial non-Gaussianity typically produce an initial density field that differs from that produced in Gaussian models. We use the path-integral formulation of excursion set theory to calculate the non-Gaussian corrections to the peak profile and derive the statistics of the peaks of non-Gaussian density field. In the context of the semi-analytic model for halo profiles, currently allowed values for primordial non-Gaussianity would increase the shapes of the inner dark matter profiles, but only at the sub-percent level except in the very innermost regions.

  4. Pregnancy in a woman with proportionate (primordial) dwarfism: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, C E; Desmond, M; Robinson, A; Johns, J; Zacharin, M; Savarirayan, R; König, K; Warrillow, S; Walker, S P

    2012-09-01

    Primordial dwarfism is a rare form of severe proportionate dwarfism which poses significant challenges in pregnancy. A 27-year-old with primordial dwarfism (height 97 cm, weight 22 kg) and coexisting morbidities of familial hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension presented to our unit. Early pregnancy was complicated by difficult blood pressure control, sinus tachycardia, biochemical hyperthyroidism and insulin-requiring gestational diabetes. Delivery was indicated at 24 weeks with uncontrollable hypertension, progressive renal impairment and intrauterine growth restriction. A caesarean section was performed under general anaesthesia, resulting in the delivery of a 486 g male infant. This case highlights the difficulties of managing pregnancy in a woman with primordial dwarfism. Her limited capacity to respond to the physiological demands of pregnancy created a life-threatening situation, culminating in profound preterm birth.

  5. SPRAI: coupling of radiative feedback and primordial chemistry in moving mesh hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaura, O.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new radiative transfer code SPRAI (Simplex Photon Radiation in the Arepo Implementation) based on the SIMPLEX radiation transfer method. This method, originally used only for post-processing, is now directly integrated into the AREPO code and takes advantage of its adaptive unstructured mesh. Radiated photons are transferred from the sources through the series of Voronoi gas cells within a specific solid angle. From the photon attenuation, we derive corresponding photon fluxes and ionization rates and feed them to a primordial chemistry module. This gives us a self-consistent method for studying dynamical and chemical processes caused by ionizing sources in primordial gas. Since the computational cost of the SIMPLEX method does not scale directly with the number of sources, it is convenient for studying systems such as primordial star-forming haloes that may form multiple ionizing sources.

  6. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...... in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus...... and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion...

  7. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  8. Features in the primordial power spectrum of double D-term inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there has been some interest for building supersymmetric models of double inflation. These models, realistic from a particle physics point of view, predict a broken-scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial cosmological perturbations, that may explain eventual nontrivial features in the present matter power spectrum. In previous works, the primordial spectrum was calculated using analytic slow-roll approximations. However, these models involve a fast second-order phase transition during inflation, with a stage of spinodal instability, and an interruption of slow-roll. For our previous model of double D-term inflation, we simulate numerically the evolution of quantum fluctuations, taking into account the spinodal modes, and we show that the semiclassical approximation can be employed even during the transition, due to the presence of a second inflaton field. The primordial power spectrum possesses a rich structure, and possibly, a non-Gaussian spike on observable scales

  9. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2013-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified...... with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit...

  10. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, with the fascinating history of "Mademoiselle Crachami".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, O Giray

    2013-01-01

    This review critically examines the findings which characterize the dysmorphic, radiologic and behavioral phenotype of Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism (MOPD) and has an historical perspective on it. MOPD is a group of primordial dwarfism syndromes with prenatal onset growth retardation, a typical craniofacial appearance and behavioral phenotype. In 1959, Mann and Russell have described the first case in a detailed report, and named "microcephalic midget of extreme type". In their report; based on historical records and a small painting, they pointed "Mademoiselle Crachami" as the oldest known case.

  11. Laboratory approaches of nuclear reactions involved in primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfs, C.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory-based studies of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis are reviewed, with emphasis on the nuclear reactions induced by charged particles. The analytical approach used to investigate nuclear reactions associated with stellar reactions is described, as well as the experimental details and procedures used to investigate nuclear reactions induced by charged particles. The present knowledge of some of the key reactions involved in primordial nucleosynthesis is discussed, along with the progress and problems of nuclear reactions involved in the hydrogen and helium burning phases of a star. Finally, a description is given of new experimental techniques which might be useful for future experiments in the field of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  12. Digging Deeper: Observing Primordial Gravitational Waves below the Binary-Black-Hole-Produced Stochastic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regimbau, T; Evans, M; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S

    2017-04-14

    The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the detections in the first Advanced LIGO science run implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the Universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can potentially be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of Ω_{GW}≃10^{-13} after 5 years of observation.

  13. Inflation with primordial broken power law spectrum as an alternative to the concordance cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfi, Stefania; Giusarma, Elena; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    We consider cosmological models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum of primordial perturbations and assess whether they represent a viable alternative to the concordance ΛCDM model. We find that in the framework of a model selection analysis, the WMAP and 2dF data do not provide any conclusive evidence in favor of one or the other kind of model. However, when a marginalization over the entire space of nuisance parameters is performed, models with a modified primordial spectrum and Ω Λ =0 are strongly disfavored.

  14. Microwave background anisotropies and the primordial spectrum of cosmological density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gouda, Naoteru; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1990-01-01

    Microwave background anisotropies in various cosmological scenarios are studied. In particular, the extent to which nonscale-invariant spectra of the primordial density fluctuations are consistent with the observational upper limits is examined. The resultant constraints are summarized as contours on (n, Omega)-plane, where n is the power-law index of the primordial spectrum of density fuctuations and Omega is the cosmological density parameter. They are compared also with the constraints from the cosmic Mach number test, recently proposed by Ostriker and Suto (1990). The parameter regions which pass both tests are not consistent with the theoretical prejudice inspired by the inflationary model. 44 refs

  15. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R; Ringleb, J

    2012-01-01

    follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed...

  16. Primordial black holes as dark matter: constraints from compact ultra-faint dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qirong; Vasiliev, Eugene; Li, Yuexing; Jing, Yipeng

    2018-05-01

    The ground-breaking detections of gravitational waves from black hole mergers by LIGO have rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBHs) and the possibility of dark matter being composed of PBHs. It has been suggested that PBHs of tens of solar masses could serve as dark matter candidates. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that compact ultra-faint dwarf galaxies can serve as a sensitive test for the PBH dark matter hypothesis, since stars in such a halo-dominated system would be heated by the more massive PBHs, their present-day distribution can provide strong constraints on PBH mass. In this study, we further explore this scenario with more detailed calculations, using a combination of dynamical simulations and Bayesian inference methods. The joint evolution of stars and PBH dark matter is followed with a Fokker-Planck code PHASEFLOW. We run a large suite of such simulations for different dark matter parameters, then use a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to constrain the PBH properties with observations of ultra-faint galaxies. We find that two-body relaxation between the stars and PBH drives up the stellar core size, and increases the central stellar velocity dispersion. Using the observed half-light radius and velocity dispersion of stars in the compact ultra-faint dwarf galaxies as joint constraints, we infer that these dwarfs may have a cored dark matter halo with the central density in the range of 1-2 M⊙pc - 3, and that the PBHs may have a mass range of 2-14 M⊙ if they constitute all or a substantial fraction of the dark matter.

  17. Statistical tests for the Gaussian nature of primordial fluctuations through CBR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.

    1994-01-01

    Information about the physical processes that generate the primordial fluctuations in the early Universe can be gained by testing the Gaussian nature of the fluctuations through cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy experiments. One of the crucial aspects of density perturbations that are produced by the standard inflation scenario is that they are Gaussian, whereas seeds produced by topological defects left over from an early cosmic phase transition tend to be non-Gaussian. To carry out this test, sophisticated statistical tools are required. In this paper, we will discuss several such statistical tools, including multivariant skewness and kurtosis, Euler-Poincare characteristics, the three-point temperature correlation function, and Hotelling's T 2 statistic defined through bispectral estimates of a one-dimensional data set. The effect of noise present in the current data is discussed in detail and the COBE 53 GHz data set is analyzed. Our analysis shows that, on the large angular scale to which COBE is sensitive, the statistics are probably Gaussian. On the small angular scales, the importance of Hotelling's T 2 statistic is stressed, and the minimum sample size required to test Gaussianity is estimated. Although the current data set available from various experiments at half-degree scales is still too small, improvement of the data set by roughly a factor of 2 will be enough to test the Gaussianity statistically. On the arc min scale, we analyze the recent RING data through bispectral analysis, and the result indicates possible deviation from Gaussianity. Effects of point sources are also discussed. It is pointed out that the Gaussianity problem can be resolved in the near future by ground-based or balloon-borne experiments

  18. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Growth and secondary sexual development of a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, Sonja A.; Otten, Barto J.; Schoots, Jeroen; Bicknell, Louise S.; Aftimos, Salim; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; van Bever, Yolande; Bober, Michael B.; Borm, George F.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Deal, Cheri L.; Edrees, Alaa Y.; Feingold, Murray; Fryer, Alan; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Jansweijer, Maaike C. E.; Johnson, Diana; Kant, Sarina G.; Opitz, John M.; Ramadevi, A. Radha; Reardon, Willie; Ross, Alison; Sarda, Pierre; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T. R. M.; Sluiter, A. Erik; Temple, I. Karen; Terhal, Paulien A.; Toutain, Annick; Wise, Carol A.; Wright, Michael; Skidmore, David L.; Samuels, Mark E.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Brunner, Han G.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    MeierGorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primordial dwarfism, microtia, and patellar aplasia/hypoplasia. Recently, mutations in the ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6 genes, encoding components of the pre-replication complex, have been identified. This complex

  19. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Growth and secondary sexual development of a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, S.A.; Otten, B.J.; Schoots, J.; Bicknell, L.S.; Aftimos, S.; Al-Aama, J.Y.; van Bever, Y.; Bober, M.B.; Borm, G.F.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Deal, C.L.; Edrees, A.Y.; Feingold, M.; Fryer, A.; van Hagen, J.M.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Jansweijer, M.C.E.; Johnson, D.; Kant, S.G.; Opitz, J.M.; Ramadevi, A.R.; Reardon, W.; Ross, A.; Sarda, P.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.; Sluiter, A.E.; Temple, I.K.; Terhal, P.A.; Toutain, A.; Wise, C.A.; Wright, M.; Skidmore, D.L.; Samuels, M.E.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Jackson, A.P.; Bongers, M.H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primordial dwarfism, microtia, and patellar aplasia/hypoplasia. Recently, mutations in the ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6 genes, encoding components of the pre-replication complex, have been identified. This

  20. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consiste...

  1. The Observational Determination of the Primordial Helium Abundance: a Y2K Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan D.

    I review observational progress and assess the current state of the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Yp. At present there are two determinations with non-overlapping errors. My impression is that the errors have been under-estimated in both studies. I review recent work on errors assessment and give suggestions for decreasing systematic errors in future studies.

  2. Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Children: the Case for Primordial Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wessel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research now demonstrates that lifestyle modification can significantly lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk adults. In children, the evidence for lifestyle modification is not as robust, but the rapidly rising rate of obesity in children coupled with the substantial difficulty in changing behaviors later in life illuminates the need to implement prevention efforts early in the life course of children. Genetic data can now be used early in the life course to identify children at high-risk of developing T2D before traditional clinical measures can detect the presence of prediabetes; a metabolic condition associated with obesity that significantly increases risk for developing T2D.  Such early detection of risk may enable the promotion of “primordial prevention” in which parents implement behavior change for their at risk children.  Young children with genetic risk are a novel target population.  Here we review the literature on genetic testing for prevention as it relates to chronic diseases and specifically use T2D as a model. We discuss the history of primordial prevention, the need for primordial prevention of T2D and the role genetic testing has in primordial prevention of high-risk families.

  3. The atmospheric Cherenkov technique in searches for exploding primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danaher, S.; Fegan, D.J.; Porter, N.A.; Weekes, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Cherenkov technique has been used with a number of detectors, ranging from 1.5 m 2 mirrors to the Central Receiver Test Facility of 8400 m 2 . Limits have been set to the flux of primordial black holes for various models of the evaporation process. (author)

  4. Novel Microcephalic Primordial Dwarfism Disorder Associated with Variants in the Centrosomal Protein Ninein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauber, Andrew; LaFranchi, Stephen H.; Maliga, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a rare, severe form of human growth failure in which growth restriction is evident in utero and continues into postnatal life. Single causative gene defects have been identified in a number of patients with MPD, and all involve genes fundamental...

  5. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity via iSW measurements with SKA continuum surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Doré, Olivier, E-mail: alvise@jhu.edu, E-mail: olivier.dore@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Bacon, David J.; Maartens, Roy, E-mail: David.Bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth P01 3FX (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Planck CMB experiment has delivered the best constraints so far on primordial non-Gaussianity, ruling out early-Universe models of inflation that generate large non-Gaussianity. Although small improvements in the CMB constraints are expected, the next frontier of precision will come from future large-scale surveys of the galaxy distribution. The advantage of such surveys is that they can measure many more modes than the CMB—in particular, forthcoming radio surveys with the Square Kilometre Array will cover huge volumes. Radio continuum surveys deliver the largest volumes, but with the disadvantage of no redshift information. In order to mitigate this, we use two additional observables. First, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect—the cross-correlation of the radio number counts with the CMB temperature anisotropies—helps to reduce systematics on the large scales that are sensitive to non-Gaussianity. Second, optical data allows for cross-identification in order to gain some redshift information. We show that, while the single redshift bin case can provide a σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 20, and is therefore not competitive with current and future constraints on non-Gaussianity, a tomographic analysis could improve the constraints by an order of magnitude, even with only two redshift bins. A huge improvement is provided by the addition of high-redshift sources, so having cross-ID for high-z galaxies and an even higher-z radio tail is key to enabling very precise measurements of f{sub NL}. We use Fisher matrix forecasts to predict the constraining power in the case of no redshift information and the case where cross-ID allows a tomographic analysis, and we show that the constraints do not improve much with 3 or more bins. Our results show that SKA continuum surveys could provide constraints competitive with CMB and forthcoming optical surveys, potentially allowing a measurement of σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 1 to be made. Moreover, these measurements would act as a useful check

  6. The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionary origin of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, D A; McKinley, M J; Farrell, M; Egan, G F

    2009-06-01

    Primordial emotions are the subjective element of the instincts which are the genetically programmed behaviour patterns which contrive homeostasis. They include thirst, hunger for air, hunger for food, pain and hunger for specific minerals etc. There are two constituents of a primordial emotion--the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act. They may dominate the stream of consciousness, and can have plenipotentiary power over behaviour. It is hypothesized that early in animal evolution complex reflex mechanisms in the basal brain subserving homeostatic responses, in concert with elements of the reticular activating system subserving arousal, melded functionally with regions embodied in the progressive rostral development of the telencephalon. This included the emergent limbic and paralimbic areas, and the insula. This phylogenetically ancient organization subserved the origin of consciousness as the primordial emotion, which signalled that the organisms existence was immediately threatened. Neuroimaging confirms major activations in regions of the basal brain during primordial emotions in humans. The behaviour of decorticate humans and animals is discussed in relation to the possible existence of primitive awareness. Neuroimaging of the primordial emotions reveals that rapid gratification of intention by a consummatory act such as ingestion causes precipitate decline of both the initiating sensation and the intention. There is contemporaneous rapid disappearance of particular regions of brain activation which suggests they may be part of the jointly sufficient and severally necessary activations and deactivations which correlate with consciousness [Crick, F. & Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. NatureNeuroscience,6, 119-126].

  7. On the primordial monopole problem in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomonson, P.; Stern, A.; Skagerstam, B.S.

    1984-11-01

    It is shown that spontaneously broken gauge symmetries are not necessarily restored at very high temperatures in which case an unacceptably large production of magnetic monopoles may be prohibited. (orig.)

  8. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  9. Inflation beyond T-models and primordial B-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Pi, Shi

    2014-01-01

    We describe extended theories which shares the gauge transformation symmetry of the T-models, and takes the T-models as well as Starobinsky model as special cases. We derive a general relation between the two slow-roll parameters, and find that a large class of models can be embedded. Such models include more general Starobinsky-like inflation as well as the chaotic inflation with a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 result

  10. Can a primordial black hole or wormhole grow as fast as the universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B J; Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of whether there are physically realistic self-similar solutions in which a primordial black hole is attached to an exact or asymptotically Friedmann model for an equation of state of the form p = (γ - 1)ρc 2 . In the positive-pressure case (1 < γ < 2), there is no solution in which the black hole is attached to an exact Friedmann background via a sonic point. However, there is a one-parameter family of black hole solutions which are everywhere supersonic and asymptotically quasi-Friedmann, in the sense that they contain a solid angle deficit at large distances. Such solutions exist providing the ratio of the black hole size to the cosmological horizon size is above some critical value and they include 'universal' black holes with an apparent horizon but no event horizon. In the stiff case (γ = 2), there is no self-similar solution in an exact background unless the matter turns into null dust before entering the event horizon; otherwise the only black hole solutions are probably asymptotically quasi-Friedmann universal ones. For a dark-energy-dominated universe (0 < γ < 2/3), there is a one-parameter family of black hole solutions which are properly asymptotically Friedmann (i.e. with no angle deficit) and the ratio of the black hole size to the cosmological horizon size is below some critical value. Above this value, one finds a self-similar cosmological wormhole solution which connects two asymptotic regions: one exactly Friedmann and the other asymptotically quasi-Friedmann. We also consider the possibility of self-similar black hole solutions in a universe dominated by a scalar field. This is like the stiff fluid case if the field is massless, but the situation is less clear if the scalar field is rolling down a potential and therefore massive, as in the quintessence scenario. Although no explicit asymptotically Friedmann black hole solutions of this kind are known, they may exist if the black hole is not too large. (brief

  11. Constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with cosmological weak lensing: shear and flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedeli, C.; Bartelmann, M.; Moscardini, L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the cosmological constraining power of future large-scale weak lensing surveys on the model of the ESA planned mission Euclid, with particular reference to primordial non-Gaussianity. Our analysis considers several different estimators of the projected matter power spectrum, based on both shear and flexion. We review the covariance and Fisher matrix for cosmic shear and evaluate those for cosmic flexion and for the cross-correlation between the two. The bounds provided by cosmic shear alone are looser than previously estimated, mainly due to the reduced sky coverage and background number density of sources for the latest Euclid specifications. New constraints for the local bispectrum shape, marginalized over σ 8 , are at the level of Δf NL ∼ 100, with the precise value depending on the exact multipole range that is considered in the analysis. We consider three additional bispectrum shapes, for which the cosmic shear constraints range from Δf NL ∼ 340 (equilateral shape) up to Δf NL ∼ 500 (orthogonal shape). Also, constraints on the level of non-Gaussianity and on the amplitude of the matter power spectrum σ 8 are almost perfectly anti-correlated, except for the orthogonal bispectrum shape for which they are correlated. The competitiveness of cosmic flexion constraints against cosmic shear ones depends by and large on the galaxy intrinsic flexion noise, that is still virtually unconstrained. Adopting the very high value that has been occasionally used in the literature results in the flexion contribution being basically negligible with respect to the shear one, and for realistic configurations the former does not improve significantly the constraining power of the latter. Since the shear shot noise is white, while the flexion one decreases with decreasing scale, by considering high enough multipoles the two contributions have to become comparable. Extending the analysis up to l max = 20,000 cosmic flexion, while being still subdominant

  12. Can a primordial black hole or wormhole grow as fast as the universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B J [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Harada, Tomohiro [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Maeda, Hideki, E-mail: B.J.Carr@qmul.ac.u, E-mail: harada@rikkyo.ac.j, E-mail: hideki@cecs.c [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2010-09-21

    This review addresses the issue of whether there are physically realistic self-similar solutions in which a primordial black hole is attached to an exact or asymptotically Friedmann model for an equation of state of the form p = ({gamma} - 1){rho}c{sup 2}. In the positive-pressure case (1 < {gamma} < 2), there is no solution in which the black hole is attached to an exact Friedmann background via a sonic point. However, there is a one-parameter family of black hole solutions which are everywhere supersonic and asymptotically quasi-Friedmann, in the sense that they contain a solid angle deficit at large distances. Such solutions exist providing the ratio of the black hole size to the cosmological horizon size is above some critical value and they include 'universal' black holes with an apparent horizon but no event horizon. In the stiff case ({gamma} = 2), there is no self-similar solution in an exact background unless the matter turns into null dust before entering the event horizon; otherwise the only black hole solutions are probably asymptotically quasi-Friedmann universal ones. For a dark-energy-dominated universe (0 < {gamma} < 2/3), there is a one-parameter family of black hole solutions which are properly asymptotically Friedmann (i.e. with no angle deficit) and the ratio of the black hole size to the cosmological horizon size is below some critical value. Above this value, one finds a self-similar cosmological wormhole solution which connects two asymptotic regions: one exactly Friedmann and the other asymptotically quasi-Friedmann. We also consider the possibility of self-similar black hole solutions in a universe dominated by a scalar field. This is like the stiff fluid case if the field is massless, but the situation is less clear if the scalar field is rolling down a potential and therefore massive, as in the quintessence scenario. Although no explicit asymptotically Friedmann black hole solutions of this kind are known, they may exist if the

  13. Constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with cosmological weak lensing: shear and flexion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedeli, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bartelmann, M. [Zentrum für Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Überle-Straße 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Moscardini, L., E-mail: cosimo.fedeli@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: bartelmann@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: lauro.moscardini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    We examine the cosmological constraining power of future large-scale weak lensing surveys on the model of the ESA planned mission Euclid, with particular reference to primordial non-Gaussianity. Our analysis considers several different estimators of the projected matter power spectrum, based on both shear and flexion. We review the covariance and Fisher matrix for cosmic shear and evaluate those for cosmic flexion and for the cross-correlation between the two. The bounds provided by cosmic shear alone are looser than previously estimated, mainly due to the reduced sky coverage and background number density of sources for the latest Euclid specifications. New constraints for the local bispectrum shape, marginalized over σ{sub 8}, are at the level of Δf{sub NL} ∼ 100, with the precise value depending on the exact multipole range that is considered in the analysis. We consider three additional bispectrum shapes, for which the cosmic shear constraints range from Δf{sub NL} ∼ 340 (equilateral shape) up to Δf{sub NL} ∼ 500 (orthogonal shape). Also, constraints on the level of non-Gaussianity and on the amplitude of the matter power spectrum σ{sub 8} are almost perfectly anti-correlated, except for the orthogonal bispectrum shape for which they are correlated. The competitiveness of cosmic flexion constraints against cosmic shear ones depends by and large on the galaxy intrinsic flexion noise, that is still virtually unconstrained. Adopting the very high value that has been occasionally used in the literature results in the flexion contribution being basically negligible with respect to the shear one, and for realistic configurations the former does not improve significantly the constraining power of the latter. Since the shear shot noise is white, while the flexion one decreases with decreasing scale, by considering high enough multipoles the two contributions have to become comparable. Extending the analysis up to l{sub max} = 20,000 cosmic flexion, while

  14. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Marcello; Baldauf, T.; Bond, J. Richard; Dalal, N.; Putter, R. D.; Dore, O.; Green, Daniel; Hirata, Chris; Huang, Zhiqi; Huterer, Dragan; Jeong, Donghui; Johnson, Matthew C.; Krause, Elisabeth; Loverde, Marilena; Meyers, Joel; Meeburg, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah; Silverstein, Eva; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Kendrick; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Assassi, Valentin; Braden, Jonathan; Hajian, Amir; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Stein, George; Engelen, Alexander van

    2014-01-01

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude floc\

  15. Multicollector High Precision Resolution of Primordial Kr and Xe in Mantle CO2 Well Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G.; Ballentine, C.; Cassidy, M.

    2008-12-01

    Noble gas isotopes in magmatic CO2 well gases provide a unique insight into mantle volatile origin and dynamics [1-3]. Previous work has resolved mantle 20Ne/22Ne ratios consistent with a solar wind irradiated meteoritic source for mantle He and Ne [1]. This is distinct from Solar Wind values that might be expected if the primary mechanism of terrestrial mantle volatile acquisition was through the gravitational capture of solar nebula gases [see 4]. Within the CO2 well gases a primordial component has also been resolved in the non- radiogenic Xe isotopic composition [2,3]. Using multicollector mass spectrometry we have observed a 124Xe/130Xe excess of 1.85 percent over air plus/minus 0.17 percent for the least air contaminated samples. At this level of precision we are for the first time able to differentiate between a trapped meteoritic origin (average carbonaceous chondrite or Q Xe) rather than Solar Wind origin as the primordial Xe component. The well gases also contain Kr which, in the least air contaminated sample, have a correlated 86Kr/82Kr excess of 0.55 percent over air plus/minus 0.04 percent. Whilst mass dependent fractionation can theoretically produce correlated excesses in 124Xe-128Xe and 82Kr-86Kr isotopes, no fractionation from air is observed in 38Ar/36Ar [3] and the Kr excesses are in the opposite sense to that of Xe. From 136Xe excesses, Kr fission yield from Pu and U can be calculated and subtracted from the Kr isotopic signature. This fission-corrected signature is most reasonably explained as a primordial component. This is the first time that primordial Kr has ever been resolved in a terrestrial sample. The primordial Kr isotopic signature is distinct from Solar Wind Kr and is consistent with the primordial Kr also originating as a trapped component within meteorites. We are now able to demonstrate that both the light (He and Ne) and Heavy (Kr and Xe) noble gas origin in the terrestrial mantle is consistent with a trapped component during the

  16. El lugar del padre primordial en Moisés y la religión monoteísta: Algunas conclusiones The Place Of The Primordial Father In Moses And Monotheism: Some Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Edith Raffaini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En Moisés y la religión monoteísta Freud desarrolla su última versión del padre. En este trabajo, analizo el lugar que ocupa el padre primordial de Tótem y tabú a partir de dicha versión. Presento, asimismo, un movimiento teórico fundamental en la teoría freudiana sobre el padre: el pasaje del padre primordial a la religión del padre como producto de la neurosis.In "Moses and Monotheism" Freud's ultimate version of the father is described. In this paper, the place the primordial father in "Totem und Tabu" occupies is established based on such version. The transition from the primordial father to the religion of the father as a neurosis product is analysed.

  17. On primordial black holes from an inflection point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germani, Cristiano; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that inflationary models with an inflection point in the scalar potential can produce a large resonance in the power spectrum of curvature perturbation. In this paper however we show that the previous analyses are incorrect. The reason is twofold: firstly, the inflaton

  18. Surgical outcomes of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II with intracranial vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Mario; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Bell-Stephens, Teresa E; Marks, Michael P; Do, Huy M; Dodd, Robert L; Bober, Michael B; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic disorder. Features of it include extremely small stature, severe microcephaly, and normal or near-normal intelligence. Previous studies have found that more than 50% of patients with MOPD II have intracranial vascular anomalies, but few successful surgical revascularization or aneurysm-clipping cases have been reported because of the diminutive arteries and narrow surgical corridors in these patients. Here, the authors report on a large series of patients with MOPD II who underwent surgery for an intracranial vascular anomaly. METHODS In conjunction with an approved prospective registry of patients with MOPD II, a prospectively collected institutional surgical database of children with MOPD II and intracranial vascular anomalies who underwent surgery was analyzed retrospectively to establish long-term outcomes. RESULTS Ten patients with MOPD II underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012; 5 patients had moyamoya disease (MMD), 2 had intracranial aneurysms, and 3 had both MMD and aneurysms. Patients presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 2), ischemic stroke (n = 2), intraparenchymal hemorrhage from MMD (n = 1), and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), and 4 were diagnosed on screening. The mean age of the 8 patients with MMD, all of whom underwent extracranial-intracranial revascularization (14 indirect, 1 direct) was 9 years (range 1-17 years). The mean age of the 5 patients with aneurysms was 15.5 years (range 9-18 years). Two patients experienced postoperative complications (1 transient weakness after clipping, 1 femoral thrombosis that required surgical repair). During a mean follow-up of 5.9 years (range 3-10 years), 3 patients died (1 of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 of myocardial infarct, and 1 of respiratory failure), and 1 patient had continued TIAs. All of the surviving patients recovered to their neurological baseline. CONCLUSIONS Patients with MMD

  19. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-11-11

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  20. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-09-28

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms.

  1. Primordial Radionuclides Distribution and dose Evaluation in Udagamandalam Region of Nilgiris in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, N. Muguntha; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Raghunath, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides i.e., 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in soil samples collected from Udagamandalam environment, have been measured by employing NaI (TI) Gamma ray Spectrometer. The absorbed gamma dose rate has also been simultaneously measured by using both environmental radiation dosimeter at each soil sampling location (ambient gamma dose) as well as from the gamma dose derived from the activity concentration of the primordial radionuclides. The results of activity concentration of each radionuclides in soil, absorbed dose rate in air due to soil activity and possible cosmic radiation at each location along with human effective dose equivalent for Udagamandalam environment are presented and discussed

  2. Primordial Radionuclides Distribution and dose Evaluation in Udagamandalam Region of Nilgiris in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, N. Muguntha; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Meenakshisundaram, V. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India); Raghunath, V. M. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2001-09-15

    The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides i.e., {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K, in soil samples collected from Udagamandalam environment, have been measured by employing NaI (TI) Gamma ray Spectrometer. The absorbed gamma dose rate has also been simultaneously measured by using both environmental radiation dosimeter at each soil sampling location (ambient gamma dose) as well as from the gamma dose derived from the activity concentration of the primordial radionuclides. The results of activity concentration of each radionuclides in soil, absorbed dose rate in air due to soil activity and possible cosmic radiation at each location along with human effective dose equivalent for Udagamandalam environment are presented and discussed.

  3. Primordial germ cell biology at the beginning of the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felici, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    At the XIV Workshop on the Development and Function of the Reproductive Organs held at the Congress Centre of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Monteporzio Catone, Rome, Italy, the introduction to the first session entitled Mammalian primordial germ cells dedicated to the memory of Anne McLaren, was the occasion for a concise review of the state of art of research on the biology of primordial germ cells (PGCs). This great, unforgettable scientist, who died in a car accident in July 2007, dedicated most of her studies to this field over the last 25 years. Topics briefly reviewed in this Meeting Report are: 1) how the germ line is determined; 2) what are the mechanisms underlying PGC migration; 3) to what extent PGC survival, proliferation and differentiation are cell autonomous or environmentally controlled processes and 4) how the potential for totipotency is retained in PGCs.

  4. Chiral primordial blue tensor spectra from the axion-gauge couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Ippei, E-mail: obata@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    We suggest the new feature of primordial gravitational waves sourced by the axion-gauge couplings, whose forms are motivated by the dimensional reduction of the form field in the string theory. In our inflationary model, as an inflaton we adopt two types of axion, dubbed the model-independent axion and the model-dependent axion, which couple with two gauge groups with different sign combination each other. Due to these forms both polarization modes of gauge fields are amplified and enhance both helicies of tensor modes during inflation. We point out the possibility that a primordial blue-tilted tensor power spectra with small chirality are provided by the combination of these axion-gauge couplings, intriguingly both amplitudes and chirality are potentially testable by future space-based gravitational wave interferometers such as DECIGO and BBO project.

  5. Search for gravitational waves from primordial black hole binary coalescences in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the second science run of the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors to search for the gravitational waves from primordial black hole binary coalescence with component masses in the range 0.2-1.0M · . The analysis requires a signal to be found in the data from both LIGO observatories, according to a set of coincidence criteria. No inspiral signals were found. Assuming a spherical halo with core radius 5 kpc extending to 50 kpc containing nonspinning black holes with masses in the range 0.2-1.0M · , we place an observational upper limit on the rate of primordial black hole coalescence of 63 per year per Milky Way halo (MWH) with 90% confidence

  6. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ΛCDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ΛCDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f NL

  7. Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Holes and New Weak Scale Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Giardino, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We entertain the possibility that primordialblack holes of mass $\\sim (10^{26}$--$10^{29})$~g, with Schwarzschild radii of $\\mathcal{O}{\\text{cm}}$, constitute $\\sim 10\\%$ or more of cosmic dark matter, as allowed by various constraints. These black holes would typically originate from cosmological eras corresponding to temperatures $\\mathcal{O}{10-100}$~GeV, and may be associated with first order phase transitions in the visible or hidden sectors. In case these small primordial black holes g...

  8. Low-Metallicity Blue Compact Dwarfs as Templates for Primordial Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L. K.; Hirashita, H.; Thuan, T. X.; Izotov, Y. I.; Vanzi, L.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies formed their first stars is a vital cosmological question, but the study of high-redshift objects, caught in the act of forming their first stars, is difficult. Here we argue that two extremely low-metallicity Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs), IZw18 and SBS0335-052, could be local templates for primordial star formation, since both lack evolved ($> $1 Gyr) stellar populations; but they form stars differently.

  9. Cosmological Signature of the Standard Model Higgs Vacuum Instability: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J R; Racco, D; Riotto, A

    2018-03-23

    For the current central values of the Higgs boson and top quark masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops an instability at a scale of the order of 10^{11}  GeV. We show that a cosmological signature of such instability could be dark matter in the form of primordial black holes seeded by Higgs fluctuations during inflation. The existence of dark matter might not require physics beyond the standard model.

  10. Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2003-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M>=5x10 sup 4 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 10 sup 5 sup 2 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

  11. Perchlorate Exposure Reduces Primordial Germ Cell Number in Female Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Petersen

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is a common aquatic contaminant that has long been known to affect thyroid function in vertebrates, including humans. More recently perchlorate has been shown to affect primordial sexual differentiation in the aquatic model fishes zebrafish and threespine stickleback, but the mechanism has been unclear. Stickleback exposed to perchlorate from fertilization have increased androgen levels in the embryo and disrupted reproductive morphologies as adults, suggesting that perchlorate could disrupt the earliest stages of primordial sexual differentiation when primordial germ cells (PGCs begin to form the gonad. Female stickleback have three to four times the number of PGCs as males during the first weeks of development. We hypothesized that perchlorate exposure affects primordial sexual differentiation by reducing the number of germ cells in the gonad during an important window of stickleback sex determination at 14-18 days post fertilization (dpf. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the number of PGCs at 16 dpf in control and 100 mg/L perchlorate-treated male and female stickleback. Perchlorate exposure from the time of fertilization resulted in significantly reduced PGC number only in genotypic females, suggesting that the masculinizing effects of perchlorate observed in adult stickleback may result from early changes to the number of PGCs at a time critical for sex determination. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a connection between an endocrine disruptor and reduction in PGC number prior to the first meiosis during sex determination. These findings suggest that a mode of action of perchlorate on adult reproductive phenotypes in vertebrates, including humans, such as altered fecundity and sex reversal or intersex gonads, may stem from early changes to germ cell development.

  12. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptor Induces Transgenerational Epigenetic Deregulation of MicroRNAs in Primordial Germ Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brieno-Enriguez, M. A.; García-López, J.; Cárdenas, D.B.; Guibert, S.; Cleroux, E.; Děd, Lukáš; de Dios Hourcade, J.; Pěknicová, Jana; Weber, M.; del Mazo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * epigenetic s * primordial germ cells * vinclozolin * TUNEL analysis * methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  13. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PC...

  14. Cosmological Signature of the Standard Model Higgs Vacuum Instability: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J. R.; Racco, D.; Riotto, A.

    2018-03-01

    For the current central values of the Higgs boson and top quark masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops an instability at a scale of the order of 1 011 GeV . We show that a cosmological signature of such instability could be dark matter in the form of primordial black holes seeded by Higgs fluctuations during inflation. The existence of dark matter might not require physics beyond the standard model.

  15. The safe use of a PTEN inhibitor for the activation of dormant mouse primordial follicles and generation of fertilizable eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Adhikari

    Full Text Available Primordial ovarian follicles, which are often present in the ovaries of premature ovarian failure (POF patients or are cryopreserved from the ovaries of young cancer patients who are undergoing gonadotoxic anticancer therapies, cannot be used to generate mature oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF. There has been very little success in triggering growth of primordial follicles to obtain fertilizable oocytes due to the poor understanding of the biology of primordial follicle activation.We have recently reported that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten prevents primordial follicle activation in mice, and deletion of Pten from the oocytes of primordial follicles leads to follicular activation. Consequently, the PTEN inhibitor has been successfully used in vitro to activate primordial follicles in both mouse and human ovaries. These results suggest that PTEN inhibitors could be used in ovarian culture medium to trigger the activation of primordial follicle. To study the safety and efficacy of the use of such inhibitors, we activated primordial follicles from neonatal mouse ovaries by transient treatment with a PTEN inhibitor bpV(HOpic. These ovaries were then transplanted under the kidney capsules of recipient mice to generate mature oocytes. The mature oocytes were fertilized in vitro and progeny mice were obtained after embryo transfer.Long-term monitoring up to the second generation of progeny mice showed that the mice were reproductively active and were free from any overt signs or symptoms of chronic illnesses. Our results indicate that the use of PTEN inhibitors could be a safe and effective way of generating mature human oocytes for use in novel IVF techniques.

  16. Constraining Primordial Black Holes with the EDGES 21-cm Absorption Signal arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi

    The EDGES experiment has recently measured an anomalous global 21-cm spectrum due to hydrogen absorptions at redshifts of about $z\\sim 17$. Model independently, the unusually low temperature of baryons probed by this observable sets strong constraints on any physical process that transfers energy into the baryonic environment at such redshifts. Here we make use of the 21-cm spectrum to derive bounds on the energy injection due to a possible population of ${\\cal O}(1-100) M_\\odot$ primordial black holes, which induce a wide spectrum of radiation during the accretion of the surrounding gas. After calculating the total radiative intensity of a primordial black hole population, we estimate the amount of heat and ionisations produced in the baryonic gas and compute the resulting thermal history of the Universe with a modified version of RECFAST code. Finally, by imposing that the temperature of the gas at $z\\sim 17$ does not exceed the indications of EDGES, we constrain the possible abundance of primordial black h...

  17. Hunting for primordial non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Since the first limit on the (local) primordial non-Gaussianity parameter, f NL , was obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) data in 2002, observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been playing a central role in constraining the amplitudes of various forms of non-Gaussianity in primordial fluctuations. The current 68% limit from the 7-year data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is f NL = 32 ± 21, and the Planck satellite is expected to reduce the uncertainty by a factor of 4 in a few years from now. If f NL >> 1 is found by Planck with high statistical significance, all single-field models of inflation would be ruled out. Moreover, if the Planck satellite finds f NL ∼ 30, then it would be able to test a broad class of multi-field models using the 4-point function (trispectrum) test of τ NL ≥ (6f NL /5) 2 . In this paper, we review the methods (optimal estimator), results (WMAP 7-year) and challenges (secondary anisotropy, second-order effect and foreground) of measuring primordial non-Gaussianity from the CMB data, present a science case for the trispectrum and conclude with future prospects.

  18. Trojan Horse cross section measurements and their impact on primordial nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Bertulani, C.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tumino, A.

    2018-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) nucleosynthesis requires several nuclear physics inputs and, among them, an important role is played by nuclear reaction rates. They are among the most important input for a quantitative description of the early Universe. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,p)t, d(d,n)3He and 3He(d,p)4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E)-factor. The result of these recent measurements is reviewed and compared with the available direct data. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01primordial nucleosynthesis calculations in order to evaluate their impact on the calculated primordial abundances of D, 3,4He and 7Li. These ones were then compared with the observational primordial abundance estimates in different astrophysical sites. A comparison was also performed with calculations using other reaction rates compilations available in literature.

  19. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  20. Nonstandard primordial fluctuations from a polynomial inflation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Kofman, L.A.; Primack, J.R.; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    We examine in detail the properties of inflation determined from the most general renormalizable potential for a single real scalar field Φ: V(Φ)=AΦ 4 /4+BΦ 3 /3+CΦ 2 /2+V 0 . We find sets of parameters that can strongly break scale invariance, with a valley in the usual Zel'dovich spectrum. Such a valley can lead to earlier galaxy formation and more large scale structure in the Universe than in the usual scale-invariant cold dark matter scenario. We also find that the parameters of the potential can be many orders of magnitude larger than what would be allowed without the inclusion of the cubic term, which can lead to high reheat temperatures T reh ≅ 10 15 GeV. We have mapped out all regions of parameter space and have identified those regions that produce interesting behavior, as well as the entire region that leads to an acceptable inflationary scenario with small enough fluctuations. We further explore the possibility of generating interesting non-gaussian adiabatic density fluctuations from this potential, and find that it is unlikely for general single scalar field potentials that do not contain false vacua in the path of the inflaton, as significant non-gaussian behavior implies too large a fluctuation amplitude. (orig.)

  1. Reheating, multifield inflation and the fate of the primordial observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Godfrey; Tarrant, Ewan R.M.; Copeland, Edmund J.; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of perturbative reheating on the evolution of the curvature perturbation ζ, in two-field inflation models. We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of f NL , n ζ and r to the reheating process, and present simple qualitative arguments to explain our results. In general, if a large non-Gaussian signal exists at the start of reheating, it will remain non-zero at the end of reheating. Unless all isocurvature modes have completely decayed before the start of reheating, we find that the non-linearity parameter, f NL , can be sensitive to the reheating timescale, and that this dependence is most appreciable for 'runaway' inflationary potentials that only have a minimum in one direction. For potentials with a minimum in both directions, f NL can also be sensitive to reheating if a mild hierarchy exists between the decay rates of each field. Within the class of models studied, we find that the spectral index n ζ , is fairly insensitive to large changes in the field decay rates, indicating that n ζ is a more robust inflationary observable, unlike the non-linearity parameter f NL . Our results imply that the statistics of ζ, especially f NL , can only be reliably used to discriminate between models of two-field inflation if the physics of reheating are properly accounted for

  2. Nonlinear metric perturbation enhancement of primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, M; Macias-Pérez, J; Santos, D

    2010-08-20

    We present the evolution of the full set of Einstein equations during preheating after inflation. We study a generic supersymmetric model of hybrid inflation, integrating fields and metric fluctuations in a 3-dimensional lattice. We take initial conditions consistent with Einstein's constraint equations. The induced preheating of the metric fluctuations is not large enough to backreact onto the fields, but preheating of the scalar modes does affect the evolution of vector and tensor modes. In particular, they do enhance the induced stochastic background of gravitational waves during preheating, giving an energy density in general an order of magnitude larger than that obtained by evolving the tensor fluctuations in an homogeneous background metric. This enhancement can improve the expectations for detection by planned gravitational wave observatories.

  3. Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: heling.deng@tufts.edu, E-mail: garriga@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ''supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.

  4. THE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANETS ON INCLINED ORBITS AND PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AS THE ORIGIN OF PRIMORDIAL SPIN–ORBIT MISALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.

  5. Formation of the First Star Clusters and Massive Star Binaries by Fragmentation of Filamentary Primordial Gas Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Sakurai, Yuya; Fujii, Michiko S.

    2018-03-01

    We perform a set of cosmological simulations of early structure formation incorporating baryonic streaming motions. We present a case where a significantly elongated gas cloud with ∼104 solar mass (M ⊙) is formed in a pre-galactic (∼107 M ⊙) dark halo. The gas streaming into the halo compresses and heats the massive filamentary cloud to a temperature of ∼10,000 Kelvin. The gas cloud cools rapidly by atomic hydrogen cooling, and then by molecular hydrogen cooling down to ∼400 Kelvin. The rapid decrease of the temperature and hence of the Jeans mass triggers fragmentation of the filament to yield multiple gas clumps with a few hundred solar masses. We estimate the mass of the primordial star formed in each fragment by adopting an analytic model based on a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of protostellar evolution. The resulting stellar masses are in the range of ∼50–120 M ⊙. The massive stars gravitationally attract each other and form a compact star cluster. We follow the dynamics of the star cluster using a hybrid N-body simulation. We show that massive star binaries are formed in a few million years through multi-body interactions at the cluster center. The eventual formation of the remnant black holes will leave a massive black hole binary, which can be a progenitor of strong gravitational wave sources similar to those recently detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

  6. Origin of the primordial inhomogeneities of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompaneets, D.A.; Lukash, V.N.; Novikov, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter proposes a general principle to determine the initial fluctuations of the metric in the hot Universe. The recently discovered process of amplification of density perturbations near the cosmological singularity is examined. The conclusions are applied to the problem of formation of the large-scale structure of the Universe. Topics considered include the equipartition hypothesis, a model of the initial state of the universe, and parametric amplification of the initial inhomogeneities. The equipartition hypothesis is based on the belief that at the initial moment to the energy of ''initial state'' was distributed equally over all physical degrees of freedom and modes of perturbations. It is demonstrated that the concepts of the equipartition hypothesis result in a quite different relation between physical mode amplitudes, and that due to the amplification effect the initial perturbations can be tens of orders smaller than it was earlier assumed and can be statistical or quantum fluctuations. A model of the early Universe is proposed that realizes the strong variant of the equipartition hypothesis (i.e. gives the thermal equipartition of all physical fields at the initial moment). It is concluded that the represented scenario is viable because it is based on the well established property of the conformal noninvariance of the field of density perturbations

  7. Gravitational instability in a primordial collapsing gas cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the linear evolution of short-wavelength perturbations in a background fluid flow which is undergoing gravitational collapse on large scales. Local evolution equations for perturbations to an arbitrary flow are derived in the linear regime and the short-wavelength limit. Local perturbation behavior in an inhomogeneous flow is found to be the same as that in a homogeneous anisotropic flow having the same local velocity field. Background flows in which the scale factors vary as power laws in time are considered to illustrate the relative effects of self-gravity, pressure and kinematics of the background flow on the density perturbation evolution. Perturbation analyses are then presented for more realistic background flows arising from the evolution into the nonlinear regime of initially small density perturbations in an isotropically expanding cosmological model. For low-pressure, inhomogeneous collapses, kinematic effects tend to dominate over self-gravity in driving perturbation growth as the collapse proceeds. 28 references

  8. Development of steroid signaling pathways during primordial follicle formation in the human fetal ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Anderson, Richard A; Saunders, Philippa T; Kinnell, Hazel; Mason, J Ian; Evans, Dean B; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Flannigan, Samantha; Franks, Stephen; Monteiro, Ana; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Ovarian primordial follicle formation is critical for subsequent human female fertility. It is likely that steroid, and especially estrogen, signaling is required for this process, but details of the pathways involved are currently lacking. The aim was to identify and characterize key members of the steroid-signaling pathway expressed in the second trimester human fetal ovary. We conducted an observational study of the female fetus, quantifying and localizing steroid-signaling pathway members. The study was conducted at the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. Ovaries were collected from 43 morphologically normal human female fetuses from women undergoing elective termination of second trimester pregnancies. We measured mRNA transcript levels and immunolocalized key steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors, including those encoded by ESR2, AR, and CYP19A1. Levels of mRNA encoding the steroidogenic apparatus and steroid receptors increased across the second trimester. CYP19A1 transcript increased 4.7-fold during this period with intense immunostaining for CYP19A detected in pregranulosa cells around primordial follicles and somatic cells around oocyte nests. ESR2 was localized primarily to germ cells, but androgen receptor was exclusively expressed in somatic cells. CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 were also localized to oocytes, whereas CYP11A1 was detected in oocytes and some pregranulosa cells. The human fetal ovary expresses the machinery to produce and detect multiple steroid signaling pathways, including estrogenic signaling, with the oocyte acting as a key component. This study provides a step-change in our understanding of local dynamics of steroid hormone signaling during the key period of human primordial follicle formation.

  9. Extreme scenarios: the tightest possible constraints on the power spectrum due to primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Philippa S.; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2018-02-01

    Observational constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) constrain the allowed amplitude of the primordial power spectrum on both the smallest and the largest ranges of scales, covering over 20 decades from 1‑1020/ Mpc. Despite tight constraints on the allowed fraction of PBHs at their time of formation near horizon entry in the early Universe, the corresponding constraints on the primordial power spectrum are quite weak, typically Script PRlesssim 10‑2 assuming Gaussian perturbations. Motivated by recent claims that the evaporation of just one PBH would destabilise the Higgs vacuum and collapse the Universe, we calculate the constraints which follow from assuming there are zero PBHs within the observable Universe. Even if evaporating PBHs do not collapse the Universe, this scenario represents the ultimate limit of observational constraints. Constraints can be extended on to smaller scales right down to the horizon scale at the end of inflation, but where power spectrum constraints already exist they do not tighten significantly, even though the constraint on PBH abundance can decrease by up to 46 orders of magnitude. This shows that no future improvement in observational constraints can ever lead to a significant tightening in constraints on inflation (via the power spectrum amplitude). The power spectrum constraints are weak because an order unity perturbation is required in order to overcome pressure forces. We therefore consider an early matter dominated era, during which exponentially more PBHs form for the same initial conditions. We show this leads to far tighter constraints, which approach Script PRlesssim10‑9, albeit over a smaller range of scales and are very sensitive to when the early matter dominated era ends. Finally, we show that an extended early matter era is incompatible with the argument that an evaporating PBH would destroy the Universe, unless the power spectrum amplitude decreases by up to ten orders of magnitude.

  10. DEHP exposure impairs mouse oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly through estrogen receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xinyi [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liao, Xinggui; Chen, Xuemei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Meirong; Shen, Cha; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); He, Junlin, E-mail: hejunlin_11@aliyun.com [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • DEHP inhibits primordial folliculogenesis in vivo and in vitro. • Estrogen receptors participate in the effect of DEHP on early ovarian development. • DEHP exposure impairs the expression of Notch2 signaling components. • DEHP exposure disrupts the proliferation of pregranulosa precursor cells. - Abstract: Estrogen plays an essential role in the development of mammalian oocytes, and recent studies suggest that it also regulates primordial follicle assembly in the neonatal ovaries. During the last decade, potential exposure of humans and animals to estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a growing concern. In the present study, we focused on the effect of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a widespread plasticizer with estrogen-like activity, on germ-cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly in the early ovarian development of mouse. Neonatal mice injected with DEHP displayed impaired cyst breakdown. Using ovary organ cultures, we revealed that impairment was mediated through estrogen receptors (ERs), as ICI 182,780, an efficient antagonist of ER, reversed this DEHP-mediated effect. DEHP exposure reduced the expression of ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR), and Notch2 signaling components. Finally, DEHP reduced proliferation of pregranulosa precursor cells during the process of primordial folliculogenesis. Together, our results indicate that DEHP influences oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation through several mechanisms. Therefore, exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during fetal or neonatal development may adversely influence early ovarian development.

  11. Primordial helium abundance from CMB: A constraint from recent observations and a forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    We studied a constraint on the primordial helium abundance Y p from current and future observations of CMB. Using the currently available data from WMAP, ACBAR, CBI, and BOOMERANG, we obtained the constraint as Y p =0.25 -0.07 +0.10 at 68% confidence level. We also provide a forecast for the Planck experiment using the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. In addition to forecasting the constraint on Y p , we investigate how assumptions for Y p affect constraints on the other cosmological parameters.

  12. Effective field theory of statistical anisotropies for primordial bispectrum and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Tahereh; Karami, Asieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan, E-mail: t.rostami@ipm.ir, E-mail: karami@ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We present the effective field theory studies of primordial statistical anisotropies in models of anisotropic inflation. The general action in unitary gauge is presented to calculate the leading interactions between the gauge field fluctuations, the curvature perturbations and the tensor perturbations. The anisotropies in scalar power spectrum and bispectrum are calculated and the dependence of these anisotropies to EFT couplings are presented. In addition, we calculate the statistical anisotropy in tensor power spectrum and the scalar-tensor cross correlation. Our EFT approach incorporates anisotropies generated in models with non-trivial speed for the gauge field fluctuations and sound speed for scalar perturbations such as in DBI inflation.

  13. Search for a resonant enhancement of the 7Be + d reaction and primordial 7Li abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Patrick; Adekola, A.S.; Cizewski, J.A.; Howard, M.E.; Strauss, S.; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Chae, Kyung Yuk; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Pain, Steven D.; Smith, Michael Scott; Ahn, S.H.; Jones, K.L.; Pittman, S.T.; Schmitt, Kyle; Graves, S.; Kozub, R.L.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Wheeler, J.L.; Linhardt, Laura; Matos, M.; Moazen, B.M.; Peters, W.A.; Spassova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results, produce 7 Li abundances almost a factor of four larger than those extrapolated from observations. Since primordial 7 Li is believed to be mostly produced by the beta decay of 7 Be, one proposed solution to this discrepancy is a resonant enhancement of the 7 Be(d,p)2α reaction rate through the 5/2 + 16.7-MeV state in 9 B. The 2 H( 7 Be,d) 7 Be reaction was used to search for such a resonance; none was observed. An upper limit on the width of the proposed resonance was deduced.

  14. New X-ray bound on density of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: yinoue@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We set a new upper limit on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBH) based on existing X-ray data. PBH interactions with interstellar medium should result in significant fluxes of X-ray photons, which would contribute to the observed number density of compact X-ray objects in galaxies. The data constrain PBH number density in the mass range from a few M {sub ⊙} to 2× 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}. PBH density needed to account for the origin of black holes detected by LIGO is marginally allowed.

  15. Berry phase of primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in single-field inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajany, Hamideh; Mehrafarin, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of the single-field slow-roll inflation, we derive the Hamiltonian of the linear primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the form of time-dependent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonians. We find the invariant operators of the resulting Hamiltonians and use their eigenstates to calculate the adiabatic Berry phase for sub-horizon modes in terms of the Lewis-Riesenfeld phase. We conclude by discussing the discrepancy in the results of Pal et al. (2013) [21] for these Berry phases, which is resolved to yield agreement with our results.

  16. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  17. Two novel POC1A mutations in the primordial dwarfism, SOFT syndrome: Clinical homogeneity but also unreported malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-García, Jimena; Iván Rivera-Pedroza, Carlos; Salamanca, Luis; Belinchón, Alberta; López-González, Vanesa; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucía; del Pozo, Ángela; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Lapunzina, Pablo; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; González-Casado, Isabel; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Heath, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    Primordial dwarfism encompasses rare conditions characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation and growth deficiency throughout life. Recently, three POC1A mutations have been reported in six families with the primordial dwarfism, SOFT syndrome (Short stature, Onychodysplasia, Facial dysmorphism, and hypoTrichosis). Using a custom-designed Next-generation sequencing skeletal dysplasia panel, we have identified two novel homozygous POC1A mutations in two individuals with primordial dwarfism. The severe growth retardation and the facial profiles are strikingly similar between our patients and those described previously. However, one of our patients was diagnosed with severe foramen magnum stenosis and subglottic tracheal stenosis, malformations not previously associated with this syndrome. Our findings confirm that POC1A mutations cause SOFT syndrome and that mutations in this gene should be considered in patients with severe pre- and postnatal short stature, symmetric shortening of long bones, triangular facies, sparse hair and short, thickened distal phalanges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expression of ErbB3-binding protein-1 (EBP1 during primordial follicle formation: role of estradiol-17ß.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindit Mukherjee

    Full Text Available The formation of primordial follicles involves the interaction between the oocytes and surrounding somatic cells, which differentiate into granulosa cells. Estradiol-17ß (E promotes primordial follicle formation in vivo and in vitro; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The expression of an ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1 is downregulated in 8-day old hamster ovaries concurrent with the increase in serum estradiol levels and the formation of primordial follicles. The objectives of the present study were to determine the spatio-temporal expression and putative E regulation of EBP1 in ovarian cells during perinatal development with respect to primordial follicle formation. Hamster EBP1 nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were more than 93% and 98% similar, respectively, to those of mouse and human, and contained nucleolar localization signal, RNA-binding domain and several phosphorylation sites. EBP1 protein was present in somatic cells and oocytes from E15, and declined in oocytes by P1 and in somatic cells by P5. Thereafter, EBP1 expression increased through P7 with a transient decline on P8 primarily in interstitial cells. EBP1 mRNA levels mirrored protein expression pattern. E treatment on P1 and P4 upregulated EBP1 expression by P8 whereas E treatment on P4 downregulated it by 72 h suggesting a compensatory upregulation due to E pretreatment. Treatment with an FSH-antiserum, which suppressed primordial follicle formation, prevented the decline in EBP1 levels, and the effect was reversed by E treatment. Therefore, the results provide the first evidence that EBP1 may play an important role in mediating the effect of E in the differentiation of somatic cells into granulosa cells during primordial follicle formation.

  19. Exploring telicity and transitivity in primordial thought language and body boundary imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariola, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Linguistics research on 'unconscious knowledge' related to the right brain-hemisphere represents a shift from the prevalent scientific investigation of the linguistic processes of grammatical structures associated with the dominant 'verbal' left brain-hemisphere. This study explores the relationship among primordial thought language, body boundary awareness and syntactic features--i.e., telicity, perfectivity and transitivity-in autobiographical narratives of everyday and dream memories. The results showed that event descriptions with atelic predicates and intransitive structures were more frequent in dream recall than in narratives of everyday memories. Primordial thought language and body boundary awareness, however, decreased with atelic predicates and transitive structures, which might indicate both the tendency of events to describe result states, such as achievements and accomplishments, as a means to bring about an unconscious wish fulfilment and the emphasis on event arguments to be realised without the inclusion of an external object. In narratives of everyday memories, penetration imagery increased with imperfective verb forms and decreased with perfective verb forms, and emotion lexis increased with atelic predicates and transitive structures, but not in dream memories.

  20. Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ cell and haploid gamete formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Pera, Renee A Reijo

    2009-01-01

    The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ cell formation and differentiation due to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages1-8. Here we used a germ cell reporter to quantitate and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female hESCs. Then, by silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (Deleted in AZoospermia-Like) functions in primordial germ cell formation, whereas closely-related genes, DAZ and BOULE, promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085

  1. Preheating of the Universe by cosmic rays from primordial supernovae at the beginning of cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S.; Sunyaev, R.

    2015-12-01

    The 21-cm signal from the cosmic reionization epoch can shed light on the history of heating of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ˜ 30-10. It has been suggested that X-rays from the first accreting black holes could significantly heat the Universe at these early epochs. Here we propose another IGM heating mechanism associated with the first stars. As known from previous work, the remnants of powerful supernovae (SNe) ending the lives of massive Population III stars could readily expand out of their host dark matter minihaloes into the surrounding IGM, aided by the preceding photo-evaporation of the halo's gas by the UV radiation from the progenitor star. We argue that during the evolution of such a remnant, a significant fraction of the SN kinetic energy can be put into low-energy (E ≲ 30 MeV) cosmic rays that will eventually escape into the IGM. These subrelativistic cosmic rays could propagate through the Universe and heat the IGM by ˜10-100 K by z ˜ 15, before more powerful reionization/heating mechanisms associated with the first galaxies and quasars came into play. Future 21-cm observations could thus constrain the energetics of the first SNe and provide information on the magnetic fields in the primordial IGM.

  2. PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND RESCATTERED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon [Basic Science Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Trippe, Sascha, E-mail: ki13130@gmail.com, E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-20

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.

  3. Detection of Primordial Magnetic Fields in TeV gamma-ray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingler, A.

    The analysis of the time-variable flux of γ-ray photons from extragalactic sources is currently the only proposed way to directly determine the magnetic field strengths in intergalactic space - far away from galaxies and clusters (in the cosmological "voids") - in the range below about 10,10 Gauss (Plaga 1995). Remnant magnetic fields with field strengths much below this, which may well have formed in early cosmological times, could exist in these voids. Due to their interaction with infrared photons TeV gamma-rays induce pair production in intergalactic space. The electrons and positrons are deflected by ambient magnetic fields and produce γ-rays via inverse Compton scattering that are delayed with respect to the original photons in an energy-dependent, characteristic manner. A standard method to identify these delayed events in a data sample of a source with a variable VHE γ-ray flux (as available from several Cherenkov telescope experiments for the high-emission phase of the AGN Mrk 501 in 1997) is described. Monte-Carlo simulations of existing data sets (taking into backgrounds and instrumental limitations) are used to explore how sensitive data sets similar to the existing ones are to primordial magnetic fields. We find that about 22000 (15000) events from a source with characteristics similar to Mrk 501 are needed to detect a primordial B field of 3 (10) atto Gauss (10,18 G) with a 3 significance.

  4. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: clinical findings and dental management of a child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Celebi, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient's history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  5. The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T ∼ 10 6 - 10 8 K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z ∼ 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and α-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through α-α reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Limits to the primordial helium abundance in the baryon-inhomogeneous big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, G. J.; Schramm, D. N.; Meyer, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The parameter space for baryon inhomogeneous big bang models is explored with the goal of determining the minimum helium abundance obtainable in such models while still satisfying the other light-element constraints. We find that the constraint of (D + He-3)/H less than 10 exp -4 restricts the primordial helium mass fraction from baryon-inhomogeneous big bang models to be greater than 0.231 even for a scenario which optimizes the effects of the inhomogeneities and destroys the excess lithium production. Thus, this modification to the standard big bang as well as the standard homogeneous big bang model itself would be falsifiable by observation if the primordial He-4 abundance were observed to be less than 0.231. Furthermore, a present upper limit to the observed helium mass fraction of Y(obs)(p) less than 0.24 implies that the maximum baryon-to-photon ratio allowable in the inhomogeneous models corresponds to eta less than 2.3 x 10 exp -9 (omega(b) h-squared less than 0.088) even if all conditions are optimized.

  7. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Calderón-Infante, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Muñoz, J. A.; Vives-Arias, H. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-02-20

    The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.

  8. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE): A Nulling Polarimeter for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J.; Dwek, E.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Meyer, S. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Seiffert, M. D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a concept for an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The instrument consists of a polarizing Michelson interferometer configured as a nulling polarimeter to measure the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. Rhe proposed instrument can map the absolute intensity and linear polarization (Stokes I, Q, and U parameters) over the full sky in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded optics provide background-limited sensitivity using only 4 detectors, while the highly symmetric design and multiple signal modulations provide robust rejection of potential systematic errors. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10..3 at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set can also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy.

  9. Primordial nucleosynthesis in the Rh = ct cosmology: pouring cold water on the simmering Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Geraint F.; Barnes, Luke A.; Kaushik, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis is rightly hailed as one of the great successes of the standard cosmological model. Here we consider the initial forging of elements in the recently proposed Rh = ct universe, a cosmology that demands linear evolution of the scale factor. Such a universe cools extremely slowly compared to standard cosmologies, considerably depleting the available neutrons during nucleosynthesis; this has significant implications for the resultant primordial abundances of elements, predicting a minuscule quantity of helium which is profoundly at odds with observations. The production of helium can be enhanced in such a `simmering universe' by boosting the baryon to photon ratio, although more than an order of magnitude increase is required to bring the helium mass fraction into accordance with observations. However, in this scenario, the prolonged period of nucleosynthesis results of the efficient cooking of lighter into heavier elements, impacting the resultant abundances of all elements so that, other than hydrogen and helium, there are virtually no light elements present in the universe. Without the addition of substantial new physics in the early universe, it is difficult to see how the Rh = ct universe can be considered a viable cosmological model.

  10. Primordial clays on Mars formed beneath a steam or supercritical atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin M; Parman, Stephen W; Mustard, John F

    2017-12-06

    On Mars, clay minerals are widespread in terrains that date back to the Noachian period (4.1 billion to 3.7 billion years ago). It is thought that the Martian basaltic crust reacted with liquid water during this time to form hydrated clay minerals. Here we propose, however, that a substantial proportion of these clays was formed when Mars' primary crust reacted with a dense steam or supercritical atmosphere of water and carbon dioxide that was outgassed during magma ocean cooling. We present experimental evidence that shows rapid clay formation under conditions that would have been present at the base of such an atmosphere and also deeper in the porous crust. Furthermore, we explore the fate of a primordial clay-rich layer with the help of a parameterized crustal evolution model; we find that the primordial clay is locally disrupted by impacts and buried by impact-ejected material and by erupted volcanic material, but that it survives as a mostly coherent layer at depth, with limited surface exposures. These exposures are similar to those observed in remotely sensed orbital data from Mars. Our results can explain the present distribution of many clays on Mars, and the anomalously low density of the Martian crust in comparison with expectations.

  11. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren. The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13 and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16. A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided.

  12. Does the Chemothermal Instability Have Any Role in the Fragmentation of Primordial Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2015-10-01

    The collapse of the primordial gas in the density regime ˜108-1010 cm-3 is controlled by the three-body H2 formation process, in which the gas can cool faster than free-fall time—a condition proposed as the chemothermal instability. We investigate how the heating and cooling rates are affected during the rapid transformation of atomic to molecular hydrogen. With a detailed study of the heating and cooling balance in a 3D simulation of Pop III collapse, we follow the chemical and thermal evolution of the primordial gas in two dark matter minihalos. The inclusion of sink particles in modified Gadget-2 smoothed particle hydrodynamics code allows us to investigate the long-term evolution of the disk that fragments into several clumps. We find that the sum of all the cooling rates is less than the total heating rate after including the contribution from the compressional heating (pdV). The increasing cooling rate during the rapid increase of the molecular fraction is offset by the unavoidable heating due to gas contraction. We conclude that fragmentation occurs because H2 cooling, the heating due to H2 formation and compressional heating together set a density and temperature structure in the disk that favors fragmentation, not the chemothermal instability.

  13. DOES THE CHEMOTHERMAL INSTABILITY HAVE ANY ROLE IN THE FRAGMENTATION OF PRIMORDIAL GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    The collapse of the primordial gas in the density regime ∼10 8 −10 10 cm −3 is controlled by the three-body H 2 formation process, in which the gas can cool faster than free-fall time—a condition proposed as the chemothermal instability. We investigate how the heating and cooling rates are affected during the rapid transformation of atomic to molecular hydrogen. With a detailed study of the heating and cooling balance in a 3D simulation of Pop III collapse, we follow the chemical and thermal evolution of the primordial gas in two dark matter minihalos. The inclusion of sink particles in modified Gadget-2 smoothed particle hydrodynamics code allows us to investigate the long-term evolution of the disk that fragments into several clumps. We find that the sum of all the cooling rates is less than the total heating rate after including the contribution from the compressional heating (pdV). The increasing cooling rate during the rapid increase of the molecular fraction is offset by the unavoidable heating due to gas contraction. We conclude that fragmentation occurs because H 2 cooling, the heating due to H 2 formation and compressional heating together set a density and temperature structure in the disk that favors fragmentation, not the chemothermal instability

  14. MEASURING PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY THROUGH WEAK-LENSING PEAK COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E.; Schneider, Peter; Desjacques, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possibility of detecting primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type using weak-lensing peak counts. We measure the peak abundance in sets of simulated weak-lensing maps corresponding to three models f NL = 0, - 100, and 100. Using survey specifications similar to those of EUCLID and without assuming any knowledge of the lens and source redshifts, we find the peak functions of the non-Gaussian models with f NL = ±100 to differ by up to 15% from the Gaussian peak function at the high-mass end. For the assumed survey parameters, the probability of fitting an f NL = 0 peak function to the f NL = ±100 peak functions is less than 0.1%. Assuming the other cosmological parameters are known, f NL can be measured with an error Δf NL ∼ 13. It is therefore possible that future weak-lensing surveys like EUCLID and LSST may detect primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of peak counts, and provide information complementary to that obtained from the cosmic microwave background.

  15. Primordial radionuclides in soil and their contributions to absorbed dose rate in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriones, C.R.; Duran, E.B.; Cruz, F.M. de la

    1989-01-01

    The predominant primordial radionuclides in soil which give rise to terrestrial radiation (external irradiation) were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. 40 K has the highest average activity mass concentration, i.e. 212 Bq kg -1 . 238 U and 232 Th concentrations are much lower and are only 14 and 16 Bq kg -1 respectively. Based on conversion factors given in the UNSCEAR Report (1988), the absorbed dose rates in air at one meter above the ground surface per unit activity mass concentration of primordial radionuclides were calculated. The average per caput absorbed dose rate in air received by Filipinos due to terrestrial radiation is 23 nGy h -1 . The relative contribution of 232 Th series to the total absorbed dose rate is highest, followed closely by 40 K. The contribution of 238 U series is only about one-half that of the 232 Th series. Based on the results obtained, the terrestrial component of the average per caput exposure dose rate due to natural radiation sources is 2.64 μR h -1 or roughly 3 μR h -1 . This leads to an annual average effective dose equivalent to 202 μSv. (Author). 5 annexes; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.; 6 refs

  16. MAJEWSKI OSTEODYSPLASTIC PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM TYPE II: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND DENTAL MANAGEMENT OF A CHILD PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Terlemez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient’s history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  17. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. II. Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-05-01

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the CMB quadrupole at high redshifts results in a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper we forecast the sensitivity of future radio experiments to measure the CMB quadrupole during the era of first cosmic light (z ˜20 ). The tomographic measurement of 21 cm circular polarization allows us to construct a 3D remote quadrupole field. Measuring the B -mode component of this remote quadrupole field can be used to put bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We make Fisher forecasts for a future Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT), consisting of an array of dipole antennas in a compact grid configuration, as a function of array size and observation time. We find that a FFTT with a side length of 100 km can achieve σ (r )˜4 ×10-3 after ten years of observation and with a sky coverage fsky˜0.7 . The forecasts are dependent on the evolution of the Lyman-α flux in the pre-reionization era, that remains observationally unconstrained. Finally, we calculate the typical order of magnitudes for circular polarization foregrounds and comment on their mitigation strategies. We conclude that detection of primordial gravitational waves with 21 cm observations is in principle possible, so long as the primordial magnetic field amplitude is small, but would require a very futuristic experiment with corresponding advances in calibration and foreground suppression techniques.

  18. Primordial non-Gaussianity with μ-type and y -type spectral distortions: exploiting Cosmic Microwave Background polarization and dealing with secondary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Liguori, Michele; Bartolo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, Padova, I-35131 Italy (Italy); Shiraishi, Maresuke, E-mail: ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liguori@pd.infn.it, E-mail: bartolo@pd.infn.it, E-mail: shiraishi-m@t.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [Department of General Education, National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, 355 Chokushi-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa, 761-8058 Japan (Japan)

    2017-09-01

    Cross-correlations between Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and y -spectral distortion anisotropies have been previously proposed as a way to measure the local bispectrum parameter f {sub NL}{sup loc}. in a range of scales inaccessible to either CMB ( T , E ) bispectra or μ T correlations. This is useful e.g. to test scale dependence of primordial non-Gaussianity. Unfortunately, the primordial y T signal is strongly contaminated by the late-time correlation between the Integrated Sachs Wolfe and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effects. Moreover, SZ itself generates a large noise contribution in the y -parameter map. We consider two original ways to address these issues. In order to remove the bias due to the SZ-CMB temperature coupling, while also providing additional signal, we include in the analysis the cross-correlation between y -distortions and CMB polarization . In order to reduce the noise, we propose to clean the y -map by subtracting a SZ template, reconstructed via cross-correlation with external tracers (CMB and galaxy-lensing signals). We combine this SZ template subtraction with the previously suggested solution of directly masking detected clusters. Our final forecasts show that, using y -distortions, a PRISM-like survey can achieve 1σ( f {sub NL}{sup loc}.) = 300, while an ideal experiment will achieve 1σ( f {sub NL}{sup loc}.) = 130 with improvements of a factor between 2.1 and 3.8, depending on the considered survey, from adding the y E signal, and a further 20–30 % from template cleaning. These forecasts are much worse than current f {sub NL}{sup loc}. boundaries from Planck , but we stress that they refer to completely different scales.

  19. Molecular analysis of pericentrin gene (PCNT) in a series of 24 Seckel/microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, M; Geneviève, D; Borck, G; Baumann, C; Baujat, G; Bieth, E; Edery, P; Farra, C; Gerard, M; Héron, D; Leheup, B; Le Merrer, M; Lyonnet, S; Martin-Coignard, D; Mathieu, M; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Verloes, A; Colleaux, L; Munnich, A; Cormier-Daire, V

    2010-12-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II, MIM 210720) and Seckel syndrome (SCKL, MIM 210600) belong to the primordial dwarfism group characterised by intrauterine growth retardation, severe proportionate short stature, and pronounced microcephaly. MOPD II is distinct from SCKL by more severe growth retardation, radiological abnormalities, and absent or mild mental retardation. Seckel syndrome is associated with defective ATR dependent DNA damage signalling. In 2008, loss-of-function mutations in the pericentrin gene (PCNT) have been identified in 28 patients, including 3 SCKL and 25 MOPDII cases. This gene encodes a centrosomal protein which plays a key role in the organisation of mitotic spindles. The aim of this study was to analyse PCNT in a large series of SCKL-MOPD II cases to further define the clinical spectrum associated with PCNT mutations. Among 18 consanguineous families (13 SCKL and 5 MOPDII) and 6 isolated cases (3 SCKL and 3 MOPD II), 13 distinct mutations were identified in 5/16 SCKL and 8/8 MOPDII including five stop mutations, five frameshift mutations, two splice site mutations, and one apparent missense mutation affecting the last base of exon 19. Moreover, we demonstrated that this latter mutation leads to an abnormal splicing with a predicted premature termination of translation. The clinical analysis of the 5 SCKL cases with PCNT mutations showed that they all presented minor skeletal changes and clinical features compatible with MOPDII diagnosis. It is therefore concluded that, despite variable severity, MOPDII is a genetically homogeneous condition due to loss-of-function of pericentrin.

  20. DYNAMICAL ACCRETION OF PRIMORDIAL ATMOSPHERES AROUND PLANETS WITH MASSES BETWEEN 0.1 AND 5 M {sub ⊕} IN THE HABITABLE ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stökl, Alexander; Dorfi, Ernst A.; Johnstone, Colin P. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lammer, Helmut, E-mail: alexander.stoekl@astro.univie.ac.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, A-8042, Graz (Austria)

    2016-07-10

    In the early, disk-embedded phase of evolution of terrestrial planets, a protoplanetary core can accumulate gas from the circumstellar disk into a planetary envelope. In order to relate the accumulation and structure of this primordial atmosphere to the thermal evolution of the planetary core, we calculated atmosphere models characterized by the surface temperature of the core. We considered cores with masses between 0.1 and 5 M {sub ⊕} situated in the habitable zone around a solar-like star. The time-dependent simulations in 1D-spherical symmetry include the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport, and convective energy transport. Using an implicit time integration scheme, we can use large time steps and and thus efficiently cover evolutionary timescales. Our results show that planetary atmospheres, when considered with reference to a fixed core temperature, are not necessarily stable, and multiple solutions may exist for one core temperature. As the structure and properties of nebula-embedded planetary atmospheres are an inherently time-dependent problem, we calculated estimates for the amount of primordial atmosphere by simulating the accretion process of disk gas onto planetary cores and the subsequent evolution of the embedded atmospheres. The temperature of the planetary core is thereby determined from the computation of the internal energy budget of the core. For cores more massive than about one Earth mass, we obtain that a comparatively short duration of the disk-embedded phase (∼10{sup 5} years) is sufficient for the accumulation of significant amounts of hydrogen atmosphere that are unlikely to be removed by later atmospheric escape processes.

  1. Constraints on the Primordial Black Hole Abundance from the First Advanced LIGO Observation Run Using the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Wang, Yi-Fan; Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Tjonnie G F

    2018-05-11

    Advanced LIGO's discovery of gravitational-wave events is stimulating extensive studies on the origin of binary black holes. Assuming that the gravitational-wave events can be explained by binary primordial black hole mergers, we utilize the upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background given by Advanced LIGO as a new observational window to independently constrain the abundance of primordial black holes in dark matter. We show that Advanced LIGO's first observation run gives the best constraint on the primordial black hole abundance in the mass range 1M_{⊙}≲M_{PBH}≲100M_{⊙}, pushing the previous microlensing and dwarf galaxy dynamics constraints tighter by 1 order of magnitude. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background from primordial black holes, in particular from subsolar mass primordial black holes, by Advanced LIGO in the near future.

  2. Constraints on the Primordial Black Hole Abundance from the First Advanced LIGO Observation Run Using the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Wang, Yi-Fan; Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Tjonnie G. F.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced LIGO's discovery of gravitational-wave events is stimulating extensive studies on the origin of binary black holes. Assuming that the gravitational-wave events can be explained by binary primordial black hole mergers, we utilize the upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background given by Advanced LIGO as a new observational window to independently constrain the abundance of primordial black holes in dark matter. We show that Advanced LIGO's first observation run gives the best constraint on the primordial black hole abundance in the mass range 1 M⊙≲MPBH≲100 M⊙, pushing the previous microlensing and dwarf galaxy dynamics constraints tighter by 1 order of magnitude. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background from primordial black holes, in particular from subsolar mass primordial black holes, by Advanced LIGO in the near future.

  3. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  4. Sphingosine-1-phosphate prevents chemotherapy-induced human primordial follicle death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Turan, Volkan; Lierman, Sylvie; Cuvelier, Claude; De Sutter, Petra; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    Can Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a ceramide-induced death pathway inhibitor, prevent cyclophosphamide (Cy) or doxorubicin (Doxo) induced apoptotic follicle death in human ovarian xenografts? S1P can block human apoptotic follicle death induced by both drugs, which have differing mechanisms of cytotoxicity. S1P has been shown to decrease the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on germinal vesicle oocytes in animal studies but no human translational data exist. Experimental human ovarian xenografting to test the in vivo protective effect of S1P on primordial follicle survival in the chemotherapy setting. The data were validated by assessing the same protective effect in the ovaries of xenografted mice in parallel. Xenografted mice were treated with Cy (75 mg/kg), Cy+S1P (200 μM), Doxo (10 mg/kg), Doxo+S1P or vehicle only (Control). S1P was administered via continuous infusion using a mini-osmotic pump beginning 24 h prior to and ending 72 h post-chemotherapy. Grafts were then recovered and stained with anti-caspase 3 antibody for the detection of apoptosis in primordial follicles. The percentage of apoptotic to total primordial follicles was calculated in each group. Both Cy and Doxo resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic follicle death in human ovarian xenografts compared with controls (62.0 ± 3.9% versus 25.7 ± 7.4%, P 0.05). The findings from the ovaries of the severe combined immunodeficient mice mirrored the findings with human tissue. The functionality of the rescued human ovarian follicles needs to be evaluated in future studies though the studies in rodents showed that rescued oocytes can result in healthy offspring. In addition, the impact of S1P on cancer cells should be further studied. S1P and its future analogs hold promise for preserving fertility by pharmacological means for patients undergoing chemotherapy. This research is supported by NIH's NICHD and NCI (5R01HD053112-06 and 5R21HD061259-02) and the Flemish Foundation for Scientific

  5. Dnd Is a Critical Specifier of Primordial Germ Cells in the Medaka Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cell (PGC specification occurs early in development. PGC specifiers have been identified in Drosophila, mouse, and human but remained elusive in most animals. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein Dnd as a critical PGC specifier in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes. Dnd depletion specifically abolished PGCs, and its overexpression boosted PGCs. We established a single-cell culture procedure enabling lineage tracing in vitro. We show that individual blastomeres from cleavage embryos at the 32- and 64-cell stages are capable of PGC production in culture. Importantly, Dnd overexpression increases PGCs via increasing PGC precursors. Strikingly, dnd RNA forms prominent particles that segregate asymmetrically. Dnd concentrates in germ plasm and stabilizes germ plasm RNA. Therefore, Dnd is a critical specifier of fish PGCs and utilizes particle partition as a previously unidentified mechanism for asymmetric segregation. These findings offer insights into PGC specification and manipulation in medaka as a lower vertebrate model.

  6. Affective Neuronal Selection:The Nature of the Primordial Emotion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F R Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on studies in affective neuroscience and evolutionary psychiatry, a tentative new proposal is made here as to the nature and identification of primordial emotional systems. Our model stresses phylogenetic origins of emotional systems, which we believe is necessary for a full understanding of the functions of emotions and additionally suggests that emotional organising systems play a role in sculpting the brain during ontogeny. Nascent emotional systems thus affect cognitive development. A second proposal concerns two additions to the affective systems identified by Panksepp. We suggest there is substantial evidence for a primary emotional organising programme dealing with power, rank, dominance and subordination which instantiates competitive and territorial behaviour and is an evolutionary contributor to self-esteem in humans. A programme underlying disgust reactions which originally functioned in ancient vertebrates to protect against infection and toxins is also suggested.

  7. arXiv Gravitational wave energy emission and detection rates of Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    We describe in detail gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) hyperbolic encounters. The bursts are one-time events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, which can be emitted in frequencies that could be within the range of both LIGO (10-1000Hz) and LISA ($10^{-6}-1$ Hz). Furthermore, we correct the results for the power spectrum of hyperbolic encounters found in the literature and present new exact and approximate expressions for the peak frequency of the emission. Note that these GW bursts from hyperbolic encounters between PBH are complementary to the GW emission from the bounded orbits of BHB mergers detected by LIGO, and help breaking degeneracies in the determination of the PBH mass, spin and spatial distributions.

  8. Features and New Physical Scales in Primordial Observables: Theory and Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens; Patil, Subodh P.

    2015-01-01

    All cosmological observations to date are consistent with adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale invariant initial conditions. These findings provide strong evidence for a particular symmetry breaking pattern in the very early universe (with a close to vanishing order parameter, $\\epsilon$), widely accepted as conforming to the predictions of the simplest realizations of the inflationary paradigm. However, given that our observations are only privy to perturbations, in inferring something about the background that gave rise to them, it should be clear that many different underlying constructions project onto the same set of cosmological observables. Features in the primordial correlation functions, if present, would offer a unique and discriminating window onto the parent theory in which the mechanism that generated the initial conditions is embedded. In certain contexts, simple linear response theory allows us to infer new characteristic scales from the presence of features that can break the aforementioned de...

  9. New constraints on oscillations in the primordial spectrum of inflationary perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.; Covi, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melchiorri, A. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica and Sezione INFN; Slosar, A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Astrophysics]|[Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    2007-01-15

    We revisit the problem of constraining steps in the inflationary potential with cosmological data. We argue that a step in the inflationary potential produces qualitatively similar oscillations in the primordial power spectrum, independently of the details of the inflationary model. We propose a phenomenological description of these oscillations and constrain these features using a selection of cosmological data including the baryonic peak data from the correlation function of luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our results show that degeneracies of the oscillation with standard cosmological parameters are virtually non-existent. The inclusion of new data severely tightens the constraints on the parameter space of oscillation parameters with respect to older work. This confirms that extensions to the simplest inflationary models can be successfully constrained using cosmological data. (orig.)

  10. New constraints on oscillations in the primordial spectrum of inflationary perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, J.; Covi, L.; Melchiorri, A.; Slosar, A.; Ljubljana Univ.

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the problem of constraining steps in the inflationary potential with cosmological data. We argue that a step in the inflationary potential produces qualitatively similar oscillations in the primordial power spectrum, independently of the details of the inflationary model. We propose a phenomenological description of these oscillations and constrain these features using a selection of cosmological data including the baryonic peak data from the correlation function of luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our results show that degeneracies of the oscillation with standard cosmological parameters are virtually non-existent. The inclusion of new data severely tightens the constraints on the parameter space of oscillation parameters with respect to older work. This confirms that extensions to the simplest inflationary models can be successfully constrained using cosmological data. (orig.)

  11. Effects of a primordial magnetic field with log-normal distribution on the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We assume the spectrum of PMFs is described by log-normal distribution which has a characteristic scale, rather than power-law spectrum. This scale is expected to reflect the generation mechanisms and our analysis is complementary to previous studies with power-law spectrum. We calculate power spectra of energy density and Lorentz force of the log-normal PMFs, and then calculate CMB temperature and polarization angular power spectra from scalar, vector, and tensor modes of perturbations generated from such PMFs. By comparing these spectra with WMAP7, QUaD, CBI, Boomerang, and ACBAR data sets, we find that the current CMB data set places the strongest constraint at k≅10 -2.5 Mpc -1 with the upper limit B < or approx. 3 nG.

  12. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, James S; Hetts, Steven W; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Dowd, Christopher F; Fullerton, Heather J; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T

    2009-11-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by extremely small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these patients, MOPD II is rarely examined in the neurosurgical literature. The authors report their experience with 3 patients who presented with MOPD II, which includes a patient with 8 aneurysms (the most aneurysms reported in the literature), and the first report of a patient with both moyamoya disease and multiple aneurysms. The poor natural history of these lesions indicates aggressive microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy. Microsurgery, whether for aneurysm clip placement or extracranial-intracranial bypass, is challenging due to tight surgical corridors and diminutive arteries in these patients, but is technically feasible and strongly indicated when multiple aneurysms must be treated or cerebral revascularization is needed.

  13. TRAIP promotes DNA damage response during genome replication and is mutated in primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Margaret E; Murina, Olga; Leitch, Andrea; Higgs, Martin R; Bicknell, Louise S; Yigit, Gökhan; Blackford, Andrew N; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Mackenzie, Karen J; Reddy, Kaalak; Halachev, Mihail; McGlasson, Sarah; Reijns, Martin A M; Fluteau, Adeline; Martin, Carol-Anne; Sabbioneda, Simone; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Chessa, Luciana; Maghnie, Mohamad; Salim, Mahmoud; Bober, Michael B; Nürnberg, Peter; Jackson, Stephen P; Hurles, Matthew E; Wollnik, Bernd; Stewart, Grant S; Jackson, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    DNA lesions encountered by replicative polymerases threaten genome stability and cell cycle progression. Here we report the identification of mutations in TRAIP, encoding an E3 RING ubiquitin ligase, in patients with microcephalic primordial dwarfism. We establish that TRAIP relocalizes to sites of DNA damage, where it is required for optimal phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA2 during S-phase in response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, as well as fork progression through UV-induced DNA lesions. TRAIP is necessary for efficient cell cycle progression and mutations in TRAIP therefore limit cellular proliferation, providing a potential mechanism for microcephaly and dwarfism phenotypes. Human genetics thus identifies TRAIP as a component of the DNA damage response to replication-blocking DNA lesions.

  14. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I with biallelic mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R; Wang, H; Albrecht, B; Wieczorek, D; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G; Haan, E; Meinecke, P; de la Chapelle, A; Westman, J A

    2012-08-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I (MOPD I) is a rare autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by extreme intrauterine growth retardation, severe microcephaly, central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, skin abnormalities, skeletal changes, limb deformations, and early death. Recently, mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene, which encodes U4atac, a small nuclear RNA that is a crucial component of the minor spliceosome, were found to cause MOPD I. MOPD I is the first disease known to be associated with a defect in small nuclear RNAs. We describe here the clinical and molecular data for 17 cases of MOPD I, including 15 previously unreported cases, all carrying biallelic mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Reconstruction of CMB temperature anisotropies with primordial CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2016-07-01

    Scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in galaxy clusters induces polarization signals determined by the quadrupole anisotropy in the photon distribution at the location of clusters. This `remote quadrupole' derived from the measurements of the induced polarization in galaxy clusters provides an opportunity to reconstruct local CMB temperature anisotropies. In this Letter, we develop an algorithm of the reconstruction through the estimation of the underlying primordial gravitational potential, which is the origin of the CMB temperature and polarization fluctuations and CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters. We found a nice reconstruction for the quadrupole and octopole components of the CMB temperature anisotropies with the assistance of the CMB induced polarization signals. The reconstruction can be an important consistency test on the puzzles of CMB anomalies, especially for the low-quadrupole and axis-of-evil problems reported in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Planck data.

  16. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 ± 1 K and 293 ± 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  17. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  18. Non-primordial origin of the cosmic background radiation and pregalactic density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, H.E.; Mueller, V.; Oleak, H.

    1984-01-01

    Assumptions of a tepid Universe and a smaller primordial contribution to the 3 K background are made to show that Pop III stars may be responsible for the 3 K background and cosmic ray entropy. The 3 K background would be caused by thermalized stellar radiation produced by metallized intergalactic dust formed in first generation stars. A range of mass scales and amplification factors of density perturbations in the early Universe is examined below the Jeans mass for gravitational instabilities. The density perturbations that could have been present at small enough mass scales could have survived and generated sonic modes that propagated through the plasma era and, when combined with additional gravitationally unstable entropy disturbances after recombination, triggered the formation of Pop III stars. 13 references

  19. Origin of planetary primordial rare gas - The possible role of adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.; Cannon, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The degree of physical adsorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on pulverized samples of the Allende meteorite at 113 K has been measured. The observed pattern of equilibrium enrichment of heavy rare gases over light on the pulverized meteorite surfaces relative to the gas phase is similar to the enrichment pattern exhibited by planetary primordial rare gas when compared with the composition of solar rare gas. Results indicate that, at 113 K, a total nebular pressure of from .01 to .001 atm would be required to explain the Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances in carbonaceous chondrites with an adsorption mechanism. This pressure estimate is compatible with the range of possible nebular pressures suggested by astrophysical arguments. However, the subsequent mechanism by which initially adsorbed gas might have been transferred into the interiors of grains cannot be identified at present.

  20. Probability of primordial black hole formation and its dependence on the radial profile of initial configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, J. C.; Polnarev, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we derive the probability of the radial profiles of spherically symmetric inhomogeneities in order to provide an improved estimation of the number density of primordial black holes (PBHs). We demonstrate that the probability of PBH formation depends sensitively on the radial profile of the initial configuration. We do this by characterizing this profile with two parameters chosen heuristically: the amplitude of the inhomogeneity and the second radial derivative, both evaluated at the center of the configuration. We calculate the joint probability of initial cosmological inhomogeneities as a function of these two parameters and then find a correspondence between these parameters and those used in numerical computations of PBH formation. Finally, we extend our heuristic study to evaluate the probability of PBH formation taking into account for the first time the radial profile of curvature inhomogeneities.

  1. Achieving Extreme Resolution in Numerical Cosmology Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Resolving Primordial Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As an entry for the 2001 Gordon Bell Award in the "special" category, we describe our 3-d, hybrid, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR code Enzo designed for high-resolution, multiphysics, cosmological structure formation simulations. Our parallel implementation places no limit on the depth or complexity of the adaptive grid hierarchy, allowing us to achieve unprecedented spatial and temporal dynamic range. We report on a simulation of primordial star formation which develops over 8000 subgrids at 34 levels of refinement to achieve a local refinement of a factor of 1012 in space and time. This allows us to resolve the properties of the first stars which form in the universe assuming standard physics and a standard cosmological model. Achieving extreme resolution requires the use of 128-bit extended precision arithmetic (EPA to accurately specify the subgrid positions. We describe our EPA AMR implementation on the IBM SP2 Blue Horizon system at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.

  2. Can massive primordial black holes be produced in mild waterfall hybrid inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    We studied the possibility whether the massive primordial black holes (PBHs) surviving today can be produced in hybrid inflation. Though it is of great interest since such PBHs can be the candidate for dark matter or seeds of the supermassive black holes in galaxies, there have not been quantitatively complete works yet because of the non-perturbative behavior around the critical point of hybrid inflation. Therefore, combining the stochastic and δ N formalism, we numerically calculated the curvature perturbations in a non-perturbative way and found, without any specific assumption of the types of hybrid inflation, PBHs are rather overproduced when the waterfall phase of hybrid inflation continues so long that the PBH scale is well enlarged and the corresponding PBH mass becomes sizable enough.

  3. Small-scale structure and 21cm fluctuations by primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kitajima, Naoya, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: kitajima.naoya@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    We discuss early structure formation of small scales sourced by primordial black holes (PBHs) which constitute a small part of present cold dark matter component. We calculate the mass function and power spectrum of haloes originated from the Poisson fluctuations of PBH number and show that the number of small haloes is significantly modified in the presence of PBHs even if their fraction accounts for only 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} of total dark matter abundance. We then compute the subsequent 21cm signature from those haloes. We find that PBHs can provide major contributions at high redshifts within the detectability of future experiments such as Square Kilometer Array, and provide a forecast constraint on the PBH fraction.

  4. Path integral methods for primordial density perturbations - sampling of constrained Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Path integrals may be used to describe the statistical properties of a random field such as the primordial density perturbation field. In this framework the probability distribution is given for a Gaussian random field subjected to constraints such as the presence of a protovoid or supercluster at a specific location in the initial conditions. An algorithm has been constructed for generating samples of a constrained Gaussian random field on a lattice using Monte Carlo techniques. The method makes possible a systematic study of the density field around peaks or other constrained regions in the biased galaxy formation scenario, and it is effective for generating initial conditions for N-body simulations with rare objects in the computational volume. 21 references

  5. A Search for Microsecond Gamma Ray Bursts From Primordial Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krennrich, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The project is called SGARFACE (Short Gamma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment) and is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector to provide sensitivity to short bursts of gamma rays of extraterrestrial origin. The detector is an addition to the Whipple 10m gamma ray telescope on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona and uses a digital trigger module for recognizing Cherenkov light flashes from gamma ray bursts. The digital trigger modules have been designed, tested and constructed at Iowa State University and have been installed at the Whipple 10m telescope. Operation of the experiment started in March 2003 and data collecting will likely continue until spring of 2005. A final results paper addressing a search for primordial black holes is likely to be finished by summer of 2005

  6. Dominance of gauge artifact in the consistency relation for the primordial bispectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Urakawa, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The conventional cosmological perturbation theory has been performed under the assumption that we know the whole spatial region of the universe with infinite volume. This is, however, not the case in the actual observations because observable portion of the universe is limited. To give a theoretical prediction to the observable fluctuations, gauge-invariant observables should be composed of the information in our local observable universe with finite volume. From this point of view, we reexamine the primordial non-Gaussianity in single field models, focusing on the bispectrum in the squeezed limit. A conventional prediction states that the bispectrum in this limit is related to the power spectrum through the so-called consistency relation. However, it turns out that, if we adopt a genuine gauge invariant variable which is naturally composed purely of the information in our local universe, the leading term for the bispectrum in the squeezed limit predicted by the consistency relation vanishes

  7. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  8. Effect of primordial non-Gaussianities on galaxy clusters scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, A. M. M.; da Silva, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy clusters are a valuable source of cosmological information. Their formation and evolution depends on the underlying cosmology and on the statistical nature of the primordial density fluctuations. Here we investigate the impact of primordial non-Gaussianities (PNG) on the scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We performed a series of hydrodynamic N-body simulations featuring adiabatic gas physics and different levels of non-Gaussianity within the Λ cold dark matter framework. We focus on the T-M, S-M, Y-M and YX-M scalings relating the total cluster mass with temperature, entropy and Sunyaev-Zeld'ovich integrated pressure that reflect the thermodynamic state of the intracluster medium. Our results show that PNG have an impact on cluster scalings laws. The scalings mass power-law indexes are almost unaffected by the existence of PNG, but the amplitude and redshift evolution of their normalizations are clearly affected. Changes in the Y-M and YX-M normalizations are as high as 22 per cent and 16 per cent when fNL varies from -500 to 500, respectively. Results are consistent with the view that positive/negative fNL affect cluster profiles due to an increase/decrease of cluster concentrations. At low values of fNL, as suggested by present Planck constraints on a scale invariant fNL, the impact on the scaling normalizations is only a few per cent. However, if fNL varies with scale, PNG may have larger amplitudes at clusters scales; thus, our results suggest that PNG should be taken into account when cluster data are used to infer or forecast cosmological parameters from existing or future cluster surveys.

  9. BMP signaling in the human fetal ovary is developmentally regulated and promotes primordial germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew J; Kinnell, Hazel L; Collins, Craig S; Hogg, Kirsten; Bayne, Rosemary A L; Green, Samira J; McNeilly, Alan S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of gametes in the adult organism, and their development, differentiation, and survival are regulated by a combination of growth factors collectively known as the germ cell niche. Although many candidate niche components have been identified through studies on mouse PGCs, the growth factor composition of the human PGC niche has not been studied extensively. Here we report a detailed analysis of the expression of components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling apparatus in the human fetal ovary, from postmigratory PGC proliferation to the onset of primordial follicle formation. We find developmentally regulated and reciprocal patterns of expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and identify germ cells to be the exclusive targets of ovarian BMP signaling. By establishing long-term cultures of human fetal ovaries in which PGCs are retained within their physiological niche, we find that BMP4 negatively regulates postmigratory PGC numbers in the human fetal ovary by promoting PGC apoptosis. Finally, we report expression of both muscle segment homeobox (MSX)1 and MSX2 in the human fetal ovary and reveal a selective upregulation of MSX2 expression in human fetal ovary in response to BMP4, suggesting this gene may act as a downstream effector of BMP-induced apoptosis in the ovary, as in other systems. These data reveal for the first time growth factor regulation of human PGC development in a physiologically relevant context and have significant implications for the development of cultures systems for the in vitro maturation of germ cells, and their derivation from pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Cell-type independent MYC target genes reveal a primordial signature involved in biomass accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkai Ji

    Full Text Available The functions of key oncogenic transcription factors independent of context have not been fully delineated despite our richer understanding of the genetic alterations in human cancers. The MYC oncogene, which produces the Myc transcription factor, is frequently altered in human cancer and is a major regulatory hub for many cancers. In this regard, we sought to unravel the primordial signature of Myc function by using high-throughput genomic approaches to identify the cell-type independent core Myc target gene signature. Using a model of human B lymphoma cells bearing inducible MYC, we identified a stringent set of direct Myc target genes via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, global nuclear run-on assay, and changes in mRNA levels. We also identified direct Myc targets in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We further document that a Myc core signature (MCS set of target genes is shared in mouse and human ESCs as well as in four other human cancer cell types. Remarkably, the expression of the MCS correlates with MYC expression in a cell-type independent manner across 8,129 microarray samples, which include 312 cell and tissue types. Furthermore, the expression of the MCS is elevated in vivo in Eμ-Myc transgenic murine lymphoma cells as compared with premalignant or normal B lymphocytes. Expression of the MCS in human B cell lymphomas, acute leukemia, lung cancers or Ewing sarcomas has the highest correlation with MYC expression. Annotation of this gene signature reveals Myc's primordial function in RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation as its key roles in cancer and stem cells.

  11. Growth in individuals with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II caused by pericentrin mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Niiler, Tim; Duker, Angela L; Murray, Jennie E; Ketterer, Tara; Harley, Margaret E; Alvi, Sabah; Flora, Christina; Rustad, Cecilie; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Bicknell, Louise S; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P

    2012-11-01

    Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a class of disorders characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired postnatal growth and microcephaly. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is one of the more common conditions within this group. MOPD II is caused by truncating mutations in pericentrin (PCNT) and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Detailed growth curves for length, weight, and OFC are presented here and derived from retrospective data from 26 individuals with MOPD II confirmed by molecular or functional studies. Severe pre- and postnatal growth failure is evident in MOPD II patients. The length, weight, and OFC at term (when corrected for gestational age) were -7.0, -3.9, and -4.6 standard deviation (SD) below the population mean and equivalent to the 50th centile of a 28-29-, 31-32-, and 30-31-week neonate, respectively. While at skeletal maturity, the height, weight, and OFC were -10.3, -14.3, and -8.5 SD below the population mean and equivalent to the size of 3-year 10- to 11-month-old, a 5-year 2- to 3-month-old, and 5- to 6-month-old, respectively. During childhood, MOPD II patients grow with slowed, but fairly constant growth velocities and show no evidence of any pubertal growth spurt. Treatment with human growth hormone (n = 11) did not lead to any significant improvement in final stature. The growth charts presented here will be of assistance with diagnosis and management of MOPD II, and should have particular utility in nutritional management of MOPD II during infancy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CMB lensing forecasts for constraining the primordial perturbations: adding to the CMB temperature and polarization information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanda, Simon Muya; Moodley, Kavilan, E-mail: simon.muya.kasanda@gmail.com, E-mail: moodleyk41@ukzn.ac.za [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit and School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Durban, 4041 (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    We forecast how current (PLANCK) and future (PRISM) cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments constrain the adiabatic mode and its admixtures with primordial isocurvature modes. The forecasts are based on measurements of the reconstructed CMB lensing potential and lensing-induced CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies in combination with the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization anisotropies. We first study the characteristic features of the CMB temperature, polarization and lensing spectra for adiabatic and isocurvature modes. We then consider how information from the CMB lensing potential and B-mode polarization induced by lensing can improve constraints on an admixture of adiabatic and three correlated isocurvature modes. We find that the CMB lensing spectrum improves constraints on isocurvature modes by at most 10% for the PLANCK and PRISM experiments. The limited improvement is a result of the low amplitude of isocurvature lensing spectra and cancellations between these spectra that render them only slightly detectable. There is a larger gain from using the lensing-induced B-mode polarization spectrum measured by PRISM. In this case constraints on isocurvature mode amplitudes improve by as much as 40% relative to the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization constraints. The addition of both lensing and lensing-induced B-mode polarization information constrains isocurvature mode amplitudes at the few percent level or better. In the case of admixtures of the adiabatic mode with one or two correlated isocurvature modes we find that constraints at the percent level or better are possible. We investigate the dependence of our results to various assumptions in our analysis, such as the inclusion of dark energy parameters, the CMB temperature-lensing correlation, and the presence of primordial tensor modes, and find that these assumptions do not significantly change our main results.

  13. Extracting foreground-obscured μ-distortion anisotropies to constrain primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remazeilles, M.; Chluba, J.

    2018-04-01

    Correlations between cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature, polarization and spectral distortion anisotropies can be used as a probe of primordial non-Gaussianity. Here, we perform a reconstruction of μ-distortion anisotropies in the presence of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds, applying the so-called Constrained ILC component separation method to simulations of proposed CMB space missions (PIXIE, LiteBIRD, CORE, PICO). Our sky simulations include Galactic dust, Galactic synchrotron, Galactic free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, as well as primary CMB temperature and μ-distortion anisotropies, the latter being added as correlated field. The Constrained ILC method allows us to null the CMB temperature anisotropies in the reconstructed μ-map (and vice versa), in addition to mitigating the contaminations from astrophysical foregrounds and instrumental noise. We compute the cross-power spectrum between the reconstructed (CMB-free) μ-distortion map and the (μ-free) CMB temperature map, after foreground removal and component separation. Since the cross-power spectrum is proportional to the primordial non-Gaussianity parameter, fNL, on scales k˜eq 740 Mpc^{-1}, this allows us to derive fNL-detection limits for the aforementioned future CMB experiments. Our analysis shows that foregrounds degrade the theoretical detection limits (based mostly on instrumental noise) by more than one order of magnitude, with PICO standing the best chance at placing upper limits on scale-dependent non-Gaussianity. We also discuss the dependence of the constraints on the channel sensitivities and chosen bands. Like for B-mode polarization measurements, extended coverage at frequencies ν ≲ 40 GHz and ν ≳ 400 GHz provides more leverage than increased channel sensitivity.

  14. Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the intergalactic medium with primordial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Teppei; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2017-12-01

    The presence of ubiquitous magnetic fields in the universe is suggested from observations of radiation and cosmic ray from galaxies or the intergalactic medium (IGM). One possible origin of cosmic magnetic fields is the magnetogenesis in the primordial universe. Such magnetic fields are called primordial magnetic fields (PMFs), and are considered to affect the evolution of matter density fluctuations and the thermal history of the IGM gas. Hence the information of PMFs is expected to be imprinted on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect in the IGM. In this study, given an initial power spectrum of PMFs as P (k )∝B1Mpc 2knB , we calculate dynamical and thermal evolutions of the IGM under the influence of PMFs, and compute the resultant angular power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter on the sky. As a result, we find that two physical processes driven by PMFs dominantly determine the power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter; (i) the heating due to the ambipolar diffusion effectively works to increase the temperature and the ionization fraction, and (ii) the Lorentz force drastically enhances the density contrast on small scale just after the recombination epoch. These facts result in making the anisotropies of the CMB temperature on small scales, and we find that the signal goes up to 10 μ K2 around ℓ˜106 with B1 Mpc=0.1 nG and nB=0.0 . Therefore, CMB measurements on such small scales may provide a hint for the existence of the PMFs.

  15. Non-Gaussianity as a Probe of the Physics of the Primordial Universe and the Astrophysics of the Low Redshift Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, E; Afshordi, N; Bartolo, N; Baumann, D; Bond, J R; Buchbinder, E I; Byrnes, C T; Chen, X; Chung, D J H; Cooray, A; Creminelli, P; Dalal, N; Dore, O; Easther, R; Frolov, A V; Gorski, K M; Jackson, M G; Khoury, J; Kinney, W H; Kofman, L; Koyama, K; Leblond, L; Lehners, J L; Lidsey, J E; Liguori, M; Lim, E A; Linde, A; Lyth, D H; Maldacena, J; Matarrese, S; McAllister, L; McDonald, P; Mukohyama, S; Ovrut, B; Peiris, H V; Rath, C; Riotto, A; Rodriguez, Y; Sasaki, M; Scoccimarro, R; Seery, D; Sefusatti, E; Seljak, U; Senatore, L; Shandera, S; Shellard, E P S; Silverstein, E; Slosar, A; Smith, K M; Starobinsky, A A; Steinhardt, P J; Takahashi, F; Tegmark, M; Tolley, A J; Verde, L; Wandelt, B D; Wands, D; Weinberg, S; Wyman, M; Yadav, A P S; Zaldarriaga, M

    2009-01-01

    A new and powerful probe of the origin and evolution of structures in the Universe has emerged and been actively developed over the last decade. In the coming decade, non-Gaussianity, i.e., the study of non-Gaussian contributions to the correlations of cosmological fluctuations, will become an important probe of both the early and the late Universe. Specifically, it will play a leading role in furthering our understanding of two fundamental aspects of cosmology and astrophysics: (i) the physics of the very early universe that created the primordial seeds for large-scale structures, and (ii) the subsequent growth of structures via gravitational instability and gas physics at later times. To date, observations of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe (LSS) have focused largely on the Gaussian contribution as measured by the two-point correlations (or the power spectrum) of density fluctuations. However, an even greater amount of information is contai...

  16. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Marcello [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Baldauf, T. [Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dalal, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Putter, R. D. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Dore, O. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Green, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hirata, Chris [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Huterer, Dragan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Krause, Elisabeth [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Loverde, Marilena [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Meyers, Joel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Meeburg, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Shandera, Sarah [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Kendrick [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zaldarriaga, Matias [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Assassi, Valentin [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Braden, Jonathan [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Hajian, Amir [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Kobayashi, Takeshi [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Stein, George [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Engelen, Alexander van [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude f$loc\\atop{NL}$ (f$eq\\atop{NL}$), natural target levels of sensitivity are Δf$loc, eq\\atop{NL}$ ≃ 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.

  17. The proteomic complexity and rise of the primordial ancestor of diversified life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last universal common ancestor represents the primordial cellular organism from which diversified life was derived. This urancestor accumulated genetic information before the rise of organismal lineages and is considered to be either a simple 'progenote' organism with a rudimentary translational apparatus or a more complex 'cenancestor' with almost all essential biological processes. Recent comparative genomic studies support the latter model and propose that the urancestor was similar to modern organisms in terms of gene content. However, most of these studies were based on molecular sequences, which are fast evolving and of limited value for deep evolutionary explorations. Results Here we engage in a phylogenomic study of protein domain structure in the proteomes of 420 free-living fully sequenced organisms. Domains were defined at the highly conserved fold superfamily (FSF level of structural classification and an iterative phylogenomic approach was used to reconstruct max_set and min_set FSF repertoires as upper and lower bounds of the urancestral proteome. While the functional make up of the urancestral sets was complex, they represent only 5-11% of the 1,420 FSFs of extant proteomes and their make up and reuse was at least 5 and 3 times smaller than proteomes of free-living organisms, repectively. Trees of proteomes reconstructed directly from FSFs or from molecular functions, which included the max_set and min_set as articial taxa, showed that urancestors were always placed at their base and rooted the tree of life in Archaea. Finally, a molecular clock of FSFs suggests the min_set reflects urancestral genetic make up more reliably and confirms diversified life emerged about 2.9 billion years ago during the start of planet oxygenation. Conclusions The minimum urancestral FSF set reveals the urancestor had advanced metabolic capabilities, was especially rich in nucleotide metabolism enzymes, had pathways for the

  18. Characterization, isolation and culture of primordial germ cells in domestic animals: recent progress and insights from the ovine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, S; Bogliolo, L; Bebbere, D; Ariu, F; Pirino, S

    2010-09-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) allocation, characterization, lineage restriction, and differentiation have been extensively studied in the mouse. Murine PGC can be easily identified using markers as alkaline phosphatase content or the expression of pluripotent markers such as Pou5f1, Nanog, Sox2, Kit, SSEA1, and SSEA4. These tools allowed us to clarify certain aspects of the complex interactions of somatic and germinal cells in the establishment of the germ cell lineage, its segregation from the neighbouring somatic tissue, and the guidance mechanisms during migration that direct most of the germ cells into the genital ridges. Few data are available from other domestic animals and here we reported our preliminary studies on the isolation, characterization, and in vitro culture of sheep PGCs. Sheep PGCs can be identified with the markers previously used in mouse, but, in some cases, these markers are not coherently expressed in the same cell depending on the grade of differentiation and on technical problems related to commercial antibodies used. Pluripotency of PGCs in culture (EGCs) from domestic animals also needs further evaluation even though the derivation of embryonic pluripotent cell lines from large mammals may be an advantage as they are more physiologically similar to the human and perhaps more relevant for clinical translation studies. Comprehensive epigenetic reprogramming of the genome in early germ cells, and derived EGCs including extensive erasure of epigenetic modifications, may be relevant for gaining insight into events that lead to reprogramming and establishment of totipotency. EGCs can differentiate in vitro in a various range of tissues, form embryonic bodies, but in many cases failed to generate tumours when transplanted into immunodeficient mice and are not able to generate germline chimeric animals after their transfer. Such incomplete information clearly indicates the urge to improve the studies on derivation of stem cells in farm animals and

  19. Bone structure in two adult subjects with impaired minor spliceosome function resulting from RNU4ATAC mutations causing microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Frost, Morten; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1), or Taybi-Linder syndrome is characterized by distinctive skeletal dysplasia, severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and neurological malformations. It is an autosomal recessive...

  20. Implications for Primordial Non-Gaussianity ($f_{NL}$) from weak lensing masses of high-z galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Raul

    2009-01-01

    The recent weak lensing measurement of the dark matter mass of the high-redshift galaxy cluster XMMUJ2235.3-2557 of (8.5 +- 1.7) x 10^{14} Msun at z=1.4, indicates that, if the cluster is assumed to be the result of the collapse of dark matter in a primordial gaussian field in the standard LCDM model, then its abundance should be 3-10 if the non-Gaussianity parameter f^local_NL is in the range 150-200. This value is comparable to the limit for f_NL obtained by current constraints from the CMB. We conclude that mass determination of high-redshift, massive clusters can offer a complementary probe of primordial non-gaussianity.

  1. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...... identified as well as functional and pathway enrichments associated with the oocytes from the two developmental hallmarks. A total of 729 genes were highly enriched in oocytes from primodial follicles and 1456 genes were highly enriched in MII oocytes (>10-fold, P...

  2. Tidal capture of a primordial black hole by a neutron star: implications for constraints on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pani, Paolo [CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049 Portugal (Portugal); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: paolo.pani@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In a close encounter with a neutron star, a primordial black hole can get gravitationally captured by depositing a considerable amount of energy into nonradial stellar modes of very high angular number l. If the neutron-star equation of state is sufficiently stiff, we show that the total energy loss in the point-particle approximation is formally divergent. Various mechanisms — including viscosity, finite-size effects and the elasticity of the crust — can damp high-l modes and regularize the total energy loss. Within a short time, the black hole is trapped inside the star and disrupts it by rapid accretion. Estimating these effects, we predict that the existence of old neutron stars in regions where the dark-matter density ρ{sub DM}∼>10{sup 2}(σ/km s{sup −1}) GeV cm{sup −3} (where σ is the dark-matter velocity dispersion) limits the abundance of primordial black holes in the mass range 10{sup 17} g∼primordial black holes cannot be the dominant dark matter constituent.

  3. Medical management of moyamoya disease and recurrent stroke in an infant with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Esra; Utine, Eda; Unal, Sule; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Oğuz, Kader Karli; Cetin, Mualla; Boduroğlu, Koray; Alanay, Yasemin

    2012-10-01

    We report an infant diagnosed with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II at age 8 months, who experienced cerebrovascular morbidities related to this entity. Molecular analysis identified c.2609+1 G>A, intron 14, homozygous splice site mutation in the pericentrin gene. At age 18 months, she developed recurrent strokes and hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography showed abnormal gyral pattern, cortical acute infarcts, bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid arteries and reduced flow on the cerebral arteries, consistent with moyamoya disease. In Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, life expectancy is reduced because of high risk of stroke secondary to cerebral vascular anomalies (aneurysms, moyamoya disease). Periodic screening for vascular events is recommended in individuals with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II every 12-18 months following diagnosis. Our patient was medically managed with low molecular weight heparin followed with aspirin prophylaxis, in addition to carbamazepine and physical rehabilitation. We report an infant with moyamoya disease and recurrent stroke presenting 10 months after diagnosis (at age 18 months), and discuss the outcome of nonsurgical medical management. The presented case is the second youngest case developing stroke and moyamoya disease.

  4. Chicken primordial germ cells use the anterior vitelline veins to enter the embryonic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana De Melo Bernardo

    2012-09-01

    During gastrulation, chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs are present in an extraembryonic region of the embryo from where they migrate towards the genital ridges. This is also observed in mammals, but in chicken the vehicle used by the migratory PGCs is the vascular system. We have analysed the migratory pathway of chicken PGCs, focusing on the period of transition from the extraembryonic region to the intraembryonic vascular system. Our findings show that at Hamburger and Hamilton developmental stage HH12–HH14 the majority of PGCs concentrate axially in the sinus terminalis and favour transport axially via the anterior vitelline veins into the embryonic circulation. Moreover, directly blocking the blood flow through the anterior vitelline veins resulted in an accumulation of PGCs in the anterior region and a decreased number of PGCs in the genital ridges. We further confirmed the key role for the anterior vitelline veins in the correct migration of PGCs using an ex ovo culture method that resulted in defective morphogenetic development of the anterior vitelline veins. We propose a novel model for the migratory pathway of chicken PGCs whereby the anterior vitelline veins play a central role at the extraembryonic and embryonic interface. The chicken model of PGC migration through the vasculature may be a powerful tool to study the process of homing (inflammation and metastasis due to the striking similarities in regulatory signaling pathways (SDF1–CXCR4 and the transient role of the vasculature.

  5. Limits from primordial nucleosynthesis on the properties of massive neutral leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Teplitz, V.L.; Wagoner, R.V.

    1977-11-01

    If there exist neutral leptons with masses in the range 50 eV to 5 GeV, they would have been present in thermal equilibrium in the early stages of the hot big bang. In the subsequent evolution of the universe, if their lifetime is sufficiently long, their mass dominated the energy density of the universe. The effect of their presence on the synthesis of elements in the early universe is considered. Of the observed primordial abundances, the helium abundance was found to be independent of their existence, but the deuterium abundance was found to be sufficiently sensitive to allow bounds to be placed on the mass, lifetime, and decay modes of any heavy neutrinos. In particular, on the basis of present best estimates of astrophysical parameters, previous radiative lifetime bounds on the order of months are reduced to bounds on the order of hours, and expand the range of masses for which no radiatively decaying massive neutral leptons are allowed, to 50 to 100 keV

  6. Primordial black holes as seeds of magnetic fields in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2018-06-01

    Although it is assumed that magnetic fields in accretion disks are dragged from the interstellar medium, the idea is likely not applicable to primordial black holes (PBHs) formed in the early universe. Here we show that magnetic fields can be generated in initially unmagnetized accretion disks around PBHs through the Biermann battery mechanism, and therefore provide the small scale seeds of magnetic field in the universe. The radial temperature and vertical density profiles of these disks provide the necessary conditions for the battery to operate naturally. The generated seed fields have a toroidal structure with opposite sign in the upper and lower half of the disk. In the case of a thin accretion disk around a rotating PBH, the field generation rate increases with increasing PBH spin. At a fixed r/risco, where r is the radial distance from the PBH and risco is the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit, the battery scales as M-9/4, where M is the PBH's mass. The very weak dependency of the battery on accretion rate, makes this mechanism a viable candidate to provide seed fields in an initially unmagnetized accretion disk, following which the magnetorotational instability could take over.

  7. Seven Hints for Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Clesse, Sebastien

    Seven observations point towards the existence of primordial black holes (PBH), constituting the whole or an important fraction of the dark matter in the Universe: the mass and spin of black holes detected by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO, the detection of micro-lensing events of distant quasars and stars in M31, the non-detection of ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies with radius below 15 parsecs, evidences for core galactic dark matter profiles, the correlation between X-ray and infrared cosmic backgrounds, and the existence of super-massive black holes very early in the Universe's history. Some of these hints are newly identified and they are all intriguingly compatible with the re-constructed broad PBH mass distribution from LIGO events, peaking on PBH mass $m_{\\rm PBH} \\approx 3 M_\\odot$ and passing all other constraints on PBH abundances. PBH dark matter also provides a new mechanism to explain the mass-to-light ratios of dwarf galaxies, including the recent detection of a diffuse galaxy not dominated by dark ma...

  8. The maximal-density mass function for primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin V.; Profumo, Stefano; Yant, Jackson

    2018-04-01

    The advent of gravitational wave astronomy has rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBH) as a dark matter candidate. As there are many different observational probes of the PBH density across different masses, constraints on PBH models are dependent on the functional form of the PBH mass function. This complicates general statements about the mass functions allowed by current data, and, in particular, about the maximum total density of PBH. Numerical studies suggest that some forms of extended mass functions face tighter constraints than monochromatic mass functions, but they do not preclude the existence of a functional form for which constraints are relaxed. We use analytical arguments to show that the mass function which maximizes the fraction of the matter density in PBH subject to all constraints is a finite linear combination of monochromatic mass functions. We explicitly compute the maximum fraction of dark matter in PBH for different combinations of current constraints, allowing for total freedom of the mass function. Our framework elucidates the dependence of the maximum PBH density on the form of observational constraints, and we discuss the implications of current and future constraints for the viability of the PBH dark matter paradigm.

  9. U-Pb systematics in iron meteorites: uniformity of primordial lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goepel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions and U-Pb abundances were determined in the metal phase of six iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo IA, Toluca IA, Odessa IA, Youndegin IA, Deport IA and Mundrabilla An. Prior to complete dissolution, samples were subjected to a series of leachings and partial dissolutions. Isotopic compositions and abundances of the etched Pb indicate a contamination by terrestrial Pb which is attributable to previous cutting of the meteorite. Pb isotopic compositions measured in the decontaminated samples are identical within 0.2% and essentially confirm the primordial Pb value defined by Tatsumoto et al. (1973). These data invalidate more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions published for iron meteorites, which are the result of terrestrial Pb contamination introduced mainly by analytical procedure. Our results support the idea of a solar nebula which was isotopically homogeneous for Pb 4.55 Ga ago. The new upper limit for U-abundance in iron meteorites, 0.001 ppb, is in agreement with its expected thermodynamic solubility in the metal phase. (author)

  10. Neuronal migration disorders in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Kapur, Raj P; Glass, Ian A; Murray, Mitzi L; Parnell, Shawn E; Hevner, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) is a rare microlissencephaly syndrome, with at least two distinct phenotypic and genetic types. MOPD type II is caused by pericentrin mutations, while types I and III appear to represent a distinct entity (MOPD I/III) with variably penetrant phenotypes and unknown genetic basis. The neuropathology of MOPD I/III is little understood, especially in comparison to other forms of lissencephaly. Here, we report postmortem brain findings in an 11-month-old female infant with MOPD I/III. The cerebral cortex was diffusely pachygyric, with a right parietal porencephalic lesion. Histologically, the cortex was abnormally thick and disorganized. Distinct malformations were observed in different cerebral lobes, as characterized using layer-specific neuronal markers. Frontal cortex was severely disorganized and coated with extensive leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia. Temporal cortex had a relatively normal 6-layered pattern, despite cortical thickening. Occipital cortex was variably affected. The corpus callosum was extremely hypoplastic. Brainstem and cerebellar malformations were also present, as well as old necrotic foci. Findings in this case suggest that the cortical malformation in MOPD I/III is distinct from other forms of pachygyria-lissencephaly.

  11. POC1A truncation mutation causes a ciliopathy in humans characterized by primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Noche, Ramil R; Sunker, Asma; Alshammari, Muneera J; Al-Sheddi, Tarfa; Adly, Nouran; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Megason, Sean G; Al-Husain, Muneera; Al-Mohanna, Futwan; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-08-10

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a phenotype characterized by profound growth retardation that is prenatal in onset. Significant strides have been made in the last few years toward improved understanding of the molecular underpinning of the limited growth that characterizes the embryonic and postnatal development of PD individuals. These include impaired mitotic mechanics, abnormal IGF2 expression, perturbed DNA-damage response, defective spliceosomal machinery, and abnormal replication licensing. In three families affected by a distinct form of PD, we identified a founder truncating mutation in POC1A. This gene is one of two vertebrate paralogs of POC1, which encodes one of the most abundant proteins in the Chlamydomonas centriole proteome. Cells derived from the index individual have abnormal mitotic mechanics with multipolar spindles, in addition to clearly impaired ciliogenesis. siRNA knockdown of POC1A in fibroblast cells recapitulates this ciliogenesis defect. Our findings highlight a human ciliopathy syndrome caused by deficiency of a major centriolar protein. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primordial dwarfism gene maintains Lin28 expression to safeguard embryonic stem cells from premature differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qian; Luan, Guangxin; Deng, Li; Lei, Tingjun; Kang, Han; Song, Xu; Zhang, Yujun; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong; Li, Qintong

    2014-05-08

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is characterized by global growth failure, both during embryogenesis and postnatally. Loss-of-function germline mutations in La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member 7 (LAPR7) have recently been linked to PD. Paradoxically, LARP7 deficiency was previously assumed to be associated with increased cell growth and proliferation via activation of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Here, we show that Larp7 deficiency likely does not significantly increase P-TEFb activity. We further discover that Larp7 knockdown does not affect pluripotency but instead primes embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for differentiation via downregulation of Lin28, a positive regulator of organismal growth. Mechanistically, we show that Larp7 interacts with a poly(A) polymerase Star-PAP to maintain Lin28 mRNA stability. We propose that proper regulation of Lin28 and PTEFb is essential for embryonic cells to achieve a sufficient number of cell divisions prior to differentiation and ultimately to maintain proper organismal size. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypomorphism in human NSMCE2 linked to primordial dwarfism and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Felicity; Colnaghi, Rita; Rocha, Nuno; Seth, Asha; Harris, Julie; Carpenter, Gillian; Bottomley, William E; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wong, Stephen; Saudek, Vladimir; Savage, David; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Carel, Jean-Claude; Barroso, Inês; O'Driscoll, Mark; Semple, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are essential for maintaining chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. Two the three known SMC complexes, cohesin and condensin, are important for sister chromatid cohesion and condensation, respectively; however, the function of the third complex, SMC5-6, which includes the E3 SUMO-ligase NSMCE2 (also widely known as MMS21) is less clear. Here, we characterized 2 patients with primordial dwarfism, extreme insulin resistance, and gonadal failure and identified compound heterozygous frameshift mutations in NSMCE2. Both mutations reduced NSMCE2 expression in patient cells. Primary cells from one patient showed increased micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge formation, delayed recovery of DNA synthesis, and reduced formation of foci containing Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) after hydroxyurea-induced replication fork stalling. These nuclear abnormalities in patient dermal fibroblast were restored by expression of WT NSMCE2, but not a mutant form lacking SUMO-ligase activity. Furthermore, in zebrafish, knockdown of the NSMCE2 ortholog produced dwarfism, which was ameliorated by reexpression of WT, but not SUMO-ligase-deficient NSMCE. Collectively, these findings support a role for NSMCE2 in recovery from DNA damage and raise the possibility that loss of its function produces dwarfism through reduced tolerance of replicative stress.

  14. Cranial vault remodeling in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Egermann, Marcus; Freudlsperger, Christian; Thiele, Oliver Christian

    2012-09-01

    This is a survey of the long-term result after various surgical treatments in a child with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) and craniosynostosis. We report a 17-year-old patient with MOPD II but some unusual clinical signs including bilateral knee dislocation, a misplaced upper lobe bronchus, and hypoplasia of the anterior corpus callosum. Because of premature fusion of several cranial sutures, the child developed signs of increased intracranial pressure with somnolence and papilledema. Cranial vault remodeling with fronto-orbital advancement was performed twice at the age of 16 and 21 months to open the abnormally closed suture, increase the intracranial volume, and relieve the elevated intracranial pressure. Following this procedure, the child's neurologic situation recovered significantly. Surgical procedure of fronto-orbital advancement and the performed reoperation in our patient were safe with no major complications intraoperatively and postoperatively with good functional and satisfying aesthetic outcomes in the long-term follow-up, expressed by the patient, his parents, and the surgeons.

  15. Primordial radionuclides in drinking water from former tin-mining area elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekoya, O. I.; Adewoyin, K. A.; Olaleru, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentrations of the primordial radionuclides in drinking water from two former mining areas (Bisichi and Bukuru) in Jos, Plateau State in Nigeria have been studied. The activities were determined by a non-destructive analysis using a computerized gamma ray spectrometry system with high purity germanium (HPGe). The result show the average activity concentration for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Bukuru and Bisichi to be respectively 1.20±0.02 Bq/l, 1.93±0.01 Bq/l, 4.75±0.14 Bq/l and 2.03±0.14 Bq/l, 2.20±0.13 Bq/l, 3.26±0.06 Bq/l. The annual effective doses due to the intake of drinking water from both locations approximately 2.80 mSv and 3.32 mSv respectively. These results are much higher then the reference level of a dose of 0.1 mSv/year from the intake of drinking water.

  16. A new search for primordial black hole evaporations using the Whipple gamma-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, E. T.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Boyle, P. J.; Buckley, J. H.; Byrum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Daniel, M. K.; Dowdall, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Guiterrez, K. J.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Jung, I.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D. B.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rebillot, P. F.; Reynolds, P. T.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Valcarcel, L.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; White, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's prediction that black holes should radiate like black bodies has several important consequences, including the possibility of the detection of small (~1015 g) black holes created in the very early universe. The detection of such primordial black holes (PBHs) would be an important discovery, not only confirming Hawking's theory, but also providing valuable insights into the history of the early universe. A search through 5.5 years of archival data from the Whipple Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope is made for TeV gamma-ray bursts on 1, 3, and 5 s timescales. On the basis of a null result from this direct search for PBH evaporations, an upper limit of 1.08 × 106 pc-3 yr-1 (99% CL) is set on the PBH evaporation rate in the local region of the galaxy, assuming the Standard Model of particle physics. This is more than a factor of two better than the previous limit at this energy range and includes longer timescales than have previously been explored. Comparison of this result with previous limits on the fraction of the critical density comprised by PBHs, Ωpbh, depends strongly on assumptions made about PBH clustering; in models predicting strong PBH clustering, the limit in this work could be as many as ten orders of magnitude more stringently than those set by diffuse MeV gamma-ray observations.

  17. Search for Primordial Black Holes with the Whipple Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Stephen Hawking's prediction that black holes should radiate like black bodies has several important consequences, including the possibility for the detection of small (˜10^15 g) black holes created in the very early universe. The detection of such primordial black holes (PBHs) would not only validate Hawking's theory, but would provide useful insights into the history of the early universe. A search through 5.5 years of archival data from the Whipple Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope was made for TeV gamma-ray bursts on 1 s, 3 s, and 5 s timescales. Based on a null result, an upper-limit on the evaporation rate of PBHs of 2.69 x10^6 pc-3 yr^- 1 (99% CL) was made, assuming the Standard Model of particle physics. When combined with the results of an earlier search through Whipple data, this limit was lowered to 1.33 x10^6 pc-3 yr-1, which is nearly a factor of 2 better than the previous limit at this energy range.

  18. The mechanism for primordial germ-cell migration is conserved between Japanese eel and zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are segregated and specified from somatic cells during early development. These cells arise elsewhere and have to migrate across the embryo to reach developing gonadal precursors. Several molecules associated with PGC migration (i.e. dead-end, nanos1, and cxcr4 are highly conserved across phylum boundaries. However, since cell migration is a complicated process that is regulated spatially and temporally by multiple adaptors and signal effectors, the process is unlikely to be explained by these known genes only. Indeed, it has been shown that there are variations in PGC migration pattern during development among teleost species. However, it is still unclear whether the actual mechanism of PGC migration is conserved among species. In this study, we studied the migration of PGCs in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica embryos and tested the migration mechanism between Japanese eel and zebrafish (Danio rerio for conservation, by transplanting eel PGCs into zebrafish embryos. The experiments showed that eel PGCs can migrate toward the gonadal region of zebrafish embryos along with endogenous PGCs, even though the migration patterns, behaviors, and settlements of PGCs are somewhat different between these species. Our results demonstrate that the migration mechanism of PGCs during embryonic development is highly conserved between these two distantly related species (belonging to different teleost orders.

  19. A role for Lin28 in primordial germ cell development and germ cell malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jason A.; Viswanathan, Srinivas R.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Cunniff, Kerianne; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Park, In-Hyun; Sero, Julia E.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Surani, M. Azim; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    The rarity and inaccessibility of the earliest primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the mouse embryo thwarts efforts to investigate molecular mechanisms of germ cell specification. Stella marks the minute founder population of the germ lineage1,2. Here we differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) carrying a Stella transgenic reporter into putative PGCs in vitro. The Stella+ cells possess a transcriptional profile similar to embryo-derived PGCs, and like their counterparts in vivo, lose imprints in a time-dependent manner. Using inhibitory RNAs to screen candidate genes for effects on the development of Stella+ cells in vitro, we discovered that Lin28, a negative regulator of let-7 microRNA processing3-6, is essential for proper PGC development. We further show that Blimp1, a let-7 target and a master regulator of PGC specification7-9, can rescue the effect of Lin28-deficiency during PGC development, thereby establishing a mechanism of action for Lin28 during PGC specification. Over-expression of Lin28 promotes formation of Stella+ cells in vitro and PGCs in chimeric embryos, and is associated with human germ cell tumours. The differentiation of putative PGCs from ESCs in vitro recapitulates the early stages of gamete development in vivo, and provides an accessible system for discovering novel genes involved in germ cell development and malignancy. PMID:19578360

  20. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene (21q22). We report on a patient who came to our attention as a 22-year-old with subarachnoid bleeding due to a ruptured cranial aneurysm. Until then, the patient was thought and published to have Dubowitz syndrome; previously, he was treated with coronary bypass surgery for extensive coronary angiopathy. Consecutive genetic testing revealed MOPD II. After clinical stabilization, the patient was discharged to a specialized rehabilitation center where he died due to re-rupture of a cranial aneurysm. In patients with short stature-especially when clinical features are accompanied by vascular complications-MOPD II should be considered as a differential diagnosis leading to consecutive genetic testing. After detection of mutations in the PCNT gene, a full vascular status including cerebral imaging and cardiac evaluation needs to be determined in order to analyze vascular abnormalities and initiate prophylactic treatment.

  1. The New BBN Model with the Photon Cooling, X Particle, and the Primordial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant. J.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    The Big bang nucleosynthesis theory accurately reproduces the abundances of light elements in the Universe, except for 7Li abundance. Calculated 7Li abundance with the baryon to photon ratio fixed by the observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is inconsistent with the observed 7Li abundance on the surface of metal-poor halo stars, and this problem is called "Li problem". Previous studies proposing solutions of this 7Li problem include photon cooling (possibly via the Bose-Einstein condensation of a scalar particle), the decay of a long-lived X particle (possibly the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle), or an energy density of a primordial magnetic field (PMF). We mention analyzed results of these solutions both separately and in concert, and the constraint on the X particles and the PMF parameters from observed light element abundances with likelihood analysis. We can discover parameter ranges of the X particles which can solve the Li problem and constrain the energy density of the PMF.

  2. Primate Primordial Germ Cells Acquire Transplantation Potential by Carnegie Stage 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amander T; Gkountela, Sofia; Chen, Di; Liu, Wanlu; Sosa, Enrique; Sukhwani, Meena; Hennebold, Jon D; Orwig, Kyle E

    2017-07-11

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest embryonic progenitors in the germline. Correct formation of PGCs is critical to reproductive health as an adult. Recent work has shown that primate PGCs can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells; however, a bioassay that supports their identity as transplantable germ cells has not been reported. Here, we adopted a xenotransplantation assay by transplanting single-cell suspensions of human and nonhuman primate embryonic Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque) testes containing PGCs into the seminiferous tubules of adult busulfan-treated nude mice. We discovered that both human and nonhuman primate embryonic testis are xenotransplantable, generating colonies while not generating tumors. Taken together, this work provides two critical references (molecular and functional) for defining transplantable primate PGCs. These results provide a blueprint for differentiating pluripotent stem cells to transplantable PGC-like cells in a species that is amenable to transplantation and fertility studies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Approximate likelihood approaches for detecting the influence of primordial gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen; Anderes, Ethan; Knox, Lloyd

    2018-05-01

    One of the major targets for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments is the detection of the primordial B-mode signal. Planning is under way for Stage-IV experiments that are projected to have instrumental noise small enough to make lensing and foregrounds the dominant source of uncertainty for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from polarization maps. This makes delensing a crucial part of future CMB polarization science. In this paper we present a likelihood method for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from CMB polarization observations, which combines the benefits of a full-scale likelihood approach with the tractability of the quadratic delensing technique. This method is a pixel space, all order likelihood analysis of the quadratic delensed B modes, and it essentially builds upon the quadratic delenser by taking into account all order lensing and pixel space anomalies. Its tractability relies on a crucial factorization of the pixel space covariance matrix of the polarization observations which allows one to compute the full Gaussian approximate likelihood profile, as a function of r , at the same computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLE BURSTS USING INTERPLANETARY NETWORK GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukwatta, T. N. [Director' s Postdoctoral Fellow, Space and Remote Sensing (ISR-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); MacGibbon, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Pal' shin, V. D. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Goldsten, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boynton, W. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kozyrev, A. S. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Zhang, X. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Connaughton, V. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Yamaoka, K. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Ohno, M. [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohmori, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Feroci, M. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Frontera, F., E-mail: tilan@lanl.gov [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2016-07-20

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected by the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 10{sup 13}–10{sup 18} cm (7–10{sup 5} au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.

  5. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): natural history and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith G; Flora, Christina; Scott, Charles I; Pauli, Richard M; Tanaka, Kimi I

    2004-09-15

    A description of the clinical features of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is presented based on 58 affected individuals (27 from the literature and 31 previously unreported cases). The remarkable features of MOPD II are: severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), severe postnatal growth retardation; relatively proportionate head size at birth which progresses to true and disproportionate microcephaly; progressive disproportion of the short stature secondary to shortening of the distal and middle segments of the limbs; a progressive bony dysplasia with metaphyseal changes in the limbs; epiphyseal delay; progressive loose-jointedness with occasional dislocation or subluxation of the knees, radial heads, and hips; unusual facial features including a prominent nose, eyes which appear prominent in infancy and early childhood, ears which are proportionate, mildly dysplastic and usually missing the lobule; a high squeaky voice; abnormally, small, and often dysplastic or missing dentition; a pleasant, outgoing, sociable personality; and autosomal recessive inheritance. Far-sightedness, scoliosis, unusual pigmentation, and truncal obesity often develop with time. Some individuals seem to have increased susceptibility to infections. A number of affected individuals have developed dilation of the CNS arteries variously described as aneurysms and Moya Moya disease. These vascular changes can be life threatening, even in early years because of rupture, CNS hemorrhage, and strokes. There is variability between affected individuals even within the same family. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Directed evolution of a model primordial enzyme provides insights into the development of the genetic code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M Müller

    Full Text Available The contemporary proteinogenic repertoire contains 20 amino acids with diverse functional groups and side chain geometries. Primordial proteins, in contrast, were presumably constructed from a subset of these building blocks. Subsequent expansion of the proteinogenic alphabet would have enhanced their capabilities, fostering the metabolic prowess and organismal fitness of early living systems. While the addition of amino acids bearing innovative functional groups directly enhances the chemical repertoire of proteomes, the inclusion of chemically redundant monomers is difficult to rationalize. Here, we studied how a simplified chorismate mutase evolves upon expanding its amino acid alphabet from nine to potentially 20 letters. Continuous evolution provided an enhanced enzyme variant that has only two point mutations, both of which extend the alphabet and jointly improve protein stability by >4 kcal/mol and catalytic activity tenfold. The same, seemingly innocuous substitutions (Ile→Thr, Leu→Val occurred in several independent evolutionary trajectories. The increase in fitness they confer indicates that building blocks with very similar side chain structures are highly beneficial for fine-tuning protein structure and function.

  7. Exposure to endocrine disruptor induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs in primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez

    Full Text Available In mammals, germ cell differentiation is initiated in the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs during fetal development. Prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants such as endocrine disruptors may alter PGC differentiation, development of the male germline and induce transgenerational epigenetic disorders. The anti-androgenic compound vinclozolin represents a paradigmatic example of molecule causing transgenerational effects on germ cells. We performed prenatal exposure to vinclozolin in mice and analyzed the phenotypic and molecular changes in three successive generations. A reduction in the number of embryonic PGCs and increased rate of apoptotic cells along with decrease of fertility rate in adult males were observed in F1 to F3 generations. Blimp1 is a crucial regulator of PGC differentiation. We show that prenatal exposure to vinclozolin deregulates specific microRNAs in PGCs, such as miR-23b and miR-21, inducing disequilibrium in the Lin28/let-7/Blimp1 pathway in three successive generations of males. As determined by global maps of cytosine methylation, we found no evidence for prominent changes in DNA methylation in PGCs or mature sperm. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of expression of microRNAs affecting key regulatory pathways of germ cells differentiation.

  8. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  9. Maternal Nanos-Dependent RNA Stabilization in the Primordial Germ Cells of Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Seiko; Kumata, Yuji; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Nanos (Nos) is an evolutionary conserved protein expressed in the germline of various animal species. In Drosophila, maternal Nos protein is essential for germline development. In the germline progenitors, or the primordial germ cells (PGCs), Nos binds to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs to repress their translation. In contrast to this prevailing role of Nos, here we report that the 3' UTR of CG32425 mRNA mediates Nos-dependent RNA stabilization in PGCs. We found that the level of mRNA expressed from a reporter gene fused to the CG32425 3' UTR was significantly reduced in PGCs lacking maternal Nos (nos PGCs) as compared with normal PGCs. By deleting the CG32425 3' UTR, we identified the region required for mRNA stabilization, which includes Nos-binding sites. In normal embryos, CG32425 mRNA was maternally supplied into PGCs and remained in this cell type during embryogenesis. However, as expected from our reporter assay, the levels of CG32425 mRNA and its protein product expressed in nos PGCs were lower than in normal PGCs. Thus, we propose that Nos protein has dual functions in translational repression and stabilization of specific RNAs to ensure proper germline development. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Deadenylase depletion protects inherited mRNAs in primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, S Zachary; Reich, Adrian M; Oulhen, Nathalie; Raz, Tal; Milos, Patrice M; Campanale, Joseph P; Hamdoun, Amro; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-08-01

    A crucial event in animal development is the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), which become the stem cells that create sperm and eggs. How PGCs are created provides a valuable paradigm for understanding stem cells in general. We find that the PGCs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus exhibit broad transcriptional repression, yet enrichment for a set of inherited mRNAs. Enrichment of several germline determinants in the PGCs requires the RNA-binding protein Nanos to target the transcript that encodes CNOT6, a deadenylase, for degradation in the PGCs, thereby creating a stable environment for RNA. Misexpression of CNOT6 in the PGCs results in their failure to retain Seawi transcripts and Vasa protein. Conversely, broad knockdown of CNOT6 expands the domain of Seawi RNA as well as exogenous reporters. Thus, Nanos-dependent spatially restricted CNOT6 differential expression is used to selectively localize germline RNAs to the PGCs. Our findings support a 'time capsule' model of germline determination, whereby the PGCs are insulated from differentiation by retaining the molecular characteristics of the totipotent egg and early embryo. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Impact of Uncertainties in the Cosmological Parameters on the Measurement of Primordial non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Liguori, M

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of cosmological parameters' uncertainties on estimates of the primordial NG parameter f_NL in local and equilateral models of non-Gaussianity. We show that propagating these errors increases the f_NL relative uncertainty by 16% for WMAP and 5 % for Planck in the local case, whereas for equilateral configurations the correction term are 14% and 4%, respectively. If we assume for local f_NL a central value of order 60, according to recent WMAP 5-years estimates, we obtain for Planck a final correction \\Delta f_NL = 3. Although not dramatic, this correction is at the level of the expected estimator uncertainty for Planck, and should then be taken into account when quoting the significance of an eventual future detection. In current estimates of f_NL the cosmological parameters are held fixed at their best-fit values. We finally note that the impact of uncertainties in the cosmological parameters on the final f_NL error bar would become totally negligible if the parameters were allowed to vary...

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON SCALAR AND TENSOR PERTURBATIONS IN PHENOMENOLOGICAL AND TWO-FIELD INFLATION MODELS: BAYESIAN EVIDENCES FOR PRIMORDIAL ISOCURVATURE AND TENSOR MODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, Jussi [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Savelainen, Matti; Talvitie, Marianne; Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Rusak, Stanislav, E-mail: jussi.valiviita@astro.uio.no [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-10

    We constrain cosmological models where the primordial perturbations have an adiabatic and a (possibly correlated) cold dark matter (CDM) or baryon isocurvature component. We use both a phenomenological approach, where the power spectra of primordial perturbations are parameterized with amplitudes and spectral indices, and a slow-roll two-field inflation approach where slow-roll parameters are used as primary parameters, determining the spectral indices and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In the phenomenological case, with CMB data, the upper limit to the CDM isocurvature fraction is {alpha} < 6.4% at k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1} and 15.4% at k = 0.01 Mpc{sup -1}. The non-adiabatic contribution to the CMB temperature variance is -0.030 < {alpha}{sub T} < 0.049 at the 95% confidence level. Including the supernova (SN) (or large-scale structure) data, these limits become {alpha} < 7.0%, 13.7%, and -0.048 < {alpha}{sub T} < 0.042 (or {alpha} < 10.2%, 16.0%, and -0.071 < {alpha}{sub T} < 0.024). The CMB constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r < 0.26 at k = 0.01 Mpc{sup -1}, is not affected by the non-adiabatic modes. In the slow-roll two-field inflation approach, the spectral indices are constrained close to 1. This leads to tighter limits on the isocurvature fraction; with the CMB data {alpha} < 2.6% at k = 0.01 Mpc{sup -1}, but the constraint on {alpha}{sub T} is not much affected, -0.058 < {alpha}{sub T} < 0.045. Including SN (or LSS) data, these limits become {alpha} < 3.2% and -0.056 < {alpha}{sub T} < 0.030 (or {alpha} < 3.4% and -0.063 < {alpha}{sub T} < -0.008). In addition to the generally correlated models, we study also special cases where the adiabatic and isocurvature modes are uncorrelated or fully (anti)correlated. We calculate Bayesian evidences (model probabilities) in 21 different non-adiabatic cases and compare them to the corresponding adiabatic models, and find that in all cases the data support the pure adiabatic model.

  13. Primordial environment of supermassive black holes. II. Deep Y- and J-band images around the z 6.3 quasar SDSS J1030+0524

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaverde, B.; Gilli, R.; Mignoli, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Sani, E.; Vanzella, E.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-10-01

    Many cosmological studies predict that early supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can only form in the most massive dark matter halos embedded within large-scale structures marked by galaxy overdensities that may extend up to 10 physical Mpc. This scenario, however, has not been confirmed observationally, as the search for galaxy overdensities around high-z quasars has returned conflicting results. The field around the z = 6.31 quasar SDSSJ1030+0524 (J1030) is unique for multi-band coverage and represents an excellent data legacy for studying the environment around a primordial SMBH. In this paper we present wide-area ( 25' × 25') Y- and J-band imaging of the J1030 field obtained with the near infrared camera WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We built source catalogs in the Y- and J-band, and matched those with our photometric catalog in the r, z, and I bands presented in our previous paper and based on sources with zAB4σ. The overdensity value and its significance are higher than those found in our previous paper and we interpret this as evidence of an improved LBG selection.

  14. Identification of two novel critical mutations in PCNT gene resulting in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Feng; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Min-Wei; Lou, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Chun-Yu; Feng, Hong-Lin; Lin, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a highly detrimental human autosomal inherited recessive disorder. The hallmark characteristics of this disease are intrauterine and postnatal growth restrictions, with some patients also having cerebrovascular problems such as cerebral aneurysms. The genomic basis behind most clinical features of MOPD II remains largely unclear. The aim of this work was to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with MOPD II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient had typical MOPD II syndrome, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. We identified three novel mutations in the PCNT gene, including one single base alteration (9842A>C in exon 45) and two deletions (Del-C in exon 30 and Del-16 in exon 41). The deletions were co-segregated with the affected individual in the family and were not present in the control population. Computer modeling demonstrated that the deletions may cause drastic changes on the secondary and tertiary structures, affecting the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the mutant proteins. In conclusion, we identified two novel mutations in the PCNT gene associated with MOPD II and intracranial aneurysms, and the mutations were expected to alter the stability and functioning of the protein by computer modeling.

  15. Loss of function mutation in LARP7, chaperone of 7SK ncRNA, causes a syndrome of facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, and primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazami, Anas M; Al-Owain, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Shamrani, Hussain; Al-Falki, Yahya H; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Alsheddi, Tarfa; Colak, Dilek; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-10-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. Various molecular mechanisms are known to underlie the disease including impaired mitotic mechanics, abnormal IGF2 expression, perturbed DNA damage response, defective spliceosomal machinery, and abnormal replication licensing. Here, we describe a syndromic form of PD associated with severe intellectual disability and distinct facial features in a large multiplex Saudi family. Analysis reveals a novel underlying mechanism for PD involving depletion of 7SK, an abundant cellular noncoding RNA (ncRNA), due to mutation of its chaperone LARP7. We show that 7SK levels are tightly linked to LARP7 expression across cell lines, and that this chaperone is ubiquitously expressed in the mouse embryo. The 7SK is known to influence the expression of a wide array of genes through its inhibitory effect on the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) as well as its competing role in HMGA1-mediated transcriptional regulation. This study documents a critical role played by ncRNA in human development and adds to the growing list of molecular mechanisms that, when perturbed, converge on the PD phenotype. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. First direct measurement of the 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section at big bang energies and the primordial lithium problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M; Trezzi, D; Menegazzo, R; Aliotta, M; Bellini, A; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Prati, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T

    2014-07-25

    Recent observations of (6)Li in metal poor stars suggest a large production of this isotope during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In standard BBN calculations, the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li reaction dominates (6)Li production. This reaction has never been measured inside the BBN energy region because its cross section drops exponentially at low energy and because the electric dipole transition is strongly suppressed for the isoscalar particles (2)H and α at energies below the Coulomb barrier. Indirect measurements using the Coulomb dissociation of (6)Li only give upper limits owing to the dominance of nuclear breakup processes. Here, we report on the results of the first measurement of the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li cross section at big bang energies. The experiment was performed deep underground at the LUNA 400 kV accelerator in Gran Sasso, Italy. The primordial (6)Li/(7)Li isotopic abundance ratio has been determined to be (1.5 ± 0.3) × 10(-5), from our experimental data and standard BBN theory. The much higher (6)Li/(7)Li values reported for halo stars will likely require a nonstandard physics explanation, as discussed in the literature.

  17. Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of Neon in terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Charnoz, Sebatien; Moreira, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The presence of Neon in terrestrial planet mantles may be attributed to the implantation of solar wind in planetary precursors or to the dissolution of primordial solar gases captured from the accretionary disk into an early magma ocean. This is suggested by the Neon isotopic ratio similar to those of the Sun observed in the Earth mantle. Here, we evaluate the second hypothesis. We use general considerations of planetary accretion and atmospheric science. Using current models of terrestrial planet formation, we study the evolution of standard planetary embryos with masses in a range of 0.1-0.2 MEarth, where MEarth is the Earth's mass, in an annular region at distances between 0.5 and 1.5 Astronomical Units from the star. We determine the characteristics of atmospheres that can be captured by such embryos for a wide range of parameters and calculate the maximum amount of Neon that can be dissolved in the planet. Our calculations may be directly transposed to any other planet. However, we only know of the amount of Neon in the Earth's solid mantle. Thus we use Earth to discuss our results. We find that the amount of dissolved Neon is too small to account for the present-day Neon contents of the Earth's mantle, if the nebular gas disk completely disappears before the largest planetary embryos grow to be ∼0.2 MEarth. This leaves solar irradiation as the most likely source of Neon in terrestrial planets for the most standard case of planetary formation models.

  18. Test the mergers of the primordial black holes by high frequency gravitational-wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Jin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The black hole could have a primordial origin if its mass is less than 1M {sub CircleDot}. The mergers of these black hole binaries generate stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB). We investigate the SGWB in high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz. It can be detected by high frequency gravitational-wave detector. Energy density spectrum and amplitude of the SGWB are derived. The upper limit of the energy density spectrum is around 10{sup -7}. Also, the upper limit of the amplitude ranges from 10{sup -31.5} to 10{sup -29.5}. The fluctuation of spacetime origin from gravitational wave could give a fluctuation of the background electromagnetic field in a high frequency gravitational-wave detector. The signal photon flux generated by the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz is derived, which ranges from 1 to 10{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The comparison between the signal photon flux generated by relic gravitational waves (RGWs) and the SGWB is also discussed in this paper. It is shown that the signal photon flux generated by the RGW, which is predicted by the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models, is sufficiently lower than the one generated by the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz. Our results indicate that the SGWB in the high frequency band 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} Hz is more likely to be detected by the high frequency gravitational-wave detector. (orig.)

  19. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  20. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bakacak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF, generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively. This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility.

  1. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Özge Kizilkale; Yıldırım, Gazi; Bakacak, Zeyneb; Sayar, Hamide; Han, Agahan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively). This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  3. Novel POC1A mutation in primordial dwarfism reveals new insights for centriole biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparir, Asuman; Karatas, Omer F; Yuceturk, Betul; Yuksel, Bayram; Bayrak, Ali O; Gerdan, Omer F; Sagiroglu, Mahmut S; Gezdirici, Alper; Kirimtay, Koray; Selcuk, Ece; Karabay, Arzu; Creighton, Chad J; Yuksel, Adnan; Ozen, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    POC1A encodes a WD repeat protein localizing to centrioles and spindle poles and is associated with short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism and hypotrichosis (SOFT) syndrome. These main features are related to the defect in cell proliferation of chondrocytes in growth plate. In the current study, we aimed at identifying the molecular basis of two patients with primordial dwarfism (PD) in a single family through utilization of whole-exome sequencing. A novel homozygous p.T120A missense mutation was detected in POC1A in both patients, a known causative gene of SOFT syndrome, and confirmed using Sanger sequencing. To test the pathogenicity of the detected mutation, primary fibroblast cultures obtained from the patients and a control individual were used. For evaluating the global gene expression profile of cells carrying p.T120A mutation in POC1A, we performed the gene expression array and compared their expression profiles to those of control fibroblast cells. The gene expression array analysis showed that 4800 transcript probes were significantly deregulated in cells with p.T120A mutation in comparison to the control. GO term association results showed that deregulated genes are mostly involved in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the p.T120A missense mutation in POC1A caused the formation of abnormal mitotic spindle structure, including supernumerary centrosomes, and changes in POC1A were accompanied by alterations in another centrosome-associated WD repeat protein p80-katanin. As a result, we identified a novel mutation in POC1A of patients with PD and showed that this mutation causes the formation of multiple numbers of centrioles and multipolar spindles with abnormal chromosome arrangement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-03

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder associated with variants in the centrosomal protein ninein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauber, Andrew; Lafranchi, Stephen H; Maliga, Zoltan; Lui, Julian C; Moon, Jennifer E; McDeed, Cailin; Henke, Katrin; Zonana, Jonathan; Kingman, Garrett A; Pers, Tune H; Baron, Jeffrey; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Harris, Matthew P; Hwa, Vivian

    2012-11-01

    Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a rare, severe form of human growth failure in which growth restriction is evident in utero and continues into postnatal life. Single causative gene defects have been identified in a number of patients with MPD, and all involve genes fundamental to cellular processes including centrosome functions. The objective of the study was to find the genetic etiology of a novel presentation of MPD. The design of the study was whole-exome sequencing performed on two affected sisters in a single family. Molecular and functional studies of a candidate gene were performed using patient-derived primary fibroblasts and a zebrafish morpholino oligonucleotides knockdown model. Two sisters presented with a novel subtype of MPD, including severe intellectual disabilities. NIN, encoding Ninein, a centrosomal protein critically involved in asymmetric cell division, was identified as a candidate gene, and functional impacts in fibroblasts and zebrafish were studied. From 34,606 genomic variants, two very rare missense variants in NIN were identified. Both probands were compound heterozygotes. In the zebrafish, ninein knockdown led to specific and novel defects in the specification and morphogenesis of the anterior neuroectoderm, resulting in a deformity of the developing cranium with a small, squared skull highly reminiscent of the human phenotype. We identified a novel clinical subtype of MPD in two sisters who have rare variants in NIN. We show, for the first time, that reduction of ninein function in the developing zebrafish leads to specific deficiencies of brain and skull development, offering a developmental basis for the myriad phenotypes in our patients.

  6. The formation of massive primordial stars in the presence of moderate UV backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bovino, S. [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grassi, T. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Spaans, M., E-mail: mlatif@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    Radiative feedback produced by stellar populations played a vital role in early structure formation. In particular, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star-forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux, which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the radiation sources. These photons can quench the formation of molecular hydrogen by photodetachment of H{sup –}. In this study, we explore the impact of such UV radiation on fragmentation in massive primordial halos of a few times 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. To accomplish this goal, we perform high resolution cosmological simulations for two distinct halos and vary the strength of the impinging background UV field in units of J {sub 21} assuming a blackbody radiation spectrum with a characteristic temperature of T {sub rad} = 10{sup 4} K. We further make use of sink particles to follow the evolution for 10,000 yr after reaching the maximum refinement level. No vigorous fragmentation is observed in UV-illuminated halos while the accretion rate changes according to the thermal properties. Our findings show that a few 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} solar mass protostars are formed when halos are irradiated by J {sub 21} = 10-500 at z > 10 and suggest a strong relation between the strength of the UV flux and mass of a protostar. This mode of star formation is quite different from minihalos, as higher accretion rates of about 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} are observed by the end of our simulations. The resulting massive stars are potential cradles for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes at earlier cosmic times and contribute to the formation of a global X-ray background.

  7. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  8. Migratory and adhesive properties of Xenopus laevis primordial germ cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Dzementsei

    2013-11-01

    The directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs to the site of gonad formation is an advantageous model system to study cell motility. The embryonic development of PGCs has been investigated in different animal species, including mice, zebrafish, Xenopus and Drosophila. In this study we focus on the physical properties of Xenopus laevis PGCs during their transition from the passive to the active migratory state. Pre-migratory PGCs from Xenopus laevis embryos at developmental stages 17–19 to be compared with migratory PGCs from stages 28–30 were isolated and characterized in respect to motility and adhesive properties. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we observed a decline in adhesiveness of PGCs upon reaching the migratory state, as defined by decreased attachment to extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, and a reduced adhesion to somatic endodermal cells. Data obtained from qPCR analysis with isolated PGCs reveal that down-regulation of E-cadherin might contribute to this weakening of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, using an in vitro migration assay, we found that movement of X. laevis PGCs can also occur independently of specific interactions with their neighboring cells. The reduction of cellular adhesion during PGC development is accompanied by enhanced cellular motility, as reflected in increased formation of bleb-like protrusions and inferred from electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS as well as time-lapse image analysis. Temporal alterations in cell shape, including contraction and expansion of the cellular body, reveal a higher degree of cellular dynamics for the migratory PGCs in vitro.

  9. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): expanding the vascular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Khan, Nadia; Kaplan, Jennifer; Lewis, Kristi; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Scott, Charles I; Steinberg, Gary K

    2010-04-01

    Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II (MOPD II) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder. Features include severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), poor postnatal growth (adult stature approximately 100 cm), severe microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and normal or near normal intelligence. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved registry was created and currently follows 25 patients with a diagnosis of MOPD II. Based on previous studies, a neurovascular screening program was implemented and 13 (52%) of these patients have been found to have cerebral neurovascular abnormalities including moyamoya angiopathy and/or intracranial aneurysms. The typical moyamoya pathogenesis begins with vessel narrowing in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral (A1) or middle cerebral (M1) artery segments. The narrowing may predominate initially on one side, progresses to bilateral stenosis, with subsequent occlusion of the vessels and collateral formation. We present four patients who, on neurovascular screening, were found to have cerebrovascular changes. Two were asymptomatic, one presented with a severe headache and projectile vomiting related to a ruptured aneurysm, and one presented after an apparent decline in cognitive functioning. Analysis of the registry suggests screening for moyamoya disease be performed at the time of MOPD II diagnosis and at least every 12-18 months using MRA or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). We believe this is imperative. If diagnosed early enough, re-vascularization and aneurysm treatment in skilled hands can be performed safely and prevent or minimize long-term sequelae in this population. Emergent evaluation is also needed when other neurologic or cardiac symptoms are present. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Impact of a primordial magnetic field on cosmic microwave background B modes with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the manner in which the primordial magnetic field (PMF) suppresses the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B mode due to the weak-lensing (WL) effect. The WL effect depends on the lensing potential (LP) caused by matter perturbations, the distribution of which at cosmological scales is given by the matter power spectrum (MPS). Therefore, the WL effect on the CMB B mode is affected by the MPS. Considering the effect of the ensemble average energy density of the PMF, which we call "the background PMF," on the MPS, the amplitude of MPS is suppressed in the wave number range of k >0.01 h Mpc-1 . The MPS affects the LP and the WL effect in the CMB B mode; however, the PMF can damp this effect. Previous studies of the CMB B mode with the PMF have only considered the vector and tensor modes. These modes boost the CMB B mode in the multipole range of ℓ>1000 , whereas the background PMF damps the CMB B mode owing to the WL effect in the entire multipole range. The matter density in the Universe controls the WL effect. Therefore, when we constrain the PMF and the matter density parameters from cosmological observational data sets, including the CMB B mode, we expect degeneracy between these parameters. The CMB B mode also provides important information on the background gravitational waves, inflation theory, matter density fluctuations, and the structure formations at the cosmological scale through the cosmological parameter search. If we study these topics and correctly constrain the cosmological parameters from cosmological observations, including the CMB B mode, we need to correctly consider the background PMF.

  11. A Focus on Cryogenic Engineering for the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Rogelio; Weston, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic engineering involves design and modification of equipment that is used under boiling point of nitrogen which is 77 K. The focus of this paper will be on the design of hardware for cryogenic use and a retrofit that was done to the main laboratory cryostat used to test flight components for the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer balloon-borne mission. Data from prior tests showed that there was a superfluid helium leak and a total disassemble of the cryostat was conducted in order to localize and fix the leak. To improve efficiency new fill tubes and clamps with modifications were added to the helium tank. Upon removal of the tank, corrosion was found on the flange face that connects to the helium cold plate and therefore had to be fully replaced and copper plated to prevent future corrosion. Indium seals were also replaced for the four fill tubes, a helium level sensor, and the nitrogen and helium tanks. Four additional shielded twisted pairs of cryogenic wire and a wire harness for the Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) were added. Finally, there was also design work done for multiple pieces that went inside the cryostat and a separate probe used to test the SQUIDs. Upon successful completion of the cryostat upgrade, tests were run to check the effectiveness and stability of the upgrades. The post-retrofit tests showed minor leaks were still present and due to this, superfluidity has still not been attained. As such there could still be a possibility of a superfluid leak appearing in the future. Regardless, the copper plating on the helium tank has elongated the need to service it by three to five years.

  12. Large-scale structure in the universe: Theory vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Jones, B.J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of observations constrain models of the origin of large scale cosmic structures. We review here the elements of current theories and comment in detail on which of the current observational data provide the principal constraints. We point out that enough observational data have accumulated to constrain (and perhaps determine) the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations over a very large range of scales. We discuss the theories in the light of observational data and focus on the potential of future observations in providing even (and ever) tighter constraints. (orig.)

  13. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V.; Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  14. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  15. The Dynamical Imprint of Lost Protoplanets on the Trans-Neptunian Populations, and Limits on the Primordial Size Distribution of Trans-Neptunian Objects at Pluto and Larger Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Andrew Brian; Dawson, Rebekah

    2018-04-01

    Planet formation remains a poorly understood process, in part because of our limited access to the intermediate phases of planetesimal and protoplanet growth. Today, the vast majority of the accessible remaining planetesimals and protoplanets reside within the Hot Trans-Neptunian Object population. This population has been depleted by 99% - 99.9% over the course of the Solar system's history, and as such the present day size-number distribution may be incomplete at the large size end. We show that such lost protoplanets would have left signatures in the dynamics of the present-day Trans-Neptunian Populations, and their primordial number can thus be statistically limited by considering the survival of ultra-wide binary TNOs, the Cold Classical Kuiper belt, and the resonant populations. We compare those limits to the predicted size-number distribution of various planetesimal and proto-planet growth models.

  16. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe II. Principle of detailed balance and primordial 4He formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego

    2001-01-01

    If the universe is slightly non-extensive, and the distribution functions are not exactly given by those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, the primordial production of light elements will be non-trivially modified. In particular, the principle of detailed balance (PDB), of fundamental importance in the standard...... the formation of Helium and Deuterium, and study the kind of deviation one could expect from the standard regime. The correction to the capture time, the moment in which Deuterium can no longer be substantially photo-disintegrated, is also presented. This allows us to take into account the process of the free...

  17. Can primordial magnetic fields seeded by electroweak strings cause an alignment of quasar axes on cosmological scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltis, Robert; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2010-10-15

    The decay of nontopological electroweak strings may leave an observable imprint in the Universe today in the form of primordial magnetic fields. Protogalaxies preferentially tend to form with their axis of rotation parallel to an external magnetic field, and, moreover, an external magnetic field produces torque which tends to align the galaxy axis with the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the shape of a magnetic field left over from two looped electroweak strings can explain the observed nontrivial alignment of quasar polarization vectors and make predictions for future observations.

  18. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.

  19. Primordial inhomogeneities in the expanding universe. I - Density and velocity distributions of galaxies in the vicinities of rich clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.; Wilson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The density profiles and Hubble flow deviations in the vicinities of rich galaxy clusters are derived for a variety of models of initial density and velocity perturbations at the recombination epoch. The galaxy correlation function, measured with respect to the Abell clusters, is used to normalize the theoretical models. The angular scales of the required primordial inhomogeneities are calculated. It is found that the resulting density profiles around rich clusters are surprisingly insensitive to the shape of the initial perturbations and also to the cosmological density parameter, Omega. However, it is shown that the distribution of galaxy radial velocities can provide a possible means of deriving Omega.

  20. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.