WorldWideScience

Sample records for large icy bodies

  1. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.

    2014-07-01

    As a result of ground-based, space-based, and in-situ spacecraft mission observations, a great amount of photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic data of icy bodies (satellites of giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, comet nuclei, and icy particles in cometary comae and rings) has been accumulated. These data have revealed fascinating light-scattering phenomena, such as the opposition surge resulting from coherent backscattering and shadow hiding and the negative polarization associated with them. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of these bodies are especially informative as the depth, width, and shape of the absorption bands of ice are sensitive not only to the ice abundance but also to the size of icy grains. Numerous NIR spectra obtained by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have been used to map the microcharacteristics of the icy satellites [1] and rings of Saturn [2]. VIMS data have also permitted a study of the opposition surge for icy satellites of Saturn [3], showing that coherent backscattering affects not only brightness and polarization of icy bodies but also their spectra [4]. To study all of the light-scattering phenomena that affect the photopolarimetric and spectroscopic characteristics of icy bodies, including coherent backscattering, requires computer modeling that rigorously considers light scattering by a large number of densely packed small particles that form either layers (in the case of regolith) or big clusters (ring and comet particles) . Such opportunity has appeared recently with a development of a new version MSTM4 of the Multi-Sphere T-Matrix code [5]. Simulations of reflectance and absorbance spectra of a ''target'' (particle layer or cluster) require that the dimensions of the target be significantly larger than the wavelength, sphere radius, and layer thickness. For wavelength-sized spheres and packing fractions typical of regolith, targets can contain dozens of thousands of spheres that, with the original MSTM

  2. Photometric Properties of Icy Bodies: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakalian, B. J.; Buratti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Photometry is the quantitative measurement of reflected or emitted radiation. In the past 15 years, the classical study on planetary surfaces of arbitrary albedo, including bright icy satellites (e.g., Hapke, 1981 JGR, 1984 and 1986, Icarus).

  3. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; hide

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  4. Impact strength of small icy bodies that experienced multiple collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Hayama, Ryo; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    Frequent collisions are common for small bodies in the Solar System, and the cumulative damage to these bodies is thought to significantly affect their evolution. It is important to study the effects of multiple impacts such as the number of impacts on the impact strength and the ejection velocity of impact fragments. Here we conducted multiple-impact experiments using a polycrystalline water ice target, varying the number of impacts from 1 to 10 times. An ice cylindrical projectile was impacted at 84-502 m s-1 by using a single-stage gas gun in a cold room between -10 and -15 °C. The impact strength of the ice target that experienced a single impact and multiple impacts is expressed by the total energy density applied to the same target, ΣQ, and this value was observed to be 77.6 J kg-1. The number of fine impact fragments at a fragment mass normalized by an initial target mass, m/Mt0 ∼ 10-6, nm, had a good correlation with the single energy density at each shot, Qj, and the relationship was shown to be nm=10·Qj1.31±0.12. We also estimated the cumulative damage of icy bodies as a total energy density accumulated by past impacts, according to the crater scaling laws proposed by Housen et al. (Housen, K.R., Schmidt, R.M., Holsapple, K.A. [1983]. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2485-2499) of ice and the crater size distributions observed on Phoebe, a saturnian icy satellite. We found that the cumulative damage of Phoebe depended significantly on the impact speed of the impactor that formed the craters on Phoebe; and the cumulative damage was about one-third of the impact strength ΣQ* at 500 m s-1 whereas it was almost zero at 3.2 km s-1.

  5. Heliosheath Space Environment Interactions with Icy Bodies in the Outermost Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring the space environment of the outermost solar system at the same time that earth-based astronomy continues to discover new icy bodies, one larger than Pluto, in the transitional region outward from the Classical Kuiper Belt to the Inner Oort Cloud. Some of the Scattered Disk Objects in this region periodically pass through the heliosheath, entered by Voyager 1 in Dec. 2004 and later expected to be reached by Voyager 2, and out even beyond the heliopause into the Very Local Interstellar Medium. The less energetic heliosheath ions, important for implantation and sputtering processes, are abundant near and beyond the termination shock inner boundary, but the source region of the more penetrating anomalous cosmic ray component has not yet been found. Advantageous for modeling of icy body interactions, the measured heliosheath flux spectra are relatively more stable within this new regime of isotropic compressional magnetic turbulence than in the upstream heliospheric environment. The deepest interactions and resultant radiation-induced chemistry arise from the inwardly diffusing component of the galactic cosmic ray ions with significant intensity modulation also arising in the heliosheath beyond Voyager 1. Surface gardening by high-velocity impacts of smaller bodies (e.g., fragments of previous KBO collisions) and dust is a further space weathering process setting the time scales for long term exposure of different regolith layers to the ion irradiation. Sputtering and ionization of impact ejecta grains may provide a substantial feedback of pickup ions for multiple cycles of heliosheath acceleration and icy body interaction. Thus the space weathering interactions are potentially of interest not only for effects on sensible surface composition of the icy bodies but also for evolution of the heliosheath plasma energetic ion, and neutral emission environment.

  6. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-01-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and...

  7. Kilometer-Scale Transient Atmospheres for Kinetic Payload Deposition on Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, James

    Entry, descent, and landing technologies for space exploration missions to atmospheric bodies traditionally exploit the body's ambient atmosphere as a medium through which a spacecraft or probe can interact to transfer momentum and energy for a soft landing. For bodies with no appreciable atmosphere, a significant engineering challenge exists to overcome the lack of passive methods to decelerate a spacecraft or probe. Proposed is a novel means for the creation of a transient atmosphere for airless icy bodies through the use of a two stage payload-penetrator probe. The first stage is a hyper-velocity penetrator that impacts the icy body. The second stage is an aero-braking-capable probe directed to pass through the ejecta plume from the hyper-velocity impact. Both experimental and computational studies show that a controlled high-energy impact can direct and transfer energy and momentum to a probe via a collimated ejecta plume. In an effort to provide clarity to this unexplored class of missions, a modeling-based engineering approach is taken to provide a first-order estimation of some of the involved physical phenomena. Three sub-studies are presented: an examination and characterization of ice plumes, modeling plume-probe interaction, and the extension of plume modeling as the basis for conceptual mission design. The modeling efforts are centered about two modeling formulations: smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the arbitrary Largrangian-Eulerian (ALE) set of techniques. A database of fully-developed hypervelocity impacts and their associated plumes is created and used as inputs to a 1-D mathematical model for the interaction of a continuum-based plume and probe. A parametric study based on the hyper-velocity impact and staging of the probe-penetrator system is presented and discussed. Shown is that a tuned penetrator-probe mission has the potential to increase spacecraft payload mass fraction over conventional soft landing schemes.

  8. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  9. Descent with Modification: Thermal Reactions of Subsurface H2O2 of Relevance to Icy Satellites and Other Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loefler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Similarly, cosmic radiation (mainly protons) acting on cometary and interstellar ices can promote extensive chemical change. Among the products that have been identified in irradiated H20-ice is hydrogen peroxide (H202), which has been observed on Europa and is suspected on other worlds. Although the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, the thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry of H2O2 is largely unknown. Therefore, in this presentation we report new laboratory results on reactions at 50 - 130 K in ices containing H2O2 and other molecules, both in the presence and absence of H2O. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to SO4(2-). We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto. If other molecules prove to be just as reactive with frozen H2O2 then it may explain why H2O2 has been absent from surfaces of many of the small icy bodies that are known to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Our results also have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends towards a subsurface ocean on Europa.

  10. Formation of an ultracarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorite through minimal aqueous alteration in a small porous icy body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Hikaru; Noguchi, Takaaki; Itoh, Shoichi; Nakamura, Tomoki; Miyake, Akira; Tsujimoto, Shinichi; Ohashi, Noriaki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashiguchi, Minako; Abe, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Aya; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Tachibana, Shogo; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2017-10-01

    have been necessary for the formation of the UCAMM. The GEMS grains depleted in Mg and S in the UCAMM prove a very weak degree of aqueous alteration; weaker than that of carbonaceous chondrites. Short-duration weak alteration probably caused by planetesimal shock locally melted cometary ice grains and released water that dissolved the organics; the fluid would likely have not mobilized because of the very low thermal conductivity of the porous icy body. This event allowed the formation of the large organic puddle of the UCAMM, as well as organic matter sulfurization, formation of thin membrane-like layers of minerals, and deformation of organic nanoglobules.

  11. Salt partitioning between water and high-pressure ices. Implication for the dynamics and habitability of icy moons and water-rich planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Water-rich planetary bodies including large icy moons and ocean exoplanets may host a deep liquid water ocean underlying a high-pressure icy mantle. The latter is often considered as a limitation to the habitability of the uppermost ocean because it would limit the availability of nutrients resulting from the hydrothermal alteration of the silicate mantle located beneath the deep ice layer. To assess the effects of salts on the physical properties of high-pressure ices and therefore the possible chemical exchanges and habitability inside H2O-rich planetary bodies, we measured partitioning coefficients and densities in the H2O-RbI system up to 450 K and 4 GPa; RbI standing as an experimentally amenable analog of NaCl in the H2O-salt solutions. We measured the partitioning coefficient of RbI between the aqueous fluid and ices VI and VII, using in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). With in-situ X-ray diffraction, we measured the unit-cell parameters and the densities of the high-pressure ice phases in equilibrium with the aqueous fluid, at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of planetary bodies. We conclude that RbI is strongly incompatible towards ice VI with a partitioning coefficient Kd(VI-L) = 5.0 (± 2.1) ṡ10-3 and moderately incompatible towards ice VII, Kd(VII-L) = 0.12 (± 0.05). RbI significantly increases the unit-cell volume of ice VI and VII by ca. 1%. This implies that RbI-poor ice VI is buoyant compared to H2O ice VI while RbI-enriched ice VII is denser than H2O ice VII. These new experimental results might profoundly impact the internal dynamics of water-rich planetary bodies. For instance, an icy mantle at moderate conditions of pressure and temperature will consist of buoyant ice VI with low concentration of salt, and would likely induce an upwelling current of solutes towards the above liquid ocean. In contrast, a deep and/or thick icy mantle of ice VII will be enriched in salt and hence would form a stable chemical boundary

  12. High pressure study of water-salt systems, phase equilibria, partitioning, thermodynic properties and implication for large icy worlds hydrospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E.; Petitgirard, S.; Pakhomova, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Collings, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water salt systems are predicted to be present in deep hydrosphere inside water-rich planetary bodies, following water/rock chemical interaction during early differentiation stages or later hydrothermal activity. Unfortunately the current knowledge of the thermodynamic and physical properties of aqueous salt mixtures at high pressure and high temperature is still insufficient to allow realistic modeling of the chemical or dynamic of thick planetary hydrospheres. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability fields, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. Effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds. We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell, coupled with Synchrotron X-Ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and optical observations, allowing to probe the crystallographic structure, equations of state, partitioning and phase boundary of high pressure ice VI and VII in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species at high pressures (1-10 GPa). The difference in melting behavior depending on the dissolved salt species was characterized, suggesting differences in ionic speciation at liquidus conditions. The solidus P-T conditions were also measured as well as an increase of lattice volumes interpreted as an outcome of ionic incorporation in HP ice during incongruent crystallization. The measured phase diagrams, lattice volumes and important salt incorporations suggest a more complex picture of the

  13. High pressure ices are not the end of the story for large icy moons habitability: experimental studies of salts effects on high pressure ices and the implications for icy worlds large hydrosphere structure and chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Abramson, Evan; Brown, J. Michael; Bollengier, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    The presence of several phases of deep high-pressure ices in large icy moons hydrosphere has often been pointed as a major limitation for the habitability of an uppermost ocean. As they are gravitationally stable bellow liquid H2O, they are thought to act as a chemical barrier between the rocky bed and the ocean. Solutes, including salt species such as NaCl and MgSO4, have been suggested inside icy world oceans from remote sensing, magnetic field measurements and chondritic material alteration models. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres are very different from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors.Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions.In particular brines have been measured to be sometimes more dense than the high pressure ices at melting conditions, possibly creating several oceanic layer "sandwiched" in between two ices shells or in contact with the rocky bed.Other effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds.We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell high pressure allowing to probe the density, chemistry and thermodynamic properties of high pressure ice and aqueous solutions in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species.We will also discuss the new

  14. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-12-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and icy mixtures with porosities in the 31-91% range. The measurements have been performed between 50 MHz and 2 GHz with a coaxial cell on a total of 38 samples with a good reproducibility. We used controlled procedures to produce fine-grained and coarse-grained ice samples with a mean diameter of 4.5 μm and 67 μm, respectively, and to prepare icy mixtures. The JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was used as the dust component in the mixtures. The results are focused on the real-part ɛ' of the permittivity, which constrains the phase velocity of the radio waves in low-loss media. The values of ɛ' show a nondispersive behavior and are within the range of 1.1 to 2.7. They decrease with the increasing porosity Φ according to E(1 - Φ), with E equal to about 3.13 for pure water ice, and in the 3.8-7.5 range for ice-dust mixtures with a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, respectively. These measurements are also relevant for radiometers operating in the millimeter-submillimeter domains, as suggested by the nondispersive behavior of the mixtures and of the pure components.

  15. The compression behavior of blödite at low and high temperature up to ~10GPa: Implications for the stability of hydrous sulfates on icy planetary bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comodi, Paola; Stagno, Vincenzo; Zucchini, Azzurra; Fei, Yingwei; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2017-03-01

    Recent satellite inferences of hydrous sulfates as recurrent minerals on the surface of icy planetary bodies link with the potential mineral composition of their interior. Blödite, a mixed Mg-Na sulfate, is here taken as representative mineral of icy satellites surface to investigate its crystal structure and stability at conditions of the interior of icy bodies. To this aim we performed in situ synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction experiments on natural blödite at pressures up to ~10.4 GPa and temperatures from ~118.8 K to ~490.0 K using diamond anvil cell technique to investigate the compression behavior and establish a low-to-high temperature equation of state that can be used as reference when modeling the interior of sulfate-rich icy satellites such as Ganymede. The experimentally determined volume expansivity, α, varies from 7.6 (7) 10-5 K-1 at 0.0001 GPa (from 118.8 to 413.15 K) to 2.6 (3) 10-5 K-1 at 10 GPa (from 313.0 to 453.0 K) with a δα/δP coefficient = -5.6(9)10-6 GPa-1 K-1. The bulk modulus calculated from the least squares fitting of P-V data on the isotherm at 413 K using a second-order Birch - Murnaghan equation of state is 38(5) GPa, which gives the value of δK/δT equal to 0.01(5) GPa K-1. The thermo-baric behavior of blödite appears strongly anisotropic with c lattice parameter being more deformed with respect to a and b. Thermogravimetric analyses performed at ambient pressure showed three endotherms at 413 K, 533 K and 973 K with weight losses of approximately 11%, 11% and 43% caused by partial dehydration, full dehydration and sulfate decomposition respectively. Interestingly, no clear evidence of dehydration was observed up to ~453 K and ~10.4 GPa, suggesting that pressure acts to stabilize the crystalline structure of blödite. The data collected allow to write the following equation of state, V(P, T) = V

  16. Two-phase convection in the high-pressure ice layer of the large icy moons: geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, K.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Grasset, O.

    2015-12-01

    The H2O layers of large icy satellites such as Ganymede, Callisto, or Titan probably include a liquid water ocean sandwiched between the deep high-pressure ice layer and the outer ice I shell [1]. It has been recently suggested that the high-pressure ice layer could be decoupled from the silicate core by a salty liquid water layer [2]. However, it is not clear whether accumulation of liquids at the bottom of the high-pressure layer is possible due to positive buoyancy of water with respect to high-pressure ice. Numerical simulation of this two-phase (i.e. ice and water) problem is challenging, which explains why very few studies have self-consistently handled the presence and transport of liquids within the solid ice [e.g. 3]. While using a simplified description of water production and transport, it was recently showed in [4] that (i) a significant fraction of the high-pressure layer reaches the melting point and (ii) the melt generation and its extraction to the overlying ocean significantly influence the global thermal evolution and interior structure of the large icy moons.Here, we treat the high-pressure ice layer as a compressible mixture of solid ice and liquid water [5]. Several aspects are investigated: (i) the effect of the water formation on the vigor of solid-state convection and its influence on the amount of heat that is transferred from the silicate mantle to the ocean; (ii) the fate of liquids within the upper thermal boundary layer - whether they freeze or reach the ocean; and (iii) the effect of salts and volatile compounds (potentially released from the rocky core) on the melting/freezing processes. Investigation of these aspects will allow us to address the thermo-chemical evolution of the internal ocean which is crucial to evaluate the astrobiological potential of large icy moons. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Hussmann et al. (2007), Treatise of

  17. Tholins as Coloring Agents on Pluto and Other Icy Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Tholins are refractory organic solids of complex structure and high molecular weight, with a wide range of color ranging from yellow and orange to dark red, and through tan to black. They are made in the laboratory by energy deposition (photons or charged particles) in gases and ices containing the simple molecules (e.g., N2, CH4, CO) found in planetary atmospheres or condensed on planetary surfaces. They are widely implicated in providing the colors and albedos, particularly in the region 0.3-1.0 microns, of several outer Solar System bodies, including Pluto, as well as aerosols in planetary atmospheres such as Titan. Recent color images of Pluto with the New Horizons spacecraft show concentrations of coloring agent(s) in some regions of the surface, and apparent near-absence in other regions. Tholins that may to some degree represent surface chemistry on Pluto have been synthesized in the laboratory by energetic processing of mixtures of the ices (N2, CH4, CO) known on Pluto's surface, or the same molecules in the gas phase. Details of the composition and yield vary with experimental conditions. Chemical analysis of Pluto ice tholins shows evidence of amides, carboxylic acids, urea, carbodiimides, and nitriles. Aromatic/olefinic, amide, and other functional groups are identified in XANES analysis. The ice tholins produced by e- irradiation have a higher concentration of N than UV ice tholins, with N/C approx. 0.9 (versus approx. 0.5 for UV tholins) and O/C approx.0.2. Raman spectra of the electron tholin show a high degree of structural disorder, while strong UV fluorescence indicates a large aromatic content. EUV photolysis of a Pluto gaseous atmosphere analog yields pale yellow solids relatively transparent in the visual, and with aliphatic CH bonds prominent in IR spectra. This or similar material may be responsible for Pluto's hazes.

  18. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  19. Coagulation calculations of icy planet formation around 0.1-0.5 M {sub ☉} stars: Super-Earths from large planetesimals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We investigate formation mechanisms for icy super-Earth-mass planets orbiting at 2-20 AU around 0.1-0.5 M {sub ☉} stars. A large ensemble of coagulation calculations demonstrates a new formation channel: disks composed of large planetesimals with radii of 30-300 km form super-Earths on timescales of ∼1 Gyr. In other gas-poor disks, a collisional cascade grinds planetesimals to dust before the largest planets reach super-Earth masses. Once icy Earth-mass planets form, they migrate through the leftover swarm of planetesimals at rates of 0.01-1 AU Myr{sup –1}. On timescales of 10 Myr to 1 Gyr, many of these planets migrate through the disk of leftover planetesimals from semimajor axes of 5-10 AU to 1-2 AU. A few percent of super-Earths might migrate to semimajor axes of 0.1-0.2 AU. When the disk has an initial mass comparable with the minimum-mass solar nebula, scaled to the mass of the central star, the predicted frequency of super-Earths matches the observed frequency.

  20. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  1. Thermal evolution of trans-Neptunian objects, icy satellites, and minor icy planets in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gurpreet Kaur; Sahijpal, Sandeep

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to understand the early thermal evolution and planetary scale differentiation of icy bodies with the radii in the range of 100-2500 km. These icy bodies include trans-Neptunian objects, minor icy planets (e.g., Ceres, Pluto); the icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; and probably the icy-rocky cores of these planets. The decay energy of the radionuclides, 26Al, 60Fe, 40K, 235U, 238U, and 232Th, along with the impact-induced heating during the accretion of icy bodies were taken into account to thermally evolve these planetary bodies. The simulations were performed for a wide range of initial ice and rock (dust) mass fractions of the icy bodies. Three distinct accretion scenarios were used. The sinking of the rock mass fraction in primitive water oceans produced by the substantial melting of ice could lead to planetary scale differentiation with the formation of a rocky core that is surrounded by a water ocean and an icy crust within the initial tens of millions of years of the solar system in case the planetary bodies accreted prior to the substantial decay of 26Al. However, over the course of billions of years, the heat produced due to 40K, 235U, 238U, and 232Th could have raised the temperature of the interiors of the icy bodies to the melting point of iron and silicates, thereby leading to the formation of an iron core. Our simulations indicate the presence of an iron core even at the center of icy bodies with radii ≥500 km for different ice mass fractions.

  2. Icy Dwarf Planets: Colored popsicles in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi

    2015-08-01

    In 1992 the discovery of 1992 QB1 was the starting signal of a race to characterize the trans-Neptunian belt. The detection of icy “asteroids”, similar to Pluto, in the outer Solar System had been largely hypothesized but it had also being an elusive goal. This belt was considered by the planetary scientists as the icy promised land, the largest reservoir of primordial ices in the Solar System.From 1992 to 2005 about 1000 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs had been discovered and a lot of “first ever” science had been published: 1996 TO66, first ever detection of the water ice bands in a TNO's spectrum; 1998 WW31, first detection of a binary; first estimation of size and albedo from thermal and visible observations, Varuna; discovery of Sedna, at that moment “the coldest most distant place known in the Solar System”2005 was the year of the discovery of three large TNOs: (136108) Haumea, (136472) Makemake and (136199) Eris (a.k.a 2003 EL61, 2005 FY9 and 2003 UB313). These three big guys entered the schoolyard showing off as colored popsicles and making a clear statement: “We are special”, and sure they are!The discovery of these large TNOs resulted in 2006 in the adoption by the IAU of a new definition of planet and in the introduction of a new category of minor bodies: the “dwarf planets”. With only three members at this moment (although this can change anytime) the exclusive club of the icy dwarf planets is formed by the TNOs at the higher end of the size distribution. By virtue of their size and low surface temperatures, these bodies can retain most of their original inventory of ices. As a consequence, their visible and near-infrared spectra show evidences of water ice, nitrogen, methane and longer chains of hydrocarbons. Moreover, they have high geometric albedo in the visible. Also the accretional and radiogenic heating for these bodies was likely more than sufficient to have caused their internal differentiation.In this talk we will

  3. A LARGE FOREIGN BODY IN THE TRACHEA (SEWING NEEDLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Pryanikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case study: an unusual foreign body (sewing needle in the trachea. Despite the large size and unusual shape of a foreign body, we managed to remove it through the airways with rigid upper traheobronchoscopy, avoiding complications.

  4. ICIS Contacts Subject Area Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  5. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  6. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  7. Exobiology of icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, M. B.

    At the beginning of 2004 the total number of discovered planets near other stars was 119 All of them are massive giants and met practically in all orbits In a habitable zone from 0 8 up to 1 1 AU at less 11 planets has been found starting with HD 134987 and up to HD 4203 It would be naive to suppose existence of life in unique known to us amino-nucleic acid form on the gas-liquid giant planets Nevertheless conditions for onset and evolutions of life can be realized on hypothetical satellites extrasolar planets All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites 61 of Jupiter 52 of Saturn known in 2003 A small part of them consist very large bodies quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type but including very significant share of water ice Some from them have an atmosphere E g the mass of a column of the Titan s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column Formation or capture of satellites is a natural phenomenon and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets A hypothetical satellite of the planet HD 28185 with a dense enough atmosphere and hydrosphere could have biosphere of terrestrial type within the limits of our notion about an origin of terrestrial biosphere As an example we can see on Titan the largest satellite of Saturn which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance The most recent models of the Titan s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer

  8. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  9. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  10. Universality in few-body systems with large scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Effective Field Theory (EFT) provides a powerful framework that exploits a separation of scales in physical systems to perform systematically improvable, model-independent calculations. Particularly interesting are few-body systems with short-range interactions and large two-body scattering length. Such systems display remarkable universal features. In systems with more than two particles, a three-body force with limit cycle behavior is required for consistent renormalization already at leading order. We will review this EFT and some of its applications in the physics of cold atoms and nuclear physics. In particular, we will discuss the possibility of an infrared limit cycle in QCD. Recent extensions of the EFT approach to the four-body system and N-boson droplets in two spatial dimensions will also be addressed

  11. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Wilson

    Full Text Available Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  12. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  13. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  14. Living large: the experiences of large-bodied women when accessing general practice services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.

  15. Large eddy simulation of a wing-body junction flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sungmin; Emory, Michael; Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of the wing-body junction flow experimentally investigated by Devenport & Simpson (1990). Wall-junction flows are common in engineering applications but relevant flow physics close to the corner region is not well understood. Moreover, performance of turbulence models for the body-junction case is not well characterized. Motivated by the insufficient investigations, we have numerically investigated the case with Reynolds-averaged Naiver-Stokes equation (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The Vreman model applied for the LES and SST k- ω model for the RANS simulation are validated focusing on the ability to predict turbulence statistics near the junction region. Moreover, a sensitivity study of the form of the Vreman model will also be presented. This work is funded under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX11AI41A (Technical Monitor Dr. Stephen Woodruff)

  16. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  17. Rotational Dynamics of Icy Satellites : Tidal response and forced longitudinal librations at the surface of a viscoelastic Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jara Orue, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The icy satellites of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn are among the most interesting celestial bodies in our Solar System. The interpretation of various remote sensing observations performed by the Voyager, Galileo and Cassini-Huygens missions strongly suggests that many icy satellites harbor a

  18. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  19. Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    We describe and compare techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe. In particular, we consider both particle mesh (PM) codes and P 3 M codes in which a higher resolution force is obtained by direct summation of contributions from neighboring particles. We discuss the mesh-induced anisotropies in the forces calculated by these schemes, and the extent to which they can model the desired 1/r 2 particle-particle interaction. We also consider how transformation of the time variable can improve the efficiency with which the equations of motion are integrated. We present tests of the accuracy with which the resulting schemes conserve energy and are able to follow individual particle trajectories. We have implemented an algorithm which allows initial conditions to be set up to model any desired spectrum of linear growing mode density fluctuations. A number of tests demonstrate the power of this algorithm and delineate the conditions under which it is effective. We carry out several test simulations using a variety of techniques in order to show how the results are affected by dynamic range limitations in the force calculations, by boundary effects, by residual artificialities in the initial conditions, and by the number of particles employed. For most purposes cosmological simulations are limited by the resolution of their force calculation rather than by the number of particles they can employ. For this reason, while PM codes are quite adequate to study the evolution of structure on large scale, P 3 M methods are to be preferred, in spite of their greater cost and complexity, whenever the evolution of small-scale structure is important

  20. Sublimation of icy planetesimals and the delivery of water to the habitable zone around solar type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, Adrián; López, María Cristina

    2018-06-01

    We present a semi analytic model to evaluate the delivery of water to the habitable zone around a solar type star carried by icy planetesimals born beyond the snow line. The model includes sublimation of ice, gas drag and scattering by an outer giant planet located near the snow line. The sublimation model is general and could be applicable to planetary synthesis models or N-Body simulations of the formation of planetary systems. We perform a short series of simulations to asses the potential relevance of sublimation of volatiles in the process of delivery of water to the inner regions of a planetary system during early stages of its formation. We could anticipate that erosion by sublimation would prevent the arrival of much water to the habitable zone of protoplanetary disks in the form of icy planetesimals. Close encounters with a massive planet orbiting near the outer edge of the snow line could make possible for planetesimals to reach the habitable zone somewhat less eroded. However, only large planetesimals could provide appreciable amounts of water. Massive disks and sharp gas surface density profiles favor icy planetesimals to reach inner regions of a protoplanetary disk.

  1. Large Vesico‑Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Vesico‑vaginal fistula is commonly caused by obstructed labor, gynecological surgery ... of a foreign body in the vagina have been reported mostly in developed countries. .... Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

  2. Synthesis of novel ICIE16/BSG and ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglasses and description of ionic release kinetics upon immersion in SBF fluid: Effect of nitridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Orgaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioactive glass scaffold ICIE16/BSG has been prepared from a mixture of two different melt-derived glasses: a silicate bioglass (ICIE16 and a borosilicate bioglass (BSG. Combined processing techniques (gel casting and foam replication were used to form three-dimensional, interconnected porous monolith scaffolds (Orgaz et al., 2016 [1]. They were then nitrided with a hot ammonia flow as described in (Aleixandre et al., 1973 [3] and (Nieto, 1984 [4] to synthesize the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglass (Orgaz et al., 2016 [1]. Herein we present a flow chart summarizing the forming process, plus images of the resulting scaffold after sintering and drying. Bioactivity was characterized in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF for up to seven days. Data of ionic release kinetics upon SBF immersion are presented. Keywords: Biomaterials, Bioglass, Simulated body fluid, Degradability, Biomaterial resorption, Bone repair

  3. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  4. Flow and fracture of ices, with application to icy satellites (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Pathare, A.; Golding, N.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration of the outer planets and their satellites by spacecraft over the past 4 decades has revealed that the prevailing low temperatures in the outer solar system have not produced "dead" cryoworlds of generic appearance. Rather, there is an extraordinary diversity in average densities, presence/absence and compositions of atmospheres and planetary rings, average albedos and their seasonal changes, near-surface compositions, and surface records of impact cratering and endogenic tectonic and igneous processes. One reason for this diversity is that the icy minerals present in abundance on many of these worlds are now or once were at significant fractions of their melting temperatures. Hence, a host of thermally activated processes related to endogenic activity (such as crystal defect migration, mass diffusion, surface transport, solid-solid changes of state, and partial melting) may occur that can enable inelastic flow on the surfaces and in the interiors of these bodies. Planetary manifestations include viscous crater relaxation in ice-rich terrain, cryovolcanism, the presence of a stable subsurface ocean, and the effects of solid-ice convection in deep interiors. We make the connection between theoretical mechanisms of deformation and planetary geology through laboratory experiment. Specifically, we develop quantitative constitutive flow laws (strain rate vs. stress) that describe the effects of relevant environmental variables (hydrostatic pressure, temperature, phase composition, chemical impurities). Our findings speak to topics including (1) the behavior of an outer ice I layer, its thickness, the depth to which a stagnant lid might extend, and possibility of wholesale overturn; (2) softening effects of dissolved species such as ammonia and perchlorate; (3) hardening effects of enclathration and of rock dust; and (4) effects of grain size on strength and factors affecting grain size. Other applications of lab data include dynamics of the deep interiors of

  5. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    these processes result in transient thermal states and hence rapid evolution of icy body interiors. Interesting heat-flow phenomena (approximated as steady-state thermal states) have been modeled in volatile-rich main belt asteroids, Io, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto, and Makemake (2005 FY9). Thermal conditions can activate geologic processes, but the occurrence of geologic activity can fundamentally alter the thermal conductivity and elasticity of icy objects, which then further affects the distribution and type of subsequent geologic activity. For example, cryoclastic volcanism on Enceladus can increase solid-state greenhouse heating of the upper crust, reduce thermal conductivity, and increase retention of heat and spur further cryovolcanism. Sulfur extrusion on Io can produce low-thermal-conductivity flows, high thermal gradients, basal melting of the flows, and lateral extrusion and spreading of the flows or formation of solid-crusted lava lakes. Impact formation of regoliths and fine-grained dust deposits on large asteroids may generate local variations in thermal gradients. Interior heating and geologic activity can either (1) emplace low-conductivity materials on the surface and cause further interior heating, or (2) drive metamorphism, sintering, and volatile loss, and increase thermal conductivity and cool the object. Thus, the type and distribution of present-day geologic activity on icy worlds is dependent on geologic history. Geology begets geology.

  6. IcyTree: rapid browser-based visualization for phylogenetic trees and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy G

    2017-08-01

    IcyTree is an easy-to-use application which can be used to visualize a wide variety of phylogenetic trees and networks. While numerous phylogenetic tree viewers exist already, IcyTree distinguishes itself by being a purely online tool, having a responsive user interface, supporting phylogenetic networks (ancestral recombination graphs in particular), and efficiently drawing trees that include information such as ancestral locations or trait values. IcyTree also provides intuitive panning and zooming utilities that make exploring large phylogenetic trees of many thousands of taxa feasible. IcyTree is a web application and can be accessed directly at http://tgvaughan.github.com/icytree . Currently supported web browsers include Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome. IcyTree is written entirely in client-side JavaScript (no plugin required) and, once loaded, does not require network access to run. IcyTree is free software, and the source code is made available at http://github.com/tgvaughan/icytree under version 3 of the GNU General Public License. tgvaughan@gmail.com. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Two-Body Reactions at Large Transverse Momentum

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Large-angle exclusive reactions are studied, in particular elastic scattering and @*p annihilations into @p|+@p|- and K|+K|-. In a previous geometry, the 90|0 c.m. region was covered. The present geometry covers the -t range from about 1 to 8 (GeV/c)|2. The aim is to tie these two regions together and attem understading of large-angle scattering up to our highest energies. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment uses a 1 m liquid H^2 target surrounded by scintillator and lead sandwiches for vetoing neutral and charged particles missing the acceptance. An aerogel Cerenkov counter in the recoil arm can be used to veto charged pions above 0.8 GeV/c. Otherwise the events are selected as previously with fast coincidence matrices using pulses from arrays of scintillator counters. Identification of particles is carried out with threshold Cerenkov counters and iron calorimeters. MWPC's are used to establish the trajectories of the particles.

  8. Analyzing surface features on icy satellites using a new two-layer analogue model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, K. M.; Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The appearance of similar surface morphologies across many icy satellites suggests potentially unified formation mechanisms. Constraining the processes that shape the surfaces of these icy worlds is fundamental to understanding their rheology and thermal evolution—factors that have implications for potential habitability. Analogue models have proven useful for investigating and quantifying surface structure formation on Earth, but have only been sparsely applied to icy bodies. In this study, we employ an innovative two-layer analogue model that simulates a warm, ductile ice layer overlain by brittle surface ice on satellites such as Europa and Enceladus. The top, brittle layer is composed of fine-grained sand while the ductile, lower viscosity layer is made of putty. These materials were chosen because they scale up reasonably to the conditions on Europa and Enceladus. Using this analogue model, we investigate the role of the ductile layer in forming contractional structures (e.g. folds) that would compensate for the over-abundance of extensional features observed on icy satellites. We do this by simulating different compressional scenarios in the analogue model and analyzing whether the resulting features resemble those on icy bodies. If the resulting structures are similar, then the model can be used to quantify the deformation by calculating strain. These values can then be scaled up to Europa or Enceladus and used to quantity the observed surface morphologies and the amount of extensional strain accommodated by certain features. This presentation will focus on the resulting surface morphologies and the calculated strain values from several analogue experiments. The methods and findings from this work can then be expanded and used to study other icy bodies, such as Triton, Miranda, Ariel, and Pluto.

  9. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Richards

    Full Text Available Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores. Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  10. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, J. W.; Lee, G.; Harpole, G.; Zamel, J.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Retherford, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  12. Mind-Body Practice and Body Weight Status in a Large Population-Based Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    In industrialized countries characterized by a high prevalence of obesity and chronic stress, mind-body practices such as yoga or meditation may facilitate body weight control. However, virtually no data are available to ascertain whether practicing mind-body techniques is associated with weight status. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status in a large population-based sample of adults. A total of 61,704 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the NutriNet-Santé study (2009-2014) were included in this cross-sectional analysis conducted in 2014. Data on mind-body practices were collected, as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status was assessed using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, regular users of mind-body techniques were less likely to be overweight (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.63, 0.74) or obese (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.50, 0.61) than never users. In addition, regular users had a lower BMI than never users (-3.19%, 95% CI=-3.71, -2.68). These data provide novel information about an inverse relationship between mind-body practice and weight status. If causal links were demonstrated in further prospective studies, such practice could be fostered in obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical methods for including two-body forces in large system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1980-07-01

    Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure

  14. Heating of Porous Icy Dust Aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirono, Sin-iti [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Nagoya University, Tikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    At the beginning of planetary formation, highly porous dust aggregates are formed through coagulation of dust grains. Outside the snowline, the main component of an aggregate is H{sub 2}O ice. Because H{sub 2}O ice is formed in amorphous form, its thermal conductivity is extremely small. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of an icy dust aggregate is low. There is a possibility of heating inside an aggregate owing to the decay of radionuclides. It is shown that the temperature increases substantially inside an aggregate, leading to crystallization of amorphous ice. During the crystallization, the temperature further increases sufficiently to continue sintering. The mechanical properties of icy dust aggregates change, and the collisional evolution of dust aggregates is affected by the sintering.

  15. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  16. Association of inclusion body myositis with T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Steven A; Pinkus, Jack L; Amato, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    SEE HOHLFELD AND SCHULZE-KOOPS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW053 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Inclusion body myositis and T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia are rare diseases involving pathogenic cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. After encountering four patients with both disorders, we...... prospectively screened 38 patients with inclusion body myositis for the presence of expanded large granular lymphocyte populations by standard clinical laboratory methods (flow cytometry, examination of blood smears, and T cell receptor gene rearrangements), and performed muscle immunohistochemistry for CD8, CD......57, and TIA1. Most (22/38; 58%) patients with inclusion body myositis had aberrant populations of large granular lymphocytes in their blood meeting standard diagnostic criteria for T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. These T cell populations were clonal in 20/20 patients and stably present...

  17. Le CERN va devoir supprimer quelques 600 postes d'ici a 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Le Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules (CERN) qui procede actuellement a la construction du LHC (Large Hadron Collider) , le plus grand accelerateur de particules du monde, va devoir supprimer, comme cela avait ete evoque en juin, quelques 600 postes d'ici a 2007" (1 paragraph).

  18. Stabilization of ammonia-rich hydrate inside icy planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden Robinson, Victor; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Hermann, Andreas

    2017-08-22

    The interior structure of the giant ice planets Uranus and Neptune, but also of newly discovered exoplanets, is loosely constrained, because limited observational data can be satisfied with various interior models. Although it is known that their mantles comprise large amounts of water, ammonia, and methane ices, it is unclear how these organize themselves within the planets-as homogeneous mixtures, with continuous concentration gradients, or as well-separated layers of specific composition. While individual ices have been studied in great detail under pressure, the properties of their mixtures are much less explored. We show here, using first-principles calculations, that the 2:1 ammonia hydrate, (H 2 O)(NH 3 ) 2 , is stabilized at icy planet mantle conditions due to a remarkable structural evolution. Above 65 GPa, we predict it will transform from a hydrogen-bonded molecular solid into a fully ionic phase O 2- ([Formula: see text]) 2 , where all water molecules are completely deprotonated, an unexpected bonding phenomenon not seen before. Ammonia hemihydrate is stable in a sequence of ionic phases up to 500 GPa, pressures found deep within Neptune-like planets, and thus at higher pressures than any other ammonia-water mixture. This suggests it precipitates out of any ammonia-water mixture at sufficiently high pressures and thus forms an important component of icy planets.

  19. The Global Contribution of Secondary Craters on the Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Johnson, K. E.; Schenk, P.

    2014-12-01

    At present, surface ages of bodies in the Outer Solar System are determined only from crater size-frequency distributions (a method dependent on an understanding of the projectile populations responsible for impact craters in these planetary systems). To derive accurate ages using impact craters, the impactor population must be understood. Impact craters in the Outer Solar System can be primary, secondary or sesquinary. The contribution of secondary craters to the overall population has recently become a "topic of interest." Our objective is to better understand the contribution of dispersed secondary craters to the small crater populations, and ultimately that of small comets to the projectile flux on icy satellites in general. We measure the diameters of obvious secondary craters (determined by e.g. irregular crater shape, small size, clustering) formed by all primary craters on Ganymede for which we have sufficiently high resolution data to map secondary craters. Primary craters mapped range from approximately 40 km to 210 km. Image resolution ranges from 45 to 440 m/pixel. Bright terrain on Ganymede is our primary focus. These resurfaced terrains have relatively low crater densities and serve as a basis for characterizing secondary populations as a function of primary size on an icy body for the first time. Although focusing on Ganymede, we also investigate secondary crater size, frequency, distribution, and formation, as well as secondary crater chain formation on icy satellites throughout the Saturnian and Jovian systems principally Rhea. We compare our results to similar studies of secondary cratering on the Moon and Mercury. Using Galileo and Voyager data, we have identified approximately 3,400 secondary craters on Ganymede. In some cases, we measured crater density as a function of distance from a primary crater. Because of the limitations of the Galileo data, it is necessary to extrapolate from small data sets to the global population of secondary craters

  20. A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiei, Farhang; Badro, James; Dennenwaldt, Teresa; Oveisi, Emad; Cantoni, Marco; Hébert, Cécile; El Goresy, Ahmed; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Gillet, Philippe

    2018-04-17

    Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20 GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.

  1. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: ICIS-NPDES Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Limits data set for Clean Water Act permitted...

  2. Raman Life Detection Instrument Development for Icy Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Seamus; Allen, A'Lester; Gutierrez, Daniel; Quinn, Richard C.; Chen, Bin; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a compact, high sensitivity Raman sensor for detection of life signatures in a flow cell configuration to enable bio-exploration and life detection during future mission to our Solar Systems Icy Worlds. The specific project objectives are the following: 1) Develop a Raman spectroscopy liquid analysis sensor for biosignatures; 2) Demonstrate applicability towards a future Enceladus or other Icy Worlds missions; 3) Establish key parameters for integration with the ARC Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce); 4) Position ARC for a successful response to upcoming Enceladus or other Icy World mission instrument opportunities.

  3. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I.; Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of γ-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. 241 Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy γ-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for 241 Am administered via injection and less than 10% for 241 Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  4. A Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microorganisms on Icy Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindensmith, C. A.; Nadeau, J. L.; Deming, J. W.; Showalter, G. M.; Rider, S.; Bedrossian, M.

    2015-12-01

    Holography is a well-established imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional images of objects. Its use began in the 1960s with the invention of the laser. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has several advantages over ordinary imaging microscopy which make it ideal for field and astrobiology use, including no need for focus or scanning so that instruments are readily made autonomous. DHM can produce simultaneous bright-field and quantitative phase-contrast images of the same field, providing additional information about transparent objects, e.g., refractive index and/or thickness; thus it inherently supports effective label-free imaging. We have built a fieldable DHM for detection of microorganisms in bodies of water and in brines collected from sea ice. Ice that appears solid to the eye contains interconnected brine-filled microscopic pores and veins which are occupied by populations of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The presence of life in "solid" ice has important implications for exploration of icy worlds, where it is unlikely that the first missions will be able to access the subsurface oceans. Using this new instrument, we examined several dozen samples from three different sites around Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, mixed populations of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms were observed. Many of the organisms were motile immediately upon extraction from sea ice, and others became motile after warming or addition of sugars and/or amino acids. Meaningful motility was readily distinguished from turbulence or fluid flow. The spatial resolution of the instrument was better than 1 μm, leading to unambiguous recognition of subcellular structures in eukaryotes, including nuclei and chloroplasts. We present mission scenrios for both orbiters and landers in which DHM may be used as a valuable complement to chemical-based life detection techniques for discovery of cellular life on icy worlds.

  5. Seismic Wave Propagation in Icy Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähler, Simon C.; Panning, Mark P.; Vance, Steven D.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Kedar, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Seismology was developed on Earth and shaped our model of the Earth's interior over the twentieth century. With the exception of the Philae lander, all in situ extraterrestrial seismological effort to date was limited to other terrestrial planets. All have in common a rigid crust above a solid mantle. The coming years may see the installation of seismometers on Europa, Titan, and Enceladus, so it is necessary to adapt seismological concepts to the setting of worlds with global oceans covered in ice. Here we use waveform analyses to identify and classify wave types, developing a lexicon for icy ocean world seismology intended to be useful to both seismologists and planetary scientists. We use results from spectral-element simulations of broadband seismic wavefields to adapt seismological concepts to icy ocean worlds. We present a concise naming scheme for seismic waves and an overview of the features of the seismic wavefield on Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Enceladus. In close connection with geophysical interior models, we analyze simulated seismic measurements of Europa and Titan that might be used to constrain geochemical parameters governing the habitability of a sub-ice ocean.

  6. L'espion d'ici

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Roland

    2000-01-01

    On les appelle " ceux-qui-savent-le-savoir-inutile ". De leur planète puissante qui répond au nom orgueilleux d'" Ici ", ils dépêchent sur Terre un agent : à charge pour lui d'évaluer l'état d'avancement des connaissances chez les humains et de mesurer les risques que ceux-ci représentent. L'espion sera introduit auprès des sages grecs, il s'initiera aux mystères de Pythagore, il tiendra tête à Aristote, il se réincarnera en Merlin, il fréquentera le salon de Mme du Châtelet, il s'entretiendra avec Darwin, il côtoiera Einstein, il assistera à la naissance de la mécanique quantique, il fera un détour par les cafés de philosophie... Au terme de ses pérégrinations, il devra finalement choisir. Prendra-t-il le parti d'" Ici ", dont les connaissances plongent dans des temps insondables, ou celui de la Terre, au savoir étonnamment neuf ?

  7. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  8. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  9. Phytoplankton response to winter warming modified by large-bodied zooplankton: an experimental microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While several field investigations have demonstrated significant effects of cool season (winter or spring warming on phytoplankton development, the role played by large-bodied zooplankton grazers for the responses of phytoplankton to winter warming is ambiguous. We conducted an outdoor experiment to compare the effect of winter warming (heating by 3°C in combination with presence and absence of Daphnia grazing (D. similis on phytoplankton standing crops and community structure under eutrophic conditions. When Daphnia were absent, warming was associated with significant increases in phytoplankton biomass and cyanobacterial dominance. In contrast, when Daphnia were present, warming effects on phytoplankton dynamics were offset by warming-enhanced grazing, resulting in no significant change in biomass or taxonomic dominance. These results emphasize that large-bodied zooplankton like Daphnia spp. may play an important role in modulating the interactions between climate warming and phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient rich lake ecosystems.

  10. Body fixed frame, rigid gauge rotations and large N random fields in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.

    1995-01-01

    The ''body fixed frame'' with respect to local gauge transformations is introduced. Rigid gauge ''rotations'' in QCD and their Schroedinger equation are studied for static and dynamic quarks. Possible choices of the rigid gauge field configuration corresponding to a non-vanishing static colormagnetic field in the ''body fixed'' frame are discussed. A gauge invariant variational equation is derived in this frame. For large number N of colors the rigid gauge field configuration is regarded as random with maximally random probability distribution under constraints on macroscopic-like quantities. For the uniform magnetic field the joint probability distribution of the field components is determined by maximizing the appropriate entropy under the area law constraint for the Wilson loop. In the quark sector the gauge invariance requires the rigid gauge field configuration to appear not only as a background but also as inducing an instantaneous quark-quark interaction. Both are random in the large N limit. (orig.)

  11. Cling film plastic wrap: An innovation for dead body packaging, preservation and transportation by first responders as a replacement for cadaver body bag in large scale disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Lay See; Lai, Poh Soon; Saidin, Mohd Hilmi; Noor, Zahari; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2018-04-01

    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitability potential of icy moons: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Bampasidis, Georgios; Wagner, Frank; Raulin, François; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-05-01

    Looking for habitable conditions in the outer solar system our research focuses on the natural satellites rather than the planets themselves. Indeed, the habitable zone as traditionally defined may be larger than originally con-ceived. The strong gravitational pull caused by the giant planets may produce enough energy to sufficiently heat the interiors of orbiting icy moons. The outer solar system satellites then provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the ground but also by the Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini spacecrafts revealed the potential of these satellites in this context, and our understanding of habitability in the solar system and beyond can be greatly enhanced by investigating several of these bodies together [1]. Their environments seem to satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). Indeed, several of the moons show promising conditions for habitability and the de-velopment and/or maintenance of life. Europa, Callisto and Ganymede may be hiding, under their icy crust, putative undersurface liquid water oceans [3] which, in the case of Europa [2], may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm by tidally generated heat [4]. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans. Titan's rigid crust and the probable existence of a subsurface ocean create an analogy with terrestrial-type plate tectonics, at least surficial [5], while Enceladus' plumes find an analogue in gey-sers. As revealed by Cassini the liquid hydrocarbon lakes [6] distributed mainly at polar latitudes on Titan are ideal isolated

  13. Detection of Deuterium in Icy Surfaces and the D/H Ratio of Icy Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger Nelson; Brown, Robert H.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2017-10-01

    Water ice in crystalline or amorphous form is orientationally disordered, which results in very broad absorptions. Deuterium in trace amounts goes into an ordered position, so is not broadened like H2O absorptions. The D-O stretch is located at 4.13 microns with a width of 0.027 micron. Laboratory spectral measurements on natural H2O and deuterium doped ice show the absorption is slightly asymmetric and in reflectance the band shifts from 4.132 to 4.137 microns as abundance decreases. We derive a preliminary absorption coefficient of ~ 80,000 cm^-1 for the D-O stretch compared to about 560 cm^-1 in H2O ice at 4.13 microns, enabling the detection of deuterium at levels less than Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW), depending on S/N. How accurate the D/H ratios can be derived will require additional lab work and radiative transfer modeling to simultaneously derive the grain size distribution, the abundance of any contaminants, and deuterium abundance. To first order, the grain size distribution can be compensated by computing the D-O stretch band depth to 2-micron H2O ice band depth ratio, which we call Dratio. Colorado fresh water (~80% of VSMOW) has a Dratio of 0.036, at a D/H = 0.0005, the Dratio = 0.15, and at a D/H = 0.0025, the Dratio = 0.42. The VSMOW Dratio is ~ 0.045.We have used VIMS data from the Cassini spacecraft to compute large spectral averages to detect the deuterium in the rings and on the icy satellite surfaces. A B-ring, 21,882 pixel average, at 640 ms/pixel, or 3.89 hours of integration time, shows a 3.5% O-D stretch band depth and a Dratio = 0.045, indicating deuterium abundance equal to VSMOW. Rhea, using 1.89 hours of integration time shows Dratio = 0.052, or slightly higher than VSMOW. Phoebe has an unusually deep O-D stretch band of 1.85% considering the high abundance of dark material suppressing the ice absorptions. We measure a Dratio = 0.11, an enhancement of ~2.4 over VSMOW, but detailed radiative transfer modeling is needed to

  14. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. I. Precision considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Ryan M.; Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic structure methods based on low-order “n-body” expansions are an increasingly popular means to defeat the highly nonlinear scaling of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, taking advantage of the inherently distributable nature of the numerous subsystem calculations. Here, we examine how the finite precision of these subsystem calculations manifests in applications to large systems, in this case, a sequence of water clusters ranging in size up to (H 2 O) 47 . Using two different computer implementations of the n-body expansion, one fully integrated into a quantum chemistry program and the other written as a separate driver routine for the same program, we examine the reproducibility of total binding energies as a function of cluster size. The combinatorial nature of the n-body expansion amplifies subtle differences between the two implementations, especially for n ⩾ 4, leading to total energies that differ by as much as several kcal/mol between two implementations of what is ostensibly the same method. This behavior can be understood based on a propagation-of-errors analysis applied to a closed-form expression for the n-body expansion, which is derived here for the first time. Discrepancies between the two implementations arise primarily from the Coulomb self-energy correction that is required when electrostatic embedding charges are implemented by means of an external driver program. For reliable results in large systems, our analysis suggests that script- or driver-based implementations should read binary output files from an electronic structure program, in full double precision, or better yet be fully integrated in a way that avoids the need to compute the aforementioned self-energy. Moreover, four-body and higher-order expansions may be too sensitive to numerical thresholds to be of practical use in large systems

  15. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de

    2002-11-15

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  16. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von

    2002-01-01

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined

  17. A Large Rice Body-Containing Cyst Mimicking Infection following Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bayoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty raises several differential diagnoses not limited to infection, hematoma, wear debris, malignancy, and bursitis. Rice body formation in the hip region is an uncommon process denoting a chronic inflammation. We report here the second case of its kind in the medical literature of a wide symptomatic rice-like body cyst complicating a total hip arthroplasty. Case Presentation. This is the case of an 82-year-old white female, presenting with a warm, red, and inflated groin five years after revision of right total hip arthroplasty. Surgical intervention reveals a large well circumscribed cyst containing well-organized rice-like bodies. This eventuality was never reported in differential diagnosis of hip periprosthetic soft tissue masses before. Conclusion. This case report helps widening the array of the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a slow growing soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty, making rice-like bodies cyst a valid one to consider.

  18. Laboratory study of hyper-elocity impact-driven chemical reactions and surface evolution in icy targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Z.; Munsat, T.; Dee, R.; Horanyi, M.; James, D.; Kempf, S.; Nagle, M.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Although ice is prevalent in the solar system and the long-term evolution of many airless icy bodies is affected by hypervelocity micrometeoroid bombardment, there has been little experimental investigation into these impact phenomena, especially at the impact speeds encountered in space. For example, there is little direct information about how dust impacts alter the local chemistry, and dust impacts may be an important mechanism for creating complex organic molecules necessary for life. Laser ablation and light-gas gun experiments simulating dust impacts have successfully created amino acid precursors from base components in ice surfaces. Additionally, the Cassini mission revealed CO2 deposits in icy satellites of Saturn, which may have been created by dust impacts. With the creation of a cryogenically cooled ice target for the dust accelerator facility at the NASA SSERVI-funded Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT), it is now possible to study the effects of micrometeoroid impacts in a controlled environment under conditions and at energies typically encountered in nature. Complex ice-target mixtures are created with a flash-freezing target which allows for homogeneous mixtures to be frozen in place even with salt mixtures that otherwise would form inhomogeneous ice surfaces. Coupled with the distinctive capabilities of the IMPACT dust facility, highly valuable data concerning the evolution of icy bodies under hypervelocity bombardment and the genesis of complex organic chemistry on these icy bodies can be gathered in unique and tightly controlled experiments. Results from recent and ongoing investigations will be presented.

  19. Experiments and Large-Eddy Simulations of acoustically forced bluff-body flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayache, S.; Dawson, J.R.; Triantafyllidis, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balachandran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Mastorakos, E., E-mail: em257@eng.cam.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The isothermal air flow behind an enclosed axisymmetric bluff body, with the incoming flow being forced by a loudspeaker at a single frequency and with large amplitude, has been explored with high data-rate Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements and Large-Eddy Simulations. The comparison between experiment and simulations allows a quantification of the accuracy of LES for turbulent flows with periodicity and the results provide insights into the structure of flows relevant to combustors undergoing self-excited oscillations. At low forcing frequencies, the whole flow pulsates with the incoming flow, although at a phase lag that depends on spatial location. At high forcing frequencies, vortices are shed from the bluff body and the recirculation zone, as a whole, pulsates less. Despite the fact that the incoming flow has an oscillation that is virtually monochromatic, the velocity spectra show peaks at various harmonics, whose relative magnitudes vary with location. A sub-harmonic peak is also observed inside the recirculation zone possibly caused by merging of the shed vortices. The phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations show large temporal and spatial variations. The LES reproduces reasonably accurately the experimental findings in terms of phase-averaged mean and r.m.s. velocities, vortex formation, and spectral peaks.

  20. Experiments and Large-Eddy Simulations of acoustically forced bluff-body flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayache, S.; Dawson, J.R.; Triantafyllidis, A.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.

    2010-01-01

    The isothermal air flow behind an enclosed axisymmetric bluff body, with the incoming flow being forced by a loudspeaker at a single frequency and with large amplitude, has been explored with high data-rate Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements and Large-Eddy Simulations. The comparison between experiment and simulations allows a quantification of the accuracy of LES for turbulent flows with periodicity and the results provide insights into the structure of flows relevant to combustors undergoing self-excited oscillations. At low forcing frequencies, the whole flow pulsates with the incoming flow, although at a phase lag that depends on spatial location. At high forcing frequencies, vortices are shed from the bluff body and the recirculation zone, as a whole, pulsates less. Despite the fact that the incoming flow has an oscillation that is virtually monochromatic, the velocity spectra show peaks at various harmonics, whose relative magnitudes vary with location. A sub-harmonic peak is also observed inside the recirculation zone possibly caused by merging of the shed vortices. The phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations show large temporal and spatial variations. The LES reproduces reasonably accurately the experimental findings in terms of phase-averaged mean and r.m.s. velocities, vortex formation, and spectral peaks.

  1. Variation in thickness of the large cryosections cut for whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsunao; Brill, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method to assess variation in thickness of the large cryosections for whole-body autoradiography (WBARG) was described, and the degree of intraslice and interslice variations were determined for our cryomicrotome system (LKB PMV-2250). Intraslice variation in thickness of the 180 x 80 mm cryosection was 0.72-0.92 μm within the range of section thickness for WBARG (15-50 μm), and interslice variation was 0.89-1.21 μm. These potential variations in section thickness should be kept in mind whenever working with quantitative WBARG. (author)

  2. Performance Comparison between CDTD and STTD for DS-CDMA/MMSE-FDE with Frequency-Domain ICI Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuaki; Kojima, Yohei; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can provide a better bit error rate (BER) performance than rake combining. However, the residual inter-chip interference (ICI) is produced after MMSE-FDE and this degrades the BER performance. Recently, we showed that frequency-domain ICI cancellation can bring the BER performance close to the theoretical lower bound. To further improve the BER performance, transmit antenna diversity technique is effective. Cyclic delay transmit diversity (CDTD) can increase the number of equivalent paths and hence achieve a large frequency diversity gain. Space-time transmit diversity (STTD) can obtain antenna diversity gain due to the space-time coding and achieve a better BER performance than CDTD. Objective of this paper is to show that the BER performance degradation of CDTD is mainly due to the residual ICI and that the introduction of ICI cancellation gives almost the same BER performance as STTD. This study provides a very important result that CDTD has a great advantage of providing a higher throughput than STTD. This is confirmed by computer simulation. The computer simulation results show that CDTD can achieve higher throughput than STTD when ICI cancellation is introduced.

  3. Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.

  4. 2nd Tuebingen radiotherapy symposium: Whole body, large field and whole skin irradiation. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Frommhold, W.

    1987-01-01

    The symposium which took place on the 11th and 12th April 1986 set itself the task of discussing three different groups of radiotherapy topics. The chief issue was whole-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplants, in which all the therapy centres in West Germany, Austria, East Germany and German-speaking Switzerland made clinical and radiophysical contributions. The second part of the Symposium consisted mainly of talks and discussions on large-field irradiation, more precisely half-body and sequential partial body irradiation. This topic was chosen because this type of therapy is scarcely practised at all, particularly in West Germany, whereas in the United States, East Germany, Switzerland and a number of other countries it has long since become one of the established methods. The last talk at the Symposium explained clinical and radiophysical aspects of whole-skin irradiation. Here too, one was impressed by the wide diversity of the equipment and methods of irradiation used which, nevertheless, all demonstrated satisfactory practical solutions in their common aim of distributing the dose as homogeneously as possible. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Computational investigation of large-scale vortex interaction with flexible bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Benjamin; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-11-01

    The interaction of large-scale vortices with flexible bodies is examined with particular interest paid to the energy and momentum budgets of the system. Finite difference direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations on a moving curvilinear grid is coupled with a finite difference structural solver of both a linear membrane under tension and linear Euler-Bernoulli beam. The hydrodynamics and structural dynamics are solved simultaneously using an iterative procedure with the external structural forcing calculated from the hydrodynamics at the surface and the flow-field velocity boundary condition given by the structural motion. We focus on an investigation into the canonical problem of a vortex-dipole impinging on a flexible membrane. It is discovered that the structural properties of the membrane direct the interaction in terms of the flow evolution and the energy budget. Pressure gradients associated with resonant membrane response are shown to sustain the oscillatory motion of the vortex pair. Understanding how the key mechanisms in vortex-body interactions are guided by the structural properties of the body is a prerequisite to exploiting these mechanisms.

  6. ICI system for protecting underwater structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-14

    The new ICI Offshore product consists of polypropylene fibers about 4.4 m long, and with a density lower than that of sea water and thus a good buoyancy coefficient. Bundles of the fibers are passed through a braided mat of polyester, ''Paraweb'', which is weighted in accordance with the density of the entire system. The system is installed at the foot of platform legs and axially along pipelines to prevent scouring by ocean currents. The system has been installed in 144.8 m of water along the pipeline linking the Piper field to the Flotta terminal in the Orkney Islands. By reducing the velocity of the marine currents, the system causes sand and other material to be deposited along the fibers, forming a protective ''talus'' cone at first, then completely covering the structure. A sizable sand deposit had accumulated along the test segment of the pipeline less than one month after installation of the system. Use of the system on the Ekofisk-Emden gas pipeline where it is uncovered in the Danish North Sea sector is proposed.

  7. Exploring one-particle orbitals in large many-body localized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Benjamin; Yu, Xiongjie; Luitz, David J.; Clark, Bryan K.

    2018-03-01

    Strong disorder in interacting quantum systems can give rise to the phenomenon of many-body localization (MBL), which defies thermalization due to the formation of an extensive number of quasilocal integrals of motion. The one-particle operator content of these integrals of motion is related to the one-particle orbitals (OPOs) of the one-particle density matrix and shows a strong signature across the MBL transition as recently pointed out by Bera et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 046603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.046603; Ann. Phys. 529, 1600356 (2017), 10.1002/andp.201600356]. We study the properties of the OPOs of many-body eigenstates of an MBL system in one dimension. Using shift-and-invert MPS, a matrix product state method to target highly excited many-body eigenstates introduced previously [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 017201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.017201], we are able to obtain accurate results for large systems of sizes up to L =64 . We find that the OPOs drawn from eigenstates at different energy densities have high overlap and their occupations are correlated with the energy of the eigenstates. Moreover, the standard deviation of the inverse participation ratio of these orbitals is maximal at the nose of the mobility edge. Also, the OPOs decay exponentially in real space, with a correlation length that increases at low disorder. In addition, we find that the probability distribution of the strength of the large-range coupling constants of the number operators generated by the OPOs approach a log-uniform distribution at strong disorder.

  8. Experimental simulation of impact cratering on icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Fink, J. H.; Gault, D. E.; Guest, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cratering processes on icy satellites were simulated in a series of 102 laboratory impact experiments involving a wide range of target materials. For impacts into homogeneous clay slurries with impact energies ranging from five million to ten billion ergs, target yield strengths ranged from 100 to 38 Pa, and apparent viscosities ranged from 8 to 200 Pa s. Bowl-shaped craters, flat-floored craters, central peak craters with high or little relief, and craters with no relief were observed. Crater diameters increased steadily as energies were raised. A similar sequence was seen for experiment in which impact energy was held constant but target viscosity and strength progressively decreases. The experiments suggest that the physical properties of the target media relative to the gravitationally induced stresses determined the final crater morphology. Crater palimpsests could form by prompt collapse of large central peak craters formed in low target strength materials. Ages estimated from crater size-frequency distributions that include these large craters may give values that are too high.

  9. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass). 34 refs

  10. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-05-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26. The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass).

  11. Outstanding diversity of heritage features in large geological bodies: The Gachsaran Formation in southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-09-01

    The ideas of geological heritage and geological diversity have become very popular in the modern science. These are usually applied to geological domains or countries, provinces, districts, etc. Additionally, it appears to be sensible to assess heritage value of geological bodies. The review of the available knowledge and the field investigation of the Gachsaran Formation (lower Miocene) in southwest Iran permit to assign its features and the relevant phenomena to as much as 10 geological heritage types, namely stratigraphical, sedimentary, palaeontological, palaeogeographical, geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering, structural, economical, and geohistorical types. The outstanding diversity of the features of this formation determines its high heritage value and the national rank. The geological heritage of the Gachsaran Formation is important to scientists, educators, and tourists. The Papoon and Abolhaiat sections of this formation are potential geological heritage sites, although these do not represent all above-mentioned types. The large territory, where the Gachsaran Formation outcrop, has a significant geoconservation and geotourism potential, and further inventory of geosites on this territory is necessary. Similar studies of geological bodies in North Africa and the Middle East can facilitate better understanding of the geological heritage of this vast territory.

  12. Passive acoustic monitoring to detect spawning in large-bodied catostomids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Carrie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting timing, locations, and intensity of spawning can provide valuable information for conservation and management of imperiled fishes. However, deep, turbid or turbulent water, or occurrence of spawning at night, can severely limit direct observations. We have developed and tested the use of passive acoustics to detect distinctive acoustic signatures associated with spawning events of two large-bodied catostomid species (River Redhorse Moxostoma carinatum and Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum) in river systems in north Georgia. We deployed a hydrophone with a recording unit at four different locations on four different dates when we could both record and observe spawning activity. Recordings captured 494 spawning events that we acoustically characterized using dominant frequency, 95% frequency, relative power, and duration. We similarly characterized 46 randomly selected ambient river noises. Dominant frequency did not differ between redhorse species and ranged from 172.3 to 14,987.1 Hz. Duration of spawning events ranged from 0.65 to 11.07 s, River Redhorse having longer durations than Robust Redhorse. Observed spawning events had significantly higher dominant and 95% frequencies than ambient river noises. We additionally tested software designed to automate acoustic detection. The automated detection configurations correctly identified 80–82% of known spawning events, and falsely indentified spawns 6–7% of the time when none occurred. These rates were combined over all recordings; rates were more variable among individual recordings. Longer spawning events were more likely to be detected. Combined with sufficient visual observations to ascertain species identities and to estimate detection error rates, passive acoustic recording provides a useful tool to study spawning frequency of large-bodied fishes that displace gravel during egg deposition, including several species of imperiled catostomids.

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  16. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  17. Problems occurred in prospecting and mining of a broken thick large uranium ore body and improvement scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longfei; Fang Yang; Wang Yishun; Wang Long

    2014-01-01

    In prospecting and mining of a broken thick large uranium ore body, uncertain prospecting and shallow-hole shrinkage mining method resulted in large dilution rate and resource waste problems. Aimed at these problems, improvement schemes of enhancing the strength force of 'drilling prospecting instead of pit prospecting' and employing filling method stoping ore body were applied, and improvement result was analyzed. Experience was accumulated and evidence was provided for late prospecting and stoping work. (authors)

  18. Efficient purification and concentration of viruses from a large body of high turbidity seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Wang, Hongming; Gong, Chaowen; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Marine viruses are the most abundant entities in the ocean and play crucial roles in the marine ecological system. However, understanding of viral diversity on large scale depends on efficient and reliable viral purification and concentration techniques. Here, we report on developing an efficient method to purify and concentrate viruses from large body of high turbidity seawater. The developed method characterizes with high viral recovery efficiency, high concentration factor, high viral particle densities and high-throughput, and is reliable for viral concentration from high turbidity seawater. Recovered viral particles were used directly for subsequent analysis by epifluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing. Three points are essential for this method:•The sampled seawater (>150 L) was initially divided into two parts, water fraction and settled matter fraction, after natural sedimentation.•Both viruses in the water fraction concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF) and viruses isolated from the settled matter fraction were considered as the whole viral community in high turbidity seawater.•The viral concentrates were re-concentrated by using centrifugal filter device in order to obtain high density of viral particles.

  19. Morphology and Scaling of Ejecta Deposits on Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Ridolfi, Francis J.; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Continuous ejecta deposits on Ganymede consist of two major units, or facies: a thick inner hummocky pedestal facies, and a relatively thin outer radially scoured facies defined also by the inner limit of the secondary crater field. Both ejecta facies have a well-defined power-law relationship to crater diameter for craters ranging from 15 to approx. 600 km across. This relationship can be used to estimate the nominal crater diameter for impact features on icy satellites (such as palimpsests and multiring basins) for which the crater rim is no longer recognizable. Ejecta deposits have also been mapped on 4 other icy satellites. Although morphologically similar to eject deposits on the Moon, ejecta deposits for smaller craters are generally significantly broader in extent on the icy satellites, in apparent defiance of predictions of self-similarity. A greater degree of rim collapse and enlargement on the Moon may explain the observed difference.

  20. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling

  1. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Bukontaite

    Full Text Available High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1 How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2 Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3 Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4 When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense

  2. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wan, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wang, Xudong, E-mail: xdwang@gmc.edu.cn [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China)

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI.

  3. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia; Wan, Lei; Wang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI

  4. The Schroedinger-Poisson equations as the large-N limit of the Newtonian N-body system. Applications to the large scale dark matter dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briscese, Fabio [Northumbria University, Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Citta Universitaria, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica Francesco Severi, Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, Rome (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper it is argued how the dynamics of the classical Newtonian N-body system can be described in terms of the Schroedinger-Poisson equations in the large N limit. This result is based on the stochastic quantization introduced by Nelson, and on the Calogero conjecture. According to the Calogero conjecture, the emerging effective Planck constant is computed in terms of the parameters of the N-body system as ℎ ∝ M{sup 5/3}G{sup 1/2}(N/ left angle ρ right angle){sup 1/6}, where is G the gravitational constant, N and M are the number and the mass of the bodies, and left angle ρ right angle is their average density. The relevance of this result in the context of large scale structure formation is discussed. In particular, this finding gives a further argument in support of the validity of the Schroedinger method as numerical double of the N-body simulations of dark matter dynamics at large cosmological scales. (orig.)

  5. One-Dimensional Convective Thermal Evolution Calculation Using a Modified Mixing Length Theory: Application to Saturnian Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Shunichi

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state thermal convection plays a major role in the thermal evolution of solid planetary bodies. Solving the equation system for thermal evolution considering convection requires 2-D or 3-D modeling, resulting in large calculation costs. A 1-D calculation scheme based on mixing length theory (MLT) requires a much lower calculation cost and is suitable for parameter studies. A major concern for the MLT scheme is its accuracy due to a lack of detailed comparisons with higher dimensional schemes. In this study, I quantify its accuracy via comparisons of thermal profiles obtained by 1-D MLT and 3-D numerical schemes. To improve the accuracy, I propose a new definition of the mixing length (l), which is a parameter controlling the efficiency of heat transportation due to convection, for a bottom-heated convective layer. Adopting this new definition of l, I investigate the thermal evolution of Saturnian icy satellites, Dione and Enceladus, under a wide variety of parameter conditions. Calculation results indicate that each satellite requires several tens of GW of heat to possess a thick global subsurface ocean suggested from geophysical analyses. Dynamical tides may be able to account for such an amount of heat, though the reference viscosity of Dione's ice and the ammonia content of Dione's ocean need to be very high. Otherwise, a thick global ocean in Dione cannot be maintained, implying that its shell is not in a minimum stress state.

  6. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... 41(1), 27–38 * Indian Academy of Sciences. 27. Keywords. ... tis (Subang Jaya, Malaysia), DEAE-cellulose and Phosphocel- lulose P11 were from ... conditions at 67.5°C, subsequently the culture was chilled down and centrifuged. ..... influence of ionic strength on GeoICI REase activity. 0.3 μg PCR.

  7. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As opposed to the unstable prototype, which cleaves DNA at 30°C, GeoICI is highly active at elevated temperatures, up to 73°C and over a very wide salt concentration range. Recognition/cleavage sites were determined by: (i) digestion of plasmid and bacteriophage lambda DNA (λ); (ii) cleavage of custom PCR substrates, ...

  8. Sustainability Development Research at ICIS : Taking Stock and Looking Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cörvers, Ron; de Kraker, J.; Kemp, René; Martens, P.; van Lente, Harro

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the diversity and richness of ongoing and recent sustainable development research at ICIS (international Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development, Maastricht University) in 35 short chapters, and it introduces the research agenda for the coming

  9. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  10. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Experimental Thermodynamics of [Na-Mg-Cl-SO4] Aqueous Solutions at GPa Pressure With Application to Icy Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Water competes with silicates as the main constituent of solid bodies in the outer solar system. Ganymede and Titan, the Mercury-sized satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, are made up half of water present as massive hydrospheres where pressure can reach up to 1.5 GPa. Geophysical data and planetary models unequivocally support the existence of global aqueous oceans trapped in these hydrospheres. However, the extent of these oceans and their role in the processes governing the internal structure of these moons remain unresolved. At issue is the poor to non-existent characterization, at the relevant pressures, of the properties of the aqueous fluids of significance to the outer solar system (with notably the Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salts found in primitive chondrites), forcing current models to rely on pure water only. Our team at the University of Washington has developed an experimental apparatus to acquire the speed of sound of aqueous solutions in the 0 - 0.7 GPa and 250 - 350 K pressure and temperature ranges covering most of the conditions of existence of these extra-terrestrial oceans. Speeds of sound measured over a grid of pressures and temperatures allow calculation of the thermodynamic quantities (G, ρ, μ...) required for planetary science. Early analysis of pure water samples indicates our experimental results are on par with (at lower pressures), or better than, the IAPWS water laboratory standard, with sound speeds determined to 0.02% over our entire pressure range. For the first time at the high pressures of interest for large icy moons, we achieved the exploration of H2O-NaCl, H2O-MgSO4, H2O-Na2SO4 and H2O-MgCl2 solutions, from dilute concentrations to saturation. We are now in the process of acquiring the first data for H2O-NaCl-MgSO4 mixtures. We will briefly present our experimental setup and the underlying sound speed theory, and will then compare our results for the four endmembers, with an emphasis on their different association behavior under pressure as

  12. Technology for a Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Harpole, George; Zamel, James; Sen, Bashwar; Lee, Greg; Ross, Floyd; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  13. To the Large Nucleolar Bodies in Apoptotic Leukaemic Granulocytic Progenitors without Further Differentiation. Are Large Nucleoli Always Present in Proliferating Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, K; Kuželová, K; Zápotocký, M; Hrkal, Z

    2017-01-01

    Large nucleoli have generally been believed to be present in less differentiated and proliferating cells including the malignant ones. Such nucleoli have also been considered to be active in the biosynthetic process and major cell developmental activities. In contrast, after cytostatic treatment, apoptotic leukaemic progenitors still containing nuclei did not exhibit substantial reduction of the nucleolar size but displayed decreased nucleolar biosynthetic activity. The present study was undertaken to provide more information on the large nucleoli in spontaneously occurring apoptotic leukaemic progenitors without further differentiation. Leukaemic progenitors of established cell lineages originating from leukaemic patients represented a very convenient model for such study. Some of them exhibit morphological signs of the spontaneously occurring apoptotic process. Since such signs are expressed by nuclear and cytoplasmic morphological variability, the present study dealt with spontaneously occurring apoptotic progenitors with preserved nuclei characterized by heavy chromatin condensation and occasional fragmentation. Based of nucleolar body and nuclear maximal diameter measurements it seems to be clear that the nucleolar size in these cells was not substantially reduced, contrary to that of the nucleus. However, large nucleolar bodies in spontaneously occurring apoptotic cells were characterized by markedly reduced biosynthetic activity, as expressed by the decreased number of nucleolar transcription markers such as nucleolar fibrillar centres. In conclusion, large nucleoli may be present not only in proliferating, but also in spontaneously occurring apoptotic cells.

  14. Numerical modeling of large field-induced strains in ferroelastic bodies: a continuum approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikher, Yu L; Stolbov, O V

    2008-01-01

    A consistent continuum model of a soft magnetic elastomer (SME) is presented and developed for the case of finite strain. The numeric algorithm enabling one to find the field-induced shape changes of an SME body is described. The reliability of the method is illustrated by several examples revealing specifics of the magnetostriction effect in SME samples of various geometries

  15. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. III. Critical role of four-body terms, counterpoise corrections, and cutoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Yu; Herbert, John M

    2017-10-28

    Papers I and II in this series [R. M. Richard et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014108 (2014); K. U. Lao et al., ibid. 144, 164105 (2016)] have attempted to shed light on precision and accuracy issues affecting the many-body expansion (MBE), which only manifest in larger systems and thus have received scant attention in the literature. Many-body counterpoise (CP) corrections are shown to accelerate convergence of the MBE, which otherwise suffers from a mismatch between how basis-set superposition error affects subsystem versus supersystem calculations. In water clusters ranging in size up to (H 2 O) 37 , four-body terms prove necessary to achieve accurate results for both total interaction energies and relative isomer energies, but the sheer number of tetramers makes the use of cutoff schemes essential. To predict relative energies of (H 2 O) 20 isomers, two approximations based on a lower level of theory are introduced and an ONIOM-type procedure is found to be very well converged with respect to the appropriate MBE benchmark, namely, a CP-corrected supersystem calculation at the same level of theory. Results using an energy-based cutoff scheme suggest that if reasonable approximations to the subsystem energies are available (based on classical multipoles, say), then the number of requisite subsystem calculations can be reduced even more dramatically than when distance-based thresholds are employed. The end result is several accurate four-body methods that do not require charge embedding, and which are stable in large basis sets such as aug-cc-pVTZ that have sometimes proven problematic for fragment-based quantum chemistry methods. Even with aggressive thresholding, however, the four-body approach at the self-consistent field level still requires roughly ten times more processors to outmatch the performance of the corresponding supersystem calculation, in test cases involving 1500-1800 basis functions.

  16. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. III. Critical role of four-body terms, counterpoise corrections, and cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Yu; Herbert, John M.

    2017-10-01

    Papers I and II in this series [R. M. Richard et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014108 (2014); K. U. Lao et al., ibid. 144, 164105 (2016)] have attempted to shed light on precision and accuracy issues affecting the many-body expansion (MBE), which only manifest in larger systems and thus have received scant attention in the literature. Many-body counterpoise (CP) corrections are shown to accelerate convergence of the MBE, which otherwise suffers from a mismatch between how basis-set superposition error affects subsystem versus supersystem calculations. In water clusters ranging in size up to (H2O)37, four-body terms prove necessary to achieve accurate results for both total interaction energies and relative isomer energies, but the sheer number of tetramers makes the use of cutoff schemes essential. To predict relative energies of (H2O)20 isomers, two approximations based on a lower level of theory are introduced and an ONIOM-type procedure is found to be very well converged with respect to the appropriate MBE benchmark, namely, a CP-corrected supersystem calculation at the same level of theory. Results using an energy-based cutoff scheme suggest that if reasonable approximations to the subsystem energies are available (based on classical multipoles, say), then the number of requisite subsystem calculations can be reduced even more dramatically than when distance-based thresholds are employed. The end result is several accurate four-body methods that do not require charge embedding, and which are stable in large basis sets such as aug-cc-pVTZ that have sometimes proven problematic for fragment-based quantum chemistry methods. Even with aggressive thresholding, however, the four-body approach at the self-consistent field level still requires roughly ten times more processors to outmatch the performance of the corresponding supersystem calculation, in test cases involving 1500-1800 basis functions.

  17. An icy-glue model of cometary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.I.; Houpis, H.L.F.

    1986-05-01

    Since 1950 a number of models have been proposed to explain the observations of comets. For the most part the icy conglomerate model of Whipple was the standard. Based on the recent images made by VEGA and GIOTTO spacecrafts of comet Halley, a model of the nucleus is suggested that retains the advantages of the icy conglomerate formalism on a local level, while a new global framework is introduced. The model is disscussed in terms of the mounting knowledge of comets, the creation of the nucleus in the cosmogenic sence, and expectations of future analysis of data and observations are presented. A new methodology for calculating the evolution and thermal profiles of the nucleus is also presented. (author)

  18. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A.; Green, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  19. Iceless Icy Moons: Is the Nice Model In Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Henry C. Luke; Levison, H. F.

    2012-05-01

    Nimmo and Korycansky (2012; henceforth NK12) stated that if the outer Solar System underwent a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) in the Nice model, the mass striking the icy satellites at speeds up to tens of km/s would have vaporized so much ice that moons such as Mimas, Enceladus, and Miranda would have been devolatilized. NK12's possible explanations of this apparent discrepancy with observations include (1) the mass influx was a factor of 10 less than that in the Nice model; (2) the mass distribution of the impactors was top-heavy, so that luck might have saved some of the moons from suffering large, vapor-removing impacts; or (3) the inner moons formed after the LHB. NK12 calculated the mass influx onto the satellites from the lunar impact rate estimated by Gomes et al. (2005) and scaling factors calculated by Zahnle et al. (1998, 2003; also see Barr and Canup 2010). Production of vapor in hypervelocity impacts is calculated from Kraus et al. (2011). Our preliminary results show that there is about an order-of-magnitude uncertainty in the mass striking the satellites during the LHB, with NK12's estimate at the upper end of the range. We will discuss how the mass influx depends on the velocity and mass distributions of the impactors. The Nice model lives. We thank the NASA Lunar Science Institute (http://lunarscience.nasa.gov/) for support. Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M., Nature Geoscience 3, 164-167 (2010). Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A., Nature 435, 466-469 (2005). Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.E., Stewart, S.T., Icarus 214, 724-738 (2011). Nimmo, F., Korycansky, D.G., Icarus, in press, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103512000310 (2012). Zahnle, K., Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Icarus 136, 202-222 (1998). Zahnle, K., Schenk, P., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., Icarus 163, 263-289 (2003).

  20. Potential Biospheres of the icy world in our solar systems

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera, Jean Pierre Paul; Baque, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    The challenge in astrobiology and planetary research in the near future is to realize space missions to study the habitability of Mars and the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. Mars is an interesting object to search for habitable environments and for fossilized (and potentially present) life because of its past water driven wet history. On the other hand the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturnian moon Enceladus are promising candidates, where liquid water oceans beneath the surfac...

  1. Mineralogy of Sediments on a Cold and Icy Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Smith, R.; Scudder, N.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The water-related minerals discovered in ancient martian terrains suggest liquid water was abundant on the surface and/or near subsurface during Mars' early history. The debate remains, however, whether these minerals are indicative of a warm and wet or cold and icy climate. To characterize mineral assemblages of cold and icy mafic terrains, we analyzed pro- and supraglacial rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in Three Sisters, Oregon. We identified primary and secondary phases using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible/short-wave-infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopies. Samples from both glacial valleys are dominated by primary igneous minerals (i.e., plagioclase and pyroxene). Sediments in the Collier glacial valley contain minor to trace amounts of phyllosilicates and zeolites, but these phases are likely detrital and sourced from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. We find that the authigenic phases in cold and icy mafic terrains are poorly crystalline and/or amorphous. TEM-EDS analyses of the materials, including iron oxides, devitrified volcanic glass, and Fe-Si-Al (e.g., proto-clay) phases. A variety of primary and secondary amorphous materials (e.g., volcanic glass, leached glass, allophane) have been suggested from orbital IR data from Mars, and the CheMin XRD on the Curiosity rover has identified X-ray amorphous materials in all rocks and soils measured to date. The compositions of the Gale Crater amorphous components cannot be explained by primary volcanic glass alone and likely include secondary silicates, iron oxides, and sulfates. We suggest that the prevalence of amorphous materials on the martian surface and the variety of amorphous components may be a signature of a cold and icy climate on Early Mars.

  2. Report of experience with large dose single upper and lower half-body irradiation. 3. Hematological and serological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalluege, K H; Eichhorn, H J; Grunau, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung

    1981-08-01

    The reaction of hematological and serological parameters in 47 patients having received a large dose single irradiation of the upper and the parvicellular bronchial carcinoma, resp., of the upper and of the lower half of the body with 8.4 Gy for the mid-line is reported. Different positions of the patients during irradiation and different fractionations were compared. Subdivision of the half-body irradiation dose, anteroposterior direction of irradiation and partial sparing of the extremities during treatment proved to be the most careful method for the leukopoietic system because the leukocytes reached their initial values 6 weeks and the lymphocytes 2 months after irradiation. Serum aldolase is a suitable parameter for tumor response and for the demonstration of eventually not yet known metastases in the irradiated half of the body with an increase of the values above 8 IU per liter after irradiation. Creatine kinase is an indicator of the radiation response of the muscles.

  3. Hydrodynamic Performance of the Flippers of Large-bodied Cetaceans in Relation to Locomotor Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    ankylosed cervical vertebrae would limit maneuverability for active pursuit of prey (Norris and Møhl 1983, Rice 1989). The flipper shape of the killer...radius of 0.11 body lengths by using the flippers in combination with peduncle, and flukes (Fish 2002). Mature male killer whales have...Jeff Jacobsen of the Vertebrate Museum of Humboldt State University, California, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Army Corps of

  4. A vectorial description of electromagnetic scattering by large bodies of spherical shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Lemaire, T.; Chiappetta, P.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1989-10-01

    We present a new method to obtain a vectorial solution of Helmholtz equation for large homogeneous scatterers having a cylindrical symmetry and a shape approximately spherical. Limitations of the method for arbitrarily shaped particles are discussed

  5. Modeling and Control of Large Eddies Generated by Maneuvering Self-Propelled Bodies in Stratified Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voropayev, Sergey

    2001-01-01

    .... It is also shown that for vertical background shear typical for the upper ocean, the shear itself only partly suppresses the eddy formation and reduces their decay times, which still remain significantly large...

  6. Estimation of body-size traits by photogrammetry in large mammals to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p < 0.64) and was more strongly associated with maternal presence (p < 0.02) than winter snow depth (p < 0.18). These findings highlight the effects on survival of a social dynamic (the mother-young association) rather than body size and suggest a change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth.

  7. Multi-Modal Active Perception for Autonomously Selecting Landing Sites on Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A.; Furlong, P. M.; Wong, U.; Fong, T.; Sukkarieh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Selecting suitable landing sites is fundamental to achieving many mission objectives in planetary robotic lander missions. However, due to sensing limitations, landing sites which are both safe and scientifically valuable often cannot be determined reliably from orbit, particularly, in icy moon missions where orbital sensing data is noisy and incomplete. This paper presents an active perception approach to Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) which enables the lander to autonomously plan informative descent trajectories, acquire high quality sensing data during descent and exploit this additional information to select higher utility landing sites. Our approach consists of two components: probabilistic modeling of landing site features and approximate trajectory planning using a sampling based planner. The proposed framework allows the lander to plan long horizons paths and remain robust to noisy data. Results in simulated environments show large performance improvements over alternative approaches and show promise that our approach has strong potential to improve science return of not only icy moon missions but EDL systems in general.

  8. Deep ice and salty oceans of icy worlds, how high pressures influence their thermodynamics and provide constrains on extraterrestrial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Abramson, E.

    2017-12-01

    As in Earth arctic and Antarctic regions, suspected extraterrestrial deep oceans in icy worlds (i.e. icy moons and water-rich exoplanets) chemistry and thermodynamic state will strongly depend on their equilibrium with H2O ice and present solutes. Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salt species are currently the main suspected ionic solutes to be present in deep oceans based on remote sensing, magnetic field measurements, cryovolcanism ice grains chemical analysis and chondritic material aqueous alteration chemical models. Unlike on our planet, deep extraterrestrial ocean might also be interacting at depth with high pressure ices (e.g. III, V, VI, VI, X) which have different behavior compared to ice Ih. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres differ significantly from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. High pressure in-situ measurements using diamond anvil cell apparatus were operated both at the University of washington and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on aqueous systems phase diagrams with Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 species, salt incorporation in high pressure ices and density inversions between the solid and the fluids. These results suggest a more complex picture of the interior structure, dynamic and chemical evolution of large icy worlds hydrospheres when solutes are taken into account, compared to current models mainly using pure water. Based on our in-situ experimental measurements, we propose the existence of new liquid environments at greater depths and the possibility of solid state transport of solute through the high pressure ices

  9. Evaluation of body composition and cartilage biomarkers in large-breed dogs fed two foods designed for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, William D; Macleay, Jennifer M; Yamka, Ryan M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate cartilage and bone biomarkers and body composition in growing large-breed dogs consuming a diet designed for growth. 43 large-breed 2 month-old-puppies. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods until 18 months of age. Dogs were evaluated at 2, 5, 12, and 18 months of age via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), CBC, serum biochemical profile, and concentrations or activities of taurine, vitamin E, fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTXII), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, ghrelin, and growth hormone. Blood components largely reflected the composition of the foods. Dogs fed the food with a higher concentration of protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants had a lower percentage of body fat and greater percentage of lean body mass at 5, 12, and 18 months of age, and higher CPII:CTXII ratio and lower COMP at 18 months of age. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration declined with age, whereas COMP concentration and CPII concentration were similar at all time points for both foods. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration were greater during growth than at 18 months of age. The food that was proportionately higher in protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants increased lean body mass and may have positively affected cartilage turnover as maturity was attained. Whether the rate of cartilage turnover during growth affects development of orthopedic disease or arthritis in adulthood has yet to be determined.

  10. Prevention programs for body image and eating disorders on University campuses: a review of large, controlled interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    Body dissatisfaction, dieting, eating disorders and exercise disorders are prevalent among male and female university students worldwide. Male students are also increasingly adopting health-damaging, body-image-related behaviors such as excessive weight lifting, body building and steroid abuse. Given the severity and difficulty of treating eating disorders, prevention of these problems is a recognized public health goal. Health promotion and health education programs have been conducted in the university setting since the mid 1980s, but few have achieved significant improvements in target health attitudes and behaviors. In this paper, 27 large, randomized and controlled health promotion and health education programs to improve body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating and exercise behaviors of male and female college students are reviewed. In general, health education programs to improve body image and prevent eating disorders in the university setting have been limited by small sample sizes and the exclusion of male students. The majority of studies were conducted among either female undergraduate psychology students or women that were recruited using on-campus advertising. The latter reduces the ability to generalize results to the whole university population, or the general community. In addition, there has been a paucity of longitudinal studies that are methodologically sound, as only 82% (22/27) of interventions included in the review used random assignment of groups, and only 52% (n = 14) included follow-up testing. Information-based, cognitive behavioral and psycho-educational approaches have been the least effective at improving body image and eating problems among university students. Successful elements for future initiatives are identified as taking a media literacy- and dissonance-based educational approach, incorporating health education activities that build self-esteem, and using computers and the internet as a delivery medium. A newly

  11. Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Bazzocchi, A; Celi, M; Lauro, D; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U; Guglielmi, G

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of factors modulating the behaviour of bone mass is crucial for preventing and treating osteoporotic disease; among these factors, body weight (BW) has been shown to be of primary importance in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the relative effects of body composition indices are still being debated. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat and lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of women. Moreover, this study represents a first important report on reference standard values for body composition in Italian women. Between 2005 and 2008, weight and height of 6,249 Italian women (aged 30-80 years) were measured and BMI was calculated; furthermore BMD, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were divided into five groups by decades (group 1, 30.0-39.9; group 2, 40.0-49.9; group 3, 50.0-59.9; group 4, 60.0-69.9; group 5, 70.0-79.9). Differences among decades for all variables were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni test by the SPSS programme. Mean BW was 66.8±12.1 kg, mean height 159.1±6.3 cm and mean BMI 26.4±4.7 kg/m(2). According to BW and BMI, there was an increase of obesity with age, especially in women older than 50 years (posteoporosis in the examined population was 43.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Our data show that obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis but did not decrease the risk for osteopenia. It is strongly recommended that a strong policy regarding prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis be commenced. An overall examination of our results suggests that both fat and lean body mass can influence bone mass and that their relative effect on bone could be modulated by their absolute amount and ratio to total BW.

  12. A general theory of impacts and mass extinctions, and the consequences of large-body impact on the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The theory that large-body impacts are the primary cause of mass extinctions of life on the Earth now has a sound theoretical and observational foundation. A convergence of evidence suggests that the biosphere may be a sensitive detector of large impact events, which result in the recorded global mass extinction pulses. The astronomically observed flux of asteroids and comets in the neighborhood of the Earth, and the threshold impact size calculated to produce a global environment catastrophe, can be used to predict a time history of large impact events and related mass extinctions of life that agrees well with the record of approx. 24 extinction events in the last 540 m.y.

  13. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  14. A Full-Maxwell Approach for Large-Angle Polar Wander of Viscoelastic Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2017-12-01

    For large-angle long-term true polar wander (TPW) there are currently two types of nonlinear methods which give approximated solutions: those assuming that the rotational axis coincides with the axis of maximum moment of inertia (MoI), which simplifies the Liouville equation, and those based on the quasi-fluid approximation, which approximates the Love number. Recent studies show that both can have a significant bias for certain models. Therefore, we still lack an (semi)analytical method which can give exact solutions for large-angle TPW for a model based on Maxwell rheology. This paper provides a method which analytically solves the MoI equation and adopts an extended iterative procedure introduced in Hu et al. (2017) to obtain a time-dependent solution. The new method can be used to simulate the effect of a remnant bulge or models in different hydrostatic states. We show the effect of the viscosity of the lithosphere on long-term, large-angle TPW. We also simulate models without hydrostatic equilibrium and show that the choice of the initial stress-free shape for the elastic (or highly viscous) lithosphere of a given model is as important as its thickness for obtaining a correct TPW behavior. The initial shape of the lithosphere can be an alternative explanation to mantle convection for the difference between the observed and model predicted flattening. Finally, it is concluded that based on the quasi-fluid approximation, TPW speed on Earth and Mars is underestimated, while the speed of the rotational axis approaching the end position on Venus is overestimated.

  15. Large-volume reduction mammaplasty: the effect of body mass index on postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Bobadilla, G Mabel; Killingsworth, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Eighty-six women underwent modified inferior pedicled reduction mammaplasty. All were grouped according to body mass index (BMI): 14 in the overweight group, 51 in the obese group, and 21 in the morbidly obese group. The mean ages were 34, 35, and 36, respectively, for the 3 groups and were not statistically different. The mean resection weight in the overweight group was 929 g, 1316 g for the obese group, and 1760 g for the morbidly obese group. Wound healing complications increased with BMI; the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese groups had 21%, 43%, and 71% of complications, respectively. The results were not statistically different. The rate of repeat operations increased proportionally with the BMI to 7%, 8%, and 19%, respectively. Postoperative BMI was measured in 30 patients. Fifty percent of this group had limited preoperative activity secondary to breast enlargement. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 43 months. Forty-seven percent of this group continued to have limited activity after breast reduction with a mean BMI of 37.8 kg/m2. The mean BMI of all women was 37.41 kg/m2 with a total BMI change of -0.4 kg/m2, suggesting that most women do not lose a significant amount of weight after breast reduction. There was no statistical difference in long-term BMI.

  16. Impact of a Cosmic Body into Earth's Ocean and the Generation of Large Tsunami Waves: Insight from Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Weiss, R.

    2010-12-01

    The strike of a cosmic body into a marine environment differs in several respects from impact on land. Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface, implying not only that oceanic impact is a very likely scenario for future impacts but also that most impacts in Earth's history must have happened in marine environments. Therefore, the study of oceanic impact is imperative in two respects: (1) to quantify the hazard posed by future oceanic impacts, including the potential threat of large impact-generated tsunami-like waves, and (2) to reconstruct Earth's impact record by accounting for the large number of potentially undiscovered crater structures in the ocean crust. Reconstruction of the impact record is of crucial importance both for assessing the frequency of collision events in the past and for better predicting the probability of future impact. We summarize the advances in the study of oceanic impact over the last decades and focus in particular on how numerical models have improved our understanding of cratering in the oceanic environment and the generation of waves by impact. We focus on insight gleaned from numerical modeling studies into the deceleration of the projectile by the water, cratering of the ocean floor, the late stage modification of the crater due to gravitational collapse, and water resurge. Furthermore, we discuss the generation and propagation of large tsunami-like waves as a result of a strike of a cosmic body in marine environments.

  17. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  18. An excess of pedestrian injuries in icy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren

    1983-01-01

    An "icy condition epidemic" has been analyzed in an investigation of patients treated in the casualty department of Odense University Hospital: it was found that the victims were mainly comprised of pedestrians and that the pedestrians had 14 times more injuries than during a normal winter period...... clearing of the snow, and (3) spreading of sand, and possibly salt, on footpaths and bicycle paths. Specific measures should be launched to help the elderly during such periods, in order that outdoor activities may be cut to a minimum....

  19. Increased body mass index predicts severity of asthma symptoms but not objective asthma traits in a large sample of asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildstrup, Line; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and different indicators of asthma severity in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. METHODS: A total of 1186 subjects, 14-44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms and furthermore height and weight, skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured...

  20. Relation between metabolic syndrome and body compositions among Chinese adolescents and adults from a large-scale population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few nationally representative surveys regarding body composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS have been done in a large-scale representative Chinese population to explore the prediction of body composition indicators for MetS. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of body composition and MetS and to determine the optimal cut-off values of body composition indicators that predict MetS in a large representative Chinese sample based on multiple provinces and ethnicities, covering a broad age range from 10 to 80 years old. Methods The subjects came from a large-scale population survey on Chinese physiological constants and health conditions conducted in six provinces. 32,036 subjects completed all blood biochemical testing and body composition measure. Subjects meeting at least 3 of the following 5 criteria qualify as having MetS: elevated blood pressure, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, higher fasting glucose level and abdominal obesity. Results The total prevalence rate of MetS for males (9.29% was lower than for females (11.58%. The prevalence rates were 12.03% for male adults and 15.57% for female adults respectively. The risk of MetS increased 44.6% (OR = 1.446, 95%CI: 1.414–1.521 for males and 53.4% (OR = 1.534, 95%CI: 1.472–1.598 for females with each 5% increase of percentage of body fat. The risk of MetS increased two-fold (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.920–2.125 for males; OR = 2.047, 95%CI: 1.954–2.144 for females respectively with each 5% increase of waist-hip ratio. The risk of MetS increased three-fold (OR = 2.915, 95%CI: 2.742–3.099 for males; OR = 2.950, 95%CI: 2.784–3.127 for females respectively with each 5% increase of Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC of most body composition indicators were larger than 0.70 and the sensitivities and the specificities of most cut-off values were larger than 0

  1. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  2. Reprint of: Cling film plastic wrap: An innovation for dead body packaging, preservation and transportation by first responders as a replacement for cadaver body bag in large scale disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Lay See; Lai, Poh Soon; Saidin, Mohd Hilmi; Noor, Zahari; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2018-07-01

    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, Craig R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  4. Unraveling the Reaction Chemistry of Icy Ocean World Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Gerakines, P.

    2017-12-01

    The diverse endogenic chemistry of ocean worlds can be divided among interior, surface, and above-surface process, with contributions from exogenic agents such as solar, cosmic, and magnetospheric radiation. Bombardment from micrometeorites to comets also can influence chemistry by both delivering new materials and altering pre-existing ones, and providing energy to drive reactions. Geological processes further complicate the chemistry by transporting materials from one environment to another. In this presentation the focus will be on some of the thermally driven and radiation-induced changes expected from icy materials, primarily covalent and ionic compounds. Low-temperature conversions of a few relatively simple molecules into ions possessing distinct infrared (IR) features will be covered, with an emphasis on such features as might be identified through either orbiting spacecraft or landers. The low-temperature degradation of a few bioorganic molecules, such as DNA nucleobases and some common amino acids, will be used as examples of the more complex, and potentially misleading, chemistry expected for icy moons of the outer solar system. This work was supported by NASA's Emerging Worlds and Outer Planets Research programs, as well as the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  5. BENZENE FORMATION ON INTERSTELLAR ICY MANTLES CONTAINING PROPARGYL ALCOHOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, B.; Mukherjee, R.; Subramanian, K. P.; Banerjee, S. B., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

    2015-01-10

    Propargyl alcohol (CHCCH{sub 2}OH) is a known stable isomer of the propenal (CH{sub 2}CHCHO) molecule that was reported to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). At astrochemical conditions in the laboratory, icy layers of propargyl alcohol grown at 85 K were irradiated by 2 keV electrons and probed by a Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer in the mid-infrared (IR) region, 4000-500 cm{sup –1}. Propargyl alcohol ice under astrochemical conditions was studied for the first time; therefore, IR spectra of reported amorphous (85 K) and crystalline (180 K) propargyl alcohol ices can be used to detect its presence in the ISM. Moreover, our experiments clearly show benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) formation to be the major product from propargyl alcohol irradiation, confirming the role of propargyl radicals (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) formed from propargyl alcohol dissociation that was long expected based on theoretical modeling to effectively synthesize C{sub 6}H{sub 6} in the interstellar icy mantles.

  6. Emergence of Habitable Environments in Icy World Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life [1]. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. Hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are icy moons and dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core [2]. By improving an icy world evolution code [3] to include the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, I show that several icy moons and dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction [4,5]. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces [6,7]. I simulated the alteration of chondritic rock [8] by pure water or fluid of cometary composition [9] to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the distribution of radionuclides, whose decay is a chief heat source on dwarf planets [10]. Hydrothermal circulation also efficiently transports heat from the core into the ocean, thereby increasing ocean persistence [4]. Thus, these coupled geophysical-geochemical models provide a comprehensive picture of icy world evolution and the emergence of liquid environments in chemical disequilibrium with underlying rock in their interiors. Habitable settings also require a suitable supply of bioessential elements; but what constitutes "suitable"? I sought to quantify the bulk elemental composition of hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. This was achieved using a

  7. IS Research and Policy: Notes From the 2015 ICIS Senior Scholar’s Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederman, Fred; Applegate, Lynda; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Based on the International Conference on Information Systems’ (ICIS) 2015 senior scholars’ forum, we provide insights on the role and opportunities of IS researchers in shaping policy.......Based on the International Conference on Information Systems’ (ICIS) 2015 senior scholars’ forum, we provide insights on the role and opportunities of IS researchers in shaping policy....

  8. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  9. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  10. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  11. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016 (NCEI Accession 0157567)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  14. Bi-directional Reflectance of Icy Surface Analogs: A Dual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Juan Manuel; Vides, Christina; Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark; Mannat, Ken s.

    2018-01-01

    Bi-directional reflectance measurements of analogs for planetary regolith have provided insight into the surface properties of planetary satellites and small bodies. Because Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and water ice share a similar hexagonal crystalline structure, the former has been used in laboratory experiments to simulate the regolith of both icy and dusty planetary bodies. By measuring various sizes of well sorted size fractions of Al2O3, the reflectance phase curve and porosity of a planetary regolith can be determined. We have designed an experiment to test the laboratory measurements produced by Nelson et al. (2000). Additionally, we made reflectance measurements for other alkali-halide compounds that could be used for applications beyond astronomy and planetary science.In order to provide an independent check on the Nelson et al. data, we designed an instrument with a different configuration. While both instruments take bidirectional reflectance measurements, our instrument, the Rigid Photometric Goniometer (RPG), is fixed at a phase angle of 5° and detects the scattered light with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The PMT current is then measured with an electrometer. Following the example of Nelson et al., we measured the bidirectional reflectance of Al2O3 particulate size fractions between 0.1sizes from 20size that provided optimal, or maximum, reflectance for each compound. Our conclusions bring confirmation and clarity to photometric sciences.

  15. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  16. Diving into old age: muscular senescence in a large-bodied, long-lived mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Lawler, John M

    2009-03-01

    Classic aging theory postulates the absence of pronounced organismal senescence in wild animals since mortality probably occurs first. Large-bodied, long-lived mammals are a recognized exception to this tenet, yet organismal senescence has not been investigated to date in such mammals in the wild. Furthermore, oxidative stress theory of aging supports the suggestion that exercise hypoxia, as regularly incurred during apneustic foraging in diving mammals might lead to cellular dysfunction and accelerated aging. To determine if an aspect of organismal senescence occurs in wild marine mammals, we examined the pattern of skeletal muscle aging (contractile and connective tissue components of longissimus dorsi and pectoralis muscles) in free-ranging adult Weddell seals (9-26 years). The average myocyte cross-sectional area was 22% greater with age in the longissiums dorsi, but no significant increase occurred in the pectoralis. Cross-sectional area was not related to body mass. Changes in myocyte number per area were consistent with the 35-40% age-increase in extracellular space in both muscle groups. Also consistent with extracellular space remodeling, total and relative collagen contents were significantly elevated in older seals (115% in longissimus dorsi; 65% in pectoralis). The ratio of muscle myocyte to collagen declined with age (50-63%) at both sites. Additionally, a shift towards a higher ratio of type I to type III collagen occurred with advancing age in both muscle groups (79% increase in pectoralis; 49% in longissimus dorsi). We reject the classic tenet and null-hypothesis that Weddell seals do not survive to an age where muscular senescence becomes detectable.

  17. The parent body controls on cosmic spherule texture: Evidence from the oxygen isotopic compositions of large micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Sonzogni, C.; Alexandre, A.; Vidal, V.; Genge, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High-precision oxygen isotopic compositions of eighteen large cosmic spherules (>500 μm diameter) from the Atacama Desert, Chile, were determined using IR-laser fluorination - Isotope Ratio Mass spectrometry. The four discrete isotopic groups defined in a previous study on cosmic spherules from the Transantarctic Mountains (Suavet et al., 2010) were identified, confirming their global distribution. Approximately 50% of the studied cosmic spherules are related to carbonaceous chondrites, 38% to ordinary chondrites and 12% to unknown parent bodies. Approximately 90% of barred olivine (BO) cosmic spherules show oxygen isotopic compositions suggesting they are related to carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, ∼90% porphyritic olivine (Po) cosmic spherules are related to ordinary chondrites and none can be unambiguously related to carbonaceous chondrites. Other textures are related to all potential parent bodies. The data suggests that the textures of cosmic spherules are mainly controlled by the nature of the precursor rather than by the atmospheric entry parameters. We propose that the Po texture may essentially be formed from a coarse-grained precursor having an ordinary chondritic mineralogy and chemistry. Coarse-grained precursors related to carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. chondrules) are likely to either survive atmospheric entry heating or form V-type cosmic spherules. Due to the limited number of submicron nucleation sites after total melting, ordinary chondrite-related coarse-grained precursors that suffer higher peak temperatures will preferentially form cryptocrystalline (Cc) textures instead of BO textures. Conversely, the BO textures would be mostly related to the fine-grained matrices of carbonaceous chondrites due to the wide range of melting temperatures of their constituent mineral phases, allowing the preservation of submicron nucleation sites. Independently of the nature of the precursors, increasing peak temperatures form glassy textures.

  18. Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain ICIS 96 Demonstrating Intermicrobial Antagonism Associated with Bacteriocin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, Tatiana M; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Khlopko, Yuriy A; Kochkina, Elena E; Kartashova, Olga L; Sycheva, Maria V

    2018-03-08

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain ICIS 96, which was isolated from the feces of a horse. Bacteriological characterization of strain ICIS 96 revealed the absence of pathogenicity factors, while its spectrum of antagonistic activity was found to be broad, having activities associated with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the E. faecium ICIS 96 genome revealed five genes associated with antimicrobial activity (enterocin [ent] A, ent B, lactobin A/cerein 7b, and ent L50 A/B). No genes that correlate with human pathogenicity were identified. Copyright © 2018 Pashkova et al.

  19. POST-MAIN SEQUENCE EVOLUTION OF ICY MINOR PLANETS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER RETENTION AND WHITE DWARF POLLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2016-12-01

    Most observations of polluted white dwarf atmospheres are consistent with accretion of water-depleted planetary material. Among tens of known cases, merely two involve accretion of objects that contain a considerable mass fraction of water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative scarcity of these detections. Based on a new and highly detailed model, we evaluate the retention of water inside icy minor planets during the high-luminosity stellar evolution that follows the main sequence. Our model fully considers the thermal, physical, and chemical evolution of icy bodies, following their internal differentiation as well as water depletion, from the moment of their birth and through all stellar evolution phases preceding the formation of the white dwarf. We also account for different initial compositions and formation times. Our results differ from previous studies, which have either underestimated or overestimated water retention. We show that water can survive in a variety of circumstances and in great quantities, and therefore other possibilities are discussed in order to explain the infrequency of water detection. We predict that the sequence of accretion is such that water accretes earlier, and more rapidly, than the rest of the silicate disk, considerably reducing the chance of its detection in H-dominated atmospheres. In He-dominated atmospheres, the scarcity of water detections could be observationally biased. It implies that the accreted material is typically intrinsically dry, which may be the result of the inside-out depopulation sequence of minor planets.

  20. POST-MAIN SEQUENCE EVOLUTION OF ICY MINOR PLANETS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER RETENTION AND WHITE DWARF POLLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Most observations of polluted white dwarf atmospheres are consistent with accretion of water-depleted planetary material. Among tens of known cases, merely two involve accretion of objects that contain a considerable mass fraction of water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative scarcity of these detections. Based on a new and highly detailed model, we evaluate the retention of water inside icy minor planets during the high-luminosity stellar evolution that follows the main sequence. Our model fully considers the thermal, physical, and chemical evolution of icy bodies, following their internal differentiation as well as water depletion, from the moment of their birth and through all stellar evolution phases preceding the formation of the white dwarf. We also account for different initial compositions and formation times. Our results differ from previous studies, which have either underestimated or overestimated water retention. We show that water can survive in a variety of circumstances and in great quantities, and therefore other possibilities are discussed in order to explain the infrequency of water detection. We predict that the sequence of accretion is such that water accretes earlier, and more rapidly, than the rest of the silicate disk, considerably reducing the chance of its detection in H-dominated atmospheres. In He-dominated atmospheres, the scarcity of water detections could be observationally biased. It implies that the accreted material is typically intrinsically dry, which may be the result of the inside-out depopulation sequence of minor planets.

  1. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Chou, Wen-Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S; Smith, Albert V; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Buchman, Aron S; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A; Cawthon, Peggy M; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R; De Jager, Philip L; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Diatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S; Feitosa, Mary F; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hanson, Robert L; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hubal, Monica J; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M; Husted, Lise B; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John-Olov; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S L; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kraus, William E; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L; Launer, Lenore J; Lee, Jong-Young; Lerch, Markus M; Lewis, Joshua R; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D; Morris, Andrew P; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Orwoll, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephen C J; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L; Räikkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M A; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N; Welch, Ryan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M K; Wilson, James F; Wright, Nicole C; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C; Döring, Angela; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Econs, Michael J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S; Psaty, Bruce M; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn; Loos, Ruth J F; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-07-19

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.

  2. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillikens, M.C.; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Chou, Wen Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, J.A.; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S.; Smith, Albert V.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J.; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Buchman, Aron S.; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H.; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R.; Jager, De Philip L.; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M.; DIatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W.; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L.; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok Ghee; Hanson, Robert L.; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P.; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen Chi; Hubal, Monica J.; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M.; Husted, Lise B.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John Olov; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kilpelaïnen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kraus, William E.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lee, Jong Young; Lerch, Markus M.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N.; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephan; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L.; Raïkkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E.; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M.A.; Tan, Sian Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schoor, van Natasja M.; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N.; Welch, Ryan; Wichman, H.E.; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M.K.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Nicole C.; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C.; Döring, Angela; Duijn, Van Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray

  3. In or Out-of-Madagascar?—Colonization Patterns for Large-Bodied Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from—Africa or Asia—and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon

  4. Large-eddy simulation of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed flame using the transported flame surface density approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin Yik; Cant, Stewart

    2017-07-01

    A premixed propane-air flame stabilised on a triangular bluff body in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). The reaction rate source term for turbulent premixed combustion is closed using the transported flame surface density (TFSD) model. In this approach, there is no need to assume local equilibrium between the generation and destruction of subgrid FSD, as commonly done in simple algebraic closure models. Instead, the key processes that create and destroy FSD are accounted for explicitly. This allows the model to capture large-scale unsteady flame propagation in the presence of combustion instabilities, or in situations where the flame encounters progressive wrinkling with time. In this study, comprehensive validation of the numerical method is carried out. For the non-reacting flow, good agreement for both the time-averaged and root-mean-square velocity fields are obtained, and the Karman type vortex shedding behaviour seen in the experiment is well represented. For the reacting flow, two mesh configurations are used to investigate the sensitivity of the LES results to the numerical resolution. Profiles for the velocity and temperature fields exhibit good agreement with the experimental data for both the coarse and dense mesh. This demonstrates the capability of LES coupled with the TFSD approach in representing the highly unsteady premixed combustion observed in this configuration. The instantaneous flow pattern and turbulent flame behaviour are discussed, and the differences between the non-reacting and reacting flow are described through visualisation of vortical structures and their interaction with the flame. Lastly, the generation and destruction of FSD are evaluated by examining the individual terms in the FSD transport equation. Localised regions where straining, curvature and propagation are each dominant are observed, highlighting the importance of non-equilibrium effects of FSD generation and

  5. Relationship between Body Mass Index Reference and All-Cause Mortality: Evidence from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: “normal” (≥18.5 to <23, “lower normal” (≥18.5 to <20.75, “upper normal” (≥20.75 to <23, and “narrow Western normal” (≥23 to <25. We report hazard ratios (HR and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35–65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01–5.70. For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26–7.22. However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25 were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34–0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28–0.84 when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23 and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23 as reference bands. Use of different “normal” reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data.

  6. Subsurface Ocean Tides in Enceladus and Other Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, M.

    2016-12-01

    Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 meters deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow or stratified ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation due to dynamical obliquity tides can differ from the static prediction by up to a factor of two.

  7. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH 4 , B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia–Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH 4 and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  8. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  9. The relative importance of maternal body mass index and glucose levels for prediction of large-for-gestational-age births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Kerstin; Anderberg, Eva; Claesson, Rickard; Ignell, Claes; Källén, Karin

    2015-10-29

    The risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases substantially with increasing maternal body mass index (BMI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative importance of maternal BMI and glucose levels in prediction of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births. This observational cohort study was based on women giving birth in southern Sweden during the years 2003-2005. Information on 10,974 pregnancies was retrieved from a population-based perinatal register. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in the 28 week of pregnancy for determination of the 2-h plasma glucose concentration. BMI was obtained during the first trimester. The dataset was divided into a development set and a validation set. Using the development set, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify maternal characteristics associated with LGA. The prediction of LGA was assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves, with LGA defined as birth weight > +2 standard deviations of the mean. In the final multivariable model including BMI, 2-h glucose level and maternal demographics, the factor most strongly associated with LGA was BMI (odds ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.30). Based on the total dataset, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 2-h glucose level to predict LGA was 0.54 (95% CI 0.48-0.60), indicating poor performance. Using the validation database, the AUC for the final multiple model was 0.69 (95% CI 0.66-0.72), which was identical to the AUC retrieved from a model not including 2-h glucose (0.69, 95% CI 0.66-0.72), and larger than from a model including 2-h glucose but not BMI (0.63, 95% CI 0.60-0.67). Both the 2-h glucose level of the OGTT and maternal BMI had a significant effect on the risk of LGA births, but the relative contribution was higher for BMI. The findings highlight the importance of concentrating on healthy body weight in pregnant women and closer monitoring of weight during pregnancy as a

  10. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorpt...... a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.......-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p 

  11. A Novel OFDM Channel Estimation Algorithm with ICI Mitigation over Fast Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM is well-known as a high-bit-rate transmission technique, but the Doppler frequency offset due to the high speed movement destroys the orthogonality of the subcarriers resulting in the intercarrier interference (ICI, and degrades the performance of the system at the same time. In this paper a novel OFDM channel estimation algorithm with ICI mitigation based on the ICI self-cancellation scheme is proposed. With this method, a more accurate channel estimation is obtained by comb-type double pilots and then ICI coefficients can be obtained to mitigate the ICI on each subcarrier under the assumption that the channel impulse response (CIR varies in a linear fashion. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER and spectral efficiency performances are improved significantly under high-speed mobility conditions (350 km/h – 500 km/h in comparison to ZHAO’s ICI self-cancellation scheme.

  12. Documentation of body mass index and control of associated risk factors in a large primary care network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Richard W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI will be a reportable health measure in the United States (US through implementation of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS guidelines. We evaluated current documentation of BMI, and documentation and control of associated risk factors by BMI category, based on electronic health records from a 12-clinic primary care network. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 79,947 active network patients greater than 18 years of age seen between 7/05 - 12/06. We defined BMI category as normal weight (NW, 18-24.9 kg/m2, overweight (OW, 25-29.9, and obese (OB, ≥ 30. We measured documentation (yes/no and control (above/below of the following three risk factors: blood pressure (BP ≤130/≤85 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein (LDL ≤130 mg/dL (3.367 mmol/L, and fasting glucose Results BMI was documented in 48,376 patients (61%, range 34-94%, distributed as 30% OB, 34% OW, and 36% NW. Documentation of all three risk factors was higher in obesity (OB = 58%, OW = 54%, NW = 41%, p for trend Conclusions In a large primary care network BMI documentation has been incomplete and for patients with BMI measured, risk factor control has been poorer in obese patients compared with NW, even in those with obesity and CVD or diabetes. Better knowledge of BMI could provide an opportunity for improved quality in obesity care.

  13. Overexpression of HvIcy6 in Barley Enhances Resistance against Tetranychus urticae and Entails Partial Transcriptomic Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Estrella Santamaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystatins have been largely used for pest control against phytophagous species. However, cystatins have not been commonly overexpressed in its cognate plant species to test their pesticide capacity. Since the inhibitory role of barley HvCPI-6 cystatin against the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae has been previously demonstrated, the purpose of our study was to determine if barley transgenic lines overexpressing its own HvIcy6 gene were more resistant against this phytophagous infestation. Besides, a transcriptomic analysis was done to find differential expressed genes among wild-type and transformed barley plants. Barley plants overexpressing HvIcy6 cystatin gene remained less susceptible to T. urticae attack when compared to wild-type plants, with a significant lesser foliar damaged area and a lower presence of the mite. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a certain reprogramming of cellular metabolism and a lower expression of several genes related to photosynthetic activity. Therefore, although caution should be taken to discard potential deleterious pleiotropic effects, cystatins may be used as transgenes with impact on agricultural crops by conferring enhanced levels of resistance to phytophagous pests.

  14. Reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem: A large 13-year prospective study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; von Soest, Tilmann

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that body satisfaction and self-esteem are highly correlated in adolescence, but reasons are poorly understood. We tested three explanations: (i) the two constructs are actually one; (ii) the correlation is explained by a third factor; (iii) there are prospective relationships between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A population based sample of Norwegian adolescents (n = 3251) was examined four times over a 13-year period. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that body satisfaction and self-esteem were separate constructs and the correlation between them was not attenuated when adjusting for 3rd variables. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis showed reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem. The prospective relationship between body satisfaction during adolescence and self-esteem in late adolescence and emerging adulthood was stronger than at later stages. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Context. Several barriers have been proposed in planetesimal formation theory: bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. Understanding the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they are fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self-gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to a density of 10-3 g/cm3 in coagulation, which is more compact than is the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self-gravity to 10-1 g/cm3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerates the growth, the aggregates grow rapidly enough to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is ≲6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose a fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

  16. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of Oxidants by Ion Bombardment of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Boduch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our groups in Brazil, France and Italy have been active, among others in the world, in performing experiments on physical-chemical effects induced by fast ions colliding with solids (frozen gases, carbonaceous and organic materials, silicates, etc. of astrophysical interest. The used ions span a very large range of energies, from a few keV to hundreds MeV. Here we present a summary of the results obtained so far on the formation of oxidants (hydrogen peroxide and ozone after ion irradiation of frozen water, carbon dioxide and their mixtures. Irradiation of pure water ice produces hydrogen peroxide whatever is the used ion and at different temperatures. Irradiation of carbon dioxide and water frozen mixtures result in the production of molecules among which hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the relevance they have to support the presence of an energy source for biosphere on Europa and other icy moons in the outer Solar System.

  18. SIZE AND SURFACE AREA OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES AFTER A HEATING EVENT AT A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirono, Sin-iti [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    The activity of a young star rises abruptly during an FU Orionis outburst. This event causes a temporary temperature increase in the protoplanetary nebula. H{sub 2}O icy grains are sublimated by this event, and silicate cores embedded inside the ice are ejected. During the high-temperature phase, the silicate grains coagulate to form silicate core aggregates. After the heating event, the temperature drops, and the ice recondenses onto the aggregates. I determined numerically the size distribution of the ice-covered aggregates. The size of the aggregates exceeds 10 {mu}m around the snow line. Because of the migration of the ice to large aggregates, only a small fraction of the silicate core aggregate is covered with H{sub 2}O ice. After the heating event, the surface of an ice-covered aggregate is totally covered by silicate core aggregates. This might reduce the fragmentation velocity of aggregates when they collide. It is possible that the covering silicate cores shield the UV radiation field which induces photodissociation of H{sub 2}O ice. This effect may cause the shortage of cold H{sub 2}O vapor observed by Herschel.

  19. Local Control and Toxicity in a Large Cohort of Central Lung Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modh, Ankit; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Williams, Eric [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Foster, Amanda; Shah, Mihir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gelblum, Daphna Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen D.; Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in central lung tumors has been associated with higher rates of severe toxicity. We sought to evaluate toxicity and local control in a large cohort and to identify predictive dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: We identified patients who received SBRT for central tumors according to either of 2 definitions. Local failure (LF) was estimated using a competing risks model, and multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors associated with LF. We reviewed patient toxicity and applied Cox proportional hazard analysis and log-rank tests to assess whether dose-volume metrics of normal structures correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (n=103) or metastatic lesions (n=22), using intensity modulated radiation therapy. The most common dose was 45 Gy in 5 fractions. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. Incidence of toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 8.0%, including 5.6% pulmonary toxicity. Sixteen patients (12.8%) experienced esophageal toxicity ≥ grade 2, including 50% of patients in whom PTV overlapped the esophagus. There were 2 treatment-related deaths. Among patients receiving biologically effective dose (BED) ≥80 Gy (n=108), 2-year LF was 21%. On MVA, gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly associated with LF. None of the studied dose-volume metrics of the lungs, heart, proximal bronchial tree (PBT), or 2 cm expansion of the PBT (“no-fly-zone” [NFZ]) correlated with pulmonary toxicity ≥grade 2. There were no differences in pulmonary toxicity between central tumors located inside the NFZ and those outside the NFZ but with planning target volume (PTV) intersecting the mediastinum. Conclusions: Using moderate doses, SBRT for central lung tumors achieves acceptable local control with low rates of severe toxicity. Dosimetric analysis showed no significant correlation between dose to the lungs, heart, or NFZ and

  20. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervis, Sheila; Coombs, Geoff B; Chaseling, Georgia K; Filingeri, Davide; Smoljanic, Jovana; Jay, Ollie

    2016-03-15

    We sought to determine 1) the influence of adiposity on thermoregulatory responses independently of the confounding biophysical factors of body mass and metabolic heat production (Hprod); and 2) whether differences in adiposity should be accounted for by prescribing an exercise intensity eliciting a fixed Hprod per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM). Nine low (LO-BF) and nine high (HI-BF) body fat males matched in pairs for total body mass (TBM; LO-BF: 88.7 ± 8.4 kg, HI-BF: 90.1 ± 7.9 kg; P = 0.72), but with distinctly different percentage body fat (%BF; LO-BF: 10.8 ± 3.6%; HI-BF: 32.0 ± 5.6%; P mass and Hprod, possibly due to a lower mean specific heat capacity or impaired sudomotor control. However, thermoregulatory responses of groups with different adiposity levels should not be compared using a fixed Hprod in watts per kilogram lean body mass. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  2. Utilizing Web 2.0 Technologies for Library Web Tutorials: An Examination of Instruction on Community College Libraries' Websites Serving Large Student Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blummer, Barbara; Kenton, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of a series on Web 2.0 tools available from community college libraries' Websites. The first article appeared in an earlier volume of this journal and it illustrated the wide variety of Web 2.0 tools on community college libraries' Websites serving large student bodies (Blummer and Kenton 2014). The research found many of…

  3. ICI 182,780 has agonistic effects and synergizes with estradiol-17 beta in fish liver, but not in testis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Patricia; Singh, Pratap B.; Condeça, João B.; Teodósio, H. R.; Power, Deborah; Canario, Adelino V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background ICI 182,780 (ICI) belongs to a new class of antiestrogens developed to be pure estrogen antagonists and, in addition to its therapeutic use, it has been used to knock-out estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER) actions in several mammalian species. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of action of ICI were investigated in the teleost fish, sea bream (Sparus auratus). Methods Three independent in vivo experiments were performed in which mature male tilapia (Oreochrom...

  4. Studying the Surfaces of the Icy Galilean Satellites With JIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, L.; Schenk, P.; Pappalardo, R.

    2003-12-01

    The Geology subgroup of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Science Definition Team (SDT) has been working with colleagues within the planetary science community to determine the key outstanding science goals that could be met by the JIMO mission. Geological studies of the Galilean satellites will benefit from the spacecraft's long orbital periods around each satellite, lasting from one to several months. This mission plan allows us to select the optimal viewing conditions to complete global compositional and morphologic mapping at high resolution, and to target geologic features of key scientific interest at very high resolution. Community input to this planning process suggests two major science objectives, along with corresponding measurements proposed to meet them. Objective 1: Determine the origins of surface features and their implications for geological history and evolution. This encompasses investigations of magmatism (intrusion, extrusion, and diapirism), tectonism (isostatic compensation, and styles of faulting, flexure and folding), impact cratering (morphology and distribution), and gradation (erosion and deposition) processes (impact gardening, sputtering, mass wasting and frosts). Suggested measurements to meet this goal include (1) two dimensional global topographic mapping sufficient to discriminate features at a spatial scale of 10 m, and with better than or equal to 1 m relative vertical accuracy, (2) nested images of selected target areas at a range of resolutions down to the submeter pixel scale, (3) global (albedo) mapping at better than or equal to 10 m/pixel, and (4) multispectral global mapping in at least 3 colors at better than or equal to 100 m/pixel, with some subsets at better than 30 m/pixel. Objective 2. Identify and characterize potential landing sites for future missions. A primary component to the success of future landed missions is full characterization of potential sites in terms of their relative age, geological interest, and

  5. Use of Two-Body Correlated Basis Functions with van der Waals Interaction to Study the Shape-Independent Approximation for a Large Number of Trapped Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Das, T. K.; Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Adam, R. M.; Haldar, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground-state and the low-lying excitations of a trapped Bose gas in an isotropic harmonic potential for very small (˜ 3) to very large (˜ 10^7) particle numbers. We use the two-body correlated basis functions and the shape-dependent van der Waals interaction in our many-body calculations. We present an exhaustive study of the effect of inter-atomic correlations and the accuracy of the mean-field equations considering a wide range of particle numbers. We calculate the ground-state energy and the one-body density for different values of the van der Waals parameter C6. We compare our results with those of the modified Gross-Pitaevskii results, the correlated Hartree hypernetted-chain equations (which also utilize the two-body correlated basis functions), as well as of the diffusion Monte Carlo for hard sphere interactions. We observe the effect of the attractive tail of the van der Waals potential in the calculations of the one-body density over the truly repulsive zero-range potential as used in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and discuss the finite-size effects. We also present the low-lying collective excitations which are well described by a hydrodynamic model in the large particle limit.

  6. Thermal Reactions of H2O2 on Icy Satellites and Small Bodies: Descent with Modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetospheric radiation drives surface and near-surface chemistry on Europa, but below a few meters Europa's chemistry is hidden from direct observation . As an example, surface radiation chemistry converts H2O and SO2 into H2O2 and (SO4)(sup 2-), respectively, and these species will be transported downward for possible thermally-driven reactions. However, while the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, this molecule's thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry has seldom been studied. Here we report new results on thermal reactions in H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices at 50 - 130 K. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to (SO4)(sup 2-). These results have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends, with modification, towards a subsurface ocean on Europa. We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto.

  7. Molecular Gas Clumps from the Destruction of Icy Bodies in the beta Pictoris Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Wyatt, M. C.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J. -C.; Casassus, S.; Corder, S.; Greaves, J. S.; DeGregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Jackson, A. P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many stars are surrounded by disks of dusty debris formed in the collisions of asteroids, comets and dwarf planets. But is gas also released in such events? Observations at sub-mm wavelengths of the archetypal debris disk around ß Pictoris show that 0.3% of a Moon mass of carbon monoxide orbits in its debris belt. The gas distribution is highly asymmetric, with 30% found in a single clump 85 AU from the star, in a plane closely aligned with the orbit of the inner planet, beta Pic b. This gas clump delineates a region of enhanced collisions, either from a mean motion resonance with an unseen giant planet, or from the remnants of a collision of Mars-mass planets.

  8. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  10. The Scattering Properties of Natural Terrestrial Snows versus Icy Satellite Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah; Hartman, Beth; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Our comparisons of the single particle scattering behavior of terrestrial snows and icy satellite regoliths to the laboratory particle scattering measurements of McGuire and Hapke demonstrate that the differences between icy satellite regoliths and their terrestrial counterparts are due to particle structures and textures. Terrestrial snow particle structures define a region in the single particle scattering function parameter space separate from the regions defined by the McGuire and Hapke artificial laboratory particles. The particle structures and textures of the grains composing icy satellites regoliths are not simple or uniform but consist of a variety of particle structure and texture types, some of which may be a combination of the particle types investigated by McGuire and Hapke.

  11. An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. Does a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist (ICI 169, 369) lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, A K; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Webster, J; Petrie, J C

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of single doses (10, 30 and 50 mg) of a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ICI 169, 369, on blood pressure, heart rate and the electrocardiogram was studied using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject design in hypertensive patients. 2. ICI 169, 369 did not reduce blood pressure or increase QT interval as has been reported with ketanserin. This suggests that it is the other properties of ketanserin which are responsible for its antihypertensive effect. 3. Plasma c...

  13. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  14. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mi....... The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies....

  15. Large-Scale Quantum Many-Body Perturbation on Spin and Charge Separation in the Excited States of the Synthesized Donor-Acceptor Hybrid PBI-Macrocycle Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-03-17

    The reliable calculation of the excited states of charge-transfer (CT) compounds poses a major challenge to the ab initio community because the frequently employed method, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), massively relies on the underlying density functional, resulting in heavily Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange-dependent excited-state energies. By applying the highly sophisticated many-body perturbation approach, we address the encountered unreliabilities and inconsistencies of not optimally tuned (standard) TD-DFT regarding photo-excited CT phenomena, and present results concerning accurate vertical transition energies and the correct energetic ordering of the CT and the first visible singlet state of a recently synthesized thermodynamically stable large hybrid perylene bisimide-macrocycle complex. This is a large-scale application of the quantum many-body perturbation approach to a chemically relevant CT system, demonstrating the system-size independence of the quality of the many-body-based excitation energies. Furthermore, an optimal tuning of the ωB97X hybrid functional can well reproduce the many-body results, making TD-DFT a suitable choice but at the expense of introducing a range-separation parameter, which needs to be optimally tuned. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Aqueous geochemistry in icy world interiors: Equilibrium fluid, rock, and gas compositions, and fate of antifreezes and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2017-09-01

    The geophysical evolution of many icy moons and dwarf planets seems to have provided opportunities for interaction between liquid water and rock (silicate and organic solids). Here, we explore two ways by which water-rock interaction can feed back on geophysical evolution: the production or consumption of antifreeze compounds, which affect the persistence and abundance of cold liquid; and the potential leaching into the fluid of lithophile radionuclides, affecting the distribution of a long-term heat source. We compile, validate, and use a numerical model, implemented with the PHREEQC code, of the interaction of chondritic rock with pure water and with C, N, S-bearing cometary fluid, thought to be the materials initially accreted by icy worlds, and describe the resulting equilibrium fluid and rock assemblages at temperatures, pressures, and water-to-rock ratios of 0-200 ° C, 1-1000 bar, and 0.1-10 by mass, respectively. Our findings suggest that water-rock interaction can strongly alter the nature and amount of antifreezes, resulting in solutions rich in reduced nitrogen and carbon, and sometimes dissolved H2, with additional sodium, calcium, chlorine, and/or oxidized carbon. Such fluids can remain partially liquid down to 176 K if NH3 is present. The prominence of Cl in solution seems to hinge on its primordial supply in ices, which is unconstrained by the meteoritical record. Equilibrium assemblages, rich in serpentine and saponite clays, retain thorium and uranium radionuclides unless U-Cl or U-HCO3 complexing, which was not modeled, significantly enhances U solubility. However, the radionuclide 40 K can be leached at high water:rock ratio and/or low temperature at which K is exchanged with ammonium in minerals. We recommend the inclusion of these effects in future models of the geophysical evolution of ocean-bearing icy worlds. Our simulation products match observations of chloride salts on Europa and Enceladus; CI chondrites mineralogies; the observation of

  17. Animal-Borne Imaging Reveals Novel Insights into the Foraging Behaviors and Diel Activity of a Large-Bodied Apex Predator, the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nifong, James C.; Nifong, Rachel L.; Silliman, Brian R.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Welsh, Matthew; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales) can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here...

  18. Between ice and gas: CO2 on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, C.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites [1-6], yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated [7]. On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non-ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface. On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.1% [2; 10-12]. Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon [13] and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. We continue measurements of the infrared properties associated with CO2 adsorbed onto nonice materials under pressures and at temperatures relevant to these icy satellites using bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy from ~ 1.5 to 5.5 μm. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO2 [14]. Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate [15]. The effectiveness of transmission spectroscopy was also limited by the strong absorption of light within the pressed sample and its impermeability, which limited the coverage by adsorbate to the pellet’s outer surface. All measurements demonstrate that CO2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment

  19. Interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.; Haff, P.K.; Johnson, R.E.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    When natural satellites and ring particles are embedded within magnetospheric plasmas, the charged particles interact with the surfaces of these solid bodies. These interactions have important implications for the surface, the atmosphere of the parent body, and the magnetosphere as a whole. Significant erosion of the surface by sputtering, as well as redeposition of sputter ejecta, can occur over geologic time. The surface can also be chemically modified. Sputter ejecta can make important contributions to the atmosphere; sputtering provides a lower limit to the atmospheric column density even for arbitrarily cold satellite surfaces. Sputter ejecta escaping from the parent body can form extensive neutral clouds within the magnetosphere. Ionization and dissociation within these neutral clouds can be dominant sources of low-energy plasma. The importance of these processes is discussed for the satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus

  20. ICI 182,780 has agonistic effects and synergizes with estradiol-17 beta in fish liver, but not in testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ICI 182,780 (ICI belongs to a new class of antiestrogens developed to be pure estrogen antagonists and, in addition to its therapeutic use, it has been used to knock-out estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER actions in several mammalian species. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of action of ICI were investigated in the teleost fish, sea bream (Sparus auratus. Methods Three independent in vivo experiments were performed in which mature male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus or sea bream received intra-peritoneal implants containing estradiol-17 beta (E2, ICI or a combination of both compounds. The effects of E2 and ICI on plasma calcium levels were measured and hepatic and testicular gene expression of the three ER subtypes, ER alpha, ER beta a and ER beta b, and the estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin II and choriogenin L, were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in sea bream. Results E2 treatment caused an increase in calcium levels in tilapia, while ICI alone had no noticeable effect, as expected. However, pretreatment with ICI synergistically potentiated the effect of E2 on plasma calcium in both species. ICI mimicked some E2 actions in gene expression in sea bream liver upregulating ER alpha, vitellogenin II and choriogenin L, although, unlike E2, it did not downregulate ER beta a and ER beta b. In contrast, no effects of E2 or ICI alone were detected in the expression of ERs in testis, while vitellogenin II and choriogenin L were upregulated by E2 but not ICI. Finally, pretreatment with ICI had a synergistic effect on the hepatic E2 down-regulation of ER beta b, but apparently blocked the ER alpha up-regulation by E2. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ICI has agonistic effects on several typical estrogenic responses in fish, but its actions are tissue-specific. The mechanisms for the ICI agonistic activity are still unknown; although the ICI induced up-regulation of ER alpha mRNA could be one of

  1. The Clinical Relevance of Psammoma Body and Hashimoto Thyroiditis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Large Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ye-Feng; Wang, Qing-Xuan; Ni, Chun-Jue; Guo, Gui-Long; Li, Quan; Wang, Ou-Chen; Wu, Liang; Du, Hai-Yan; You, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of psammoma body (PB) on papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and evaluate the association among PB, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), and other clinicopathologic characteristics in PTC patients.We conducted a retrospective case-control study involving 1052 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy with lymph node dissection.Psammoma body was observed in 324 out of 1052 PTC (30.8%) patients. Ultrasonographic (US) calcification (P < 0.001), multifocality of the tumor (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P < 0.001), HT (P < 0.001), and Primary tumor (T), Regional lymph nodes (N), Distant metastasis (M) staging (P = 0.001) were significantly related to the presence of PB. The presence of PB was significantly associated with US microcalcification (P < 0.001). In the subgroup with HT, compared with the patients without PB, the patients with PB exhibited a higher frequency of central LNM (54.7% vs 32.1%; P < 0.001) and US microcalcification (94.7% vs 38.8%; P < 0.001), as well as smaller tumors (0.9 ± 0.6 vs 1.3 ± 0.9 cm; P < 0.001). In the subgroup without HT, the patients with PB displayed a higher incidence of lateral LNM (25.8% vs 14.6%; P < 0.001), US microcalcification (87.3% vs 52.5%; P < 0.001), and extrathyroidal extension (47.2% vs 34.8%; P = 0.001), as well as larger tumors (1.3 ± 0.9 vs 1.0 ± 0.8 cm; P < 0.001) than without PB. Moreover, in the subgroup with PB, the PTC patients with HT showed a higher LNM (77.9% vs 57.2%; P < 0.001) and a lower frequency of extrathyroidal extension (20.0% vs 47.2%; P < 0.001) than without HT.Psammoma body is a useful predictor of aggressive tumor behavior in PTC patients. HT with PB shows more aggressive behaviors than non-HT with PB in PTC patients.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of an 18F-labelled beta1-adrenoceptor selective radioligand based on ICI 89,406.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marilyn P; Wagner, Stefan; Kopka, Klaus; Renner, Christiane; Pike, Victor W; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Radioligand binding studies indicate a down-regulation of myocardial beta(1)-adrenoceptors (beta(1)-AR) in cardiac disease which may or may not be associated with a decrease in beta(2)-ARs. We have chosen ICI 89,406, a beta(1)-selective AR antagonist, as the lead structure to develop new beta(1)-AR radioligands for PET and have synthesised a fluoro-ethoxy derivative (F-ICI). (S)-N-[2-[3-(2-Cyano-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propylamino]-ethyl]-N'-[4-(2-[(18)F]fluoro-ethoxy)-phenyl]-urea ((S)-[(18)F]F-ICI) was synthesised. Myocardial uptake of radioactivity after intravenous injection of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI into adult CD(1) mice or Wistar rats was assessed with positron emission tomography (PET) and postmortem dissection. Metabolism was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of plasma and urine. The heart was visualised with PET after injection of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI but neither unlabelled F-ICI nor propranolol (non-selective beta-AR antagonist) injected 15 min after (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI affected myocardial radioactivity. Ex vivo dissection demonstrated that predosing with propranolol or CGP 20712 (beta(1)-selective AR-antagonist) did not affect myocardial radioactivity. Radiometabolites rapidly appeared in plasma and both (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI and radiometabolites accumulated in urine. Myocardial uptake of (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI after intravenous injection was mainly at sites unrelated to beta(1)-ARs. (S)-[(18)F]F-ICI is not a suitable beta(1)-selective-AR radioligand for PET. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  4. Le CERN va supprimer 600 postes d'ici a 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Le Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules (CERN), qui doit economiser quelque 340 millions d'euros jusqu'en 2008, va reduire ses effectifs de 600 postes d'ici a 2007, a annonce jeudi son porte-parole, James Gillies" (1/2/ page).

  5. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) : Science Objectives, Mission and Instruments (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurvits, L.; Plaut, J.J.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, L.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) is a European Space Agency mission that will fly by and observe the Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, characterize the Jovian system in a lengthy Jupiter-orbit phase, and ultimately orbit Ganymede for in-depth studies of habitability, evolution

  6. Do we manage incontinence in children and adults with special needs adequately? ICI-RS 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Gontard, Alexander; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Rantell, Angie; Nieuwhof-Leppink, Anka; Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; Cardozo, Linda

    2016-01-01

    To review studies on the associations of incontinence and special needs in children and adults and to outline future directions in research and clinical care. A review of literature was conducted. Open questions and future directions were discussed during the ICI-RS meeting in 2014. Special needs

  7. The ICY1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects nitrogen consumption during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that the expression of ICY1 is regulated by the amount of nitrogen available in the must and it is involved in the consumption of ammonium, given the increase in the consumption of this nitrogen source observed in the null mutant strain.

  8. ICI Holland hanteert ISO 9001 ook voor arbozorg: audit is ons toverwoord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvliet, S.; Pennekamp, E.

    1994-01-01

    In verschillende fabrieken van ICI Holland worden grondstoffen voor polyrethaan, acrylaat, polyesterfilm en grondstoffen voor PET-flessen gemaakt. Werknemers in deze fabrieken krijgen training over de specifieke gevaren. Ook moeten examens afgelegd worden over die gevaren. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe

  9. Glaciers and Ice Sheets As Analog Environments of Potentially Habitable Icy Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garcia-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Icy worlds in the solar system and beyond have attracted a remarkable attention as possible habitats for life. The current consideration about whether life exists beyond Earth is based on our knowledge of life in terrestrial cold environments. On Earth, glaciers and ice sheets have been considered uninhabited for a long time as they seemed too hostile to harbor life. However, these environments are unique biomes dominated by microbial communities which maintain active biochemical routes. Thanks to techniques such as microscopy and more recently DNA sequencing methods, a great biodiversity of prokaryote and eukaryote microorganisms have been discovered. These microorganisms are adapted to a harsh environment, in which the most extreme features are the lack of liquid water, extremely cold temperatures, high solar radiation and nutrient shortage. Here we compare the environmental characteristics of icy worlds, and the environmental characteristics of terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets in order to address some interesting questions: (i which are the characteristics of habitability known for the frozen worlds, and which could be compatible with life, (ii what are the environmental characteristics of terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets that can be life-limiting, (iii What are the microbial communities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that can live in them, and (iv taking into account these observations, could any of these planets or satellites meet the conditions of habitability? In this review, the icy worlds are considered from the point of view of astrobiological exploration. With the aim of determining whether icy worlds could be potentially habitable, they have been compared with the environmental features of glaciers and ice sheets on Earth. We also reviewed some field and laboratory investigations about microorganisms that live in analog environments of icy worlds, where they are not only viable but also metabolically active.

  10. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pinsulin resistance.

  11. Ejection of rocky and icy material from binary star systems: implications for the origin and composition of 1I/`Oumuamua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan P.; Tamayo, Daniel; Hammond, Noah; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Rein, Hanno

    2018-06-01

    In single-star systems like our own Solar system, comets dominate the mass budget of bodies ejected into interstellar space, since they form further away and are less tightly bound. However, 1I/`Oumuamua, the first interstellar object detected, appears asteroidal in its spectra and lack of detectable activity. We argue that the galactic budget of interstellar objects like 1I/`Oumuamua should be dominated by planetesimal material ejected during planet formation in circumbinary systems, rather than in single-star systems or widely separated binaries. We further show that in circumbinary systems, rocky bodies should be ejected in comparable numbers to icy ones. This suggests that a substantial fraction of interstellar objects discovered in future should display an active coma. We find that the rocky population, of which 1I/`Oumuamua seems to be a member, should be predominantly sourced from A-type and late B-star binaries.

  12. Impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and radiation dose in multidetector CT of large body size adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Gaurav S.; Uppot, Raul N.; Kambadakone, Avinash R.; Yu, Elaine W.; Sahani, Dushyant V.

    2012-01-01

    To compare image quality and radiation dose using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and Filtered Back Projection (FBP) in patients weighing ≥91 kg. In this Institution Review Board-approved retrospective study, single-phase contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT examinations of 100 adults weighing ≥91 kg (mean body weight: 107.6 ± 17.4 kg range: 91-181.9 kg) with (1) ASiR and (2) FBP were reviewed by two readers in a blinded fashion for subjective measures of image quality (using a subjective standardized numerical scale and objective noise) and for radiation exposure. Imaging parameters and radiation dose results of the two techniques were compared within weight and BMI sub-categories. All examinations were found to be of adequate quality. Both subjective (mean = 1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6, P < 0.05) and objective noise (13.0 ± 3.2 vs.19.5 ± 5.7, P < 0.0001) were lower with ASiR. Average radiation dose reduction of 31.5 % was achieved using ASiR (mean CTDIvol. ASiR: 13.5 ± 7.3 mGy; FBP: 19.7 ± 9.0 mGy, P < 0.0001). Other measures of image quality were comparable between the two techniques. Trends for all parameters were similar in patients across weight and BMI sub-categories. In obese individuals, abdominal CT images reconstructed using ASiR provide diagnostic images with reduced image noise at lower radiation dose. circle CT images in obese adults are noisy, even with high radiation dose. (orig.)

  13. Impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and radiation dose in multidetector CT of large body size adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Gaurav S.; Uppot, Raul N.; Kambadakone, Avinash R. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yu, Elaine W. [Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sahani, Dushyant V. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and Filtered Back Projection (FBP) in patients weighing {>=}91 kg. In this Institution Review Board-approved retrospective study, single-phase contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT examinations of 100 adults weighing {>=}91 kg (mean body weight: 107.6 {+-} 17.4 kg range: 91-181.9 kg) with (1) ASiR and (2) FBP were reviewed by two readers in a blinded fashion for subjective measures of image quality (using a subjective standardized numerical scale and objective noise) and for radiation exposure. Imaging parameters and radiation dose results of the two techniques were compared within weight and BMI sub-categories. All examinations were found to be of adequate quality. Both subjective (mean = 1.4 {+-} 0.5 vs. 1.6 {+-} 0.6, P < 0.05) and objective noise (13.0 {+-} 3.2 vs.19.5 {+-} 5.7, P < 0.0001) were lower with ASiR. Average radiation dose reduction of 31.5 % was achieved using ASiR (mean CTDIvol. ASiR: 13.5 {+-} 7.3 mGy; FBP: 19.7 {+-} 9.0 mGy, P < 0.0001). Other measures of image quality were comparable between the two techniques. Trends for all parameters were similar in patients across weight and BMI sub-categories. In obese individuals, abdominal CT images reconstructed using ASiR provide diagnostic images with reduced image noise at lower radiation dose. circle CT images in obese adults are noisy, even with high radiation dose. (orig.)

  14. Extensional and compressional instabilities in icy satellite lithospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, D.L.; Stevenson, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The plausibility of invoking a lithospheric instability mechanism to account for the grooved terrains on Ganymede, Encedalus, and Miranda is presently evaluated in light of the combination of a simple mechanical model of planetary lithospheres and asthenospheres with recent experimental data for the brittle and ductile deformation of ice. For Ganymede, high surface gravity and warm temperatures render the achievement of an instability sufficiently great for the observed topographic relief virtually impossible; an instability of sufficient strength, however, may be able to develop on such smaller, colder bodies as Encedalus and Miranda. 15 refs

  15. Animal-Borne Imaging Reveals Novel Insights into the Foraging Behaviors and Diel Activity of a Large-Bodied Apex Predator, the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifong, James C.; Nifong, Rachel L.; Silliman, Brian R.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Welsh, Matthew; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales) can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam) to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour) as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack) were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals’ experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal

  16. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.

  17. Oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley magma system, California: isotope thermometry and convection in large silicic magma bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya; Valley, John

    2002-07-01

    Products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions with eruptive draw-down of several kilometers provide a snap-shot view of batholith-scale magma chambers, and quench pre-eruptive isotopic fractionations (i.e., temperatures) between minerals. We report analyses of oxygen isotope ratio in individual quartz phenocrysts and concentrates of magnetite, pyroxene, and zircon from individual pumice clasts of ignimbrite and fall units of caldera-forming 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff (BT), pre-caldera Glass Mountain (2.1-0.78 Ma), and post-caldera rhyolites (0.65-0.04 Ma) to characterize the long-lived, batholith-scale magma chamber beneath Long Valley Caldera in California. Values of δ18O show a subtle 1‰ decrease from the oldest Glass Mountain lavas to the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Older Glass Mountain lavas exhibit larger ( 1‰) variability of δ18O(quartz). The youngest domes of Glass Mountain are similar to BT in δ18O(quartz) values and reflect convective homogenization during formation of BT magma chamber surrounded by extremely heterogeneous country rocks (ranging from 2 to +29‰). Oxygen isotope thermometry of BT confirms a temperature gradient between "Late" (815 °C) and "Early" (715 °C) BT. The δ18O(quartz) values of "Early" and "Late" BT are +8.33 and 8.21‰, consistent with a constant δ18O(melt)=7.8+/-0.1‰ and 100 °C temperature difference. Zircon-melt saturation equilibria gives a similar temperature range. Values of δ18O(quartz) for different stratigraphic units of BT, and in pumice clasts ranging in pre-eruptive depths from 6 to 11 km (based on melt inclusions), and document vertical and lateral homogeneity of δ18O(melt). Worldwide, five other large-volume rhyolites, Lava Creek, Lower Bandelier, Fish Canyon, Cerro Galan, and Toba, exhibit equal δ18O(melt) values of earlier and later erupted portions in each of the these climactic caldera-forming eruptions. We interpret the large-scale δ18O homogeneity of BT and other large magma chambers as evidence

  18. Slush Fund: The Multiphase Nature of Oceanic Ices and Its Role in Shaping Europa's Icy Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2017-12-01

    shell thickness, and ocean-surface interaction rates. Moreover, this work aims to shed light on the important role microscale physics plays in determining the macroscale properties of icy worlds by highlighting and adapting successful multiphase reactive transport sea ice models utilized in large scale Earth systems science simulations.

  19. Analyses of large quasistatic deformations of inelastic bodies by a new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm, suitable for analyses of large, quasistatic, inelastic deformations, is presented. The algorithm is base upon a generalization of de Veubeke's complementary energy principle. The principal variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin, and thg resulting finite element equations are discrete versions of the equations of compatibility and angular momentum balance. The algorithm produces true rates, time derivatives, as opposed to 'increments'. There results a complete separation of the boundary value problem (for stress rate and velocity) and the initial value problem (for total stress and deformation); hence, their numerical treatments are essentially independent. After a fairly comprehensive discussion of the numerical treatment of the boundary value problem, we launch into a detailed examination of the numerical treatment of the initial value problem, covering the topics of efficiency, stability and objectivity. The paper is closed with a set of examples, finite homogeneous deformation problems, which serve to bring out important aspects of the algorithm.

  20. IMPACT OF COHERENT BACKSCATTERING ON THE SPECTRA OF ICY SATELLITES OF SATURN AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF ITS EFFECTS FOR REMOTE SENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Buratti, B.; Tishkovets, V.

    2010-01-01

    We have found systematic variations in the spectra of Saturn's icy satellites Rhea and Iapetus obtained by the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The main attribute of these variations is a significantly different depth of the absorption bands at different phase angles. We show that these variations likely result from the coherent backscattering effect (CBE). This effect has been mainly known as the probable reason for a steep opposition spike in brightness observed for some asteroids, moons, and Kuiper Belt Objects at phase angles smaller than 3 deg. The opposition spike has different steepness at different albedos due to the strong dependence of the CBE on the absorption of the material. As a result of this dependence, the impact of the CBE should be different within and outside of the absorption spectral bands. This produces a systematic change in the depth of the absorption bands at different phase angles, as we see in the VIMS spectra of Rhea and Iapetus. Neglecting this effect may result in misinterpretation of the spectra and misleading conclusions about compositional and particle size differences of icy bodies studied at different phase angles. Our computer modeling of the CBE reproduces the observed spectral variations and also shows that they are strongly affected by the size and packing of particles. Thus, the variations in the absorption bands produced by the CBE not only allow us to improve interpretation of the spectra, but also provide a promising approach to study size and packing of the regolith and dust particles.

  1. Physicochemical Requirements Inferred for Chemical Self-Organization Hardly Support an Emergence of Life in the Deep Oceans of Icy Moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert

    2016-05-01

    An approach to the origin of life, focused on the property of entities capable of reproducing themselves far from equilibrium, has been developed recently. Independently, the possibility of the emergence of life in the hydrothermal systems possibly present in the deep oceans below the frozen crust of some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn has been raised. The present report is aimed at investigating the mutual compatibility of these alternative views. In this approach, the habitability concept deduced from the limits of life on Earth is considered to be inappropriate with regard to emerging life due to the requirement for an energy source of sufficient potential (equivalent to the potential of visible light). For these icy moons, no driving force would have been present to assist the process of emergence, which would then have had to rely exclusively on highly improbable events, thereby making the presence of life unlikely on these Solar System bodies, that is, unless additional processes are introduced for feeding chemical systems undergoing a transition toward life and the early living organisms. Icy moon-Bioenergetics-Chemical evolution-Habitability-Origin of life. Astrobiology 16, 328-334.

  2. Is Recovery of Large-Bodied Zooplankton after Nutrient Loading Reduction Hampered by Climate Warming? A Long-Term Study of Shallow Hypertrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient fluctuations and climate warming can synergistically affect trophic dynamics in lakes, resulting in enhanced symptoms of eutrophication, thereby potentially counteracting restoration measures. We performed a long-term study (23 years of zooplankton in Danish Lake Søbygaard, which is in recovery after nutrient loading reduction, but now faces the effects of climate warming. We hypothesized that the recovery of large-bodied zooplankton after nutrient loading reduction would be hampered by climate warming through indirect effects on fish size structure. We found a shift in macrozooplankton from initial dominance of Daphnia spp. towards Bosmina spp. as well as a decline in the body size of copepods and an increase in the abundance of nauplii. These changes coincided with the increase in small sized fish as a result of rising water temperature. Despite a reduction in body size, the total biomass of cladocerans increased coinciding with a diminished fish catch per unit effort (CPUE, and likely then an overall reduction in the predation on zooplankton. A cascading effect to phytoplankton was evidenced by enhanced zooplankton:phytoplankton and cladoceran:phytoplankton ratios and a decrease in Chl-a:TP and Chl-a:TN ratios. Our results indicate that climate warming, through changes in the size structure of fish community, has major effects on zooplankton size structure. In Lake Søbygaard, the decline in zooplankton size did not prevent, but modulated, the positive cascading effect on phytoplankton through an expected diminished fish CPUE related to nutrient loading reduction.

  3. Selective adrenergic beta-2-receptor blocking drug, ICI-118.551, is effective in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J; Larsen, T A

    1986-07-01

    Eighteen patients with essential tremor were treated for 2 days with a non-selective adrenergic beta-blocking drug (dl-propranolol, 80 mg X 3), a beta-2-selective blocker (ICI-118.551, 50 mg X 3) and placebo (X 3) in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Postural hand tremor was recorded with an accelerometer before administration of the drugs and at the end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, both the beta-blocking drugs caused a statistically significant decrease in tremor intensity and they possessed approximately similar antitremor potency. Subjective benefit was reported by 12 of the 18 patients receiving ICI-118.551, 13 when on propranolol and 3 when on placebo.

  4. Post-main-sequence Evolution of Icy Minor Planets. II. Water Retention and White Dwarf Pollution around Massive Progenitor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2017-06-10

    Most studies suggest that the pollution of white dwarf (WD) atmospheres arises from the accretion of minor planets, but the exact properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases, are not yet understood. Here we study the water retention of small icy bodies in exo-solar planetary systems, as their respective host stars evolve through and off the main sequence and eventually become WDs. We explore, for the first time, a wide range of star masses and metallicities. We find that the mass of the WD progenitor star is of crucial importance for the retention of water, while its metallicity is relatively unimportant. We predict that minor planets around lower-mass WD progenitors would generally retain more water and would do so at closer distances from the WD than compared with high-mass progenitors. The dependence of water retention on progenitor mass and other parameters has direct implications for the origin of observed WD pollution, and we discuss how our results and predictions might be tested in the future as more observations of WDs with long cooling ages become available.

  5. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir

    2015-01-01

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials

  6. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir, E-mail: lucas.koziol@exxonmobil.com, E-mail: ngoldman@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.

  7. Efficacy of a rubber outsole with a hybrid surface pattern for preventing slips on icy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Hsu, Jennifer; Li, Yue; Maki, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    Conventional winter-safety footwear devices, such as crampons, can be effective in preventing slips on icy surfaces but the protruding studs can lead to other problems such as trips. A new hybrid (rough and smooth) rubber outsole was designed to provide high slip resistance without use of protruding studs or asperities. In the present study, we examined the slip resistance of the hybrid rubber outsole on both dry (-10 °C) and wet (0 °C) icy surfaces, in comparison to three conventional strap-on winter anti-slip devices: 1) metal coils ("Yaktrax Walker"), 2) gritted (sandpaper-like) straps ("Rough Grip"), and 3) crampons ("Altagrips-Lite"). Drag tests were performed to measure static (SCOF) and dynamic (DCOF) coefficients of friction, and gait trials were conducted on both level and sloped ice surfaces (16 participants). The drag-test results showed relatively high SCOF (≧0.37) and DCOF (≧0.31) values for the hybrid rubber sole, at both temperatures. The other three footwear types exhibited lower DCOF values (0.06-0.20) when compared with the hybrid rubber sole at 0 °C (p footwear types, when descending a slope at -10 °C (6% of trials vs 0%; p footwear-related differences in slip frequency, distance or velocity. These results indicate that the slip-resistance of the hybrid rubber sole on icy surfaces was comparable to conventional anti-slip footwear devices. Given the likely advantages of the hybrid rubber sole (less susceptibility to tripping, better slip resistance on non-icy surfaces), this type of sole should contribute to a decrease in fall accidents; however, further research is needed to confirm its effectiveness under a wider range of test conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  9. High non-specific binding of the {beta}{sub 1}-selective radioligand 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Law, M.P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Clinical Sciences Centre; Kopka, K. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Department of Nuclear Medicine] [and others

    2003-08-01

    Aim: As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess {beta}-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established {beta}{sub 1}-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative subtype selective {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Methods: Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe{sub 3}-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/{mu}mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. Results: The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high {beta}{sub 1}-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in vivo. Conclusion: Because of its high non-specific binding 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  10. Combining electronic structure and many-body theory with large databases: A method for predicting the nature of 4 f states in Ce compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herper, H. C.; Ahmed, T.; Wills, J. M.; Di Marco, I.; Björkman, T.; Iuşan, D.; Balatsky, A. V.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Recent progress in materials informatics has opened up the possibility of a new approach to accessing properties of materials in which one assays the aggregate properties of a large set of materials within the same class in addition to a detailed investigation of each compound in that class. Here we present a large scale investigation of electronic properties and correlated magnetism in Ce-based compounds accompanied by a systematic study of the electronic structure and 4 f -hybridization function of a large body of Ce compounds. We systematically study the electronic structure and 4 f -hybridization function of a large body of Ce compounds with the goal of elucidating the nature of the 4 f states and their interrelation with the measured Kondo energy in these compounds. The hybridization function has been analyzed for more than 350 data sets (being part of the IMS database) of cubic Ce compounds using electronic structure theory that relies on a full-potential approach. We demonstrate that the strength of the hybridization function, evaluated in this way, allows us to draw precise conclusions about the degree of localization of the 4 f states in these compounds. The theoretical results are entirely consistent with all experimental information, relevant to the degree of 4 f localization for all investigated materials. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis of the electronic structure and the hybridization function allows us to make precise statements about Kondo correlations in these systems. The calculated hybridization functions, together with the corresponding density of states, reproduce the expected exponential behavior of the observed Kondo temperatures and prove a consistent trend in real materials. This trend allows us to predict which systems may be correctly identified as Kondo systems. A strong anticorrelation between the size of the hybridization function and the volume of the systems has been observed. The information entropy for this set of systems is

  11. SCARDEC: a new technique for the rapid determination of seismic moment magnitude, focal mechanism and source time functions for large earthquakes using body-wave deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that

  12. Thermal stresses calculations in near-surface layers of sphere bodies, falling to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, B.I.; Shestakova, L.I.

    2005-01-01

    Profiles of temperature and temperature stresses in surface layers of silicate and icy spheric bodies, falling to the Sun along parabolic orbits were obtained on the base of the analytical solution of the linear heat diffusion equation. Results may be useful for thermal evolution analysis of meteor and comet bodies in the Sun system. (author)

  13. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  14. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000-09-09 to 2012-05-19 (NCEI Accession 0163744)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-20 (NCEI Accession 0164022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  16. Decomposing Large Inverse Problems with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach: Application to Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Travel Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.

  17. How does lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) affect sexual function in men and women? ICI-RS 2015-Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidis, Apostolos; Rantell, Angie; Anding, Ralf; Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    To discuss available data on the links between LUTD and sexual dysfunction, what is still unknown about the causative effect of disease processes on sexual function (SF), and to suggest proposals for further research. At the 2015 International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS), a multi-disciplinary group presented a literature search of what is known about the effect of LUTD on SF in men and women. Wider discussions regarding knowledge gaps, and ideal research methodology ensued and are presented. The underlying mechanisms of the impact of LUTD on SF remain largely unknown. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome may cause both LUTS and ED in men, and their improvement may improve both conditions. In women, neurovascular changes may be common in LUTD and FSD. Successful LUTS management results in FSD improvement, but the mechanisms are ill understood. Gaps in standardization of sexual dysfunction terminology, variations of assessment, and treatment in clinical practice and research make most studies not comparable. The sensitive knowledge and subjective nature of the problem present challenges and often result in neglecting it. Neurovascular and hormonal factors, but also indirect effects may link LUTD to SD in both sexes, but the evidence is not robust and the mechanisms unclear. There is a need for defining the terminology and standardizing outcomes assessed in clinical trials. The multifactorial nature of SF in both sexes makes trial design challenging and "real world" studies may prove more beneficial for patients' outcomes and clinicians' understanding. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence Society. The clinical utility of the diagnosis of BOO is however, less well defined and there are several shortcomings and gaps in the currently available medical literature. Consequently the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) held a think tank session in 2015 entitled "Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway?" This manuscript details the discussions that took place within that think tank setting out the pros and cons of the current definition of BOO and exploring alternative clinical tests (alone or in combination) which may be useful in the future investigation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. The think tank panel concluded that pressure-flow studies remain the diagnostic gold-standard for BOO although there is still a lack of high quality evidence. Newer, less invasive, investigations have shown promise in terms of diagnostic accuracy for BOO but similar criticisms can be levelled against these tests. Therefore, the think tank suggests further research with regard to these alternative indicators to determine their clinical utility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.

  20. A new, large-bodied omnivorous bat (Noctilionoidea: Mystacinidae) reveals lost morphological and ecological diversity since the Miocene in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Beck, Robin M D; Archer, Michael; Simmons, Nancy B; Gunnell, Gregg F; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Salisbury, Steven W; Worthy, Trevor H

    2018-01-10

    A new genus and species of fossil bat is described from New Zealand's only pre-Pleistocene Cenozoic terrestrial fauna, the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island. Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analysis places this new Southern Hemisphere taxon among the burrowing bats (mystacinids) of New Zealand and Australia, although its lower dentition also resembles Africa's endemic sucker-footed bats (myzopodids). As the first new bat genus to be added to New Zealand's fauna in more than 150 years, it provides new insight into the original diversity of chiropterans in Australasia. It also underscores the significant decline in morphological diversity that has taken place in the highly distinctive, semi-terrestrial bat family Mystacinidae since the Miocene. This bat was relatively large, with an estimated body mass of ~40 g, and its dentition suggests it had an omnivorous diet. Its striking dental autapomorphies, including development of a large hypocone, signal a shift of diet compared with other mystacinids, and may provide evidence of an adaptive radiation in feeding strategy in this group of noctilionoid bats.

  1. Estimation of a melting probe's penetration velocity range to reach icy moons' subsurface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhina, Olga; Chumachenko, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    In modern space science one of the actual branches is icy satellites explorations. The main interest is concentrated around Jovian's moons Europa and Ganymede, Saturn's moons Titan and Enceladus that are covered by thick icy layer according to "Voyager1", "Voyager2", "Galileo" and "Cassini" missions. There is a big possibility that under icy shell could be a deep ocean. Also conditions on these satellites allow speculating about possible habitability, and considering these moons from an astrobiological point of view. One of the possible tasks of planned missions is a subsurface study. For this goal it is necessary to design special equipment that could be suitable for planetary application. One of the possible means is to use a melting probe which operates by melting and moves by gravitational force. Such a probe should be relatively small, should not weight too much and should require not too much energy. In terrestrial case such kind of probe has been successfully used for glaciers study. And it is possible to extrapolate the usage of such probe to extraterrestrial application. One of the tasks is to estimate melting probe's penetration velocity. Although there are other unsolved problems such as analyzing how the probe will move in low gravity and low atmospheric pressure; knowing whether hole will be closed or not when probe penetrate thick enough; and considering what order could be a penetration velocity. This study explores two techniques of melting probe's movement. One of them based on elasto-plastic theory and so-called "solid water" theory, and other one takes phase changing into account. These two techniques allow estimating melting probe's velocity range and study whole process. Based on these technique several cases of melting probe movement were considered, melting probe's velocity range estimated, influence of different factors studied and discussed and an easy way to optimize parameters of the melting probe proposed.

  2. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  3. Distributed Multi-Cell Resource Allocation with Price Based ICI Coordination in Downlink OFDMA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gangming; Zhu, Shihua; Hui, Hui

    Multi-cell resource allocation under minimum rate request for each user in OFDMA networks is addressed in this paper. Based on Lagrange dual decomposition theory, the joint multi-cell resource allocation problem is decomposed and modeled as a limited-cooperative game, and a distributed multi-cell resource allocation algorithm is thus proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that, compared with non-cooperative iterative water-filling algorithm, the proposed algorithm can remarkably reduce the ICI level and improve overall system performances.

  4. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  5. Searching for traces of life in subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica) in terms of forward contamination: the lessons for exploration of icy environments on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, S. A.; Alekhina, I. A.; Lipenkov, V. Ya.; Petit, J.-R.

    Bacterial 16S ribosomal gene analysis guarded by criteria for trace DNA analysis and Ancient DNA research clearly testifies for the very low biomass in accretion ice from giant subglacial Lake Vostok buried beneath 4-km thick East Antarctic ice sheet. It seems that the accretion ice is essentially germ-free indicating that the water body should also be hosting a highly sparse life, if any, unless the lake water lost its biological contents during accretion process. Due to this the search for life in Lake Vostok is constrained by a high chance of contamination similar to forward-contamination upon searching for life on Mars and other icy planets. Of 16 bacterial phylotypes initially recovered from the accretion ice the only one was kept with confident relevance to the lake environment while 15 others were presumed to be contaminants on the basis of indexing contaminant criteria developed for Lake Vostok and similar icy environments. The current way to avoid contamination appears to use stringent ice chemistry-based decontamination procedures and comprehensive biological controls including establishment of contemporary contaminant database as a prerequisite to identify and categorize sources of contaminants. More challenge would be to advance cleanliness and sterilization approaches and procedures in order to achieve and measure the level of cleanliness appropriate for tools exploring environments like Lake Vostok. As a guide for searching for life in (sub)glacial environments on Earth or Mars and Jovian's Europa our recommendations can be summarized as follows: (i) apply stringent ice decontamination procedures to meet chemistry and trace DNA analysis standards, (ii) document biological contents of various environments including humans in contact with ice samples (development of contaminant database), (iii) ensure in using relevant methods to cover both known and expected biodiversity and (iv) verify microbial findings through their possible metabolic profiles

  6. Percutaneous Management of Accidentally Retained Foreign Bodies During Image-Guided Non-vascular Procedures: Novel Technique Using a Large-Bore Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Thénint, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.thenint@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a novel percutaneous image-guided technique using a large-bore biopsy system to retrieve foreign bodies (FBs) accidentally retained during non-vascular interventional procedures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, five patients underwent percutaneous retrieval of five iatrogenic FBs, including a biopsy needle tip in the femoral head following osteoblastoma biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); a co-axial needle shaft within a giant desmoid tumour following cryoablation; and three post-vertebroplasty cement tails within paraspinal muscles. All FBs were retrieved immediately following original procedures under local or general anaesthesia, using combined computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. The basic technique involved positioning a 6G trocar sleeve around the FB long axis and co-axially advancing an 8G biopsy needle to retrieve the FB within the biopsy core. Retrospective chart review facilitated analysis of procedures, FBs, technical success, and complications.ResultsMean FB size was 23 mm (range 8–74 mm). Four FBs were located within 10 mm of non-vascular significant anatomic structures. The basic technique was successful in 3 cases; 2 cases required technical modifications including using a stiff guide-wire to facilitate retrieval in the case of the post-cryoablation FB; and using the central mandrin of the 6G trocar to push a cement tract back into an augmented vertebra when initial retrieval failed. Overall technical success (FB retrieval or removal to non-hazardous location) was 100 %, with no complications.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided retrieval of iatrogenic FBs using a large-bore biopsy system is a feasible, safe, effective, and versatile technique, with potential advantages over existing methods.

  7. Experimentally Testing Hydrothermal Vent Origin of Life on Enceladus and Other Icy/Ocean Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; White, Lauren M

    2017-09-01

    We review various laboratory strategies and methods that can be utilized to simulate prebiotic processes and origin of life in hydrothermal vent systems on icy/ocean worlds. Crucial steps that could be simulated in the laboratory include simulations of water-rock chemistry (e.g., serpentinization) to produce hydrothermal fluids, the types of mineral catalysts and energy gradients produced in vent interfaces where hydrothermal fluids interface with the surrounding seawater, and simulations of biologically relevant chemistry in flow-through gradient systems (i.e., far-from-equilibrium experiments). We describe some examples of experimental designs in detail, which are adaptable and could be used to test particular hypotheses about ocean world energetics or mineral/organic chemistry. Enceladus among the ocean worlds provides an ideal test case, since the pressure at the ocean floor is more easily simulated in the lab. Results for Enceladus could be extrapolated with further experiments and modeling to understand other ocean worlds. Key Words: Enceladus-Ocean worlds-Icy worlds-Hydrothermal vent-Iron sulfide-Gradient. Astrobiology 17, 820-833.

  8. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and the Influence of Chemotherapy on Overall Survival for Large (≥5 Centimeter) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grover, Surbhi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Simone, Charles B., E-mail: charles.simone@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5 cm lesions is poorly defined, largely owing to the low sample sizes in existing studies. The present analysis examined the SBRT outcomes and assessed the effect of chemotherapy in this population. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for primary non-small cell lung cancer ≥5 cm treated with SBRT (≤10 fractions). Patient, tumor, and treatment parameters were extracted. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Statistical methods involved Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: From 2004 to 2012, data from 201 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 41.1 months. The median tumor size was 5.5 cm (interquartile range 5.0-6.0), with cT2a, cT2b, and cT3 disease in 24.9%, 53.2%, and 21.9%, respectively. The median total SBRT dose and fractionation was 50 Gy in 4 fractions, and 92.5% of the patients underwent SBRT with ≤5 fractions. The median OS was 25.1 months. Of the 201 patients, 15% received chemotherapy. The receipt of chemotherapy was associated with longer OS (median 30.6 vs 23.4 months; P=.027). On multivariable analysis, worse OS was seen with increasing age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03; P=.012), poorly differentiated tumors (HR 2.06; P=.049), and T3 classification (HR 2.13; P=.005). On multivariable analysis, chemotherapy remained independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.57; P=.039). Conclusions: SBRT has utility in the setting of tumors ≥5 cm, with chemotherapy associated with improved OS in this subset. These hypothesis-generating data now raise the necessity of performing prospective analyses to determine whether chemotherapy confers outcome benefits after SBRT.

  10. Based on Real Time Remote Health Monitoring Systems: A New Approach for Prioritization "Large Scales Data" Patients with Chronic Heart Diseases Using Body Sensors and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalid, Naser; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Salman, Omar H; Hashim, M; Albahri, O S; Albahri, A S

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents a new approach to prioritize "Large-scale Data" of patients with chronic heart diseases by using body sensors and communication technology during disasters and peak seasons. An evaluation matrix is used for emergency evaluation and large-scale data scoring of patients with chronic heart diseases in telemedicine environment. However, one major problem in the emergency evaluation of these patients is establishing a reasonable threshold for patients with the most and least critical conditions. This threshold can be used to detect the highest and lowest priority levels when all the scores of patients are identical during disasters and peak seasons. A practical study was performed on 500 patients with chronic heart diseases and different symptoms, and their emergency levels were evaluated based on four main measurements: electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation sensor, blood pressure monitoring, and non-sensory measurement tool, namely, text frame. Data alignment was conducted for the raw data and decision-making matrix by converting each extracted feature into an integer. This integer represents their state in the triage level based on medical guidelines to determine the features from different sources in a platform. The patients were then scored based on a decision matrix by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques, namely, integrated multi-layer for analytic hierarchy process (MLAHP) and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). For subjective validation, cardiologists were consulted to confirm the ranking results. For objective validation, mean ± standard deviation was computed to check the accuracy of the systematic ranking. This study provides scenarios and checklist benchmarking to evaluate the proposed and existing prioritization methods. Experimental results revealed the following. (1) The integration of TOPSIS and MLAHP effectively and systematically solved the patient settings on triage and

  11. The Status that the program to relieve set-point for the number of operable ICIs is applied to OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Core Operating Limit Supervisory System (COLSS) of OPR1000 monitors in-core neutron power distribution, Linear Heat Rate (LHR) and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) using In-Core Instrumentation (ICI). It is required that above 75% of ICI be operable to perform this functions. 45 EA strings of ICI have been installed and operated in Hanbit no.3, 4, 5, 6 and Hanul no. 3, 4, 5, 6. Their signals are transferred to Plant Monitoring System (PMS) via four Plant Data Acquisition System (PDAS) channels. PMS includes a few application programs like COLSS. In a case that one of 4 PDAS channels fails, COLSS is inoperable. It means that reactor power should be reduced and monitored by CPCS because FSAR of OPR1000 requires that 75% ICIs should be operable. This action can induce transient of reactor core. In order to complement such a trouble, KHNP, KEPCO NF and KEPCO ENC have proposed the way that COLSS can be operable though operable ICIs exist between 60% - 75%. KHNP, KEPCONF and KEPCO ENC have proposed the way that COLSS can be operable though operable ICIs exist between 60% - 75%. Conservatively, the analysis was performed assuming 50% ICIs are inoperable. Though 50% ICIs are inoperable, the power distribution of COLSS is more accurate than that of CPC. The technology was applied to OPR1000s based on above technical background. Shin-Kori no.1, 2 and Shin-Wolsong no.1, 2 are waiting for an application.

  12. Thermodynamic Equations of State for Aqueous Solutions Applied to Deep Icy Satellite and Exoplanet Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Journaux, B.; Sotin, C.; Choukroun, M.; Barnes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Supporting life in icy world or exoplanet oceans may require global seafloor chemical reactions between water and rock. Such interactions have been regarded as limited in larger icy worlds such as Ganymede and Titan, where ocean depths approach 800 km and GPa pressures (>10katm). If the oceans are composed of pure water, such conditions are consistent with the presence of dense ice phases V and VI that cover the rocky seafloor. Exoplanets with oceans can obtain pressures sufficient to generate ices VII and VIII. We have previously demonstrated temperature gradients in such oceans on the order of 20 K or more, resulting from fluid compressibility in a deep adiabatic ocean based on our experimental work. Accounting for increases in density for highly saline oceans leads to the possibility of oceans perched under and between high pressure ices. Ammonia has the opposite effect, instead decreasing ocean density, as reported by others and confirmed by our laboratory measurements in the ammonia water system. Here we report on the completed equation of state for aqueous ammonia derived from our prior measurements and optimized global b-spline fitting methods We use recent diamond anvil cell measurements for water and ammonia to extend the equation of state to 400°C and beyond 2 GPa, temperatures and pressures applicable to icy worlds and exoplanets. Densities show much less temperature dependence but comparabe high-pressure derivatives to previously published ammonia-water properties derived for application to Titan (Croft et al. 1988). Thermal expansion is in better agreement with the more self-consistent equation of state of Tillner-Roth and Friend (1998). We also describe development of a planetary NaCl equation of state using recent measurements of phase boundaries and sound speeds. We examine implications of realistic ocean-ice thermodynamics for Titan and exoplanet interiors using the methodology recently applied to Ganymede for oceans dominated by MgSO4. High

  13. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  14. Update of monotherapy trials with the new anti-androgen, Casodex (ICI 176,334). International Casodex Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1994-01-01

    Casodex (ICI 176,334) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, which has a half-life compatible with once-daily oral dosing. In an open, phase II study on 267 patients given Casodex, 50 mg/day, an overall objective response (i.e. partial regression) was seen in 55.5% of patients (146 of 263) with a furt...

  15. Fatal outcome after reactivation of inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A (iciHHV-6A) transmitted through liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafous, P; Marlet, J; Bouvet, D; Salamé, E; Tellier, A-C; Guyetant, S; Goudeau, A; Agut, H; Gautheret-Dejean, A; Gaudy-Graffin, C

    2018-06-01

    HHV-6A and HHV-6B are found as inherited and chromosomally integrated forms (iciHHV-6A and -6B) into all germinal and somatic cells and vertically transmitted in a Mendelian manner in about 1% of the population. They were occasionally shown to be horizontally transmitted through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we present a clinical case of horizontal transmission of iciHHV-6A from donor to recipient through liver transplantation. Molecular analysis performed on three viral genes (7.2 kb) in the recipient and donor samples supports transmission of iciHHV-6A from the graft. Transmission was followed by reactivation, with high viral loads in several compartments. The infection was uncontrollable, leading to severe disease and death, despite antiviral treatments and the absence of resistance mutations. This case highlights the fact that physicians should be aware of the possible horizontal transmission of iciHHV-6 and its consequences in case of reactivation in immunocompromised patients. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. IR reflectance spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. Implications for Saturn's icy moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, A.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bezacier, L.; Bollengier, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Tobie, G.

    2012-04-01

    A CO2 spectral band was discovered by VIMS on the Saturn's satellites Dione, Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe [1]. The band position on the three first satellites corresponds to CO2 trapped in a complex material, but no indication exists whether this latter is water ice or some mineral or complex organic compound [1]. On Phoebe, the CO2 spectral band is consistent with solid CO2 or CO2 molecules trapped in the small cages of a clathrate hydrate structure [2]. It is thought that clathrate hydrates could play a significant role in the chemistry of the solar nebula [3] and in the physical evolution of astrophysical objects [4]. But so far, no clathrate hydrate structure has been observed in astrophysical environments. Moreover, identification of molecules trapped in a clathrate hydrate structure is extremely difficult because of the strong IR vibration modes of the water ice matrix. In this work, experimental IR reflectance spectra for CO2 clathrate hydrates are studied on grains and films. Clathrates are synthesized in a high pressure autoclave at low temperatures. IR spectral analysis is made with a low pressure and low temperature cryostat. These experimental conditions - 80 spectrum will be presented. A comparison between the absorption bands of CO2 clathrate hydrates obtained in our lab and CO2 absorption bands as detected by VIMS on the icy satellites of Saturn will be shown. This experimental work confirms that VIMS data are not consistent with the presence of structure I CO2 clathrate hydrates on the surface of the icy moons. Possibility of having metastable structure II still remains unsolved and will be discussed. [1] Dalton et al., Space Sci. Rev. 2010, 153 : 113-154. [2] Cruikshank D.P. et al, Icarus, 2010, 206: 561-572. [3] Mousis O. et al , Ap. J. 2009, 691: 1780-1786. [4] Choukroun M. et al, in Solar System Ices, edited by Castillo-Rogez, J. et al., 2011.

  17. The sulfur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2006-12-01

    We discuss whether sulphur traces on Jupiter's moon Europa could be of biogenic origin. The compounds detected by the Galileo mission have been conjectured to be endogenic, most likely of cryovolcanic origin, due to their non-uniform distribution in patches. The Galileo space probe first detected the sulphur compounds, as well as revealing that this moon almost certainly has a volcanically heated and potentially habitable ocean hiding beneath a surface layer of ice. In planning future exploration of Europa there are options for sorting out the source of the surficial sulphur. For instance, one possibility is searching for the sulphur source in the context of the study of the Europa Microprobe In Situ Explorer (EMPIE), which has been framed within the Jovian Minisat Explorer Technology Reference Study (ESA). It is conceivable that sulphur may have come from the nearby moon Io, where sulphur and other volcanic elements are abundant. Secondly, volcanic eruptions in Europa's seafloor may have brought sulphur to the surface. Can waste products rising from bacterial colonies beneath the icy surface be a third alternative significant factor in the sulphur patches on the Europan surface? Provided that microorganisms on Europa have the same biochemical pathways as those on Earth, over geologic time it is possible that autochthonous microbes can add substantially to the sulphur deposits on the surface of Europa. We discuss possible interpretations of the non-water-ice elements (especially the sulphur compound mercaptan) in the context of the studies for future missions. To achieve reliable biosignatures it seems essential to go back to Europa. Our work highlights the type of biogenic signatures that can be searched for when probing Europa's icy and patchy surface. (author)

  18. Alternative Energy: Production of H{sub 2} by Radiolysis of Water in the Rocky Cores of Icy Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, J. Hunter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Glein, Christopher R.; Wyrick, Danielle [Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We applied a model of radiolysis in earthly rock–water mixtures to several known or suspected ocean worlds: Enceladus, Ceres, Europa, Titania, Oberon, Pluto, and Charon. In this model, radiation emitted by the long-lived radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U) contained in the ordinary chondrite-like rocks is partly absorbed by the water permeating the material of each body’s core. The physical and chemical processes that follow release molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which is a molecule of astrobiological interest. We compared the calculated production of H{sub 2} by radiolysis in each body’s core to published estimates of production by serpentinization. This study presents production calculations over 4.5 Gyr for several values of rock porosity. We found that radiolysis can produce H{sub 2} quantities equivalent to a few percent of what is estimated from serpentinization. Higher porosity, which is unlikely at the scale of a body’s entire core but possible just under the seafloor, can increase radiolytic production by almost an order of magnitude. The products of water radiolysis also include several oxidants, allowing for production of life-sustaining sulfates. Though previously unrecognized in this capacity, radiolysis in an ocean world’s outer core could be a fundamental agent in generating the chemical energy that could support life.

  19. Alternative Energy: Production of H_2 by Radiolysis of Water in the Rocky Cores of Icy Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, J. Hunter; Glein, Christopher R.; Wyrick, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    We applied a model of radiolysis in earthly rock–water mixtures to several known or suspected ocean worlds: Enceladus, Ceres, Europa, Titania, Oberon, Pluto, and Charon. In this model, radiation emitted by the long-lived radionuclides ("4"0K, "2"3"2Th, "2"3"5U, and "2"3"8U) contained in the ordinary chondrite-like rocks is partly absorbed by the water permeating the material of each body’s core. The physical and chemical processes that follow release molecular hydrogen (H_2), which is a molecule of astrobiological interest. We compared the calculated production of H_2 by radiolysis in each body’s core to published estimates of production by serpentinization. This study presents production calculations over 4.5 Gyr for several values of rock porosity. We found that radiolysis can produce H_2 quantities equivalent to a few percent of what is estimated from serpentinization. Higher porosity, which is unlikely at the scale of a body’s entire core but possible just under the seafloor, can increase radiolytic production by almost an order of magnitude. The products of water radiolysis also include several oxidants, allowing for production of life-sustaining sulfates. Though previously unrecognized in this capacity, radiolysis in an ocean world’s outer core could be a fundamental agent in generating the chemical energy that could support life.

  20. Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce): Design and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Tori N.; Lee, Anthony K.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming X.; Chin, Matthew M.; McCutcheon, Griffin C.; Horne, Mera F.; Padgen, Michael R.; Blaich, Justin T.; Forgione, Joshua B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report the design, development, and testing of the Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce) system, a microfluidic sample processor to enable autonomous detection of signatures of life and measurements of habitability parameters in Ocean Worlds. This monolithic fluid processing-and-handling system (Figure 1; mass 0.5 kg) retrieves a 50-L-volume sample and prepares it to supply a suite of detection instruments, each with unique preparation needs. SPLIce has potential applications in orbiter missions that sample ocean plumes, such as found in Saturns icy moon Enceladus, or landed missions on the surface of icy satellites, such as Jupiters moon Europa. Answering the question Are we alone in the universe? is captivating and exceptionally challenging. Even general criteria that define life very broadly include a significant role for water [1,2]. Searches for extinct or extant life therefore prioritize locations of abundant water whether in ancient (Mars), or present (Europa and Enceladus) times. Only two previous planetary missions had onboard fluid processing: the Viking Biology Experiments [3] and Phoenixs Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [4]. SPLIce differs crucially from those systems, including its capability to process and distribute L-volume samples and the integration autonomous control of a wide range of fluidic functions, including: 1) retrieval of fluid samples from an evacuated sample chamber; 2) onboard multi-year storage of dehydrated reagents; 3) integrated pressure, pH, and conductivity measurement; 4) filtration and retention of insoluble particles for microscopy; 5) dilution or vacuum-driven concentration of samples to accommodate instrument working ranges; 6) removal of gas bubbles from sample aliquots; 7) unidirectional flow (check valves); 8) active flow-path selection (solenoid-actuated valves); 9) metered pumping in 100 nL volume increments. The SPLIce manifold, made of three thermally fused layers of precision-machined cyclo

  1. Large Urethro-Vesico-Vaginal Fistula due to a Vaginal Foreign Body in a 22-Year-Old Woman: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Carolina; Curti, Pierpaolo; Cerruto, Maria Angela; Monaco, Carmelo; Artibani, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the non-industrialized countries of Africa and Asia obstetric fistulas are more frequently caused by prolonged labour, whereas in countries with developed healthcare systems they are generally the result of complications of gynaecological surgery or, rarely, benign pathologies like inflammation or foreign bodies. A 22-year-old woman was brought to the gynaecology clinic because of foul-smelling vaginal discharge. On pelvic examination a ring-like foreign body was impacted between the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. MRI scan confirmed the presence of a cylindrical foreign body in the vagina and the patient revealed that she had 'involuntarily' inserted a plastic bubble bath cap into the vagina. At surgery removal of the cap was difficult and at the end of the manoeuver evidence of a huge urethro-vesico-vaginal fistula occurred. The patient was discharged with bilateral ureteral stents and suprapubic catheter. After 3 months we performed an end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty to repair the urethral avulsion and restored the bladder/trigonal and vaginal/cervical defects with 3 layers of sutures; 3 months later the patient had no complaints. Complex genital fistulas represent an extremely debilitating morbidity. In our case, a vaginal approach was successful, but the choice between an abdominal or vaginal approach depends on the surgeon's experience and training. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Large body size and sedentary lifestyle during childhood and early adulthood and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, A; Golozar, A; Kamangar, F; Freedman, N D; Shakeri, R; Matthews, C; Islami, F; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Abnet, C C; Malekzadeh, R; Dawsey, S M

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the association of obesity and physical activity at young ages with subsequent risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Between 2003 and 2007, we conducted a case-control study in a high-risk population in northeastern Iran. Three hundred ESCC cases and 571 matched controls were recruited. Each individual was shown a standard pictogram, to report body size at ages 15 and 30. Demographic and health-related information, including physical activity at these ages was also collected. In the fully adjusted models, very obese body size (last two pictograms) at age 15 [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-7.7] and age 30 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.1-8.5) were associated with ESCC in women, but not in men. Sedentary work at age 15 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.3) and 30 (OR 18.2, 95% CI 3.9-86.2) were also associated with ESCC risk in women only. The increased risk in women at age 15 remained high after later reduction in body size, while women who became very obese only at age 30 did not show a significantly increased risk. These results highlight the importance of early lifestyle modifications in the context of cancer prevention, particularly in women.

  3. Proceedings of the International Cancer Imaging Society (ICIS 16th Annual Teaching Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dow-Mu Koh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents O1 Tumour heterogeneity: what does it mean? Dow-Mu Koh O2 Skeletal sequelae in adult survivors of childhood cancer Sue Creviston Kaste O3 Locoregional effects of breast cancer treatment Sarah J Vinnicombe O4 Imaging of cancer therapy-induced CNS toxicity Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi O5 Screening for lung cancer Christian J. Herold O6Risk stratification of lung nodules Theresa C. McLoud O7 PET imaging of pulmonary nodules Kirk A Frey O8 Transarterial tumour therapy Bernhard Gebauer O9 Interventional radiology in paediatric oncology Derek Roebuck O10 Image guided prostate interventions Jurgen J. Fütterer O11 Imaging cancer predisposition syndromes Alexander J. Towbin O12Chest and chest wall masses Thierry AG Huisman O13 Abdominal masses: good or bad? Anne MJB Smets O14 Hepatobiliary MR contrast: enhanced liver MRI for HCC diagnosis and management Giovanni Morana O15 Role of US elastography and multimodality fusion for managing patients with chronic liver disease and HCC Jeong Min Lee O16 Opportunities and challenges in imaging metastatic disease Hersh Chandarana O17 Diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and follow-up of lymphoma Marius E. Mayerhoefer, Markus Raderer, Alexander Haug O18 Managing high-risk and advanced prostate cancer Matthias Eiber O19 Immunotherapy: imaging challenges Bernhard Gebauer O20 RECIST and RECIST 1.1 Andrea Rockall O21 Challenges of RECIST in oncology imaging basics for the trainee and novice Aslam Sohaib O22 Lymphoma: PET for interim and end of treatment response assessment: a users’ guide to the Deauville Score Victoria S Warbey O23 Available resources Hebert Alberto Vargas O24 ICIS e-portal and the online learning community Dow-Mu Koh O25 Benign lesions that mimic pancreatic cancer Jay P Heiken O26 Staging and reporting pancreatic malignancies Isaac R Francis, Mahmoud, M Al-Hawary, Ravi K Kaza O27 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm Giovanni Morana O28 Cystic pancreatic tumours Mirko D’Onofrio O

  4. Thermally-Induced Chemistry and the Jovian Icy Satellites: A Laboratory Study of the Formation of Sulfur Oxyanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Here we present new results on thermally-induced reactions at 50-100 K in solid H2O-SO2 mixtures, reactions that take place without the need for a high-radiation environment. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur Oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at temperatures relevant to the icy satellites in the Jovian system.

  5. Physicochemical Requirements Inferred for Chemical Self-Organization Hardly Support an Emergence of Life in the Deep Oceans of Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert

    2016-05-01

    An approach to the origin of life, focused on the property of entities capable of reproducing themselves far from equilibrium, has been developed recently. Independently, the possibility of the emergence of life in the hydrothermal systems possibly present in the deep oceans below the frozen crust of some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn has been raised. The present report is aimed at investigating the mutual compatibility of these alternative views. In this approach, the habitability concept deduced from the limits of life on Earth is considered to be inappropriate with regard to emerging life due to the requirement for an energy source of sufficient potential (equivalent to the potential of visible light). For these icy moons, no driving force would have been present to assist the process of emergence, which would then have had to rely exclusively on highly improbable events, thereby making the presence of life unlikely on these Solar System bodies, that is, unless additional processes are introduced for feeding chemical systems undergoing a transition toward life and the early living organisms.

  6. Crustal control of dissipative ocean tides in Enceladus and other icy moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 m deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation due to dynamical obliquity tides can differ from the static prediction by up to a factor of two.

  7. Lower urinary tract symptoms and metabolic disorders: ICI-RS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Anding, Ralf; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul; Everaert, Karel

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic disorders. This report results from presentations and subsequent discussions about LUTS and metabolic disorders at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) in Bristol, 2014. There are common pathophysiological determinants for the onset of LUTS and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both conditions are multifactorial, related to disorders in circadian rhythms and share common risk factors. As in men with erectile dysfunction, these potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may be novel targets to prevent and treat LUTS. The link between LUTS and metabolic disorders is discussed by using sleep, urine production and bladder function as underlying mechanisms that need to be further explored during future research. Recent findings indicate a bidirectional relationship between LUTS and the MetS. Future research has to explore underlying mechanisms to explain this relationship, in order to develop new preventive and therapeutic recommendations, such as weight loss and increasing physical activity. The second stage is to determine the effect of these new treatment approaches on the severity of LUTS and each of the components of the MetS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High-resolution CASSINI-VIMS mosaics of Titan and the icy Saturnian satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Coradini, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Cerroni, P.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Combes, M.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Soderbloom, L.A.; Griffith, C.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, Th.; Scholten, F.; Porco, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the CASSINI spacecraft obtained new spectral data of the icy satellites of Saturn after its arrival at Saturn in June 2004. VIMS operates in a spectral range from 0.35 to 5.2 ??m, generating image cubes in which each pixel represents a spectrum consisting of 352 contiguous wavebands. As an imaging spectrometer VIMS combines the characteristics of both a spectrometer and an imaging instrument. This makes it possible to analyze the spectrum of each pixel separately and to map the spectral characteristics spatially, which is important to study the relationships between spectral information and geological and geomorphologic surface features. The spatial analysis of the spectral data requires the determination of the exact geographic position of each pixel on the specific surface and that all 352 spectral elements of each pixel show the same region of the target. We developed a method to reproject each pixel geometrically and to convert the spectral data into map projected image cubes. This method can also be applied to mosaic different VIMS observations. Based on these mosaics, maps of the spectral properties for each Saturnian satellite can be derived and attributed to geographic positions as well as to geological and geomorphologic surface features. These map-projected mosaics are the basis for all further investigations. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical calculation on ICI reduction using digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs in the presence of laser phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xingwen; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Kun

    2014-12-15

    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry can reduce the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) noise resulted from phase noise. In this paper, we show two different implementations of DCS-OFDM that have the same performance in the presence of laser phase noise. We complete the theoretical calculation on ICI reduction by using the model of pure Wiener phase noise. By Taylor expansion of the ICI, we show that the ICI power is cancelled to the second order by DCS. The fourth order term is further derived out and only decided by the ratio of laser linewidth to OFDM subcarrier symbol rate, which can greatly simplify the system design. Finally, we verify our theoretical calculations in simulations and use the analytical results to predict the system performance. DCS-OFDM is expected to be beneficial to certain optical fiber transmissions.

  10. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet, and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12 (final dose verified at 10(5 colony forming unit (cfu/g diet, comparable to human consumption, were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  12. Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 activate hypothalamic G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 to rapidly facilitate lordosis in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nathan; Long, Bertha; Mana, Asma; Le, Dream; Nguyen, Lam; Chokr, Sima; Sinchak, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    In the female rat, sexual receptivity (lordosis) can be facilitated by sequential activation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) by estradiol. In the estradiol benzoate (EB) primed ovariectomized (OVX) rat, EB initially binds to ERα in the plasma membrane that complexes with and transactivates metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a to activate β-endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). This activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP), inhibiting lordosis. Infusion of non-esterified 17β-estradiol into the ARH rapidly reduces MPN MOP activation and facilitates lordosis via GPER. Tamoxifen (TAM) and ICI 182,780 (ICI) are selective estrogen receptor modulators that activate GPER. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that TAM and ICI rapidly facilitate lordosis via activation of GPER in the ARH. Our first experiment demonstrated that injection of TAM intraperitoneal, or ICI into the lateral ventricle, deactivated MPN MOP and facilitated lordosis in EB-primed rats. We then tested whether TAM and ICI were acting rapidly through a GPER dependent pathway in the ARH. In EB-primed rats, ARH infusion of either TAM or ICI facilitated lordosis and reduced MPN MOP activation within 30min compared to controls. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the GPER antagonist, G15. Our findings demonstrate that TAM and ICI deactivate MPN MOP and facilitate lordosis in a GPER dependent manner. Thus, TAM and ICI may activate GPER in the CNS to produce estrogenic actions in neural circuits that modulate physiology and behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Higher albedos and size distribution of large transneptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Mukai, Tadashi

    2005-11-01

    Transneptunian objects (TNOs) orbit beyond Neptune and do offer important clues about the formation of our solar system. Although observations have been increasing the number of discovered TNOs and improving their orbital elements, very little is known about elementary physical properties such as sizes, albedos and compositions. Due to TNOs large distances (>40 AU) and observational limitations, reliable physical information can be obtained only from brighter objects (supposedly larger bodies). According to size and albedo measurements available, it is evident the traditionally assumed albedo p=0.04 cannot hold for all TNOs, especially those with approximately absolute magnitudes H⩽5.5. That is, the largest TNOs possess higher albedos (generally >0.04) that strongly appear to increase as a function of size. Using a compilation of published data, we derived empirical relations which can provide estimations of diameters and albedos as a function of absolute magnitude. Calculations result in more accurate size/albedo estimations for TNOs with H⩽5.5 than just assuming p=0.04. Nevertheless, considering low statistics, the value p=0.04 sounds still convenient for H>5.5 non-binary TNOs as a group. We also discuss about physical processes (e.g., collisions, intrinsic activity and the presence of tenuous atmospheres) responsible for the increase of albedo among large bodies. Currently, all big TNOs (>700 km) would be capable to sustain thin atmospheres or icy frosts composed of CH 4, CO or N 2 even for body bulk densities as low as 0.5 g cm -3. A size-dependent albedo has important consequences for the TNOs size distribution, cumulative luminosity function and total mass estimations. According to our analysis, the latter can be reduced up to 50% if higher albedos are common among large bodies. Lastly, by analyzing orbital properties of classical TNOs ( 42AUbodies. For both populations, distinct absolute magnitude distributions are maximized for an inclination threshold

  14. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with

  15. TITLE: OTIC FOREIGN BODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.

  16. The urinary microbiome and its contribution to lower urinary tract symptoms; ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marcus J; Morris, Nicola; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Rahnama'i, Mohammad S; Marchesi, Julian R

    2017-04-01

    The microbiome is the term used for the symbiotic microbial colonisation of healthy organs. Studies have found bacterial identifiers within voided urine which is apparently sterile on conventional laboratory culture, and accordingly there may be health and disease implications. The International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) established a literature review and expert consensus discussion focussed on the increasing awareness of the urinary microbiome, and potential research priorities. The consensus considered the discrepancy between findings of conventional clinical microbiology methods, which generally rely on culture parameters predisposed towards certain "expected" organisms. Discrepancy between selective culture and RNA sequencing to study species-specific 16S ribosomal RNA is increasingly clear, and highlights the possibility that protective or harmful bacteria may be overlooked where microbiological methods are selective. There are now strong signals of the existence of a "core" urinary microbiome for the human urinary tract, particularly emerging with ageing. The consensus reviewed the potential relationship between a patient's microbiome and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whether low-count bacteriuria may be clinically significant and mechanisms which could associate micro-organisms with lower urinary tract symptoms. Key research priorities identified include the need to establish the scope of microbiome across the range of normality and clinical presentations, and gain consensus on testing protocols. Proteomics to study enzymatic and other functions may be necessary, since different bacteria may have overlapping phenotype. Longitudinal studies into risk factors for exposure, cumulative risk, and emergence of disease need to undertaken. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:850-853, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Do we need a new definition of the overactive bladder syndrome? ICI-RS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marcus J

    2014-06-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) has a symptom-based definition. Following a presentation of issues, the definition was subjected to expert discussion at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society to identify key issues. OAB is a widely used term; it is a pragmatic approach to categorizing a recognized group of patients, and is understood by the patients, however, expert opinion suggested several issues for which additional evidence should be sought. Naming an organ (bladder) in the condition may suggest underlying mechanism, when contributory aspects may lie outside the bladder. No severity thresholds are set, which can cause uncertainty. Urgency is prominent in the definition, but may not be prominent in patients whose adaptive behavior reduces their propensity to urgency. OAB can co-exist with other common conditions, such as benign prostate enlargement (BPE), stress incontinence or nocturnal polyuria. Consensus led by the International Continence Society can be attempted for aspects such as "fear of leakage." To develop a new definition, more substantive evidence is needed for key elements, and until such evidence is available, full redefinition is not appropriate. Thus, the medical profession should accept constructive compromise and work supportively. The ICI-RS proposes that the terminology is slightly rephrased as: "overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is characterized by urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia, if there is no proven infection or other obvious pathology." More substantive changes would require additional scientific evidence. Strengths, limitations, and practicalities of the definition of OAB were discussed at the ICIRS meeting 2013. Following a presentation of issues, the definition was subjected to expert discussion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Icy Saturnian satellites: Disk-integrated UV-IR characteristics and links to exogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Paranicas, Chris; Schenk, Paul; Scipioni, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Combined Cassini observations obtained at similar observing geometries in the ultraviolet through infrared spectral range, along with additional ultraviolet (UV) data from Hubble Space Telescope where available, are used to study system-wide trends in spectral albedos of the inner icy Saturnian satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea). We derive UV and visible geometric albedos and UV absorption strengths of the leading and trailing hemispheres and compare with E ring grain flux and charged particle intensities (electrons and ions of varying energies) to those hemispheres. We find that the UV absorption strength on the leading and trailing hemispheres is anti-correlated with E ring grain flux. On the trailing hemispheres, the UV absorption strength is correlated with intensity of electrons in the tens of keV range. We suggest that these relationships could imply links with the organic component of the E ring. Radiolytic processing of organics causes the products to become spectrally redder, increasing the UV absorption strength. Such processing occurs while organic-rich grains are in the E ring, and increases with exposure time in the E ring, such that grains interacting with Rhea are redder (more processed) than those impacting moons closer to Enceladus. Further processing (and associated darkening/reddening) occurs on the trailing hemispheres of the satellites, via radiolysis by electrons in the tens of keV range. Silicates and salts also redden with weathering; however because organics are present in the E ring in significantly greater abundance than salts or silicates, we suggest here that weathering of organics dominates the coloring of the inner Saturnian moons.

  19. Structure and petroleum potential of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Major structural features of the Yakutat segment, the segment of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska, are delineated by multichannel seismic reflection data. A large structural high is centered on Fairweather Ground and lies generally at the edge of the shelf from Cross Sound to west of the Alsek Valley. A basement uplift, the Dangerous River zone, along which the seismic acoustic basement shallows by up to two kilometers, extends north from the western edge of Fairweather Ground towards the mouth of the Dangerous River. The Dangerous River zone separates the Yakutat segment into two distinct subbasins. The eastern subbasin has a maximum sediment thickness of about 4 km, and the axis of the basin is near and parallel to the coast. Strata in this basin are largely of late Cenozoic age (Neogene and Quaternary) and approximately correlate with the onshore Yakataga Formation. The western subbasin has a maximum of at least 9 km of sediment, comprised of a thick (greater than 4.5 km) Paleogene section overlain by late Cenozoic strata. The Paleogene section is truncated along the Dangerous River zone by a combination of erosion, faulting, and onlap onto the acoustic basement. Within the western subbasin, the late Cenozoic basin axis is near and parallel to the coast, but the Paleogene basin axis appears to trend in a northwest direction diagonally across the shelf. Sedimentary strata throughout the Yakutat shelf show regional subsidence and only minor deformation except in the vicinity of the Fairweather Ground structural high, near and along the Dangerous River zone, and at the shoreline near Lituya Bay. Seismic data across the continental slope and adjacent deep ocean show truncation at the continental slope of Paleogene strata, the presence of a thick (to 6 km) undeformed or mildly deformed abyssal sedimentary section at the base of the slope that in part onlaps the slope, and a relatively narrow zone along the slope or at

  20. H-atmospheres of Icy Super-Earths Formed In Situ in the Outer Solar System: An Application to a Possible Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, A.; Kenyon, S. J.; Podolak, M.; Prialnik, D.

    2017-04-01

    We examine the possibility that icy super-Earth mass planets, formed over long timescales (0.1-1 Gyr) at large distances (˜200-1000 au) from their host stars, will develop massive H-rich atmospheres. Within the interior of these planets, high pressure converts CH4 into ethane, butane, or diamond and releases H2. Using simplified models that capture the basic physics of the internal structure, we show that the physical properties of the atmosphere depend on the outflux of H2 from the mantle. When this outflux is ≲ {10}10 molec cm-2 s-1, the outgassed atmosphere has a base pressure of ≲1 bar. Larger outflows result in a substantial atmosphere where the base pressure may approach 103-104 bar. For any pressure, the mean density of these planets, 2.4-3 g cm-3, is much larger than the mean density of Uranus and Neptune, 1.3-1.6 g cm-3. Thus, observations can distinguish between a Planet Nine with a primordial H/He-rich atmosphere accreted from the protosolar nebula and one with an atmosphere outgassed from the core.

  1. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  2. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  3. Whole-Body Docosahexaenoic Acid Synthesis-Secretion Rates in Rats Are Constant across a Large Range of Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) thought to be important for brain function. Although the main dietary source of DHA is fish, DHA can also be synthesized from α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is derived from plants. Enzymes involved in DHA synthesis are also active toward ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs to synthesize docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (DPAn-6). It is unclear whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient to maintain brain DHA. The objective of this study was to determine how different amounts of dietary ALA would affect whole-body DHA and DPAn-6 synthesis rates. Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ALA-deficient diet (ALA-D), an ALA-adequate (ALA-A) diet, or a high-ALA (ALA-H) diet for 8 wk from weaning. Dietary ALA concentrations were 0.07%, 3%, and 10% of the fatty acids, and ALA was the only dietary PUFA that differed between the diets. After 8 wk, steady-state stable isotope infusion of labeled ALA and linoleic acid (LA) was performed to determine the in vivo synthesis-secretion rates of DHA and DPAn-6. Rats fed the ALA-A diet had an ∼2-fold greater capacity to synthesize DHA than did rats fed the ALA-H and ALA-D diets, and a DHA synthesis rate that was similar to that of rats fed the ALA-H diet. However, rats fed the ALA-D diet had a 750% lower DHA synthesis rate than rats fed the ALA-A and ALA-H diets. Despite enrichment into arachidonic acid, we did not detect any labeled LA appearing as DPAn-6. Increasing dietary ALA from 3% to 10% of fatty acids did not increase DHA synthesis rates, because of a decreased capacity to synthesize DHA in rats fed the ALA-H diet. Tissue concentrations of DPAn-6 may be explained at least in part by longer plasma half-lives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Body mass index and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort of white and black U.S. Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available Remaining controversies on the association between body mass index (BMI and mortality include the effects of smoking and prevalent disease on the association, whether overweight is associated with higher mortality rates, differences in associations by race and the optimal age at which BMI predicts mortality. To assess the relative risk (RR of mortality by BMI in Whites and Blacks among subgroups defined by smoking, prevalent disease, and age, 891,572 White and 38,119 Black men and women provided height, weight and other information when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 434,400 deaths in Whites and 18,702 deaths in Blacks. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Smoking and prevalent disease status significantly modified the BMI-mortality relationship in Whites and Blacks; higher BMI was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality among never smokers without prevalent disease. All levels of overweight and obesity were associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of mortality compared to the reference category (BMI 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, except among Black women where risk was elevated but not statistically significant in the lower end of overweight. Although absolute mortality rates were higher in Blacks than Whites within each BMI category, relative risks (RRs were similar between race groups for both men and women (p-heterogeneity by race  = 0.20 for men and 0.23 for women. BMI was most strongly associated with mortality when reported before age 70 years. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that the BMI-mortality relationship differs for men and women who smoke or have prevalent disease compared to healthy never-smokers. These findings further support recommendations for maintaining a BMI between 20-25 kg/m2 for optimal health and longevity.

  5. Shallow velocity structure above the Socorro Magma Body from ambient noise tomography using the large-N Sevilleta array, central Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, L. L.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Schmandt, B.; Jiang, C.; Finlay, T. S.; Bilek, S. L.; Aster, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is one of the largest recognized active mid-crustal magma intrusions globally. Inflation of the SMB drives sporadically seismogenic uplift at rates of up to of few millimeters per year. We examine the upper crustal structure of the northern section of the SMB region using ambient noise seismic data collected from the Sevilleta Array and New Mexico Tech (NMT) seismic network to constrain basin structure and identify possible upper crustal heterogeneities caused by heat flow and/or fluid or magma migration to shallower depths. The Sevilleta Array comprised 801 vertical-component Nodal seismic stations with 10-Hz seismometers deployed within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in the central Rio Grande rift north of Socorro, New Mexico, for a period of 12 days during February 2015. Five short period seismic stations from the NMT network located south of the Sevilleta array are also used to improve the raypath coverage outside the Sevilleta array. Inter-station ambient noise cross-correlations were computed from all available 20-minute time windows and stacked to obtain estimates of the vertical component Green's function. Clear fundamental mode Rayleigh wave energy is observed from 3 to 6 s period. Beamforming indicates prominent noise sources from the southwest, near Baja California, and the southeast, in the Gulf of Mexico. The frequency-time analysis method was implemented to measure fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities and the resulting inter-station travel times were inverted to obtain 2-D phase velocity maps. One-dimensional sensitivity kernels indicate that the Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps are sensitive to a depth interval of 1 to 8 km, depending on wave period. The maps show (up to 40%) variations in phase velocity within the Sevilleta Array, with the largest variations found for periods of 5-6 seconds. Holocene to upper Pleistocene, alluvial sediments found in the Socorro Basin consistently show lower phase

  6. Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three Sisters, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three Sisters volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. TEM-EDS analyses of the flour samples demonstrate a variety of poorly crystalline (i.e., no long-range crystallographic order) phases: iron oxides, devitrified volcanic glass, and Fe-Si-Al phases. The CheMin XRD on the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has identified significant amounts of X-ray amorphous materials in all samples measured to date. The amorphous component is likely a combination of silicates, iron oxides, and sulfates. Although we have not yet observed amorphous sulfate in the samples from Three Sisters, the variety of poorly crystalline weathering products found at this site is consistent with the variable composition of the X-ray amorphous component identified by CheMin. We suggest that these amorphous phases on Mars could have formed in a similarly cold and icy environment.

  7. Evaluation of I and C architecture alternatives required for the jupiter Icy moons orbiter (JIMO) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M. D.; Wood, R. T.; Bryan, W. L.; Wilson Jr, T. L.; Holcomb, D. E.; Korsah, K.; Jagadish, U.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses alternative architectural considerations for instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in high-reliability applications to support remote, autonomous, inaccessible nuclear reactors, such as a space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for mission electrical power and space exploration propulsion. This work supported the pre-conceptual design of the reactor control system for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Long-term continuous operation without intermediate maintenance cycles forces consideration of alternatives to commonly used active, N-multiple redundancy techniques for high-availability systems. Long space missions, where mission duration can exceed the 50% reliability limit of constituent components, can make active, N-multiple redundant systems less reliable than simplex systems. To extend a control system lifetime beyond the 50% reliability limits requires incorporation of passive redundancy of functions. Time-dependent availability requirements must be factored into the use of combinations of active and passive redundancy techniques for different mission phases. Over the course of a 12 to 20-year mission, reactor control, power conversion, and thermal management system components may fail, and the I and C system must react and adjust to accommodate these failures and protect non-failed components to continue the mission. This requires architectural considerations to accommodate partial system failures and to adapt to multiple control schemes according to the state of non-failed components without going through a complete shutdown and restart cycle. Relevant SNPP I and C architecture examples provide insights into real-time fault tolerance and long-term reliability and availability beyond time periods normally associated with terrestrial power reactor I and C systems operating cycles. I and C architectures from aerospace systems provide examples of highly reliable and available control systems associated with short- and long

  8. Main Power Distribution Unit for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Melissa R.

    2004-01-01

    Around the year 2011, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) will be launched and on its way to orbit three of Jupiter s planet-sized moons. The mission goals for the JIMO project revolve heavily around gathering scientific data concerning ingredients we, as humans, consider essential: water, energy and necessary chemical elements. The JIM0 is an ambitious mission which will implore propulsion from an ION thruster powered by a nuclear fission reactor. Glenn Research Center is responsible for the development of the dynamic power conversion, power management and distribution, heat rejection and ION thrusters. The first test phase for the JIM0 program concerns the High Power AC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Test Bed. The goal of this testing is to support electrical performance verification of the power systems. The test bed will incorporate a 2kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) to simulate the nuclear reactor as well as two ION thrusters. The first module of the PMAD Test Bed to be designed is the Main Power Distribution Unit (MPDU) which relays the power input to the various propulsion systems and scientific instruments. The MPDU involves circuitry design as well as mechanical design to determine the placement of the components. The MPDU consists of fourteen relays of four different variations used to convert the input power into the appropriate power output. The three phase system uses 400 Vo1ts(sub L-L) rms at 1000 Hertz. The power is relayed through the circuit and distributed to the scientific instruments, the ION thrusters and other controlled systems. The mechanical design requires the components to be positioned for easy electrical wiring as well as allowing adequate room for the main buss bars, individual circuit boards connected to each component and power supplies. To accomplish creating a suitable design, AutoCAD was used as a drafting tool. By showing a visual layout of the components, it is easy to see where there is extra room or where the

  9. Development and Testing of a Laser-Powered Cryobot for Outer Planet Icy Moon Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, V.; Stone, W.; Hogan, B.; Lelievre, S.; Flesher, C.

    2013-12-01

    Project VALKYRIE (Very-deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer) is a NASA-funded effort to develop the first laser powered cryobot - a self-contained intelligent ice penetrator capable of delivering science payloads through ice caps of the outer planet icy moons. The long range objective is to enable a full-scale Europa lander mission in which an autonomous life-searching underwater vehicle is transported by the cryobot and launched into the sub-surface Europan ocean. Mission readiness testing will involve an Antarctic sub-glacial lake cryobot sample return through kilometers of ice cap thickness. A key element of VALKYRIE's design is the use of a high energy laser as the primary power source. 1070 nm laser light is transmitted at a power level of 5 kW from a surface-based laser and injected into a custom-designed optical waveguide that is spooled out from the descending cryobot. Light exits the downstream end of the fiber, travels through diverging optics, and strikes a beam dump, which channels thermal power to hot water jets that melt the descent hole. Some beam energy is converted, via photovoltaic cells, to electricity for running onboard electronics and jet pumps. Since the vehicle can be sterilized prior to deployment and the melt path freezes behind it, preventing forward contamination, expansions on VALKYRIE concepts may enable cleaner and faster access to sub-glacial Antarctic lakes. Testing at Stone Aerospace between 2010 and 2013 has already demonstrated high power optical energy transfer over relevant (kilometer scale) distances as well as the feasibility of a vehicle-deployed optical waveguide (through which the power is transferred). The test vehicle is equipped with a forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can detect obstacles out to 1 kilometer from the vehicle. The initial ASTEP test vehicle will carry a science payload consisting of a DUV flow cytometer and a water sampling sub-system that will be

  10. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  11. Breaking Ice 2: A rift system on the Ross Ice Shelf as an analog for tidal tectonics on icy moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, K. M.; Hurford, T., Jr.; Schmerr, N. C.; Sauber, J. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves are the floating regions of the polar ice sheets. Outside of the influence of the narrow region of their grounding zone, they are fully hydrostatic and strongly influenced by the ocean tides. Recent observational and modeling studies have assessed the effect of tides on ice shelves, including: the tidal influence on the ice-shelf surface height, which changes by as much as 6 to 7 m on the southern extreme of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf; the tidal modulation of the ice-shelf horizontal flow velocities, which changes the mean ice-flow rate by as much as two fold on the Ross Ice Shelf; and the tidal contribution to fracture and rift propagation, which eventually leads to iceberg calving. Here, we present the analysis of 16 days of continuous GPS data from a rift system near the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. While the GPS sites were installed for a different scientific investigation, and not optimized to assess tidal rifting mechanics, they provide a first-order sense of the tidal evolution of the rift system. These analyses can be used as a terrestrial analog for tidal activity on icy satellites, such as Europa and Enceladus, moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Using remote sensing and modeling of the Ross Ice Shelf rift system, we can investigate the geological processes observed on icy satellites and advance modeling efforts of their tidal-tectonic evolution.

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ...

  13. Post-main-sequence Evolution of Icy Minor Planets. III. Water Retention in Dwarf Planets and Exomoons and Implications for White Dwarf Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    Studies suggest that the pollution of white dwarf (WD) atmospheres arises from the accretion of minor planets, but the exact properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases are not yet understood. Several previous works studied the possibility of water surviving inside minor planets around evolving stars. However, they all focused on small, comet-sized to moonlet-sized minor planets, when the inferred mass inside the convection zones of He-dominated WDs could actually be compatible with much more massive minor planets. Here we explore for the first time, the water retention inside exoplanetary dwarf planets, or moderate-sized moons, with radii of the order of hundreds of kilometers. This paper concludes a series of papers that has now covered nearly the entire potential mass range of minor planets, in addition to the full mass range of their host stars. We find that water retention is (a) affected by the mass of the WD progenitor, and (b) it is on average at least 5%, irrespective of the assumed initial water composition, if it came from a single accretion event of an icy dwarf planet or moon. The latter prediction strengthens the possibility of habitability in WD planetary systems, and it may also be used in order to distinguish between pollution originating from multiple small accretion events and singular large accretion events. To conclude our work, we provide a code that calculates ice and water retention by interpolation and may be freely used as a service to the community.

  14. Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape

  15. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  16. Targeting the American market for medicines, ca. 1950s-1970s: ICI and Rhône-Poulenc compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of "scientific marketing."

  17. When should video be added to conventional urodynamics in adults and is it justified by the evidence? ICI-RS 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anding, Ralf; Rosier, Peter; Smith, Phillip; Gammie, Andrew; Giarenis, Ilias; Rantell, Angela; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh; Arlandis, Salvador; Cardozo, Linda

    AIMS: To debate and evaluate the evidence base regarding the added value of video to urodynamics in adults and to define research questions. METHODS: In the ICI-RS Meeting 2014 a Think Tank analyzed the current guidelines recommending video urodynamics (VUD) and performed a literature search to

  18. When should video and EMG be added to urodynamics in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and is this justified by the evidence? ICI-RS 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anding, Ralf; Smith, Phillip; de Jong, Tom; Constantinou, Christos; Cardozo, Linda; Rosier, Peter

    AIMS: An ICI-RS Think Tank in 2014 discussed and evaluated the evidence for adding video and EMG to urodynamics (UDS) in children and also highlighted evidence gaps, with the aim of recommending further clinical and research protocols. METHODS: A systematic analysis of the relevant literature for

  19. A new marine interstitial psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Jaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu

  20. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  1. Left ventricular rigid body rotation in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient with cardiac involvement: A case from the three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Path Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földeák, Dóra; Kalapos, Anita; Domsik, Péter; Sinkó, Mária; Szeleczki, Nóra; Bagdi, Enikő; Krenács, László; Forster, Tamás; Borbényi, Zita; Nemes, Attila

    2017-02-01

    Secondary myocardial involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a rare occurrence. Left ventricular (LV) twist is considered an essential part of LV function. In normal circumstances LV twist results from the movement of two orthogonally oriented muscular bands of a helical myocardial structure with consequent clockwise rotation of the base and counterclockwise rotation of the apex. Three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) has been found to be feasible for non-invasive 3D quantification of LV wall motion and rotational mechanics. The present report aimed to assess LV twisting motion in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with positron emission tomography/computer tomography-proven cardiac involvement by 3DSTE. During 3DSTE, reduction in some segmental radial, longitudinal, circumferential, area and 3D LV strains were found. Apical and basal LV rotations were found to be in the same counterclockwise direction, confirming near absence of LV twist - so-called rigid body rotation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryo-braking using penetrators for enhanced capabilities for the potential landing of payloads on icy solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Robinson, T.; Danner, M.; Koch, J.

    2018-03-01

    The icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn are important astrobiology targets. Access to the surface of these worlds is made difficult by the high ΔV requirements which is typically in the hypervelocity range. Passive braking systems cannot be used due to the lack of an atmosphere, and active braking by rockets significantly adds to the missions costs. This paper demonstrates that a two-stage landing system can overcome these problems and provide significant improvements in the payload fraction that can be landed The first stage involves a hypervelocity impactor which is designed to penetrate to a depth of a few tens of meters. This interaction is the cryo-breaking component and is examined through laboratory experiments, empirical relations and modeling. The resultant ice-particle cloud creates a transient artificial atmosphere that can be used to enable passive braking of the second stage payload dd, with a substantially higher mass payload fraction than possible with a rocket landing system. It is shown that a hollow cylinder design for the impactor can more efficiently eject the material upwards in a solid cone of ice particles relative to solid impactors such as spheres or spikes. The ejected mass is shown to be of the order of 103 to 104 times the mass of the impactor. The modeling indicates that a 10 kg payload with a braking system of 3 m2 (i.e. an areal density of 0.3 kg/m2) is sufficient to allow the landing of the payload with the deceleration limited to less than 2000 g's. Modern electronics can withstand this deceleration and as such the system provides an important alternative to landing payloads on icy solar system objects.

  3. Frequency of Eating Out at Both Fast-Food and Sit-Down Restaurants Was Associated With High Body Mass Index in Non-Large Metropolitan Communities in Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Surabhi; Schoeller, Dale A; Walsh, Matthew C; McWilliams, Christine

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the associations between frequency of eating at fast-food, fast-casual, all-you-can-eat, and sit-down restaurants and the body mass index (BMI) in non-large metro Wisconsin communities. To inform prevention efforts, we also analyzed the socioeconomic/environmental and nutrition attitudes/behavior variables that may drive the frequent eating away from home. Cross-sectional analysis of an ancillary data set from the Survey of Health of Wisconsin collected between October 2012 and February 2013. Six Wisconsin counties: 1 classified as rural, 1 as large fringe metro, and 4 as small metro. Adults ≥18 years (N = 1418). Field staff measured height and weight and administered a survey on the frequency of eating away from home, and socioeconomic and nutritional behavior variables. Multivariable regression. The BMI of respondents averaged 29.4 kg/m 2 (39% obese). Every 1-meal/week increase in fast-food and sit-down restaurant consumption was associated with an increase in BMI by 0.8 and 0.6 kg/m 2 , respectively. Unavailability of healthy foods at shopping and eating venues and lack of cooking skills were both positively associated with consumption of fast-food and sit-down meals. Individuals who described their diet as healthy, who avoided high-fat foods, and who believed their diet was keeping their weight controlled did not visit these restaurants frequently. Obesity prevention efforts in non-large metro Wisconsin communities should consider socioeconomic/environmental and nutritional attitudes/behavior of residents when designing restaurant-based or community education interventions.

  4. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  5. Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand Earth's present tectonic style–plate tectonics–and how it may have evolved from single plate (stagnant lid tectonics, it is instructive to consider how common it is among similar bodies in the Solar System. Plate tectonics is a style of convection for an active planetoid where lid fragment (plate motions reflect sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones, causing upwelling of asthenosphere at divergent plate boundaries and accompanied by focused upwellings, or mantle plumes; any other tectonic style is usefully called “stagnant lid” or “fragmented lid”. In 2015 humanity completed a 50+ year effort to survey the 30 largest planets, asteroids, satellites, and inner Kuiper Belt objects, which we informally call “planetoids” and use especially images of these bodies to infer their tectonic activity. The four largest planetoids are enveloped in gas and ice (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are not considered. The other 26 planetoids range in mass over 5 orders of magnitude and in diameter over 2 orders of magnitude, from massive Earth down to tiny Proteus; these bodies also range widely in density, from 1000 to 5500 kg/m3. A gap separates 8 silicate planetoids with ρ = 3000 kg/m3 or greater from 20 icy planetoids (including the gaseous and icy giant planets with ρ = 2200 kg/m3 or less. We define the “Tectonic Activity Index” (TAI, scoring each body from 0 to 3 based on evidence for recent volcanism, deformation, and resurfacing (inferred from impact crater density. Nine planetoids with TAI = 2 or greater are interpreted to be tectonically and convectively active whereas 17 with TAI <2 are inferred to be tectonically dead. We further infer that active planetoids have lithospheres or icy shells overlying asthenosphere or water/weak ice. TAI of silicate (rocky planetoids positively correlates with their inferred Rayleigh number. We conclude that some type of stagnant lid tectonics is

  6. A new three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for large breast and/or high body mass index patients: evaluation of a novel fields assessment aimed to reduce extra–target-tissue irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimato, Gerardina; Ippolito, Edy; Silipigni, Sonia; Venanzio, Cristina Di; Gaudino, Diego; Fiore, Michele; Trodella, Lucio; D'Angelillo, Rolando Maria; Ramella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop an alternative three-dimensional treatment plan with standardized fields class solution for whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with large/pendulous breast and/or high body mass index (BMI). Methods: Two treatment plans [tangential fields and standardized five-fields technique (S5F)] for a total dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions were generated for patients with large breasts [planning target volume (PTV) >1000 cm3 and/or BMI >25 kg m−2], supine positioned. S5F plans consist of two wedged tangential beams, anteroposterior: 20° for the right breast and 340° for the left breast, and posteroanterior: 181° for the right breast and 179° for the left breast. A field in field in medial–lateral beam and additional fields were added to reduce hot spot areas and extra–target-tissue irradiation and to improve dose distribution. The percentage of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%), percentage of PTV receiving 105% of the prescribed dose (PTV V105%), maximal dose to PTV (PTV Dmax), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index were recorded. V10%, V20%, V105% and V107% of a “proper” normal tissue structure (body-PTV healthy tissue) were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT v.12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: In 38 patients included, S5F improved HI (8.4 vs 10.1; p ≤ 0.001) and significantly reduced PTV Dmax and PTV V105%. The extra–target-tissue irradiation was significantly reduced using S5F for V105% (cm3) and V107% (cm3) with a very high difference in tissue irradiation (46.6 vs 3.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V105% and 12.2 vs 0.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V107% for tangential field and S5F plans, respectively). Only a slight increase in low-dose extra–target-tissue irradiation (V10%) was observed (2.2719 vs 1.8261 cm3, p = 0.002). Conclusion: The S5F technique in patients with large breast or high BMI increases HI and decreases hot spots in extra-target-tissues and can therefore be

  7. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  8. -AGAn /-GAn AND -ICI SUFFIXES IN TURKISH AND THEIR USAGE IN SÛDÎ’S ANNOTATION TÜRKÇEDE -AGAn /-GAn VE -ICI EKLERİ VE SÛDÎ ŞERHİNDEKİ KULLANIMLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt ERDEM

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The suffixes of -AGAn / -GAn used unfrequently in Modern Turkish exhibit some important features in the development of Turkish. In Karakhanid Turkic, the habitual meaning of the verb is formed with -GAn participle and in some cases with -AGAn. This usage increases gradually in Old Anatolian Turkish and Sudi’s annotation. Sudi utilizes the derivation of -AGAn/-GAn used in his time productively in word formation in order to translate the exact meaning of the Persian words into Turkish, which were called sıfat-ı müşebbehe (an adjective formed from a verb. In these derivations, although the habitual meaning of the verbs is stressed, some of them function as participles. On the other hand, Sudi uses Turkish -IcI suffix in order to substitute Persian agent nouns (ism-i fail. The suffix functions as non-finite verbs in some constructions like -AGAn /-GAn suffixes. Türkiye Türkçesinde işlek olmayan -AGAn/-GAn eki Türkçenin gelişiminde önemli özellikler sergiler. Karahanlı Türkçesinde fiildeki süreklilik anlamı -GAn sıfat-fiiliyle birlikte az da olsa -AGAn ekiyle de sağlanır. Bu kullanım EAT eserlerinde ve Sûdî şerhinde artarak devam eder. Sûdî, döneminde hâlâ işlek olarak kullanıldığını anladığımız -AGAn / -GAn’lı türetimleri Farsça sıfat-ı müşebbehe olan kelimelerin Türkçedeki anlamlarını tam olarak vermek için kullanır. Bu türetimlerde fiilin sürekli yapıldığı vurgulansa da bunların bir kısmı sıfat-fiil işleyişindedir. Sûdî, şerhinde ism-i failleri karşılamak için ise -IcI ekinden yararlanır. Bu ek de -AGAn/-GAn ekleri gibi bazı kullanımlarda bitimsiz fiil işleyişindedir.

  9. Formation of Valley Networks in a Cold and Icy Early Mars Climate: Predictions for Erosion Rates and Channel Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassanelli, J.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is host to a diverse array of valley networks, systems of linear-to-sinuous depressions which are widely distributed across the surface and which exhibit branching patterns similar to the dendritic drainage patterns of terrestrial fluvial systems. Characteristics of the valley networks are indicative of an origin by fluvial activity, providing among the most compelling evidence for the past presence of flowing liquid water on the surface of Mars. Stratigraphic and crater age dating techniques suggest that the formation of the valley networks occurred predominantly during the early geologic history of Mars ( 3.7 Ga). However, whether the valley networks formed predominantly by rainfall in a relatively warm and wet early Mars climate, or by snowmelt and episodic rainfall in an ambient cold and icy climate, remains disputed. Understanding the formative environment of the valley networks will help distinguish between these warm and cold end-member early Mars climate models. Here we test a conceptual model for channel incision and evolution under cold and icy conditions with a substrate characterized by the presence of an ice-free dry active layer and subjacent ice-cemented regolith, similar to that found in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys. We implement numerical thermal models, quantitative erosion and transport estimates, and morphometric analyses in order to outline predictions for (1) the precise nature and structure of the substrate, (2) fluvial erosion/incision rates, and (3) channel morphology. Model predictions are compared against morphologic and morphometric observational data to evaluate consistency with the assumed cold climate scenario. In the cold climate scenario, the substrate is predicted to be characterized by a kilometers-thick globally-continuous cryosphere below a 50-100 meter thick desiccated ice-free zone. Initial results suggest that, with the predicted substrate structure, fluvial channel erosion and morphology in a cold early Mars

  10. Gender affects body language reading

    OpenAIRE

    Arseny A Sokolov; Arseny A Sokolov; Samuel eKrüger; Paul eEnck; Ingeborg eKrägeloh-Mann; Marina A Pavlova; Marina A Pavlova

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  11. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  12. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  13. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  14. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  15. Pluto’s non-icy component: a close-in analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Protopapa, Silvia; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Grundy, William M.; Stern, S. Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine; Reuter, Dennie; Young, Leslie; Weaver, Harold A.; New Horizons Composition Theme Team

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of the origin and evolution of Pluto, and, by extension, that of a vast number of similar sized and smaller bodies in the Third Zone of the solar system, are closely tied to their atmosphere and surface chemistry. In turn, a major role in the composition and coloration (from dark red to yellow) of the surface -and indirectly the atmosphere- of Pluto is played by non-ice components presumed to be organic compounds known as tholins. While some of these compounds have been reproduced in the laboratory by irradiation of native materials found in Pluto’s atmosphere and surface, the number of kinds of tholins on the surface of Pluto, and the processes responsible for their formation and distribution is still subject of investigation. We make use of Pluto data from the New Horizons Ralph instrument consisting of a multicolor/panchromatic mapper (MVIC) and mapping infrared (IR) composition spectrometer (LEISA). For this study we have adopted a set of scans at high spatial resolution (on average 2.7 km/pixel), spectroscopically analyzed for the first time. Our preliminary analysis shows different signatures for the dark red material that could be attributed to either grain size or composition/nature of the darkening agent. We characterize and inter-compare the potentially different tholins aiming at understanding its/their history and chemical evolution.

  16. The use of chromatographic indexes to study the biodegradation of crude oil in cold/icy seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siron, R.; Pelletier, E.

    1993-01-01

    A group of five protected mesocosms (3.5 m 3 each) was used to study the biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in cold and icy seawater. A wide range of oil concentrations was tested over four experiments lasting two weeks to six months. Various oil treatments were studied with respect to the natural bacterial degradation: chemically dispersed and untreated crude oil; and oil adsorbed on, and released from, an immersed substrate. The study was concerned with oil accommodated in the water column, accumulated in surface (sheens and emulsions), and collected in sediment traps. The oil biodegradation was assessed by means of the following gas chromatographic indexes: C17/pristane; C18/phytane; n-alkanes/isoprenoids; pristane/phytane; naphthalene/phenanthrene; 2-methyl naphthalene/1-methyl naphthalene; and methylnaphthalenes/total substituted naphthalenes. A combined index of biodegradation defined from the most significant hydrocarbon ratios is proposed to evaluate the overall biodegradation of dissolved compounds and oil droplets, involving both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coupled with mesocosm facilities, this approach appears very convenient to determine the potential degradability of crude oils by natural indigenous microflora. 26 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael J; Murray, Alison E; Hand, Kevin P

    2017-12-01

    Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs-relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts-could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as "electron disposal units" for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes. Key Words: Biofilms-Europa-Extraterrestrial life-Hydrothermal systems. Astrobiology 17, 1265-1273.

  18. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindensmith, Christian A; Rider, Stephanie; Bedrossian, Manuel; Wallace, J Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Showalter, G Max; Deming, Jody W; Nadeau, Jay L

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM) that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  19. "Balancing on Skates on the Icy Surface of Work": a metasynthesis of work participation for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinn, Liv Grethe; Holgersen, Helge; Aas, Randi W; Davidson, Larry

    2014-03-01

    To explore how persons with psychiatric disabilities experience facilitators of and barriers to participation in paid work in transitional, supported, and open employment settings, in order to provide guidance for efforts to attract and retain these persons in gainful employment as a key dimension of recovery and community life. A metasynthesis was conducted using 16 qualitative studies published between 1990 and 2011. Ten themes, two phases, and an overarching metaphor were identified. The first five themes describe facilitators of and impediments to getting a job (getting off the bench): (1) fighting inertia; (2) taking control; (3) encouraging peers; (4) disruptions related to the illness; (5) lack of opportunities and supports. The next five themes represent facilitators of and impediments to working (skating on the ice); (6) going mainstream; (7) social cohesion; (8) clarity in role and responsibilities; (9) environmental factors; (10) managing self-disclosure. We chose as our overarching metaphor "Balancing on Skates on the Icy Surface of Work," as we view both iceskaters and workers with psychiatric disabilities as needing to achieve and maintain their balance while being "on the edge" between various extremities. We have shown that, for persons with psychiatric disabilities to "get off the bench" and "onto the ice" of employment, they may need to be supported in finding and maintaining their balance in new situations through a combination of learning new skills and competencies (learning how to skate) while receiving in vivo assistance from empathic and knowledgeable supporters (being coached while on the ice).

  20. The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael J.; Murray, Alison E.; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-12-01

    Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs - relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts - could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as "electron disposal units" for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes.

  1. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Lindensmith

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  2. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Index of Watershed Integrity / Index of Catchment Integrity (IWI/ICI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the Index of Watershed Integrity / Index of Catchment Integrity (IWI/ICI) within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream,...

  4. Immediate haemodynamic effects of a novel partial agonist, beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking drug ICI 141,292 after intravenous administration to healthy young volunteers and patients with ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J; Svendsen, T L; Lyngborg, K

    1987-01-01

    administration of four sequential doses (0.5, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg) of ICI 141,292 was examined. HR decreased 7% (P less than 0.05) following ICI 141,292 1 mg with no further decrease following the succeeding doses. Cardiac output decreased 5.2% (P less than 0.05) following a cumulative dose of 4 mg...... as atenolol) beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent possessing moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity....

  5. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  6. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  7. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  8. Electron-molecule chemistry and charging processes on organic ices and Titan's icy aerosol surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirim, C.; Gann, R. D.; McLain, J. L.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-09-01

    Electron-induced polymerization processes and charging events that can occur within Titan's atmosphere or on its surface were simulated using electron irradiation and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) studies of nitrogen-containing organic condensates. The DEA studies probe the desorption of H- from hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetonitrile (CH3CN), and aminoacetonitrile (NH2CH2CN) ices, as well as from synthesized tholin materials condensed or deposited onto a graphite substrate maintained at low temperature (90-130 K). The peak cross sections for H- desorption during low-energy (3-15 eV) electron irradiation were measured and range from 3 × 10-21 to 2 × 10-18 cm2. Chemical and structural transformations of HCN ice upon 2 keV electron irradiation were investigated using X-ray photoelectron and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The electron-beam processed materials displayed optical properties very similar to tholins produced by conventional discharge methods. Electron and negative ion trapping lead to 1011 charges cm-2 on a flat surface which, assuming a radius of 0.05 μm for Titan aerosols, is ∼628 charges/radius (in μm). The facile charge trapping indicates that electron interactions with nitriles and complex tholin-like molecules could affect the conductivity of Titan's atmosphere due to the formation of large negative ion complexes. These negatively charged complexes can also precipitate onto Titan's surface and possibly contribute to surface reactions and the formation of dunes.

  9. Motion of rectangular prismatic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poreh, M.; Wray, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Rectangular prismatic bodies can assume either a translatory or an auto-rotating mode of motion during free motion in the atmosphere. The translatory mode is stable only when the dimensionless moment of inertia of the bodies is large, however, large perturbations will always start auto-rotation. The characteristics of the auto-rotational mode are shown to depend primarily on the aspect ratio of the bodies which determines the dimensionless rotational speed and the lift coefficient. Both the average drag and lift-coefficients of auto-rotating bodies are estimated, but it is shown that secondary effects make it impossible to determine their exact trajectories in atmospheric flows

  10. Impact of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index on the prevalence of large-for-gestational age infants in two cohorts of women with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes: a cross-sectional population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Katherine; Dolan, Lawrence M; Deka, Ranjan; Jackson, Chandra L; Khoury, Jane C

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Despite improvements in treatment modalities, large-for-gestational age (LGA) prevalence has remained between 30% and 40% among infants of mothers with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Our objective was to estimate LGA prevalence and examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with LGA among mothers with TIDM. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Regional data in Cincinnati, Ohio, from the Diabetes in Pregnancy Program Project (PPG), a prospective cohort for the period 1978–1993; national data from Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL), a multicentre cross-sectional study for the period 2002–2008. Participants The study included 333 pregnancies in the PPG and 358 pregnancies in the CSL. Pregnancies delivered prior to 23 weeks’ gestation were excluded. Women with TIDM in the PPG were identified according to physician confirmation of ketoacidosis, and/or c-peptide levels, and by International Classification of Diseases, ninth version codes within the CSL. LGA was identified as birth weight >90th percentile according to gestational age, race and sex. Main outcome measures LGA at birth. Results Mean±SD maternal age at delivery was 26.4±5.1 years for PPG women and 27.5±6.0 years for CSL women, p=0.008. LGA prevalence did not significantly differ between cohorts (PPG: 40.2% vs CSL: 36.6%, p=0.32). More women began pregnancy as overweight in the later cohort (PPG (16.8%) vs CSL (27.1%), pIOM) guidelines was higher in the later CSL (56.2%) vs PPG (42.3%) cohort, pIOM guidelines had a lower LGA prevalence in CSL (PPG: 30.6% vs CSL: 13.7%), p=0.001. Conclusions Normal-weight women with GWG within IOM guidelines experienced a lower LGA prevalence, supporting the importance of adherence to IOM guidelines for GWG to reduce LGA. High BMI and GWG may be hindering a reduction in LGA prevalence. PMID:29602844

  11. Descent Without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark Josiah; Hudson, Reggie Lester

    2015-01-01

    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NHþ 4 and SO2 making SO2 4 by H+ and e - transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation.

  12. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate neurotoxicity of HIV and cocaine: testosterone and ICI 182,780 sensitive mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mactutus Charles F

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV Associated Dementia (HAD is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection that erodes the quality of life for patients and burdens health care providers. Intravenous drug use is a major route of HIV transmission, and drug use is associated with increased HAD. Specific proteins released as a consequence of HIV infection (e.g., gp120, the HIV envelope protein and Tat, the nuclear transactivating protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In primary cultures of human fetal brain tissue, subtoxic doses of gp120 and Tat are capable of interacting with a physiologically relevant dose of cocaine, to produce a significant synergistic neurotoxicity. Using this model system, the neuroprotective potential of gonadal steroids was investigated. Results 17β-Estradiol (17β-E2, but not 17α-estradiol (17α-E2, was protective against this combined neurotoxicity. Progesterone (PROG afforded limited neuroprotection, as did dihydrotestosterone (DHT. The efficacy of 5α-testosterone (T-mediated neuroprotection was robust, similar to that provided by 17β-E2. In the presence of the specific estrogen receptor (ER antagonist, ICI-182,780, T's neuroprotection was completely blocked. Thus, T acts through the ER to provide neuroprotection against HIV proteins and cocaine. Interestingly, cholesterol also demonstrated concentration-dependent neuroprotection, possibly attributable to cholesterol's serving as a steroid hormone precursor in neurons. Conclusion Collectively, the present data indicate that cocaine has a robust interaction with the HIV proteins gp120 and Tat that produces severe neurotoxicity, and this toxicity can be blocked through pretreatment with ER agonists.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF CRACKING ON THE SURFACE POTENTIAL OF ICY GRAINS IN SATURN’S E-RING: LABORATORY STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Caixia; Bahr, David A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Baragiola, Raúl A., E-mail: cb8nw@virginia.edu [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    Within Saturn's E-ring, dust grains are coated by water vapor co-released with ice grains from the geyser-like eruptions of Enceladus. These ice-coated grains have intrinsic surface potential and interact synergistically with the ions and electrons of Saturn's magnetospheric plasmas. We perform laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of water-ice growth on the surface potential, using amorphous solid water (ASW) films. We estimate the growth of the surface potential to be ∼ 2.5 mV (Earth) yr{sup 1} and 112 mV yr{sup 1} for E-ring grains at ∼4.5 R {sub s} and 3.95 R {sub s} outside Enceladus’s plume, respectively. In addition, our measurements show that the linear relationship between the surface potential and the film thickness, as described in previous studies, has an upper limit, where the film spontaneously cracks above a porosity-dependent critical thickness. Heating of the cracked films with (and without) deposited charge shows that significant positive (and negative) surface potentials are retained at temperatures above 110 K, contrary to the minimal values (roughly zero) for thin, transparent ASW films. The significant surface potentials observed on micron-scale cracked ice films after thermal cycling, (5–20) V, are consistent with Cassini measurements, which indicate a negative charge of up to 5 V for E-ring dust particles at ∼5 R {sub s}. Therefore, the native grain surface potential resulting from water-vapor coating must be included in modeling studies of interactions between E-ring icy surfaces and Saturn's magnetospheric plasma.

  14. One-dimensional thermal evolution calculation based on a mixing length theory: Application to Saturnian icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, S.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state thermal convection plays a major role in the thermal evolution of solid planetary bodies. Solving the equation system for thermal evolution considering convection requires 2-D or 3-D modeling, resulting in large calculation costs. A 1-D calculation scheme based on mixing length theory (MLT) requires a much lower calculation cost and is suitable for parameter studies. A major concern for the MLT scheme is its accuracy due to a lack of detailed comparisons with higher dimensional schemes. In this study, I quantify its accuracy via comparisons of thermal profiles obtained by 1-D MLT and 3-D numerical schemes. To improve the accuracy, I propose a new definition of the mixing length (l), which is a parameter controlling the efficiency of heat transportation due to convection. Adopting this new definition of l, I investigate the thermal evolution of Dione and Enceladus under a wide variety of parameter conditions. Calculation results indicate that each satellite requires several tens of GW of heat to possess a 30-km-thick global subsurface ocean. Dynamical tides may be able to account for such an amount of heat, though their ices need to be highly viscous.

  15. Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    , USA). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory, and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  16. The Impact of a Large Object with Jupiter in July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Wesley, A.; Orton, G.; Chodas, P.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Legarreta, J.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The only major impact ever observed directly in the Solar System was that of a large fragmented comet with Jupiter in July (1994) (Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9; SL9). We report here the observation of a second, single, large impact on Jupiter that occurred on 19 July 2009 at a latitude of -55° with an orthogonal entry trajectory and a lower incidence angle compared to those of SL9. The size of the initial aerosol cloud debris was 4,800 km East-West and 2,500 km North-South. Comparison its properties with those produced by the SL9 fragments, coupled with dynamical calculations of possible pre-impact orbits, indicates that the impactor was most probably an icy body with a size of 0.5-1 km. We calculate that the rate of collisions of this magnitude may be five to ten times more frequent than previously thought. The search for unpredicted impacts, such as the current one, could be best performed in the near-infrared methane absorption bands at 890 nm and in the 2.12 to 2.3 μm K methane-hydrogen absorption band, where the high-altitude aerosols detach by their brightness relative to Jupiter's primary clouds. We present measurements of the debris dispersion by Jovian winds from a long-term imaging campaign with ground-based telescopes. Ackowledgements: Work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07, by NASA funds to JPL, Caltech, by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL, and by the Glasstone Fellowship program at Oxford.

  17. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  18. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  19. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  20. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  1. Titan's icy scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P. F.; Turner, J. D.; Neish, C. D.; Mitri, G.; Montiel, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Cassini/VIMS [1] infrared spectral windows to identify and quantify weak surface features, with no assumptions on the haze and surface characteris- tics. This study maps the organic sediments, supplied by past atmospheres, as well as ice-rich regions that constitute Titan's bedrock.

  2. Eating disorder symptoms and weight and shape concerns in a large web-based convenience sample of women ages 50 and above: results of the Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Danielle A; Von Holle, Ann; Brownley, Kimberly A; Runfola, Cristin D; Hofmeier, Sara; Branch, Kateland E; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2012-11-01

    Limited research exists on eating disorder symptoms and attitudes and weight and shape concerns in women in midlife to older adulthood. We conducted an online survey to characterize these behaviors and concerns in women ages 50 and above. Participants (n = 1,849) were recruited via the Internet and convenience sampling. Eating disorder symptoms, dieting and body checking behaviors, and weight and shape concerns were widely endorsed. Younger age and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater endorsement of eating disorder symptoms, behaviors, and concerns. Weight and shape concerns and disordered eating behaviors occur in women over 50 and vary by age and BMI. Focused research on disordered eating patterns in this age group is necessary to develop age-appropriate interventions and to meet the developmental needs of an important, growing, and underserved population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  4. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  5. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  6. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  7. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a polar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν 3 band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO 2 band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H 2 O)-carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν 3 band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  8. Fundamentals and clinical perspective of urethral sphincter instability as a contributing factor in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction--ICI-RS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth; Anding, Ralf; Rosier, Peter; Birder, Lori; Andersson, Karl Erik; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2016-02-01

    Urethral pathophysiology is often neglected in discussions of bladder dysfunction. It has been debated whether "urethral sphincter instability," referred to based on observed "urethral pressure variations," is an important aspect of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The purpose of this report is to summarize current urethral pathophysiology evidence and outline directions for future research based on a literature review and discussions during the ICI-RS meeting in Bristol in 2014. Urethral pathophysiology with a focus on urethral pressure variation (UPV) was presented and discussed in a multidisciplinary think tank session at the ICI_R meeting in Bristol 2014. This think tank session was based on collaboration between physicians and basic science researchers. Experimental animal studies or studies performed in clinical series (predominantly symptomatic women) provided insights into UPV, but the findings were inconsistent and incomplete. However, UPV is certainly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (likely OAB), and thus, future research on this topic is relevant. Future research based on adequately defined clinical (and urodynamic) parameters with precisely defined patient groups might shed better light on the cause of OAB symptoms. Further fundamental investigation of urethral epithelial-neural interactions via the release of mediators should enhance our knowledge and improve the management of patients with OAB. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Purification of a Novel Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substance Produced by Enterococcus faecium ICIS 8 and Characterization of Its Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Valyshev, Alexander V

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin-like antimicrobial substance produced by an antagonistic active strain of Enterococcus faecium. A novel bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by the E. faecium ICIS 8 strain was purified and characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed the following partial sequence: NH 2 -APKEKCFPKYCV. The proteinaceous nature of purified BLIS was assessed by treatment with proteolytic enzyme. Studies of the action of BLIS using bacteriological and bioluminescence assays revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes 88BK and Escherichia coli K12 TG1 lac::lux viability. The interaction of the BLIS with the bacterial surface led to the compensation of a negative charge value, as shown by zeta-potential measurements. Assessments of membrane integrity using fluorescent probes and atomic force microscopy revealed the permeabilization of the cellular barrier structures in both L. monocytogenes and E. coli. The novel BLIS from E. faecium ICIS 8 was characterized by a unique primary peptide sequence and exerted bactericidal activity against L. monocytogenes and E. coli by disrupting membrane integrity.

  10. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  11. Gender affects body language reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny A Sokolov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric impairments in visual social cognition.

  12. Ion Formation Resulting from Freezing, Thawing, and Collisional Processes in Plumes Emitted from Planetary Bodies: Implications for Plume Chemistry and the Detection of Trace Organics Present in Enceladus Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, J. L.; Wiley, J. S.; Thomas, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Icy plumes emitted into space from Enceladus and other planetary bodies offer the intriguing possibility of sampling the composition of subsurface liquid reservoirs that may comprise habitable zones of particular astrobiological significance in our solar system. Mass spectrometric sampling of plume materials enables the detection of molecules that facilitate an assessment of the extent of chemical and biological evolution that may have occurred in a subsurface sea. In laboratory experiments we have investigated the physical and chemical processes that occur in the complex plume environment that lead to ionization of trace organic constituents, both as a result of the freezing of liquid droplets and the thawing of icy particles. We also demonstrate that collisions between icy particles lead to triboelectric charging. Subsequent discharges between oppositely charged particles result not only in the ionization of trace organics but to chemical reactions between molecular components present in the particles. For example, nitriles react with water to form amides and acids. In particular, icy particles doped with small amounts of aminoacetonitrile and water lead to the formation of the simplest amino acid glycine. The implications which these observations may have for sampling plume composition from orbit in a future mission to Enceladus will be discussed.

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  14. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  15. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  16. Bringing the body into sport management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; van Amsterdam, N.

    There is a growing body of work that draws attention to the role of bodies and of embodiment in organizations and in management. Sport management scholars seem to have largely ignored the body of sport managers as well as their embodiment, however. This is puzzling since sport management implies

  17. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  18. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia, and an overview of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Vonk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia. This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided.

  19. Quantum chemical protocols for modeling reactions and spectra in astrophysical ice analogs: the challenging case of the C⁺ + H₂O reaction in icy grain mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, David E

    2015-11-21

    Icy grain mantles that accrete on refractory dust particles in the very cold interstellar medium or beyond the snow line in protoplanetary disks serve as minute incubators for heterogeneous chemistry. Ice mantle chemistry can differ significantly from the gas phase chemistry that occurs in these environments and is often richer. Modeling ices and their chemistry is a challenging task for quantum theoretical methods, but theory promises insight into these systems that is difficult to attain with experiments. Density functional theory (DFT) is predominately employed for modeling reactions in icy grain mantles due to its favorable scalability, but DFT has limitations that risk undercutting its reliability for this task. In this work, basic protocols are proposed for identifying the degree to which DFT methods are able to reproduce experimental or higher level theoretical results for the fundamental interactions upon which ice mantle chemistry depends, including both reactive interactions and non-reactive scaffolding interactions. The exemplar of this study is the reaction of C(+) with H2O, where substantial methodological differences are found in the prediction of gas phase relative energetics for stationary points (about 10 kcal mol(-1) for the C-O bond energy of the H2OC(+) intermediate), which in turn casts doubt about employing it to treat the C(+) + H2O reaction on an ice surface. However, careful explorations demonstrate that B3LYP with small correlation consistent basis sets performs in a sufficiently reliable manner to justify using it to identify plausible chemical pathways, where the dominant products were found to be neutral HOC and the CO(-) anion plus one and two H3O(+) cations, respectively. Predicted vibrational and electronic spectra are presented that would serve to verify or disconfirm the pathways; the latter were computed with time-dependent DFT. Conclusions are compared with those of a recent similar study by McBride and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  1. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Shostrom, Valerie K. [Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Iskhanian, Adrian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Attia, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Decker, Roy H. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Simone, Charles B., E-mail: charlessimone@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Methods: Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Results: Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, P<.001). Patients treated daily also had higher rates of grade ≥2 pulmonary toxicities (P=.014). Patients with peripheral tumors (n=66) were more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction regimens than those with central tumors (n=26). No significant differences in grade ≥2 toxicities were identified according to tumor location (P>.05). Conclusions: From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities.

  2. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Shostrom, Valerie K; Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian; Braunstein, Steve E; Holland, John; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Iskhanian, Adrian; Jabbour, Salma K; Attia, Albert; Lee, Percy; Wang, Kyle; Decker, Roy H; McGarry, Ronald C; Simone, Charles B

    2017-03-15

    To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, Plocation (P>.05). From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. WE-FG-207B-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Abdominal CT with Three K-Edge Contrast Materials Using a Whole-Body Photon-Counting Scanner: Initial Results of a Large Animal Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, M; Symons, R; Cork, T; Davies-Venn, C; Rice, K; Malayeri, A; Sandfort, V; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo three-material decomposition techniques using photon-counting CT (PCCT) with possible advantage of resolving arterial and venous flow of an organ simultaneously. Methods: Abdominal PCCT scans were acquired using a prototype whole-body PCCT with four energy thresholds (25/50/75/90keV) in a canine. Bismuth subsalicylate (60 mg) was administered orally one day prior to scanning. Immediately prior to CT scan, gadoteric acid (60 ml, Dotarem, Guerbet) was intravenously injected, followed in ten minutes by a 20mL injection of iodinated contrast (iopamidol 370 mg/mL, Bracco). Scans were acquired every ∼20 seconds, starting from the time of iodine injection. Linear material decomposition was performed using the least mean squares method to create concentration maps of iodine, gadolinium, and bismuth. The method was calibrated to vials with known concentrations of materials placed next to the animal. The accuracy of this method was tested on vials with known concentrations. Results: The material decomposition algorithm’s accuracy was confirmed to be within ±4mM in the test vials. In the animal, we could estimate the concentration of gadolinium in delayed-enhanced phase (10 minutes post-injection) in the abdomen. We could follow the wash-in and wash-out of iodine in arterial, venous, and excretory flow of the kidneys (20s, 80s, and 120s post-iodine injection) while gadolinium was present in the delayed-enhanced phase. Bismuth, which was used as a contrast agent for the gastro-intestinal tract, was easily differentiable from the other two contrast agents in the small intestine. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of using photon-counting CT with four energy thresholds to differentiate three k-edge contrast agents in vivo. This can potentially reduce radiation dose to patients by combining arterial and venous phases into a single acquisition.

  4. Investigation of Planets and Small Bodies Using Decameter Wavelength Radar Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeinili, A.

    2003-12-01

    Decameter wavelength radar sounders provide a unique capability for the exploration of subsurface of planets and internal structure of small bodies. Recently, a number of experimental radar sounding instruments have been proposed and/or are planned to become operational in the near future. The first of these radar sounders is MARSIS (Picardi et al.) that is about to arrive at Mars on ESA's Mars Express for a two-year mission. The second radar sounder, termed SHARAD (Seu et. al), will fly on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance orbiter in 2005. MARSIS and SHARAD have complementary science objectives in that MARSIS (0.1-5.5 MHz) is designed to explore the deep subsurface with a depth resolution of ˜100 m while SHARAD (15-25 MHz) focuses its investigation to near-surface (generation of radar sounders will benefit from high power and high data rate capability that is made available through the use of Nuclear Electric generators. An example of such high-capability mission is the Jovian Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) where, for example, the radar sounder can be used to explore beneath the icy surfaces of Europa in search of the ice/ocean interface. The decameter wave radar sounder is probably the only instrument that has the potential of providing an accurate estimate for the ocean depth. Another exciting and rewarding area of application for planetary radar sounding is the investigation of the deep interior of small bodies (asteroids and comets). The small size of asteroids and comets provides the opportunity to collect data in a manner that enables Radio Reflection Tomographic (RRT) reconstruction of the body in the same manner that a medical ultrasound probe can image the interior of our body. This paper provides an overview of current technical capabilities and challenges and the potential of radio sounders in the investigation of planets and small bodies.

  5. Albedos and spectral signatures determination and it connection to geological processes: Simile between Earth and other solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J.; Ochoa, L.; Saavedra, F.

    2017-07-01

    Remote sensing has always been the best investigation tool for planetary sciences. In this research have been used data of Surface albedo, electromagnetic spectra and satelital imagery in search of understanding glacier dynamics in some bodies of the solar system, and how it's related to their compositions and associated geological processes, this methodology is very common in icy moons studies. Through analytic software's some albedos map's and geomorphological analysis were made that allow interpretation of different types of ice in the glacier's and it's interaction with other materials, almost all the images were worked in the visible and infrared ranges of the spectrum; spectral data were later used to connect the reflectance whit chemical and reologic properties of the compounds studied. It have been concluded that the albedo analysis is an effective tool to differentiate materials in the bodies surfaces, but the application of spectral data is necessary to know the exact compounds of the glaciers and to have a better understanding of the icy bodies.

  6. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  7. Male bladder outlet obstruction : Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence

  8. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  10. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  12. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  13. Studies of Planet Formation using a Hybrid N-body + Planetesimal Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Salamon, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of our proposal was to use a hybrid multi-annulus planetesimal/n-body code to examine the planetesimal theory, one of the two main theories of planet formation. We developed this code to follow the evolution of numerous 1 m to 1 km planetesimals as they collide, merge, and grow into full-fledged planets. Our goal was to apply the code to several well-posed, topical problems in planet formation and to derive observational consequences of the models. We planned to construct detailed models to address two fundamental issues: 1) icy planets - models for icy planet formation will demonstrate how the physical properties of debris disks, including the Kuiper Belt in our solar system, depend on initial conditions and input physics; and 2) terrestrial planets - calculations following the evolution of 1-10 km planetesimals into Earth-mass planets and rings of dust will provide a better understanding of how terrestrial planets form and interact with their environment. During the past year, we made progress on each issue. Papers published in 2004 are summarized. Summaries of work to be completed during the first half of 2005 and work planned for the second half of 2005 are included.

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast ...

  15. ICI 56,780 Optimization: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of 7-(2-Phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolones with Antimalarial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignan, Jordany R; Lichorowic, Cynthia L; Giarrusso, James; Blake, Lynn D; Casandra, Debora; Mutka, Tina S; LaCrue, Alexis N; Burrows, Jeremy N; Willis, Paul A; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman

    2016-07-28

    Though malaria mortality rates are down 48% globally since 2000, reported occurrences of resistance against current therapeutics threaten to reverse that progress. Recently, antimalarials that were once considered unsuitable therapeutic agents have been revisited to improve physicochemical properties and efficacy required for selection as a drug candidate. One such compound is 4(1H)-quinolone ICI 56,780, which is known to be a causal prophylactic that also displays blood schizonticidal activity against P. berghei. Rapid induction of parasite resistance, however, stalled its further development. We have completed a full structure-activity relationship study on 4(1H)-quinolones, focusing on the reduction of cross-resistance with atovaquone for activity against the clinical isolates W2 and TM90-C2B, as well as the improvement of microsomal stability. These studies revealed several frontrunner compounds with superb in vivo antimalarial activity. The best compounds were found to be curative with all mice surviving a Plasmodium berghei infection after 30 days.

  16. Power laws for gravity and topography of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A.; Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    When a spacecraft visits a planetary body, it is useful to be able to predict its gravitational and topographic properties. This knowledge is important for determining the level of perturbations in spacecraft's motion as well as for planning the observation campaign. It has been known for the Earth that the power spectrum of gravity follows a power law, also known as the Kaula rule (Kaula, 1963; Rapp, 1989). A similar rule was derived for topography (Vening-Meinesz, 1951). The goal of this paper is to generalize the power law that can characterize the gravity and topography power spectra for bodies across a wide range of size. We have analyzed shape power spectra of the bodies that have either global shape and gravity field measured. These bodies span across five orders of magnitude in their radii and surface gravities and include terrestrial planets, icy moons and minor bodies. We have found that despite having different internal structure, composition and mechanical properties, the topography power spectrum of these bodies' shapes can be modeled with a similar power law rescaled by the surface gravity. Having empirically found a power law for topography, we can map it to a gravity power law. Special care should be taken for low-degree harmonic coefficients due to potential isostatic compensation. For minor bodies, uniform density can be assumed. The gravity coefficients are a linear function of the shape coefficients for close-to-spherical bodoes. In this case, the power law for gravity will be steeper than the power law of topography due to the factor (2n+1) in the gravity expansion (e.g. Eq. 10 in Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998). Higher powers of topography must be retained for irregularly shaped bodies, which breaks the linearity. Therefore, we propose the following procedure to derive an a priori constraint for gravity. First, a surface gravity needs to be determined assuming typical density for the relevant class of bodies. Second, the scaling coefficient of the

  17. Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 as a predisposing risk factor for the development of angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Morissette, Guillaume; Sedlak, Ruth H; Jerome, Keith R; Flamand, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.

  18. Boundary-Layer Bypass Transition Over Large-Scale Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    behaviour of the velocity and pressure changes with the curvature. This work aims to extend the results of the flat-plate boundary layer to a Rankine...example, consume an enormous amount of energy due to friction, many works have been directed to the suppression of transitional boundary layer disturbances...decrease of the enormous amount of energy consumed by airplanes during flight, moreover flight costs and aerodynamic noise could be reduced and number

  19. Book Reviews Megaherbivores: the influence of very large body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    437 pp. Price: OM 198,00. Scholars in the field of soil zoology will welcome this book. .... ontogenetic processes shape and constrain a particular vocal signal draws ... the structure of calls and, therewith, the perceptual capabilities of recipients.

  20. Strategies of the 'gree­n' member states in EU environmental pol­icy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liefferink, D.; Andersen, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    and strategies of the ‘green’ member states after the accession of Sweden, Finland and Austria are analysed. It is concluded, among other things, that differences in strategies of articulating environmentally progressive positions in the EU may seriously thwart effective alliance-building between the ‘leaders......’. Denmark is identified as the most activist ‘green’ member state. In Sweden and Austria, pragmatism now prevails. The Netherlands and Finland have the most constructive approach. Germany has largely abandoned its activism of the 1980s in favour of more defensive tendencies. Because of its political...... and economic impact, the role of Germany is crucial among the ‘green’ member states....

  1. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  2. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  3. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  4. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals...... with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results....

  5. Do we need to know more about the effects of hormones on lower urinary tract dysfunction? ICI-RS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda; Everaert, Karel; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-02-01

    This review article reflects the presentations and subsequent discussions during a think tank at the 5th International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society's annual meeting, held in Bristol, UK (September 22-24, 2014). It reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of hormones in lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and overactive bladder (OAB) and in particular: highlights some specific basic research findings from discussion participants; reviews future research topics; and discusses potential new therapeutic opportunities for LUTD and OAB. The role of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BK) channels, as novel therapeutic targets for OAB was discussed, in particular as recent studies on human detrusor smooth muscle suggest that estradiol exerts a direct non-genomic activation of the BK channels. Recent developments on the roles of sex hormones on diuresis, as well as the roles of melatonin and vitamin D on LUTD were also discussed. It was concluded that further basic science and translational studies are needed to better understand hormonal regulatory mechanisms of the lower urinary tract and the implications for novel treatment options for LUTD and OAB. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Innocent Body-Shadow Mimics Physical Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenri Kodaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of the rubber hand illusion was applied to a shadow to determine whether the body-shadow is a good candidate for the alternative belonging to our body. Three kinds of shadows, a physical hand, a hand-shaped cloth, and a rectangle cloth, were tested for this purpose. The questionnaire results showed that both anatomical similarity and visuo-proprioception correlation were effective in enhancing illusory ownership of the shadow. According to the proprioceptive drift measurement, whether the shadow purely originated from the physical body was a critical factor in yielding the significantly positive drift. Thus, results demonstrated that the shadow can distort illusory ownership with the rubber hand illusion paradigm, but the proprioception was clearly distorted only when the body-shadow was purely applied. This implies the presence of special cognitive processing to discriminate the self-body shadow from the others.

  7. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Body satisfaction among adolescents in eight different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina; Skouteris, Helen; Mussap, Alex

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined body satisfaction and the value of body size among adolescents in Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand, China, Chile and Greece. In total, 2489 adolescent females and 2152 males participated in the study. The results demonstrated that males were more satisfied with their body than females. Males generally had a lower BMI than females, except for males in China and Malaysia. Attitudes towards large bodies for males and females varied by cultural group. These results demonstrate the strong cultural similarities in body satisfaction, but the differences that occur in relation to a large body.

  9. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Our bodies define a border between ourselves and the world around us. However we might feel about our body, it is what we present to the world. Victoria L. Blum in her book Flesh Wounds discusses how bodies are a form of inkblots, where discontent is projected onto. As bodies can be modified, we...... may choose to alter how we are perceived and to at least some extent control the discontent we may project onto our own body. Through body modification, we can alter the impression of our personality and express a cultural solidarity, as Chris Rojek points out. Tattoos, piercings and other body...... modifications become ways to express a difference from or identification with, a particular cultural segment. Body modification marks a personal subjectivity, just as it marks a border around those who participate. A distinctive bodily border is formed through the use of body modifications, and it can be viewed...

  10. Aging, body image, and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Paintner, Ashley; Wasson, Kayla; Hager, Tracy; Hoverson, Fallon

    2008-10-01

    Participants were 25 older men (M age = 72 years, SD = 10 years) and 27 older women (M age = 71 years, SD = 8 years) who examined multiple line-drawing figures of babies, children, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Participants picked a number on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very thin) to 9 (very obese) in response to questions including "Which is the most attractive?" and "Which figure would you most like to look like?" They also completed questionnaires about their body image and body shape. In response to the age-specific line drawings (e.g., those depicting older men and older women), older women endorsed thinner figures (e.g., picked smaller numbers) than did men. Likewise, older women reported thinking more about their body shape and appearance than did men and perceived their body image as "a little too big" in comparison with the older men who perceived their body image as "just the right size." However, a breakdown of normal and overweight women in this sample revealed that for some overweight elderly women, obesity could become a satisfactory way of life. Much as with college-aged women, the endorsement of a thinner body image by many of the older adult female participants appeared to persist into late adulthood and suggests that research into body image issues with older adults is relevant and necessary.

  11. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  12. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [18F]fluorine substitution at the 16α-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-01-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ERα and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for 18 F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16α-position for 18 F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [ 18 F]fluoride at the 16- 18 F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16 18 F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators

  13. Late Noachian Icy Highlands climate model: Exploring the possibility of transient melting and fluvial/lacustrine activity through peak annual and seasonal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ashley M.; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2018-01-01

    The nature of the Late Noachian climate of Mars remains one of the outstanding questions in the study of the evolution of martian geology and climate. Despite abundant evidence for flowing water (valley networks and open/closed basin lakes), climate models have had difficulties reproducing mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) > 273 K in order to generate the ;warm and wet; climate conditions presumed to be necessary to explain the observed fluvial and lacustrine features. Here, we consider a ;cold and icy; climate scenario, characterized by MAT ∼225 K and snow and ice distributed in the southern highlands, and ask: Does the formation of the fluvial and lacustrine features require continuous ;warm and wet; conditions, or could seasonal temperature variation in a ;cold and icy; climate produce sufficient summertime ice melting and surface runoff to account for the observed features? To address this question, we employ the 3D Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique global climate model (LMD GCM) for early Mars and (1) analyze peak annual temperature (PAT) maps to determine where on Mars temperatures exceed freezing in the summer season, (2) produce temperature time series at three valley network systems and compare the duration of the time during which temperatures exceed freezing with seasonal temperature variations in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) where similar fluvial and lacustrine features are observed, and (3) perform a positive-degree-day analysis to determine the annual volume of meltwater produced through this mechanism, estimate the necessary duration that this process must repeat to produce sufficient meltwater for valley network formation, and estimate whether runoff rates predicted by this mechanism are comparable to those required to form the observed geomorphology of the valley networks. When considering an ambient CO2 atmosphere, characterized by MAT ∼225 K, we find that: (1) PAT can exceed the melting point of water (>273 K) in

  14. Atmospheres and surfaces of small bodies and dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller E.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs are icy relics orbiting the sun beyond Neptune left over from the planetary accretion disk. These bodies act as unique tracers of the chemical, thermal, and dynamical history of our solar system. Over 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs and centaurs (objects with perihelia between the giant planets have been discovered over the past two decades. While the vast majority of these objects are small ( 6-meter telescopes, have allowed for the first detailed studies of their surfaces and atmospheres. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of KBOs and centaurs has revealed a great diversity of surface compositions. Only the largest and coldest objects are capable of retaining volatile ices and atmospheres. Knowledge of the dynamics, physical properties, and collisional history of objects in the Kuiper belt is important for understanding solar system formation and evolution.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body is an outside object like a splinter, rock or piece of metal or glass that gets ... examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems ... bodies like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure ... child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? ... child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  4. Inside Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain control certain body parts. In general, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and the left side of the brain controls the right side. Digestive system The digestive (say: di-JES- ...

  5. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  6. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  7. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  8. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now events There are no upcoming events. Lewy Body Digest September 2017 Lewy Digest Caregiving as a ... and research, we support those affected by Lewy body dementias, their families and caregivers. We are dedicated ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the ... such as when it is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician ...

  10. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive disorder. Environment. Your environment, life experiences and culture may contribute to body dysmorphic disorder, especially if they involve negative social evaluations about your body or self-image, or even childhood neglect or abuse. Risk factors ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia ...

  12. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  13. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  14. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  15. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small ... complications. There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? The primary limitation of an ...

  17. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  18. Literacies in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…

  19. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  20. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  1. Male Body Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  3. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  4. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  5. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  6. Body: presence and transience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Andrés Comandú

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We conceive presence as an event that takes place in the body and among the bodies. In the work of making themselves present, the performer creates a territory-body of habitability/inter-penetration of states, actions, thoughts, voices, sonorities; a body-space with multiple trajectories, withdrawn and projected from its own existence/subjectivity, extended in other matters and exposed to other odies/subjects/objects. We regard the performer’s body as an intense, outstretched, and expanded body. We deal with these categories from the standpoint of various practices and conceptualizations of body and event, in order to reflect on the constitution/construction of presence in performance.

  7. Asian Eden : large herbivore ecology in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrestani, F.S.

    2009-01-01

    The study of large mammalian herbivore ecology has a strong allometric tradition. The
    majority of studies that have helped better understand how body mass affects large herbivore
    ecology in the tropics, from a biological, functional, and ecological perspective, are from
    Africa.

  8. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  9. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  10. Body Stalk Syndrome: A Curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Javalgi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limb body wall complex (LBWC /Body stalk syndrome anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology firstly described by Van Allen et al in 1987. There are very few cases reported in literature and thus we report a rare case of LBWC. Twenty seven years female presented to labour room with 32 weeks of gestation with no prenatal care and delivered a low birth weight still born fetus weighing 1100gms. On fetal autopsy large abdominal wall defect was noted with difficulty in identifying abdomino-pelvic organs and ambiguous genitalia. Placenta weighed 250gms with attached short umbilical cord measuring 7cms, arising from periphery. A cyst noted attached to placental membrane measuring 9x5cms which on dissection retrieved partially maldeveloped organs. Post mortem radiological findings included Absence of right femur with short tibia and right fibula, Complex vestibral malformation, Craniosynostosis and Overcrowding of ribs.

  11. Ketone bodies in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Melanie A; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Comparison of whole-body-imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hoffer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there are four different devices that have found clinical utility in whole-body imaging. These are the rectilinear scanner, the multicrystal whole-body scanner, the Anger-type camera with a whole-body-imaging table, and the tomoscanner. In this text, the basic theory of operation and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages in whole-body imaging is presented for each device. When applicable, a comparative assessment of the various devices is also presented. As with all else in life, there is no simple answer to the question ''which total body imaging device is best.'' Institutions with a very heavy total-body-imaging load may prefer to use an already available dual-headed rectilinear scanner system for these studies, rather than invest in a new instrument. Institutions with moderate total-body-imaging loads may wish to invest in moving table or moving camera devices which make total body imaging more convenient but retain the basic flexibility of the camera. The large-field Anger camera with or without motion offers another flexible option to these institutions. The laboratory with a very heavy total body imaging load may select efficiency over flexibility, thereby freeing up other instruments for additional studies. Finally, reliability as well as availability and quality of local service must be considered. After all, design features of an instrument become irrelevant when it is broken down and awaiting repair

  13. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  14. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  15. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  16. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    O?Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutiona...

  17. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  18. Three-body forces: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Real three-body forces due to meson exchange are distinguished from effective three-body interactions of a nuclear Hamiltonian. The long-range part of the real three-body force is proportional to the off-mass-shell sup(PI)N scattering amplitude. Its contribution to the binding energy of nuclear matter is quite dependent upon the treatment of correlations (due to the two-body potential) in the three-body wave function. A recent improvemrnt in the amplitude implies a very small contribution. But, a recent improvement in the treatment of correlations implies a large contribution. Work towards including both these improvements in a single calculation is in progress. (author)

  19. Visual attention mediates the relationship between body satisfaction and susceptibility to the body size adaptation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Sturman, Daniel; Stevenson, Richard J; Mond, Jonathan; Brooks, Kevin R

    2018-01-01

    Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not. The reason for these individual difference is currently unknown. One possible explanation stems from the observation that women with lower levels of body satisfaction have been found to pay more attention to images of thin bodies. However, while attention has been shown to enhance visual adaptation effects in low (e.g. rotational and linear motion) and high level stimuli (e.g., facial gender), it is not known whether this effect exists in visual adaptation to body size. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is an indirect effect of body satisfaction on the direction and magnitude of the body fat adaptation effect, mediated via visual attention (i.e., selectively attending to images of thin over fat bodies or vice versa). Significant mediation effects were found in both men and women, suggesting that observers' level of body satisfaction may influence selective visual attention to thin or fat bodies, which in turn influences the magnitude and direction of visual adaptation to body size. This may provide a potential mechanism by which some individuals develop body size misperception-a risk factor for eating disorders, compulsive exercise behaviour and steroid abuse-while others do not.

  20. Experimental study on convective heat transfer with thin porous bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi; Furuya, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies are made on the convective heat transfer of three types of thin porous bodies. Heat transfer performances, flow patterns and temperature profiles near the porous bodies are compared with each other. The heat transfer performance of porous bodies with the largest pore diameter is large. It became clear that the high heat transfer performance depends on an excellent heat transportation ability inside the pore and near the surface of the porous bodies. (author)

  1. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within the body and then back again. Ultrasound ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  4. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Disorders of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Choline acetyltransferase and TrkA expression, as well as the improvement in cognition produced by E2 and P4 in ovariectomized rats, are blocked by ICI 182 780 and RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Raya, Judith; Cruz-Raya, Ulises; López-Martínez, Margarita; Picazo, Ofir

    2018-01-09

    Treatment with 17-β estradiol and progesterone improves the performance of ovariectomized rats in an autoshaping learning task, representing cognitive improvement. To test whether this is attributable to genomic mechanisms, the antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or antiprogesterone RU486 was injected into ovariectomized animals primed previously with estrogen or progesterone, respectively. Compared with the vehicle control, each hormone administered alone produced an elevated expression of choline acetyltransferase and TrkA, along with an improvement in performance on the behavioral test. E2+ICI reverted the increase in these two proteins. However, RU alone elicited higher ChAT expression. With this exception, there was a clear linear regression between the number of conditioned responses and the level of ChAT and TrkA in the basal forebrain. The results suggest that TrkA may be more important than ChAT for regulating autoshaping learning tasks, and that genomic mechanisms in the basal forebrain could possibly underlie hormonal improvement of cognition.

  7. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  8. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  9. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  10. Cosmological N -body simulations including radiation perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    CosmologicalN-body simulations are the standard tools to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as the ......CosmologicalN-body simulations are the standard tools to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects...

  11. Soybean (Glycine max) oil bodies and their associated phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Gray, David A

    2011-01-01

    Soybean oil bodies were isolated from 3 cultivars (Ustie, K98, and Elena) and the occurrence of 2 classes of phytochemicals (tocopherol isoforms and isoflavones) and strength of their association with isolated oil bodies was evaluated. Tocopherol is shown to be closely associated with soybean oil bodies; δ-tocopherol demonstrated a significantly greater association with oil bodies over other tocopherol isoforms. Isoflavones do not show a significant physical association with oil bodies, although there is some indication of a passive association of the more hydrophobic aglycones during oil body isolation. Oil bodies are small droplets of oil that are stored as energy reserves in the seeds of oil seeds, and have the potential to be used as future food ingredients. If oil body suspensions are commercialized on a large scale, knowledge of the association of phytochemicals with oil bodies will be valuable in deciding species of preference and predicting shelf life and nutritional value. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. A bacteriophages journey through the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages. Despite the prevalence of phages throughout our bodies, the extent of their interactions with human cells, organs, and immune system is still largely unknown. Phages physically interact with our mucosal surfaces, are capable of bypassing epithelial cell layers, disseminate throughout the body and may manipulate our immune system. Here, I establish the novel concept of an "intra-body phageome," which encompasses the collection of phages residing within the classically "sterile" regions of the body. This review will take a phage-centric view of the microbiota, human body, and immune system with the ultimate goal of inspiring a greater appreciation for both the indirect and direct interactions between bacteriophages and their mammalian hosts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessing Body Image in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Heron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine body image discrepancies in elementary-age children in a racially diverse sample. Body image and body image discrepancy were measured in elementary school children (N = 58 of various racial groups (35% Hispanic, 33% African American, 16% Caucasian, 14% other. Each participant was shown a set of silhouette figure drawings and reported current and ideal body sizes. Children’s body discrepancies appear to change between Grades 1 and 2. Notable discrepancies between their current and ideal figures, and their current figure and those that they believe are most attractive, are largely absent in Grade 1, but are evident in Grade 2 and older children. No substantive racial or gender differences in body image perceptions or dissatisfaction were observed in this sample. Body image dissatisfaction may begin as early as second grade in both girls and boys of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. These findings provide preliminary evidence that body discrepancies may begin much earlier than previously thought.

  14. Self-heating by large insect larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Nikita L; Emlen, Douglas J; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Do insect larvae ever self-heat significantly from their own metabolic activity and, if so, under what sets of environmental temperatures and across what ranges of body size? We examine these questions using larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus), chosen for their large size (>20g), simple body plan, and underground lifestyle. Using CO 2 respirometry, we measured larval metabolic rates then converted measured rates of gas exchange into rates of heat production and developed a mathematical model to predict how much steady state body temperatures of underground insects would increase above ambient depending on body size. Collectively, our results suggest that large, extant larvae (20-30g body mass) can self-heat by at most 2°C, and under many common conditions (shallow depths, moister soils) would self-heat by less than 1°C. By extending the model to even larger (hypothetical) body sizes, we show that underground insects with masses >1kg could heat, in warm, dry soils, by 1.5-6°C or more. Additional experiments showed that larval critical thermal maxima (CT max ) were in excess of 43.5°C and that larvae could behaviorally thermoregulate on a thermal gradient bar. Together, these results suggest that large larvae living underground likely regulate their temperatures primarily using behavior; self-heating by metabolism likely contributes little to their heat budgets, at least in most common soil conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-body unitary transformations, three-body forces, and trinucleon bound state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    A three-body unitary transformation method for the study of three-body forces is presented. Starting with a three-body Hamiltonian with two-body forces, unitary transformations are introduced to generate Hamiltonians that have both two- and three-body forces. For cases of physical interest, the two-body forces of the altered Hamiltonians are phase equivalent (for two-body scattering) to the original and the three-body force vanishes when any interparticle distance is large. Specific examples are presented. Applications for studying the possible role of three-body forces in accounting for trinucleon bound state properties are examined. Calculations of the 3 He and 3 H charge form factors and Coulomb energy difference with hyperspherical radial transformations and with conventional N-N potentials are performed. The form factor calculations demonstrate how the proposed method can help obtain improved agreement with experiment by the introduction of appropriate three-body forces. Calculations of the Coulomb energy difference confirm previous estimates concerning charge symmetry breaking in the N-N interaction

  16. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  17. Evolution of body size in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin

    2005-10-07

    Body size is one of the most important traits of organisms and allows predictions of an individual's morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. However, explaining the evolution of complex traits such as body size is difficult because a plethora of other traits influence body size. Here I review what we know about the evolution of body size in a group of island reptiles and try to generalize about the mechanisms that shape body size. Galapagos marine iguanas occupy all 13 larger islands in this Pacific archipelago and have maximum island body weights between 900 and 12 000g. The distribution of body sizes does not match mitochondrial clades, indicating that body size evolves independently of genetic relatedness. Marine iguanas lack intra- and inter-specific food competition and predators are not size-specific, discounting these factors as selective agents influencing body size. Instead I hypothesize that body size reflects the trade-offs between sexual and natural selection. We found that sexual selection continuously favours larger body sizes. Large males establish display territories and some gain over-proportional reproductive success in the iguanas' mating aggregations. Females select males based on size and activity and are thus responsible for the observed mating skew. However, large individuals are strongly selected against during El Niño-related famines when dietary algae disappear from the intertidal foraging areas. We showed that differences in algae sward ('pasture') heights and thermal constraints on large size are causally responsible for differences in maximum body size among populations. I hypothesize that body size in many animal species reflects a trade-off between foraging constraints and sexual selection and suggest that future research could focus on physiological and genetic mechanisms determining body size in wild animals. Furthermore, evolutionary stable body size distributions within populations should be analysed to better

  18. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...... management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease...

  19. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  20. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  1. Few body physics with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Gilfoyle for the CLAS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    The study of few-body, nuclear systems with electromagnetic probes is an essential piece of the scientific program at Jefferson Lab. Reactions using real photons and electrons (up to energies of 6 GeV) are measured using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) detector in Hall B, a nearly 4π magnetic spectrometer. We focus here on three areas. (1) Short-range correlations (SRCs) probe the high-momentum components of the nuclear wave function. Recent CLAS experiments map out their isospin character and reveal the importance of the tensor part of the nuclear force. (2) Three-body forces are an essential feature of nuclei. We will show results using real photons and 3He and 4He targets that remain largely unexplained. (3) Evidence for the transition to a quark-gluon description of nuclei has been observed with photon beams in CLAS on deuterium and 3-He targets. Alternative explanations reveal the geography of the transition is complex.

  2. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin J O'Gorman

    Full Text Available The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  3. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  4. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  5. Invisible and scrutinized bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold Lambert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The following text will attempt to demonstrate that both processes that aim at making bodies either invisible or, on the contrary, hyper-visible operates through the same mechanisms of a productive politics of visibility.

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it in place. The majority of foreign bodies ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition ... determine how far away the object is as well as the object's size, shape and consistency (whether ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  10. Our bodies, ourselves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ...-first century, and much more. Since its original publication forty years ago, Our Bodies, Ourselves has sold more than 4 million copies worldwide, and resources based on the book are available in twenty five languages, in print...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small ... or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x- ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place the transducer firmly against your body, moving it back and forth over the area ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into ... patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow or cause a blood clot. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, ...

  15. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... notices changes in at least one area of cognition, such as memory or language. Daytime Sleepiness is ... the field of Lewy body dementias. Memantine Improves Attention and Episodic Memory in Mild to Moderate Lewy ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray technique that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion. When used with an oral ... the body. As the sound waves bounce off internal organs, fluids and tissues, the sensitive receiver in ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of ...

  19. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range of symptoms, including Changes in alertness and attention Hallucinations Problems with movement and posture Muscle stiffness Confusion Loss of memory Lewy body disease can be hard to diagnose, ...

  20. Spray Sprinkler Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape irrigation sprinklers are often installed at sites where the system pressure is higher than what is recommended for the sprinkler nozzle, which can lead to water waste. WaterSense labeled sprinkler bodies help control pressure.

  1. Body and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Johanne Stubbe

    In this book, Johanne Stubbe Teglbjærg Kristensen analyses the relationship between body and hope. She critically investigates the eschatologies of Paul Tillich, Jürgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg from the perspective of the phenomenology of the body represented by Maurice Merleau......-Ponty. By focusing on the eschatological challenge of the body through a thematization of the issue of continuity, the author constructively interprets the classic eschatological themes of death, resurrection, judgement and the Second Coming. She shows how the classic eschatological issues of the relationship...... between time and eternity, as well as of the relationship between the individual and the community require new conceptions. By taking the phenomenology of the body into consideration, Teglbjærg Kristensen suggests both a new eschatological approach and a new conception of eschatology...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... but this should pass. It takes a few hours for the effects of any local anesthetic to ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, ... or white on x-ray. Fluoroscopy is a special x-ray technique that makes it possible to ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  13. Political IMRSS body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmelin, W.

    1996-01-01

    When suggesting for discussion a possible role and the utility of an international body for an internationally monitored retrievable storage system (IMRSS), it appears useful to consider its possible advantages and disadvantages to also assess the potential of successfully implementing such a body in the medium or long term. To stimulate such discussion is the purpose of the remainder of this paper. Moreover, the question needs to be discussed whether there could be a unique format for an IMRSS governing body or various degrees of decentralization oriented, for example, at the physical locations of relevant IMRSS facilities. The main difficulties with solutions that include responsibilities of an international IMRSS body for property, right of use, safeguards, or other issues of a more legal and/or administrative nature are discussed

  14. Investigating body function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography ( ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass through them, ... the local anesthetic is injected. Most of the sensation is at the skin incision site, which is ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... as infection. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce your ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... rays. Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...