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Sample records for large high-angle faults

  1. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  2. Geometry and evolution of low-angle normal faults (LANF) within a Cenozoic high-angle rift system, Thailand: Implications for sedimentology and the mechanisms of LANF development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Chris K.

    2009-10-01

    At least eight examples of large (5-35 km heave), low-angle normal faults (LANFs, 20°-30° dip) occur in the Cenozoic rift basins of Thailand and laterally pass into high-angle extensional fault systems. Three large-displacement LANFs are found in late Oligocene-Miocene onshore rift basins (Suphan Buri, Phitsanulok, and Chiang Mai basins), they have (1) developed contemporaneous with, or after the onset of, high-angle extension, (2) acted as paths for magma and associated fluids, and (3) impacted sedimentation patterns. Displacement on low-angle faults appears to be episodic, marked by onset of lacustrine conditions followed by axial progradation of deltaic systems that infilled the lakes during periods of low or no displacement. The Chiang Mai LANF is a low-angle (15°-25°), high-displacement (15-35 km heave), ESE dipping LANF immediately east of the late early Miocene Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes. Early Cenozoic transpressional crustal thickening followed by the northward motion of India coupled with Burma relative to east Burma and Thailand (˜40-30 Ma) caused migmatization and gneiss dome uplift in the late Oligocene of the core complex region, followed by LANF activity. LANF displacement lasted 4-6 Ma during the early Miocene and possibly transported a late Oligocene-early Miocene high-angle rift system 35 km east. Other LANFs in Thailand have lower displacements and no associated metamorphic core complexes. The three LANFs were initiated as low-angle faults, not by isostatic rotation of high-angle faults. The low-angle dips appear to follow preexisting low-angle fabrics (thrusts, shear zones, and other low-angle ductile foliations) predominantly developed during Late Paleozoic and early Paleogene episodes of thrusting and folding.

  3. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  4. Using Order Tracking Analysis Method to Detect the Angle Faults of Blades on Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Pengfei; Hu, Weihao; Liu, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    The angle faults of blades on wind turbines are usually included in the set angle fault and the pitch angle fault. They are occupied with a high proportion in all wind turbine faults. Compare with the traditional fault detection methods, using order tracking analysis method to detect angle faults....... By analyzing and reconstructing the fault signals, it is easy to detect the fault characteristic frequency and see the characteristic frequencies of angle faults depend on the shaft rotating frequency, which is known as the 1P frequency and 3P frequency distinctly....

  5. Two-Phase Exhumation of the Santa Rosa Mountains: Low- and High-Angle Normal Faulting During Initiation and Evolution of the Southern San Andreas Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cody C.; Spotila, James A.; Axen, Gary; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Luther, Amy; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-12-01

    Low-angle detachment fault systems are important elements of oblique-divergent plate boundaries, yet the role detachment faulting plays in the development of such boundaries is poorly understood. The West Salton Detachment Fault (WSDF) is a major low-angle normal fault that formed coeval with localization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Salton Trough, CA. Apatite U-Th/He thermochronometry (AHe; n = 29 samples) and thermal history modeling of samples from the Santa Rosa Mountains (SRM) reveal that initial exhumation along the WSDF began at circa 8 Ma, exhuming footwall material from depths of >2 to 3 km. An uplifted fossil (Miocene) helium partial retention zone is present in the eastern SRM, while a deeper crustal section has been exhumed along the Pleistocene high-angle Santa Rosa Fault (SFR) to much higher elevations in the southwest SRM. Detachment-related vertical exhumation rates in the SRM were 0.15-0.36 km/Myr, with maximum fault slip rates of 1.2-3.0 km/Myr. Miocene AHe isochrons across the SRM are consistent with northeast crustal tilting of the SRM block and suggest that the post-WSDF vertical exhumation rate along the SRF was 1.3 km/Myr. The timing of extension initiation in the Salton Trough suggests that clockwise rotation of relative plate motions that began at 8 Ma is associated with initiation of the southern San Andreas system. Pleistocene regional tectonic reorganization was contemporaneous with an abrupt transition from low- to high-angle faulting and indicates that local fault geometry may at times exert a fundamental control on rock uplift rates along strike-slip fault systems.

  6. Hypothesis for the mechanics and seismic behaviour of low-angle normal faults: the example of the Altotiberina fault Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collettini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread mapping of low-angle normal faults in areas of former continental extension continues to prompt debate as to whether such structures may be seismically active at very low dips (? <30 °in the upper continental crust.The Northern Apennines provide an example where an active low-angle normal fault (Altotiberina fault, ATFcan be studied.A set of commercial seismic reflection profiles plus deep boreholes have been used to constrain the geometry of the fault at depth.These data have been integrated with a microseismic survey showing that part of the microseismicity (M <3.0is consistent with the geometry of the ATF as imaged by depth converted seismic reflection profiles.Frictional fault mechanics under Byerlee ?s friction coefficient and vertical ? 1 (constrained from the inversion of the focal mechanismsdefines the peculiar condition for reactivation of the ATF:small values of differential stress,? 1 ?? 3 <28 MPa,relatively high value of tensile strength of the fault surrounding rocks (T ~10 MPaand tensile fluid overpressure P f >? 3 (i.e.? v >0.93.The short-lived attainment of P f >? 3 along small fault portions,in an area characterised by large amounts of CO2,account for the microseismic activity located along the ATF,which occurs on rupture surfaces in the range of 10 ??10 ? 3 km 2..

  7. Study on seismic hazard assessment of large active fault systems. Evolution of fault systems and associated geomorphic structures: fault model test and field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keichi; Inoue, Daiei; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi; Miyagawa, Kimio; Miura, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    Sandbox experiments and field surveys were performed to investigate fault system evolution and fault-related deformation of ground surface, the Quaternary deposits and rocks. The summary of the results is shown below. 1) In the case of strike-slip faulting, the basic fault sequence runs from early en echelon faults and pressure ridges through linear trough. The fault systems associated with the 2000 western Tottori earthquake are shown as en echelon pattern that characterize the early stage of wrench tectonics, therefore no thoroughgoing surface faulting was found above the rupture as defined by the main shock and aftershocks. 2) Low-angle and high-angle reverse faults commonly migrate basinward with time, respectively. With increasing normal fault displacement in bedrock, normal fault develops within range after reverse fault has formed along range front. 3) Horizontal distance of surface rupture from the bedrock fault normalized by the height of the Quaternary deposits agrees well with those of model tests. 4) Upward-widening damage zone, where secondary fractures develop, forms in the handing wall side of high-angle reverse fault at the Kamioka mine. (author)

  8. Data-Driven Method for Wind Turbine Yaw Angle Sensor Zero-Point Shifting Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Pei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine yaw control plays an important role in increasing the wind turbine production and also in protecting the wind turbine. Accurate measurement of yaw angle is the basis of an effective wind turbine yaw controller. The accuracy of yaw angle measurement is affected significantly by the problem of zero-point shifting. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the zero-point shifting error on wind turbines on-line in order to improve the reliability of yaw angle measurement in real time. Particularly, qualitative evaluation of the zero-point shifting error could be useful for wind farm operators to realize prompt and cost-effective maintenance on yaw angle sensors. In the aim of qualitatively evaluating the zero-point shifting error, the yaw angle sensor zero-point shifting fault is firstly defined in this paper. A data-driven method is then proposed to detect the zero-point shifting fault based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The zero-point shifting fault is detected in the proposed method by analyzing the power performance under different yaw angles. The SCADA data are partitioned into different bins according to both wind speed and yaw angle in order to deeply evaluate the power performance. An indicator is proposed in this method for power performance evaluation under each yaw angle. The yaw angle with the largest indicator is considered as the yaw angle measurement error in our work. A zero-point shifting fault would trigger an alarm if the error is larger than a predefined threshold. Case studies from several actual wind farms proved the effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting zero-point shifting fault and also in improving the wind turbine performance. Results of the proposed method could be useful for wind farm operators to realize prompt adjustment if there exists a large error of yaw angle measurement.

  9. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2016-08-22

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  10. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  11. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  12. Architecture of a low-angle normal fault zone, southern Basin and Range (SE California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, J. A.; John, B. E.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Pec, M.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures of the denuded Cenozoic detachment fault system in the southern Sacramento Mountains (SE California) delimit the architecture of a regional low-angle normal fault, and highlight the evolution of these enigmatic faults. The fault was initiated ~23 Ma in quartzo-feldspathic basement gneiss and granitoids at a low-angle (2km, and amplitudes up to 100m. These corrugations are continuous along their hinges for up to 3.6 km. Damage zone fracture intensity varies both laterally, and perpendicular to the fault plane (over an area of 25km2), decreasing with depth in the footwall, and varies as a function of lithology and proximity to corrugation walls. Deformation is concentrated into narrow damage zones (100m) are found in areas where low-fracture intensity horses are corralled by sub-horizontal zones of cataclasite (up to 8m) and thick zones of epidote (up to 20cm) and silica-rich alteration (up to 1m). Sub-vertical shear and extension fractures, and sub-horizontal shear fractures/zones dominate the NE side of the core complex. In all cases, sub-vertical fractures verge into or are truncated by low-angle fractures that dominate the top of the damage zone. These low-angle fractures have an antithetic dip to the detachment fault plane. Some sub-vertical fractures become curviplanar close to the fault, where they are folded into parallelism with the sub-horizontal fault surface in the direction of transport. These field data, corroborated by ongoing microstructural analyses, indicate fault activity at a low angle accommodated by a variety of deformation mechanisms dependent on lithology, timing, fluid flow, and fault morphology.

  13. An angle-based subspace anomaly detection approach to high-dimensional data: With an application to industrial fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liangwei; Lin, Jing; Karim, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of traditional anomaly detection techniques implemented on full-dimensional spaces degrades significantly as dimensionality increases, thereby hampering many real-world applications. This work proposes an approach to selecting meaningful feature subspace and conducting anomaly detection in the corresponding subspace projection. The aim is to maintain the detection accuracy in high-dimensional circumstances. The suggested approach assesses the angle between all pairs of two lines for one specific anomaly candidate: the first line is connected by the relevant data point and the center of its adjacent points; the other line is one of the axis-parallel lines. Those dimensions which have a relatively small angle with the first line are then chosen to constitute the axis-parallel subspace for the candidate. Next, a normalized Mahalanobis distance is introduced to measure the local outlier-ness of an object in the subspace projection. To comprehensively compare the proposed algorithm with several existing anomaly detection techniques, we constructed artificial datasets with various high-dimensional settings and found the algorithm displayed superior accuracy. A further experiment on an industrial dataset demonstrated the applicability of the proposed algorithm in fault detection tasks and highlighted another of its merits, namely, to provide preliminary interpretation of abnormality through feature ordering in relevant subspaces. - Highlights: • An anomaly detection approach for high-dimensional reliability data is proposed. • The approach selects relevant subspaces by assessing vectorial angles. • The novel ABSAD approach displays superior accuracy over other alternatives. • Numerical illustration approves its efficacy in fault detection applications

  14. A study on the short-circuit test by fault angle control and the recovery characteristics of the fault current limiter using coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.K.; Kim, Y.J.; Ahn, M.C.; Yang, S.E.; Seok, B.-Y.; Ko, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have been developed in many countries, and they are expected to be used in the recent electric power systems, because of their great efficiency for operating these power system stably. It is necessary for resistive FCLs to generate resistance immediately and to have a fast recovery characteristic after the fault clearance, because of re-closing operation. Short-circuit tests are performed to obtained current limiting operational and recovery characteristics of the FCL by a fault controller using a power switching device. The power switching device consists of anti-parallel connected thyristors. The fault occurs at the desired angle by controlling the firing angle of thyristors. Resistive SFCLs have different current limiting characteristics with respect to the fault angle in the first swing during the fault. This study deals with the short-circuit characteristic of FCL coils using two different YBCO coated conductors (CCs), 344 and 344s, by controlling the fault angle and experimental studies on the recovery characteristic by a small current flowing through the SFCL after the fault clearance. Tests are performed at various voltages applied to the SFCL in a saturated liquid nitrogen cooling system

  15. Integrating angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging technique with feature extraction for gear fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, J.

    2018-01-01

    Gear fault diagnosis relies heavily on the scrutiny of vibration responses measured. In reality, gear vibration signals are noisy and dominated by meshing frequencies as well as their harmonics, which oftentimes overlay the fault related components. Moreover, many gear transmission systems, e.g., those in wind turbines, constantly operate under non-stationary conditions. To reduce the influences of non-synchronous components and noise, a fault signature enhancement method that is built upon angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging is developed in this paper. Instead of being averaged in the time domain, the signals are processed in the angle-frequency domain to solve the issue of phase shifts between signal segments due to uncertainties caused by clearances, input disturbances, and sampling errors, etc. The enhanced results are then analyzed through feature extraction algorithms to identify the most distinct features for fault classification and identification. Specifically, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) targeting at nonlinearity, Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) targeting at high dimensionality, and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) targeting at local similarity among the enhanced data are employed and compared to yield insights. Numerical and experimental investigations are performed, and the results reveal the effectiveness of angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging in enabling feature extraction and classification.

  16. Fault structure analysis by means of large deformation simulator; Daihenkei simulator ni yoru danso kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y.; Shi, B. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Large deformation of the crust is generated by relatively large displacement of the mediums on both sides along a fault. In the conventional finite element method, faults are dealt with by special elements which are called joint elements, but joint elements, elements microscopic in width, generate numerical instability if large shear displacement is given. Therefore, by introducing the master slave (MO) method used for contact analysis in the metal processing field, developed was a large deformation simulator for analyzing diastrophism including large displacement along the fault. Analysis examples were shown in case the upper basement and lower basement were relatively dislocated with the fault as a boundary. The bottom surface and right end boundary of the lower basement are fixed boundaries. The left end boundary of the lower basement is fixed, and to the left end boundary of the upper basement, the horizontal speed, 3{times}10{sup -7}m/s, was given. In accordance with the horizontal movement of the upper basement, the boundary surface largely deformed. Stress is almost at right angles at the boundary surface. As to the analysis of faults by the MO method, it has been used for a single simple fault, but should be spread to lots of faults in the future. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Hydrothermal Upflow, Serpentinization and Talc Alteration Associated with a High Angle Normal Fault Cutting an Oceanic Detachment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.; Lavagnino, G.

    2017-12-01

    Normal faults cutting oceanic core complexes are observed at the seafloor and through geophysics, and may act as flow pathways for hydrothermal fluids, but we know little about such faults in the subsurface. We present bulk rock geochemistry and stable isotope data for a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending 300 m below the paleo-seafloor. The paleo-seafloor strikes roughly east-west, dipping 30˚ to the north. At depth the fault zone occurs as an anticlinal form plunging 40˚ to the west. A second fault strikes approximately north-south, with a near vertical dip. The fault rock outcrops as reddish weathered talc + sulfide in 0.1-2 m wide anastomosing bands, with numerous splays. Talc replaces serpentinite in the fault rocks, and the talc rocks are enriched in Si, metals (Fe, Cu, Pb), Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), have variable Eu anomalies, and have low Mg, Cr and Ni contents. In some cases gabbro dikes are associated with talc-alteration and may have enhanced fluid flow. Sulfide from a fault rock has d34S=5.7‰. The mineralogy and chemistry of the fault rocks indicate that the fault acted as the upflow pathway for high-T black-smoker type fluids. Traverses away from the fault (up to 1 km) and with depth below the seafloor (up to 500 m) reveal variable influences of hydrothermal fluids, but there are no consistent trends with distance. Background serpentinites 500 m beneath the paleoseafloor have LREE depleted trends. Other serpentinites exhibit correlations of LREE with HFSE as the result of melt percolation, but there is significant scatter, and hydrothermal effects include LREE enrichment

  18. Large-angle theory for pion-nucleus scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoock, D.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An approximate solution for high-energy, projectile-nucleus, multiple scattering is developed from the exact Watson series and applied to pion scattering for 12 C and 4 He. Agreement with measured differential cross sections available from the literature for the range 150 to 260 MeV pion laboratory energies is surprisingly good. The approximation method expands the propagators of the Watson series about the transverse component of the momentum transfer. Contributions of each of the first two terms to double scattering from a Gaussian potential are compared to the exact solution. The purely plane-wave propagation produces a scattering amplitude that agrees to order (k 0 a) -1 with the exact solution at the forward and backward directions at high energies. The second (off-axis) propagation term produces an amplitude that is one order smaller at forward angles and two orders smaller at 180 0 than the exact amplitude. At intermediate angles it is of the same order. The general multiple-scattering series is approximated with selection of plane-wave propagation as the fundamental process at large and small angles. This model suggests that a single nucleon accepts most of the momentum transfer for backward scattering. The resulting multiple-scattering formula agrees with the well-known high-energy eikonal theory at small angles and the backward-angle scattering formula of Chen at exactly 180 0 . A lowest-order formula that includes off-axis propagation is also derived. Predicted differential cross sections are found to be sensitive to nucleon motion and binding. For 4 He the effect of the nuclear potential on the pion kinetic energy is also examined and found to produce significant changes in the predicted cross sections

  19. Fault healing promotes high-frequency earthquakes in laboratory experiments and on natural faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Thomas, Amanda M.; Glaser, Steven D.; Nadeau, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Faults strengthen or heal with time in stationary contact and this healing may be an essential ingredient for the generation of earthquakes. In the laboratory, healing is thought to be the result of thermally activated mechanisms that weld together micrometre-sized asperity contacts on the fault surface, but the relationship between laboratory measures of fault healing and the seismically observable properties of earthquakes is at present not well defined. Here we report on laboratory experiments and seismological observations that show how the spectral properties of earthquakes vary as a function of fault healing time. In the laboratory, we find that increased healing causes a disproportionately large amount of high-frequency seismic radiation to be produced during fault rupture. We observe a similar connection between earthquake spectra and recurrence time for repeating earthquake sequences on natural faults. Healing rates depend on pressure, temperature and mineralogy, so the connection between seismicity and healing may help to explain recent observations of large megathrust earthquakes which indicate that energetic, high-frequency seismic radiation originates from locations that are distinct from the geodetically inferred locations of large-amplitude fault slip

  20. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  1. Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen

    2011-10-01

    A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed.

  2. Numerical analysis of the effects induced by normal faults and dip angles on rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lishuai; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Peipeng; Zheng, Pengqiang; Xu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    The study of mining effects under the influences of a normal fault and its dip angle is significant for the prediction and prevention of rock bursts. Based on the geological conditions of panel 2301N in a coalmine, the evolution laws of the strata behaviors of the working face affected by a fault and the instability of the fault induced by mining operations with the working face of the footwall and hanging wall advancing towards a normal fault are studied using UDEC numerical simulation. The mechanism that induces rock burst is revealed, and the influence characteristics of the fault dip angle are analyzed. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by conducting a case study regarding the microseismic events. The results of this study serve as a reference for the prediction of rock bursts and their classification into hazardous areas under similar conditions.

  3. High luminosity operation of large solid angle scintillator arrays in Jefferson Lab Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Shneor

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes selected aspects of high luminosity operation of large solid angle scintillator arrays in Hall A of the CEBAF (Central Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) at TJNAF (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility ). CEBAF is a high current, high duty factor electron accelerator with a maximum beam energy of about 6 GeV and a maximum current of 200 (micro)A. Operating large solid angle scintillator arrays in high luminosity environment presents several problems such as high singles rates, low signal to noise ratios and shielding requirements. To demonstrate the need for large solid angle and momentum acceptance detectors as a third arm in Hall A, we will give a brief overview of the physics motivating five approved experiments, which utilize scintillator arrays. We will then focus on the design and assembly of these scintillator arrays, with special focus on the two new detector packages built for the Short Range Correlation experiment E01-015. This thesis also contains the description and results of different tests and calibrations which where conducted for these arrays. We also present the description of a number of tests which were done in order to estimate the singles rates, data reconstruction, filtering techniques and shielding required for these counters

  4. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 秀昭

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  5. Seismic images of an extensional basin, generated at the hangingwall of a low-angle normal fault: The case of the Sansepolcro basin (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Ciaccio, Maria Grazia

    2009-12-01

    The study of syntectonic basins, generated at the hangingwall of regional low-angle detachments, can help to gain a better knowledge of these important and mechanically controversial extensional structures, constraining their kinematics and timing of activity. Seismic reflection images constrain the geometry and internal structure of the Sansepolcro Basin (the northernmost portion of the High Tiber Valley). This basin was generated at the hangingwall of the Altotiberina Fault (AtF), an E-dipping low-angle normal fault, active at least since Late Pliocene, affecting the upper crust of this portion of the Northern Apennines. The dataset analysed consists of 5 seismic reflection lines acquired in the 80s' by ENI-Agip for oil exploration and a portion of the NVR deep CROP03 profile. The interpretation of the seismic profiles provides a 3-D reconstruction of the basin's shape and of the sedimentary succession infilling the basin. This consisting of up to 1200 m of fluvial and lacustrine sediments: this succession is much thicker and possibly older than previously hypothesised. The seismic data also image the geometry at depth of the faults driving the basin onset and evolution. The western flank is bordered by a set of E-dipping normal faults, producing the uplifting and tilting of Early to Middle Pleistocene succession along the Anghiari ridge. Along the eastern flank, the sediments are markedly dragged along the SW-dipping Sansepolcro fault. Both NE- and SW-dipping faults splay out from the NE-dipping, low-angle Altotiberina fault. Both AtF and its high-angle splays are still active, as suggested by combined geological and geomorphological evidences: the historical seismicity of the area can be reasonably associated to these faults, however the available data do not constrain an unambiguous association between the single structural elements and the major earthquakes.

  6. Large-angle hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Basing on the quasipotential Logunov-Tavkhelidze approach, corrections to the amplitude of high-energy large-angle meson-nucleon scattering are estimated. The estimates are compared with the available experimental data on pp- and π +- p-scattering, so as to check the adequacy of the suggested scheme to account for the preasymptotic deffects. The compared results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. The following conclusions are drawn: 1. the account for corrections, due to the long-range interaction, to the amplituda gives a good aghreee main asymptotic termment between the theoretical and experimental data. 2. in the case of π +- p- scattering the corrections prove to be comparable with the main asymptotic term up to the values of transferred pulses psub(lambdac)=50 GeV/c, which results in a noticeable deviation form the quark counting rules at such energies. Nevertheless, the preasymptotic formulae do well, beginning with psub(lambdac) approximately 6 GeV/c. In case of pp-scattering the corrections are mutually compensated to a considerable degree, and the deviation from the quark counting rules is negligible

  7. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  8. Research on bearing fault diagnosis of large machinery based on mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To study the automatic diagnosis of large machinery fault based on support vector machine, combining the four common faults of the large machinery, the support vector machine is used to classify and identify the fault. The extracted feature vectors are entered. The feature vector is trained and identified by multi - classification method. The optimal parameters of the support vector machine are searched by trial and error method and cross validation method. Then, the support vector machine is compared with BP neural network. The results show that the support vector machines are short in time and high in classification accuracy. It is more suitable for the research of fault diagnosis in large machinery. Therefore, it can be concluded that the training speed of support vector machines (SVM) is fast and the performance is good.

  9. Stress sensitivity of fault seismicity: A comparison between limited-offset oblique and major strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Stein, R.S.; Simpson, R.W.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional inventory of the southern San Francisco Bay area faults and use it to calculate stress applied principally by the 1989 M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and to compare fault seismicity rates before and after 1989. The major high-angle right-lateral faults exhibit a different response to the stress change than do minor oblique (right-lateral/thrust) faults. Seismicity on oblique-slip faults in the southern Santa Clara Valley thrust belt increased where the faults were unclamped. The strong dependence of seismicity change on normal stress change implies a high coefficient of static friction. In contrast, we observe that faults with significant offset (>50-100 km) behave differently; microseismicity on the Hayward fault diminished where right-lateral shear stress was reduced and where it was unclamped by the Loma Prieta earthquake. We observe a similar response on the San Andreas fault zone in southern California after the Landers earthquake sequence. Additionally, the offshore San Gregorio fault shows a seismicity rate increase where right-lateral/oblique shear stress was increased by the Loma Prieta earthquake despite also being clamped by it. These responses are consistent with either a low coefficient of static friction or high pore fluid pressures within the fault zones. We can explain the different behavior of the two styles of faults if those with large cumulative offset become impermeable through gouge buildup; coseismically pressurized pore fluids could be trapped and negate imposed normal stress changes, whereas in more limited offset faults, fluids could rapidly escape. The difference in behavior between minor and major faults may explain why frictional failure criteria that apply intermediate coefficients of static friction can be effective in describing the broad distributions of aftershocks that follow large earthquakes, since many of these events occur both inside and outside major fault zones.

  10. High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph

  11. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robach, Odile; Ildefonse, Benoît; Barou, Fabrice; Mainprice, David; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Fujimoto, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan) that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7-11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to the peak strength of a

  12. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Boullier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7–11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to

  13. The vertex and large angle detectors of a spectrometer system for high energy muon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Dobinson, R.W.; Dosselli, U.; Edwards, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Kellner, G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mueller, H.; Osborne, A.M.; Scaramelli, A.; Watson, E.; Brasse, F.W.; Falley, G.; Flauger, W.; Gayler, J.; Goessling, C.; Koll, J.; Korbel, V.; Nassalski, J.; Singer, G.; Thiele, K.; Zank, P.; Figiel, J.; Janata, F.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Bernaudin, B.; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Noppe, J.M.; Pascaud, C.; Bertsch, Y.; Bouard, X. de; Broll, C.; Coignet, G.; Favier, J.; Jansco, G.; Lebeau, M.; Maire, M.; Minssieux, H.; Montanet, F.; Moynot, M.; Nagy, E.; Payre, P.; Perrot, G.; Pessard, H.; Ribarics, P.; Schneegans, M.; Thenard, J.M.; Botterill, D.; Carr, J.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Rousseau, M.D.; Sproston, M.; Thompson, J.C.; Albanese, J.P.; Allkofer, O.C.; Arneodo, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bianchi, F.; Bibby, J.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Cornelssen, M.; Costa, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dau, W.D.; Davies, J.K.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Eckardt, V.; Ferrero, M.I.; Gamet, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Haas, J.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kahl, T.; Krueger, J.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Manz, A.; Mermet-Guyennet, M.; Mohr, W.; Moser, K.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Peroni, C.; Pettingale, J.; Poetsch, M.; Preissner, H.; Renton, P.; Rith, K.; Roehner, F.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schultze, K.; Shiers, J.; Sloan, T.; Smith, R.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Williams, D.A.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.; Winkmueller, G.; Wolf, G.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the detector system which forms the large angle spectrometer and vertex detector of the EMC spectrometer. The apparatus is used in the NA9 experiment which studies the complete hadronic final state from the interaction of high energy muons. (orig.)

  14. A phase angle based diagnostic scheme to planetary gear faults diagnostics under non-stationary operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke; Wang, Kesheng; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.; Wei, Dongdong

    2017-11-01

    Planetary gearbox is a critical component for rotating machinery. It is widely used in wind turbines, aerospace and transmission systems in heavy industry. Thus, it is important to monitor planetary gearboxes, especially for fault diagnostics, during its operational conditions. However, in practice, operational conditions of planetary gearbox are often characterized by variations of rotational speeds and loads, which may bring difficulties for fault diagnosis through the measured vibrations. In this paper, phase angle data extracted from measured planetary gearbox vibrations is used for fault detection under non-stationary operational conditions. Together with sample entropy, fault diagnosis on planetary gearbox is implemented. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in both simulation and experimental studies. The scheme proves to be effective and features advantages on fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes under non-stationary operational conditions.

  15. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  16. Surface growth mechanisms and structural faulting in the growth of large single and spherulitic titanosilicate ETS-4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Peter Q.; Yilmaz, Bilge; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert

    2004-10-01

    Morphological, surface and crystallographic analyses of titanosilicate ETS-4 products, with diverse habits ranging from spherulitic particles composed of submicron crystallites to large single crystals, are presented. Pole figures revealed that crystal surfaces with a-, b- and c- axes corresponded to , and directions, respectively. Thus, technologically important 8-membered ring pores and titania chains in ETS-4 run along the b-axis of single crystals and terminate at the smallest crystal face. Height of the spiral growth steps observed on {1 0 0} and {0 0 1} surfaces corresponded to the interplanar spacings associated with their crystallographic orientation, and is equivalent to the thickness of building units that form the ETS-4 framework. Data suggest that the more viscous synthesis mixtures, with a large driving force for growth, increased the two- and three-dimensional nucleation, while limiting the transport of nutrients to the growth surface. These conditions increase the tendency for stacking fault formation on {1 0 0} surfaces and small angle branching, which eventually results in spherulitic growth. The growth of high quality ETS-4 single crystals (from less viscous synthesis mixtures) occurred at lower surface nucleation rates. Data suggest that these high quality, large crystals grew due to one-dimensional nucleation at spiral hillocks, and indicate that under these conditions un-faulted growth is preferred.

  17. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Brandenburg, S.; Huisman, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mul, F. A.; Schadmand, S.; van der Schaaf, K.; Schippers, J. M.; Volkerts, M.

    2000-04-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks.

  18. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Brandenburg, S; Huisman, H; Messchendorp, J G; Mul, F A; Schadmand, S; Schaaf, K V D; Schippers, J M; Volkerts, M

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks.

  19. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Brandenburg, S.; Huisman, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Mul, F.A.; Schadmand, S.; Schaaf, K. van der; Schippers, J.M.; Volkerts, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks

  20. Pair creation at large inherent angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e + e - pairs created during the collision of high-energy e + e - beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter Υ lies approximately in the range 0.6 approx-lt Υ approx-lt 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, the authors notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. In this paper they reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer

  1. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  2. Fault Tolerant and Optimal Control of Wind Turbines with Distributed High-Speed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Giger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control scheme of a distributed high-speed generator system with a total amount of 12 generators and nominal generator speed of 7000 min − 1 is studied. Specifically, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed to keep the turbine in operation in the presence of up to four simultaneous generator faults. The proposed controller structure consists of two layers: The upper layer is the baseline controller, which is separated into a partial load region with the generator torque as an actuating signal and the full-load operation region with the collective pitch angle as the other actuating signal. In addition, the lower layer is responsible for the fault diagnosis and FTC characteristics of the distributed generator drive train. The fault reconstruction and fault tolerant control strategy are tested in simulations with several actuator faults of different types.

  3. Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junle; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-06-10

    Why many major strike-slip faults known to have had large earthquakes are silent in the interseismic period is a long-standing enigma. One would expect small earthquakes to occur at least at the bottom of the seismogenic zone, where deeper aseismic deformation concentrates loading. We suggest that the absence of such concentrated microseismicity indicates deep rupture past the seismogenic zone in previous large earthquakes. We support this conclusion with numerical simulations of fault behavior and observations of recent major events. Our modeling implies that the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California penetrated below the seismogenic zone by at least 3 to 5 kilometers. Our findings suggest that such deeper ruptures may occur on other major fault segments, potentially increasing the associated seismic hazard. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. A practical method for accurate quantification of large fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical method to accurately quantify top event probability and importance measures from incomplete minimal cut sets (MCS) of a large fault tree. The MCS-based fault tree method is extensively used in probabilistic safety assessments. Several sources of uncertainties exist in MCS-based fault tree analysis. The paper is focused on quantification of the following two sources of uncertainties: (1) the truncation neglecting low-probability cut sets and (2) the approximation in quantifying MCSs. The method proposed in this paper is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate probability of the discarded MCSs and the sum of disjoint products (SDP) approach complemented by the correction factor approach (CFA). The method provides capability to accurately quantify the two uncertainties and estimate the top event probability and importance measures of large coherent fault trees. The proposed fault tree quantification method has been implemented in the CUTREE code package and is tested on the two example fault trees

  5. Reverse fault growth and fault interaction with frictional interfaces: insights from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Emanuele; Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    The association of faulting and folding is a common feature in mountain chains, fold-and-thrust belts, and accretionary wedges. Kinematic models are developed and widely used to explain a range of relationships between faulting and folding. However, these models may result not to be completely appropriate to explain shortening in mechanically heterogeneous rock bodies. Weak layers, bedding surfaces, or pre-existing faults placed ahead of a propagating fault tip may influence the fault propagation rate itself and the associated fold shape. In this work, we employed clay analogue models to investigate how mechanical discontinuities affect the propagation rate and the associated fold shape during the growth of reverse master faults. The simulated master faults dip at 30° and 45°, recalling the range of the most frequent dip angles for active reverse faults that occurs in nature. The mechanical discontinuities are simulated by pre-cutting the clay pack. For both experimental setups (30° and 45° dipping faults) we analyzed three different configurations: 1) isotropic, i.e. without precuts; 2) with one precut in the middle of the clay pack; and 3) with two evenly-spaced precuts. To test the repeatability of the processes and to have a statistically valid dataset we replicate each configuration three times. The experiments were monitored by collecting successive snapshots with a high-resolution camera pointing at the side of the model. The pictures were then processed using the Digital Image Correlation method (D.I.C.), in order to extract the displacement and shear-rate fields. These two quantities effectively show both the on-fault and off-fault deformation, indicating the activity along the newly-formed faults and whether and at what stage the discontinuities (precuts) are reactivated. To study the fault propagation and fold shape variability we marked the position of the fault tips and the fold profiles for every successive step of deformation. Then we compared

  6. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  7. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  8. Large-Angle CMB Suppression and Polarisation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C.J.; Schwarz, D.J.; Starkman, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The anomalous lack of large angle temperature correlations has been a surprising feature of the CMB since first observed by COBE-DMR and subsequently confirmed and strengthened by WMAP. This anomaly may point to the need for modifications of the standard model of cosmology or may show that our Universe is a rare statistical fluctuation within that model. Further observations of the temperature auto-correlation function will not elucidate the issue; sufficiently high precision statistical observations already exist. Instead, alternative probes are required. In this work we explore the expectations for forthcoming polarisation observations. We define a prescription to test the hypothesis that the large-angle CMB temperature perturbations in our Universe represent a rare statistical fluctuation within the standard cosmological model. These tests are based on the temperature-Q Stokes parameter correlation. Unfortunately these tests cannot be expected to be definitive. However, we do show that if this TQ-correlati...

  9. Efficient reduction and modularization for large fault trees stored by pages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shanqi; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jiaqun; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New fault tree pre-processing methods used in RiskA are presented. • Including the fault tree paging storage, simplification and modularization. • For getting MCS for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and events. • Reduce computer resources needs (RAM) and improve computation speed. - Abstract: Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), an indispensable tool used in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been used throughout the commercial nuclear power industry for safety and reliability analyses. However, large fault tree analysis, such as those used in nuclear power plant requires significant computer resources, which makes the analysis of PRA model inefficient and time consuming. This paper describes a fault tree pre-processing method used in the reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA that is capable of generating minimal cutsets for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and basic events. The novel feature of this method is not only that Boolean reduction rules are used but also that a new objective of simplification is proposed. Moreover, since the method aims to find more fault tree modules by the linear-time algorithm, it can optimize fault tree modularization, which further reduces the computational time of large fault tree analysis.

  10. Repetition of large stress drop earthquakes on Wairarapa fault, New Zealand, revealed by LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, E.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Beaupretre, S.; Vitard, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have acquired high-resolution LiDAR topographic data over most of the onland trace of the 120 km-long Wairarapa strike-slip fault, New Zealand. The Wairarapa fault broke in a large earthquake in 1855, and this historical earthquake is suggested to have produced up to 18 m of lateral slip at the ground surface. This would make this earthquake a remarkable event having produced a stress drop much higher than commonly observed on other earthquakes worldwide. The LiDAR data allowed us examining the ground surface morphology along the fault at statistical analysis of the cumulative offsets per segment reveals that the alluvial morphology has well recorded, at every step along the fault, no more than a few (3-6), well distinct cumulative slips, all lower than 80 m. Plotted along the entire fault, the statistically defined cumulative slip values document four, fairly continuous slip profiles that we attribute to the four most recent large earthquakes on the Wairarapa fault. The four slip profiles have a roughly triangular and asymmetric envelope shape that is similar to the coseismic slip distributions described for most large earthquakes worldwide. The four slip profiles have their maximum slip at the same place, in the northeastern third of the fault trace. The maximum slips vary from one event to another in the range 7-15 m; the most recent 1855 earthquake produced a maximum coseismic slip of 15 × 2 m at the ground surface. Our results thus confirm that the Wairarapa fault breaks in remarkably large stress drop earthquakes. Those repeating large earthquakes share both similar (rupture length, slip-length distribution, location of maximum slip) and distinct (maximum slip amplitudes) characteristics. Furthermore, the seismic behavior of the Wairarapa fault is markedly different from that of nearby large strike-slip faults (Wellington, Hope). The reasons for those differences in rupture behavior might reside in the intrinsic properties of the broken faults, especially

  11. New Geologic Data on the Seismic Risks of the Most Dangerous Fault on Shore in Central Japan, the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, K.; Kondo, H.; Toda, S.; Takada, K.; Kinoshita, H.

    2006-12-01

    Ten years have past since the first official assessment of the long-term seismic risks of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line active fault system (ISTL) in 1996. The disaster caused by the1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken-Nanbu) earthquake urged the Japanese government to initiated a national project to assess the long-term seismic risks of on-shore active faults using geologic information. ISTL was the first target of the 98 significant faults and the probability of a M7 to M8 event turned out to be the highest among them. After the 10 years of continued efforts to understand the ISTL, now it is getting ready to revise the assessment. Fault mapping and segmentation: The most active segment of the Gofukuji fault (~1 cm/yr left-lateral strike slip, R=500~800 yrs.) had been maped only for less than 10 km. Adjacent segments were much less active. This large slip on such a short segment was contradictory. However, detailed topographic study including Lidar survey revealed the length of the Gofukuji fault to be 25 km or more. High slip rate with frequent earthquakes may be restricted to the Gofukuji fault while the 1996 assessment modeled frequent >100 km rupture scenario. The geometry of the fault is controversial especially on the left-lateral strike-slip section of the ISTL. There are two models of high-angle Middel ISTL and low-angle Middle ISTL with slip partitioning. However, all geomorphic and shallow geologic data supports high-angle almost pure strike slip on the faults in the Middle ISTL. CRIEPI's 3- dimensional trenching in several sites as well as the previous results clearly demonstrated repeated pure strike-slip offset during past a few events. In Middle ISTL, there is no evidence of recent activity of pre-existing low-angle thrust faults that are inferred to be active from shallow seismic survey. Separation of high (~3000 m) mountain ranges and low (lack of reliable time constraints on past earthquakes. In order to solve this problem, we have carried out intensive

  12. Fault slip and earthquake recurrence along strike-slip faults — Contributions of high-resolution geomorphic data

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Understanding earthquake (EQ) recurrence relies on information about the timing and size of past EQ ruptures along a given fault. Knowledge of a fault\\'s rupture history provides valuable information on its potential future behavior, enabling seismic hazard estimates and loss mitigation. Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence of faulting is used to constrain the recurrence of surface rupturing EQs. Analysis of the latter data sets culminated during the mid-1980s in the formulation of now classical EQ recurrence models, now routinely used to assess seismic hazard. Within the last decade, Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) surveying technology and other high-resolution data sets became increasingly available to tectono-geomorphic studies, promising to contribute to better-informed models of EQ recurrence and slip-accumulation patterns. After reviewing motivation and background, we outline requirements to successfully reconstruct a fault\\'s offset accumulation pattern from geomorphic evidence. We address sources of uncertainty affecting offset measurement and advocate approaches to minimize them. A number of recent studies focus on single-EQ slip distributions and along-fault slip accumulation patterns. We put them in context with paleoseismic studies along the respective faults by comparing coefficients of variation CV for EQ inter-event time and slip-per-event and find that a) single-event offsets vary over a wide range of length-scales and the sources for offset variability differ with length-scale, b) at fault-segment length-scales, single-event offsets are essentially constant, c) along-fault offset accumulation as resolved in the geomorphic record is dominated by essentially same-size, large offset increments, and d) there is generally no one-to-one correlation between the offset accumulation pattern constrained in the geomorphic record and EQ occurrence as identified in the stratigraphic record, revealing the higher resolution and preservation potential of

  13. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2017-04-03

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  14. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-09-01

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω-2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  15. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Vyas, Jagdish Chandra; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  16. Irregular recurrence of large earthquakes along the san andreas fault: evidence from trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, G C; Sheppard, P R; Sieh, K E

    1988-07-08

    Old trees growing along the San Andreas fault near Wrightwood, California, record in their annual ring-width patterns the effects of a major earthquake in the fall or winter of 1812 to 1813. Paleoseismic data and historical information indicate that this event was the "San Juan Capistrano" earthquake of 8 December 1812, with a magnitude of 7.5. The discovery that at least 12 kilometers of the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1812, only 44 years before the great January 1857 rupture, demonstrates that intervals between large earthquakes on this part of the fault are highly variable. This variability increases the uncertainty of forecasting destructive earthquakes on the basis of past behavior and accentuates the need for a more fundamental knowledge of San Andreas fault dynamics.

  17. On the impact of large angle CMB polarization data on cosmological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Trombetti, Tiziana [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Gerbino, Martina [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Polenta, Gianluca [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc, 00133, Roma (Italy); Salvati, Laura, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: burigana@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: martina.gerbino@fysik.su.se, E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: nazzareno.mandolesi@unife.it, E-mail: paolo.natoli@unife.it, E-mail: gianluca.polenta@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: laura.salvati@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: trombetti@iasfbo.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    We study the impact of the large-angle CMB polarization datasets publicly released by the WMAP and Planck satellites on the estimation of cosmological parameters of the ΛCDM model. To complement large-angle polarization, we consider the high resolution (or 'high-ℓ') CMB datasets from either WMAP or Planck as well as CMB lensing as traced by Planck 's measured four point correlation function. In the case of WMAP, we compute the large-angle polarization likelihood starting over from low resolution frequency maps and their covariance matrices, and perform our own foreground mitigation technique, which includes as a possible alternative Planck 353 GHz data to trace polarized dust. We find that the latter choice induces a downward shift in the optical depth τ, roughly of order 2σ, robust to the choice of the complementary high resolution dataset. When the Planck 353 GHz is consistently used to minimize polarized dust emission, WMAP and Planck 70 GHz large-angle polarization data are in remarkable agreement: by combining them we find τ = 0.066 {sup +0.012}{sub −0.013}, again very stable against the particular choice for high-ℓ data. We find that the amplitude of primordial fluctuations A {sub s} , notoriously degenerate with τ, is the parameter second most affected by the assumptions on polarized dust removal, but the other parameters are also affected, typically between 0.5 and 1σ. In particular, cleaning dust with Planck 's 353 GHz data imposes a 1σ downward shift in the value of the Hubble constant H {sub 0}, significantly contributing to the tension reported between CMB based and direct measurements of the present expansion rate. On the other hand, we find that the appearance of the so-called low ℓ anomaly, a well-known tension between the high- and low-resolution CMB anisotropy amplitude, is not significantly affected by the details of large-angle polarization, or by the particular high-ℓ dataset employed.

  18. Background problem for a large solid angle, high sensitivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1977-01-01

    With extremely good vacuum (10 -11 to 10 -13 torr) and well controlled beams, the ISR has a good reputation for clean beam conditions and low background for most types of experiments. However, for a detector covering a large solid angle, measuring processes with small cross sections (approximately 10 -38 cm 2 ) there are serious background problems which took almost a year to solve. Since ISABELLE may have similar problems, a summary is given of experience at the ISR with the hope that some of the solutions can be installed in ISABELLE at an early stage

  19. Transient behavior of high-interaction MHD generator following external loading faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Motoo

    1983-01-01

    Transient behavior consequent to external loading faults is studied numerically on four configurations of high-interaction MHD generators-subsonic Faraday, supersonic Faraday, subsonic diagonal and supersonic diagonal, to provide a variable data base to serve in selecting the type of large-scale MHD generator. Time-dependent one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the 1969 MacCormack method, in combination with the Maxwell equations and the generalized Ohm's law. An artificial viscosity term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations to maintain numerical stability. It is shown that, with both supersonic and subsonic flows, the Faraday generator is liable to sustain more harmful effect from short than from open faults of the external loading circuit. For large-scale diagonal types, on the other hand, open faults are more dangerous. With subsonic flow, a shock wave propagating upstream is induced by short fault in the Faraday, and by open fault in the diagonal-type generator. In the case of supersonic flow, propagation upstream of the disturbance is completely obstructed. Larger electrical stress is foreseen for Faraday than for diagonal configuration. (author)

  20. How fault geometry controls earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Q.; Thomas, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rempel, A. W.; Sladen, A.; De Barros, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent large megathrust earthquakes, such as the Mw9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004 and the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011, astonished the scientific community. The first event occurred in a relatively low-convergence-rate subduction zone where events of its size were unexpected. The second event involved 60 m of shallow slip in a region thought to be aseismicaly creeping and hence incapable of hosting very large magnitude earthquakes. These earthquakes highlight gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution. Here we show that gradients in dip angle exert a primary control on mega-earthquake occurrence. We calculate the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world and show that past mega-earthquakes occurred on flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that shear strength heterogeneity increases with curvature. Stress loading on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous and hence more likely to be released simultaneously over large areas than on highly-curved faults. Therefore, the absence of asperities on large faults might counter-intuitively be a source of higher hazard.

  1. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, Sergio; Matuzas, Vaidas

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  2. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.contini@jrc.i [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Matuzas, Vaidas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  3. Fault detection and isolation of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Araya, Samuel Simon; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a data-drive impedance-based methodology for fault detection and isolation of low and high cathode stoichiometry, high CO concentration in the anode gas, high methanol vapour concentrations in the anode gas and low anode stoichiometry, for high temperature PEM fuel cells....... The fault detection and isolation algorithm is based on an artificial neural network classifier, which uses three extracted features as input. Two of the proposed features are based on angles in the impedance spectrum, and are therefore relative to specific points, and shown to be independent of degradation......, contrary to other available feature extraction methods in the literature. The experimental data is based on a 35 day experiment, where 2010 unique electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were recorded. The test of the algorithm resulted in a good detectability of the faults, except for high...

  4. Fault detection and isolation of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Araya, Samuel Simon; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Thomas, Sobi; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-08-01

    This study proposes a data-drive impedance-based methodology for fault detection and isolation of low and high cathode stoichiometry, high CO concentration in the anode gas, high methanol vapour concentrations in the anode gas and low anode stoichiometry, for high temperature PEM fuel cells. The fault detection and isolation algorithm is based on an artificial neural network classifier, which uses three extracted features as input. Two of the proposed features are based on angles in the impedance spectrum, and are therefore relative to specific points, and shown to be independent of degradation, contrary to other available feature extraction methods in the literature. The experimental data is based on a 35 day experiment, where 2010 unique electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were recorded. The test of the algorithm resulted in a good detectability of the faults, except for high methanol vapour concentration in the anode gas fault, which was found to be difficult to distinguish from a normal operational data. The achieved accuracy for faults related to CO pollution, anode- and cathode stoichiometry is 100% success rate. Overall global accuracy on the test data is 94.6%.

  5. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  6. Overview of the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Southeastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Webber, S. M.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L.; Biemiller, J.; Seward, D.; Boles, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Mai'iu Fault is a corrugated low-angle normal fault (LANF) that has slipped >24 km. It emerges near sea level at 21° N dip, and flattens southward over the dome crest at 3000 m. This reactivated Paleogene suture is slipping at up to 1 cm/year based on previous GPS data and preliminary 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure scarp dating. An alignment of microseismicity (Eilon et al. 2015) suggests a dip of 30° N at 15-25 km depth. Pseudotachylites are abundant in lower, mylonitic parts of the footwall. One vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.9-2.2 Ma, implying seismicity at 8-10 km depth at the above slip rate. Widespread, antithetic normal faults in the footwall are attributed to rolling-hinge controlled yielding during exhumation. A single rider block is downfolded into synformal megamullion. Unconformities within this block, and ductile folding and conjugate strike-slip faulting of mylonitic footwall fabrics record prolonged EW shortening and constriction. Many normal and strike-slip faults cut the metabasaltic footwall recording Andersonian stresses and flipping between σ1 and σ2. To exhume the steep faults, the LANF must have remained active despite differential stress being locally high enough to initiate well-oriented faults—relationships that bracket the frictional strength of the LANF. Quantitative XRD on mafic and serpentinitic gouges reveal the Mai'iu fault core is enriched in weak clays corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments were done at effective normal stresses of 30-210 MPa, and temperatures of 50-450oC. At shallow depths (T≤200 oC), clay-rich fault gouges are frictionally weak (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening. At intermediate depths (T>200 oC), the footwall is frictionally strong (μ=0.71-0.78 and 0.50-0.64) and velocity-weakening. Velocity-strengthening is observed at T≥400 oC. The experiments provide evidence for deep unstable slip, consistent with footwall pseudotachylites and microseismicity at

  7. Large-angle positronium emission for Al(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Frieze, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    Mono-energetic positrons have been used to study the time-of-flight distribution of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) formed just outside the surface of an Al(110) single crystal. The data are interpreted in terms of two predominant angular distributions for the directly formed o-Ps: one that is peaked towards the surface normal and another that is directed towards large angles. These processes are shown to be very sensitive to both oxygen exposure and Ar + ion sputtering. Ps emitted at large-angles may be evidence of formation with electrons propagating in a two-dimensional surface state

  8. Criteria for Seismic Splay Fault Activation During Subduction Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedontney, N.; Templeton, E.; Bhat, H.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    material, so we build on previous work by incorporating the effect of strength contrasts between the basal and splay faults. The relative weakness of the basal fault is often attributed to high pore pressures, which lowers the effective normal stress and brings the basal fault closer to failure. We vary the initial stress state, while maintaining a constant principal stress orientation, to see how the closeness to failure affects the branching behavior for a variety of branch step-up angles.

  9. Testing of high-impedance fault relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M. [Powertech Labs., Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    A test system and protocol was developed for the testing of high-impedance fault (HIF) detection devices. A technique was established for point-by-point addition of fault and load currents, the resultant was used for testing the performance of the devices in detecting HIFs in the presence of load current. The system used digitized data from recorded faults and normal currents to generate analog test signals for high-impedance fault detection relays. A test apparatus was built with a 10 kHz band-width and playback duration of 30 minutes on 6 output channels for testing purposes. Three devices which have recently become available were tested and their performance was evaluated based on their respective test results.

  10. Polar transfer alignment of shipborne SINS with a large misalignment angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Wang, Tongda; Guan, Dongxue; Li, Meiling

    2016-01-01

    Existing polar transfer alignment (TA) algorithms are designed based on linear Kalman filters (KF) to estimate misalignment angles. In the case of a large misalignment angle, these algorithms cannot be applied in order to achieve accurate TA. In this paper, a TA algorithm based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to solve the problem of the large misalignment angle in the polar region. Based on a large misalignment angle, nonlinear navigation error equations, which are the UKF dynamic models, are derived under grid frames. This paper chooses the velocity plus attitude matching method as the TA matching method and errors of velocity and attitude as observations. The misalignment angle can be estimated by the designed UKF. The simulation results have demonstrated that the polar TA algorithm can be effective in improving the TA accuracy, especially when large misalignment angles occur. (paper)

  11. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  12. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  13. Fault Ride Through Capability Enhancement of a Large-Scale PMSG Wind System with Bridge Type Fault Current Limiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAM, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, bridge type fault current limiter (BFCL is proposed as a potential solution to the fault problems of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based large-scale wind energy system. As PMSG wind system is more vulnerable to disturbances, it is essential to guarantee the stability during severe disturbances by enhancing the fault ride through capability. BFCL controller has been designed to insert resistance and inductance during the inception of system disturbances in order to limit fault current. Constant capacitor voltage has been maintained by the grid voltage source converter (GVSC controller while current extraction or injection has been achieved by machine VSC (MVSC controller. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults have been applied in the system to show the effectiveness of the proposed BFCL solution. PMSG wind system, BFCL and their controllers have been implemented by real time hardware in loop (RTHIL setup with real time digital simulator (RTDS and dSPACE. Another significant feature of this work is that the performance of the proposed BFCL is compared with that of series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR. Comparative RTHIL implementation results show that the proposed BFCL is very efficient in improving system fault ride through capability by limiting the fault current and outperforms SDBR.

  14. Large solid angle detectors (low energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with large solid angle detectors used in low energy experiments (mainly in Nuclear Physics). The reasons for using such detectors are discussed, and several basic principles of their design are presented. Finally, two examples of data analysis from such detectors are given [fr

  15. Geomorphic and Structural Evidence for Rolling Hinge Style Deformation in the Footwall of an Active Low Angle Normal Fault, Mai'iu Fault, Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, M.; Little, T.; Norton, K. P.; Webber, S.; Ellis, S. M.; Oesterle, J.

    2016-12-01

    While shown to operate in oceanic crust, rolling hinge style deformation remains a debated process in metamorpic core complexes (MCCs) in the continents. The model predicts that unloading and isostatic uplift during slip causes a progressive back-tilting in the upper crust of a normal fault that is more steeply dipping at depth. The Mai'iu Fault in the Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea, is one of the best-exposed and fastest slipping (probably >7 mm/yr) active low-angle normal faults (LANFs) on Earth. We analysed structural field data from this fault's exhumed slip surface and footwall, together with geomorphic data interpreted from aerial photographs and GeoSAR-derived digital elevation models (gridded at 5-30 m spacing), to evaluate deformational processes affecting the rapidly exhuming, domal-shaped detachment fault. The exhumed fault surface emerges from the ground at the rangefront near sea level with a northward dip of 21°. Up-dip, it is well-preserved, smooth and corrugated, with some fault remnants extending at least 29 km in the slip direction. The surface flattens over the crest of the dome, beyond where it dips S at up to 15°. Windgaps perched on the crestal main divide of the dome, indicate both up-dip tectonic advection and progressive back-tilting of the exhuming fault surface. We infer that slip on a serial array of m-to-km scale up-to-the-north, steeply S-dipping ( 75°) antithetic-sense normal faults accommodated some of the exhumation-related, inelastic bending of the footwall. These geomorphically well expressed faults strike parallel to the main Mai'iu fault at 110.9±5°, have a mean cross-strike spacing of 1520 m, and slip with a consistent up-to-the-north sense of throw ranging from <5 m to 120 m. Apparently the Mai'iu Fault was able to continue slipping despite having to negotiate this added fault-roughness. We interpret the antithetic faulting to result from bending stresses, and to provide the first clear examples of rolling hinge

  16. Frequency of fault occurrence at shallow depths during Plio-Pleistocene and estimation of the incident of new faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratsuchi, H.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is required that buried high-level radioactive wastes should not be broken directly by faulting in the future. Although a disposal site will be selected in an area where no active faults are present, the possibility of new fault occurrence in the site has to be evaluated. The probability of new fault occurrence is estimated from the frequency of faults which exist in Pliocene and Pleistocene strata distributed beneath 3 large plains in Japan, where a large number of seismic profiles and borehole data are obtained. Estimation of the frequency of faults having occurred and/or reached at shallow depth during Plio-Pleistocene time. The frequency of fault occurrence was estimated by counting the number of faults that exist in Plio-Pleistocene strata that are widely distributed in large plains in Japan. Three plains, Kanto, Nobi and Osaka Plains are selected for this purpose because highly precise geological profiles, which were prepared from numerous geological drillings and geophysical investigations, are available in them. (authors)

  17. Rupture Dynamics and Seismic Radiation on Rough Faults for Simulation-Based PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. M.; Galis, M.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Vyas, J. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Simulation-based ground-motion predictions may augment PSHA studies in data-poor regions or provide additional shaking estimations, incl. seismic waveforms, for critical facilities. Validation and calibration of such simulation approaches, based on observations and GMPE's, is important for engineering applications, while seismologists push to include the precise physics of the earthquake rupture process and seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous Earth. Geological faults comprise both large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness that determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process and its radiated seismic wavefield. We investigate how different parameterizations of fractal fault roughness affect the rupture evolution and resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence induced by fault roughness generates realistic ω-2 decay for high-frequency displacement amplitude spectra. Waveform characteristics and GMPE-based comparisons corroborate that these rough-fault rupture simulations generate realistic synthetic seismogram for subsequent engineering application. Since dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we develop kinematic approximations that emulate the observed dynamics. Simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. The dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with local dip angles. Based on a dynamically consistent Yoffe source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic rupture well reproduces the seismic radiation of the full dynamic source process. Our findings provide an innovative pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures fault roughness effects on rupture dynamics. Including the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we present a new

  18. Crustal structure across Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Xu, Tao; Tian, Xiaobo; Teng, Jiwen; Bai, Zhiming

    2013-04-01

    Tancheng-Lujiang (T-L) fault extends more than 3,000km in the eastern China continent. T-L fault is closely related to strong earthquake occurrences such as Ms 7.8 Tangshan earthquake in 1976, basin development with rich oil/gas reserves and mineral resource concentration. The mechanism to form this fault is still in dispute. The proposed models include: post-collisional offset model (Okay and Sengor, 1992); indenter model (Yin and Nie, 1994); thrust model (Li, 1994); North China Craton penetration into South China model (Yokoyama et al., 2001) and Scissor collision model (Zhang et al., 2002, 2006). T-L fault is characterized with its segmentation, while the south segment is favored to understand the deep continental subduction and ultra-high pressure rocks extrusion from the collision between the convergence between Yangtze and North China Craton. In order to provide constraints on the evaluation of the proposed tectonic models, we carried out a 400-km-long wide-angle seismic profiling across the southern segment of the T-L fault. Here we present seismic P-wave data and the interpretation results. Seismic events of reflection and refraction from Moho discontinuity and other intracrustal reflections are remarkably observed with high signal/noise ratio. Crustal P-wave velocity model was reconstructed with forward modelling inversion, and T-L fault penetrates the whole crust, with gentle penetration angle in the upper crust, but very steep angle in the lower crust, which are probably seismic indicators of two phases of lateral escaping to accommodate the collision and extrusion of continental crust of the Yangtze block.

  19. A fast BDD algorithm for large coherent fault trees analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Han, Sang Hoon; Ha, Jaejoo

    2004-01-01

    Although a binary decision diagram (BDD) algorithm has been tried to solve large fault trees until quite recently, they are not efficiently solved in a short time since the size of a BDD structure exponentially increases according to the number of variables. Furthermore, the truncation of If-Then-Else (ITE) connectives by the probability or size limit and the subsuming to delete subsets could not be directly applied to the intermediate BDD structure under construction. This is the motivation for this work. This paper presents an efficient BDD algorithm for large coherent systems (coherent BDD algorithm) by which the truncation and subsuming could be performed in the progress of the construction of the BDD structure. A set of new formulae developed in this study for AND or OR operation between two ITE connectives of a coherent system makes it possible to delete subsets and truncate ITE connectives with a probability or size limit in the intermediate BDD structure under construction. By means of the truncation and subsuming in every step of the calculation, large fault trees for coherent systems (coherent fault trees) are efficiently solved in a short time using less memory. Furthermore, the coherent BDD algorithm from the aspect of the size of a BDD structure is much less sensitive to variable ordering than the conventional BDD algorithm

  20. Adaptation of superconducting fault current limiter to high-speed reclosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, T.; Yanabu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Using a high temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The superconductor might break in some cases because of its excessive generation of heat. Therefore, it is desirable to interrupt early the current that flows to superconductor. So, we proposed the SFCL using an electromagnetic repulsion switch which is composed of a superconductor, a vacuum interrupter and a by-pass coil, and its structure is simple. Duration that the current flow in the superconductor can be easily minimized to the level of less than 0.5 cycle using this equipment. On the other hand, the fault current is also easily limited by large reactance of the parallel coil. There is duty of high-speed reclosing after interrupting fault current in the electric power system. After the fault current is interrupted, the back-up breaker is re-closed within 350 ms. So, the electromagnetic repulsion switch should return to former state and the superconductor should be recovered to superconducting state before high-speed reclosing. Then, we proposed the SFCL using an electromagnetic repulsion switch which employs our new reclosing function. We also studied recovery time of the superconductor, because superconductor should be recovered to superconducting state within 350 ms. In this paper, the recovery time characteristics of the superconducting wire were investigated. Also, we combined the superconductor with the electromagnetic repulsion switch, and we did performance test. As a result, a high-speed reclosing within 350 ms was proven to be possible.

  1. Fault Detection for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Base on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfu Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the fault detection application for large-scale railway maintenance equipment with the specialties of low-cost, energy efficiency, collecting data of the function units. This paper proposed energy efficiency, convenient installation fault detection application using Sigsbee wireless sensor networks, which Sigsbee is the most widely used protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4. This paper proposed a systematic application from hardware design using STM32F103 chips as processer, to software system. Fault detection application is the basic part of the fault diagnose system, wireless sensor nodes of the fault detection application with different kinds of sensors for verities function units communication by Sigsbee to collecting and sending basic working status data to the home gateway, then data will be sent to the fault diagnose system.

  2. Characterizing the structural maturity of fault zones using high-resolution earthquake locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Waldhauser, F.; Scholz, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    We use high-resolution earthquake locations to characterize the three-dimensional structure of active faults in California and how it evolves with fault structural maturity. We investigate the distribution of aftershocks of several recent large earthquakes that occurred on immature faults (i.e., slow moving and small cumulative displacement), such as the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers and 1999 (Mw7.1) Hector Mine events, and earthquakes that occurred on mature faults, such as the 1984 (Mw6.2) Morgan Hill and 2004 (Mw6.0) Parkfield events. Unlike previous studies which typically estimated the width of fault zones from the distribution of earthquakes perpendicular to the surface fault trace, we resolve fault zone widths with respect to the 3D fault surface estimated from principal component analysis of local seismicity. We find that the zone of brittle deformation around the fault core is narrower along mature faults compared to immature faults. We observe a rapid fall off of the number of events at a distance range of 70 - 100 m from the main fault surface of mature faults (140-200 m fault zone width), and 200-300 m from the fault surface of immature faults (400-600 m fault zone width). These observations are in good agreement with fault zone widths estimated from guided waves trapped in low velocity damage zones. The total width of the active zone of deformation surrounding the main fault plane reach 1.2 km and 2-4 km for mature and immature faults, respectively. The wider zone of deformation presumably reflects the increased heterogeneity in the stress field along complex and discontinuous faults strands that make up immature faults. In contrast, narrower deformation zones tend to align with well-defined fault planes of mature faults where most of the deformation is concentrated. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that surface fault traces become smoother, and thus fault zones simpler, as cumulative fault slip increases.

  3. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose

    2017-04-01

    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  4. A Wideband Magnetoresistive Sensor for Monitoring Dynamic Fault Slip in Laboratory Fault Friction Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Brian D

    2017-12-02

    A non-contact, wideband method of sensing dynamic fault slip in laboratory geophysical experiments employs an inexpensive magnetoresistive sensor, a small neodymium rare earth magnet, and user built application-specific wideband signal conditioning. The magnetoresistive sensor generates a voltage proportional to the changing angles of magnetic flux lines, generated by differential motion or rotation of the near-by magnet, through the sensor. The performance of an array of these sensors compares favorably to other conventional position sensing methods employed at multiple locations along a 2 m long × 0.4 m deep laboratory strike-slip fault. For these magnetoresistive sensors, the lack of resonance signals commonly encountered with cantilever-type position sensor mounting, the wide band response (DC to ≈ 100 kHz) that exceeds the capabilities of many traditional position sensors, and the small space required on the sample, make them attractive options for capturing high speed fault slip measurements in these laboratory experiments. An unanticipated observation of this study is the apparent sensitivity of this sensor to high frequency electomagnetic signals associated with fault rupture and (or) rupture propagation, which may offer new insights into the physics of earthquake faulting.

  5. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of

  6. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  7. Quasi-periodic recurrence of large earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Weldon, Ray J.; Fumal, Tom E.

    2010-01-01

    It has been 153 yr since the last large earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault (California, United States), but the average interseismic interval is only ~100 yr. If the recurrence of large earthquakes is periodic, rather than random or clustered, the length of this period is notable and would generally increase the risk estimated in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses. Unfortunately, robust characterization of a distribution describing earthquake recurrence on a single fault is limited by the brevity of most earthquake records. Here we use statistical tests on a 3000 yr combined record of 29 ground-rupturing earthquakes from Wrightwood, California. We show that earthquake recurrence there is more regular than expected from a Poisson distribution and is not clustered, leading us to conclude that recurrence is quasi-periodic. The observation of unimodal time dependence is persistent across an observationally based sensitivity analysis that critically examines alternative interpretations of the geologic record. The results support formal forecast efforts that use renewal models to estimate probabilities of future earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault. Only four intervals (15%) from the record are longer than the present open interval, highlighting the current hazard posed by this fault.

  8. Large-displacement, hydrothermal frictional properties of DFDP-1 fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Implications for deep rupture propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, A R; Boulton, C; Toy, V G; Townend, J; Sutherland, R

    2016-02-01

    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65-75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity-strengthening behavior to velocity-weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T  = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity-weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures. Friction was substantially lower for low-velocity shearing ( V  Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle-plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions.

  9. The relationship of near-surface active faulting to megathrust splay fault geometry in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Northrup, C.; Pratt, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    We interpret regionally extensive, active faults beneath Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to be structurally linked to deeper megathrust splay faults, such as the one that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Western PWS in particular is unique; the locations of active faulting offer insights into the transition at the southern terminus of the previously subducted Yakutat slab to Pacific plate subduction. Newly acquired high-resolution, marine seismic data show three seismic facies related to Holocene and older Quaternary to Tertiary strata. These sediments are cut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of megathrust splay. Crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A distinct boundary coinciding beneath the Hinchinbrook Entrance causes a systematic fault trend change from N30E in southwestern PWS to N70E in northeastern PWS. The fault trend change underneath Hinchinbrook Entrance may occur gradually or abruptly and there is evidence for similar deformation near the Montague Strait Entrance. Landward of surface expressions of the splay fault, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes. Surface exposures of Tertiary rocks throughout PWS along with new apatite-helium dates suggest long-term and regional uplift with localized, fault-controlled subsidence.

  10. High-Intensity Radiated Field Fault-Injection Experiment for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Amy M.; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    Safety-critical distributed flight control systems require robustness in the presence of faults. In general, these systems consist of a number of input/output (I/O) and computation nodes interacting through a fault-tolerant data communication system. The communication system transfers sensor data and control commands and can handle most faults under typical operating conditions. However, the performance of the closed-loop system can be adversely affected as a result of operating in harsh environments. In particular, High-Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) environments have the potential to cause random fault manifestations in individual avionic components and to generate simultaneous system-wide communication faults that overwhelm existing fault management mechanisms. This paper presents the design of an experiment conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's HIRF Laboratory to statistically characterize the faults that a HIRF environment can trigger on a single node of a distributed flight control system.

  11. The distribution of deformation in parallel fault-related folds with migrating axial surfaces: comparison between fault-propagation and fault-bend folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Francesco; Storti, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    In fault-related folds that form by axial surface migration, rocks undergo deformation as they pass through axial surfaces. The distribution and intensity of deformation in these structures has been impacted by the history of axial surface migration. Upon fold initiation, unique dip panels develop, each with a characteristic deformation intensity, depending on their history. During fold growth, rocks that pass through axial surfaces are transported between dip panels and accumulate additional deformation. By tracking the pattern of axial surface migration in model folds, we predict the distribution of relative deformation intensity in simple-step, parallel fault-bend and fault-propagation anticlines. In both cases the deformation is partitioned into unique domains we call deformation panels. For a given rheology of the folded multilayer, deformation intensity will be homogeneously distributed in each deformation panel. Fold limbs are always deformed. The flat crests of fault-propagation anticlines are always undeformed. Two asymmetric deformation panels develop in fault-propagation folds above ramp angles exceeding 29°. For lower ramp angles, an additional, more intensely-deformed panel develops at the transition between the crest and the forelimb. Deformation in the flat crests of fault-bend anticlines occurs when fault displacement exceeds the length of the footwall ramp, but is never found immediately hinterland of the crest to forelimb transition. In environments dominated by brittle deformation, our models may serve as a first-order approximation of the distribution of fractures in fault-related folds.

  12. Off-fault tip splay networks: a genetic and generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation, and a major component of off-fault damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Faults grow over the long-term by accumulating displacement and lengthening, i.e., propagating laterally. We use fault maps and fault propagation evidences available in literature to examine geometrical relations between parent faults and off-fault splays. The population includes 47 worldwide crustal faults with lengths from millimeters to thousands of kilometers and of different slip modes. We show that fault splays form adjacent to any propagating fault tip, whereas they are absent at non-propagating fault ends. Independent of parent fault length, slip mode, context, etc, tip splay networks have a similar fan shape widening in direction of long-term propagation, a similar relative length and width (~30 and ~10 % of parent fault length, respectively), and a similar range of mean angles to parent fault (10-20°). Tip splays more commonly develop on one side only of the parent fault. We infer that tip splay networks are a genetic and a generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation. We suggest that they represent the most recent damage off-the parent fault, formed during the most recent phase of fault lengthening. The scaling relation between parent fault length and width of tip splay network implies that damage zones enlarge as parent fault length increases. Elastic properties of host rocks might thus be modified at large distances away from a fault, up to 10% of its length. During an earthquake, a significant fraction of coseismic slip and stress is dissipated into the permanent damage zone that surrounds the causative fault. We infer that coseismic dissipation might occur away from a rupture zone as far as a distance of 10% of the length of its causative fault. Coseismic deformations and stress transfers might thus be significant in broad regions about principal rupture traces. This work has been published in Comptes Rendus Geoscience under doi:10.1016/j.crte.2015.05.002 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631071315000528).

  13. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  14. Characterization of Aftershock Sequences from Large Strike-Slip Earthquakes Along Geometrically Complex Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E.; Thomas, A.; Delbridge, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large earthquakes often exhibit complex slip distributions and occur along non-planar fault geometries, resulting in variable stress changes throughout the region of the fault hosting aftershocks. To better discern the role of geometric discontinuities on aftershock sequences, we compare areas of enhanced and reduced Coulomb failure stress and mean stress for systematic differences in the time dependence and productivity of these aftershock sequences. In strike-slip faults, releasing structures, including stepovers and bends, experience an increase in both Coulomb failure stress and mean stress during an earthquake, promoting fluid diffusion into the region and further failure. Conversely, Coulomb failure stress and mean stress decrease in restraining bends and stepovers in strike-slip faults, and fluids diffuse away from these areas, discouraging failure. We examine spatial differences in seismicity patterns along structurally complex strike-slip faults which have hosted large earthquakes, such as the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, the 2010 Mw 7.2 El-Mayor Cucapah, the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa, and the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto events. We characterize the behavior of these aftershock sequences with the Epidemic Type Aftershock-Sequence Model (ETAS). In this statistical model, the total occurrence rate of aftershocks induced by an earthquake is λ(t) = λ_0 + \\sum_{i:t_i

  15. Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2009-10-15

    Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.

  16. On the relativistic large-angle electron collision operator for runaway avalanches in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embréus, O.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-02-01

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions lead to an avalanching generation of runaway electrons in a plasma. We present the first fully conservative large-angle collision operator, derived from the relativistic Boltzmann operator. The relation to previous models for large-angle collisions is investigated, and their validity assessed. We present a form of the generalized collision operator which is suitable for implementation in a numerical kinetic equation solver, and demonstrate the effect on the runaway-electron growth rate. Finally we consider the reverse avalanche effect, where runaways are slowed down by large-angle collisions, and show that the choice of operator is important if the electric field is close to the avalanche threshold.

  17. Scissoring Fault Rupture Properties along the Median Tectonic Line Fault Zone, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Sakamoto, J.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Median Tectonic Line fault zone (hereinafter MTLFZ) is the longest and most active fault zone in Japan. The MTLFZ is a 400-km-long trench parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault accommodating lateral slip components of the Philippine Sea plate oblique subduction beneath the Eurasian plate [Fitch, 1972; Yeats, 1996]. Complex fault geometry evolves along the MTLFZ. The geomorphic and geological characteristics show a remarkable change through the MTLFZ. Extensional step-overs and pull-apart basins and a pop-up structure develop in western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ, respectively. It is like a "scissoring fault properties". We can point out two main factors to form scissoring fault properties along the MTLFZ. One is a regional stress condition, and another is a preexisting fault. The direction of σ1 anticlockwise rotate from N170°E [Famin et al., 2014] in the eastern Shikoku to Kinki areas and N100°E [Research Group for Crustral Stress in Western Japan, 1980] in central Shikoku to N85°E [Onishi et al., 2016] in western Shikoku. According to the rotation of principal stress directions, the western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ are to be a transtension and compression regime, respectively. The MTLFZ formed as a terrain boundary at Cretaceous, and has evolved with a long active history. The fault style has changed variously, such as left-lateral, thrust, normal and right-lateral. Under the structural condition of a preexisting fault being, the rupture does not completely conform to Anderson's theory for a newly formed fault, as the theory would require either purely dip-slip motion on the 45° dipping fault or strike-slip motion on a vertical fault. The fault rupture of the 2013 Barochistan earthquake in Pakistan is a rare example of large strike-slip reactivation on a relatively low angle dipping fault (thrust fault), though many strike-slip faults have vertical plane generally [Avouac et al., 2014]. In this presentation, we, firstly, show deep subsurface

  18. Very large solid angle spectrometer for single arm electron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Major information about short range behavior of nuclear forces should be obtained through electron scattering experiments at high momentum transfer. Cross sections will be very low as is usually the case in electron scattering. In order to reach them, the solid angle of the detection system will have to be enlarged. Traditional optics cannot give correct answer to the problem. For very large apertures, it is impossible to obtain good focussing properties which provide accurate momentum/position correlation with no dependence on the entrance angles. Furthermore, the experiment will require the measurement of these angles. It means that the final system will be equipped with a complete set of position sensitive detectors able to measure positions and angles of trajectories in both planes. Then, the question arises: is it really necessary to provide good focussing, or more precisely: is it possible to get all the required information without the help of a sophisticated predetermined magnetic optics. We try to answer this question and then to sketch from a new point of view the best spectrometer we could think of

  19. Detecting Significant Stress Drop Variations in Large Micro-Earthquake Datasets: A Comparison Between a Convergent Step-Over in the San Andreas Fault and the Ventura Thrust Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should

  20. Characteristics of newly found Quaternary fault, southern Korea, and its tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, M. C.; Cheon, Y.; Ha, S.; Kang, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Son, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study introduces the detailed geometry and kinematics of recently found Quaternary fault in southern Korea, named Seooe Fault, and discusses its tectonic implication through a synthetic analysis with previous studies. The N-S striking Seooe Fault shows a top-to-the-east thrust geometry and cuts the Cretaceous Goseong Formation and overlying Quaternary deposits, and its slip senses and associated minor folds in the hanging wall indicate an E-W compressional stress. The age of the lower part of the Quaternary deposits obtained by OSL dating indicates that the last movement of the fault occurred after 61 60 ka. Arcuate geometry of the main fault showing an upward decreasing dip-angle, reverse offset of the fault breccias, and reverse-sense indicators observed on neighboring N-S striking high-angle fractures indicate that this Quaternary fault was produced by the reactivation of pre-existing fault under E-W compressional stress field. Using the apparent vertical displacement of the fault and the attitudes of cutting slope and main fault surface, its minimum net displacement is calculated as 2.17 m. When the value is applied to the empirical equation of maximum displacement - moment earthquake magnitude (Mw), the magnitude is estimated to reach about 6.7, assuming that this displacement was due to one seismic event. Most of the Quaternary faults in southern Korea are observed along major inherited fault zones, and their geometry and kinematics indicate that they were reactivated under ENE-WSW or E-W compressional stress field, which is concordant with the characteristics of the Seooe Fault. In addition, focal mechanism solutions and geotechnical in-situ stress data in and around the Korean peninsula also support the current ENE-WSW or E-W regional compression. On the basis of the regional stress trajectories in and around East Asia, the current stress field in Korean peninsula is interpreted to have resulted from the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of

  1. A Vision-Based Dynamic Rotational Angle Measurement System for Large Civil Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Jae; Ho, Hoai-Nam; Lee, Jong-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based rotational angle measurement system for large-scale civil structures. Despite the fact that during the last decade several rotation angle measurement systems were introduced, they however often required complex and expensive equipment. Therefore, alternative effective solutions with high resolution are in great demand. The proposed system consists of commercial PCs, commercial camcorders, low-cost frame grabbers, and a wireless LAN router. The calculation of rotation angle is obtained by using image processing techniques with pre-measured calibration parameters. Several laboratory tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system. Compared with the commercial rotation angle measurement, the results of the system showed very good agreement with an error of less than 1.0% in all test cases. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on the five-story modal testing tower with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally verify the feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:22969348

  2. Fault strength in Marmara region inferred from the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations: A case study for the Prince's Islands fault segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Ali; Coskun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydin; Kalafat, Dogan

    2015-04-01

    The general consensus based on historical earthquake data point out that the last major moment release on the Prince's islands fault was in 1766 which in turn signals an increased seismic risk for Istanbul Metropolitan area considering the fact that most of the 20 mm/yr GPS derived slip rate for the region is accommodated mostly by that fault segment. The orientation of the Prince's islands fault segment overlaps with the NW-SE direction of the maximum principle stress axis derived from the focal mechanism solutions of the large and moderate sized earthquakes occurred in the Marmara region. As such, the NW-SE trending fault segment translates the motion between the two E-W trending branches of the North Anatolian fault zone; one extending from the Gulf of Izmit towards Çınarcık basin and the other extending between offshore Bakırköy and Silivri. The basic relation between the orientation of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes, the shear and normal stresses, and the orientation of a fault provides clue on the strength of a fault, i.e., its frictional coefficient. Here, the angle between the fault normal and maximum compressive stress axis is a key parameter where fault normal and fault parallel maximum compressive stress might be a necessary and sufficient condition for a creeping event. That relation also implies that when the trend of the sigma-1 axis is close to the strike of the fault the shear stress acting on the fault plane approaches zero. On the other hand, the ratio between the shear and normal stresses acting on a fault plane is proportional to the coefficient of frictional coefficient of the fault. Accordingly, the geometry between the Prince's islands fault segment and a maximum principal stress axis matches a weak fault model. In the frame of the presentation we analyze seismological data acquired in Marmara region and interpret the results in conjuction with the above mentioned weak fault model.

  3. An impact analysis of the fault impedance on voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an impact analysis of the fault impedance, in terms of its module and angle, on voltage sags caused by faults. Symmetrical and asymmetrical faults are simulated, at transmission and distribution lines, by using a frequency-domain fault simulation software called ANAFAS. Voltage sags are monitored at buses where sensitive end-users are connected. In order to overcome some intrinsic limitations of this software concerning its automatic execution for several cases, a computational tool was developed in Java programming language. This solution allows the automatic simulation of cases including the effect of the fault position, the fault type, and the proper fault impedance. The main conclusion is that the module and angle of the fault impedance can have a significant influence on voltage sag depending on the fault characteristics. (author)

  4. Fault geometry and mechanics of marly carbonate multilayers: An integrated field and laboratory study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, C.; Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Barchi, M. R.; Tesei, T.

    2016-12-01

    Sealing layers are often represented by sedimentary sequences characterized by alternating strong and weak lithologies. When involved in faulting processes, these mechanically heterogeneous multilayers develop complex fault geometries. Here we investigate fault initiation and evolution within a mechanical multilayer by integrating field observations and rock deformation experiments. Faults initiate with a staircase trajectory that partially reflects the mechanical properties of the involved lithologies, as suggested by our deformation experiments. However, some faults initiating at low angles in calcite-rich layers (θi = 5°-20°) and at high angles in clay-rich layers (θi = 45°-86°) indicate the important role of structural inheritance at the onset of faulting. With increasing displacement, faults develop well-organized fault cores characterized by a marly, foliated matrix embedding fragments of limestone. The angles of fault reactivation, which concentrate between 30° and 60°, are consistent with the low friction coefficient measured during our experiments on marls (μs = 0.39), indicating that clay minerals exert a main control on fault mechanics. Moreover, our integrated analysis suggests that fracturing and faulting are the main mechanisms allowing fluid circulation within the low-permeability multilayer, and that its sealing integrity can be compromised only by the activity of larger faults cutting across its entire thickness.

  5. High-temperature superconducting fault-current limiter - optimisation of superconducting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study initiated to continue the work of a DTI-LINK Collaborative Research Programme 'Enhancing the Properties of Bulk High Temperature Superconductors and their Potential Application as Fault Current Limiters (FCL). Details are given of computer modelling of the quenching process involving the transition from superconducting to normal conducting states undergone by the material when large currents are present. The design of compound elements, and a multi-element model are described along with FCL design covering distribution bus-coupler, embedded generator connection, larger generator connection, hazardous area safety, and interconnection to fault-prone network. The evaluation of thermal loss, test equipment and schedule, the optimised element, installed cost data, and the UK market are considered

  6. A low-angle detachment fault revealed: Three-dimensional images of the S-reflector fault zone along the Galicia passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuba, C. Nur; Gray, Gary G.; Morgan, Julia K.; Sawyer, Dale S.; Shillington, Donna J.; Reston, Tim J.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Brian E.

    2018-06-01

    A new 3-D seismic reflection volume over the Galicia margin continent-ocean transition zone provides an unprecedented view of the prominent S-reflector detachment fault that underlies the outer part of the margin. This volume images the fault's structure from breakaway to termination. The filtered time-structure map of the S-reflector shows coherent corrugations parallel to the expected paleo-extension directions with an average azimuth of 107°. These corrugations maintain their orientations, wavelengths and amplitudes where overlying faults sole into the S-reflector, suggesting that the parts of the detachment fault containing multiple crustal blocks may have slipped as discrete units during its late stages. Another interface above the S-reflector, here named S‧, is identified and interpreted as the upper boundary of the fault zone associated with the detachment fault. This layer, named the S-interval, thickens by tens of meters from SE to NW in the direction of transport. Localized thick accumulations also occur near overlying fault intersections, suggesting either non-uniform fault rock production, or redistribution of fault rock during slip. These observations have important implications for understanding how detachment faults form and evolve over time. 3-D seismic reflection imaging has enabled unique insights into fault slip history, fault rock production and redistribution.

  7. Isotropic Surface Remeshing without Large and Small Angles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiqun; Yan, Dong-Ming; Liu, Xiaohan; Tang, Chengcheng; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm for isotropic surface remeshing which progressively eliminates obtuse triangles and improves small angles. The main novelty of the proposed approach is a simple vertex insertion scheme that facilitates the removal of large angles, and a vertex removal operation that improves the distribution of small angles. In combination with other standard local mesh operators, e.g., connectivity optimization and local tangential smoothing, our algorithm is able to remesh efficiently a low-quality mesh surface. Our approach can be applied directly or used as a post-processing step following other remeshing approaches. Our method has a similar computational efficiency to the fastest approach available, i.e., real-time adaptive remeshing [1]. In comparison with state-of-the-art approaches, our method consistently generates better results based on evaluations using different metrics.

  8. Isotropic Surface Remeshing without Large and Small Angles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiqun

    2018-05-18

    We introduce a novel algorithm for isotropic surface remeshing which progressively eliminates obtuse triangles and improves small angles. The main novelty of the proposed approach is a simple vertex insertion scheme that facilitates the removal of large angles, and a vertex removal operation that improves the distribution of small angles. In combination with other standard local mesh operators, e.g., connectivity optimization and local tangential smoothing, our algorithm is able to remesh efficiently a low-quality mesh surface. Our approach can be applied directly or used as a post-processing step following other remeshing approaches. Our method has a similar computational efficiency to the fastest approach available, i.e., real-time adaptive remeshing [1]. In comparison with state-of-the-art approaches, our method consistently generates better results based on evaluations using different metrics.

  9. left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector in single phase γ' material verified by image simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.; Knobloch, C.; Glatzel, U.

    1998-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of Ni 3 Al, an ordered L1 2 or γ' phase, is under intense research since Westbrook showed the increase of its hardness with temperature in 1957. The super dislocations of this ordered phase normally have Burgers vectors rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle, disassociated in either two a/2 left-angle 110 right-angle or two rvec b = a/3 left-angle 112 right-angle, depending on deformation temperature and rate. Recent observations in [111] oriented γ' specimens suggest that additional dislocations with the shorter Burgers vector rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle might be active. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle on cube glide planes have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 and on octahedral planes of 0.27. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 for {110} glide planes and 0.33 for cube glide planes. The a left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector is the shortest of all complete dislocations of the L1 2 structure and creates no planar fault like antiphase boundaries or stacking faults. Due to the [111] oriented stress axis, which is used in this contribution, plastic deformation by a left-angle 100 right-angle dislocations as well as cube glide planes for left-angle 110 right-angle dislocations is encouraged. These dislocations could be reaction products, but will soon after contribute to deformation

  10. Structural Load Analysis of a Wind Turbine under Pitch Actuator and Controller Faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemaddar, Mahmoud; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of a wind turbine under blade pitch angle and shaft speed sensor faults as well as pitch actuator faults. A land-based NREL 5MW variable speed pitch reg- ulated wind turbine is considered as a reference. The conventional collective blade pitch angle controller strategy with independent pitch actuators control is used for load reduction. The wind turbine class is IEC-BII. The main purpose is to investigate the severity of end effects on structural loads and responses and consequently identify the high-risk components according to the type and amplitude of fault using a servo-aero-elastic simulation code, HAWC2. Both transient and steady state effects of faults are studied. Such information is useful for wind turbine fault detection and identification as well as system reliability analysis. Results show the effects of faults on wind turbine power output and responses. Pitch sensor faults mainly affects the vibration of shaft main bearing, while generator power and aerodynamic thrust are not changed significantly, due to independent pitch actuator control of three blades. Shaft speed sensor faults can seriously affect the generator power and aerodynamic thrust. Pitch actuator faults can result in fully pitching of the blade, and consequently rotor stops due to negative aerodynamic torque

  11. Near Fault Observatories: multidisciplinary research infrastructures, high resolution data and scientific products available through dedicated services implemented within the EPOS-IP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Gaetano; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Ergintav, Semih; Bernard, Pascal; Clinton, John; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Tataru, Dragos; Vogfjord, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    Near Fault Observatories (NFOs) are innovative research infrastructures based on dense, state of the art networks of multi-parametric sensors that continuously monitor the underlying Earth instability processes over a broad time interval. They aim at understanding the physical/chemical processes responsible for earthquakes and faulting and tracking their evolution over time by enabling advancements in ground shaking prediction. EPOS-IP is aimed at contributing in creating and harmonizing data and products distributors from seven NFOs, operating on different tectonic regimes and different areas of Europe. They include plate boundary systems at South Iceland Seismic Zone, the Marmara Sea and the Corinth rift. In mountain settings, NFOs monitor the Alto Tiberina and Irpinia faults in the Apennine mountain range, the Valais region in the Alps, and the Vrancea fault in the Carpathian Mountains. They monitor diverse faulting mechanisms (strike-slip, normal and thrust), high to low angle faults, shallow and deep faults, as well as regions with fast and slow strain rate accumulation. The focus of the observatories varies, ranging from small- to large-scale seismicity and includes the role of different parameters such as fluid playing in fault initiation, the internal structure of fault systems, site effects and derived processes such as earthquake generated landslides and tsunamis. In response to their specific objectives, the NFOs operate a diverse set of monitoring instrumentation using seismic, deformation, strain, geochemical and electromagnetic equipment. Since NFO methodological approach is based on extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserving multi-parameter data description, a main goal of this group is to build inclusive and harmonised services supporting the installation over the next decade of tens of near-fault observatories monitoring active faults in different tectonic environments in Europe. The NFO Thematic Core Service (TCS) relies on

  12. Depth-varying seismogenesis on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°20‧N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Timothy J.; Parnell-Turner, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Extension at slow- and intermediate-spreading mid-ocean ridges is commonly accommodated through slip on long-lived faults called oceanic detachments. These curved, convex-upward faults consist of a steeply-dipping section thought to be rooted in the lower crust or upper mantle which rotates to progressively shallower dip-angles at shallower depths. The commonly-observed result is a domed, sub-horizontal oceanic core complex at the seabed. Although it is accepted that detachment faults can accumulate kilometre-scale offsets over millions of years, the mechanism of slip, and their capacity to sustain the shear stresses necessary to produce large earthquakes, remains subject to debate. Here we present a comprehensive seismological study of an active oceanic detachment fault system on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 13°20‧N, combining the results from a local ocean-bottom seismograph deployment with waveform inversion of a series of larger teleseismically-observed earthquakes. The unique coincidence of these two datasets provides a comprehensive definition of rupture on the fault, from the uppermost mantle to the seabed. Our results demonstrate that although slip on the deep, steeply-dipping portion of detachment faults is accommodated by failure in numerous microearthquakes, the shallow, gently-dipping section of the fault within the upper few kilometres is relatively strong, and is capable of producing large-magnitude earthquakes. This result brings into question the current paradigm that the shallow sections of oceanic detachment faults are dominated by low-friction mineralogies and therefore slip aseismically, but is consistent with observations from continental detachment faults. Slip on the shallow portion of active detachment faults at relatively low angles may therefore account for many more large-magnitude earthquakes at mid-ocean ridges than previously thought, and suggests that the lithospheric strength at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges may be concentrated

  13. Large or small angle MSW from single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F

    2000-01-01

    In this talk we discuss a natural explanation of both neutrino mass hierarchies and large neutrino mixing angles, as required by the atmospheric neutrino data, in terms of a single right-handed neutrino giving the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light effective neutrino matrix, and illustrate this mechanism in the framework of models with U(1) family symmetries. Sub-dominant contributions from other right-handed neutrinos are required to give small mass splittings appropriate to the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem. We present three explicit examples for achieving the small angle MSW solution in the framework of U(1) family symmetry models containing three right-handed neutrinos, which can naturally describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. In this talk we also extend the analysis to the large angle MSW solution

  14. Fault Rupture Model of the 2016 Gyeongju, South Korea, Earthquake and Its Implication for the Underground Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, Takahiko; Song, Seok Goo

    2018-03-01

    The 2016 Gyeongju earthquake (ML 5.8) was the largest instrumentally recorded inland event in South Korea. It occurred in the southeast of the Korean Peninsula and was preceded by a large ML 5.1 foreshock. The aftershock seismicity data indicate that these earthquakes occurred on two closely collocated parallel faults that are oblique to the surface trace of the Yangsan fault. We investigate the rupture properties of these earthquakes using finite-fault slip inversion analyses. The obtained models indicate that the ruptures propagated NNE-ward and SSW-ward for the main shock and the large foreshock, respectively. This indicates that these earthquakes occurred on right-step faults and were initiated around a fault jog. The stress drops were up to 62 and 43 MPa for the main shock and the largest foreshock, respectively. These high stress drops imply high strength excess, which may be overcome by the stress concentration around the fault jog.

  15. Fault Analysis and Detection in Microgrids with High PV Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez Alvidrez, Javier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this report we focus on analyzing current-controlled PV inverters behaviour under faults in order to develop fault detection schemes for microgrids with high PV penetration. Inverter model suitable for steady state fault studies is presented and the impact of PV inverters on two protection elements is analyzed. The studied protection elements are superimposed quantities based directional element and negative sequence directional element. Additionally, several non-overcurrent fault detection schemes are discussed in this report for microgrids with high PV penetration. A detailed time-domain simulation study is presented to assess the performance of the presented fault detection schemes under different microgrid modes of operation.

  16. Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the Central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, A.; Burr, J.; Montero, W.; Morales, L.D.; Alvarado, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Long sublinear ridges and related scarps located at the base of large volcanic structures are frequently interpreted as normal faults associated with extensional regional stress. In contrast, the ridges bordering the Central Costa Rica volcanic range (CCRVR) are the topographic expression of hanging wall asymmetric angular anticlines overlying low-angle thrust faults at the base of the range. These faults formed by gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of the range due to the weight of the volcanic edifices and were perhaps triggered by the intrusion of magma over the past 20,000 years. These anticlines are hypothesized to occur along the base of the volcano, where the thrust faults ramp up toward the sea bottom. Ridges and scarps between 2,000 and 5,000 m below sea level are interpreted as the topographic expression of these folds. The authors further suggest that the scarps of the CCRVR and valid scaled terrestrial analogs of the perimeter scarp of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. They suggest that the crust below Olympus Mons has failed under the load of the volcano, triggering the radial slumping of the flanks of the volcano on basal thrusts. The thrusting would have, in turn, formed the anticlinal ridges and scarps that surround the edifice. The thrust faults may extend all the way to the base of the Martian crust (about 40 km), and they may have been active until almost the end of the volcanic activity. They suggest that gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of volcanoes is a process common to most large volcanic edifices. In the CCRVR this slumping of the flanks is a slow intermittent process, but it could evolve to rapid massive avalanching leading to catastrophic eruptions. Thus monitoring of uplift and displacement of the folds related to the slump tectonics could become an additional effective method for mitigating volcanic hazards

  17. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of

  18. The mechanics of fault-bend folding and tear-fault systems in the Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Nathan Philip

    This dissertation investigates the mechanics of fault-bend folding using the discrete element method (DEM) and explores the nature of tear-fault systems in the deep-water Niger Delta fold-and-thrust belt. In Chapter 1, we employ the DEM to investigate the development of growth structures in anticlinal fault-bend folds. This work was inspired by observations that growth strata in active folds show a pronounced upward decrease in bed dip, in contrast to traditional kinematic fault-bend fold models. Our analysis shows that the modeled folds grow largely by parallel folding as specified by the kinematic theory; however, the process of folding over a broad axial surface zone yields a component of fold growth by limb rotation that is consistent with the patterns observed in natural folds. This result has important implications for how growth structures can he used to constrain slip and paleo-earthquake ages on active blind-thrust faults. In Chapter 2, we expand our DEM study to investigate the development of a wider range of fault-bend folds. We examine the influence of mechanical stratigraphy and quantitatively compare our models with the relationships between fold and fault shape prescribed by the kinematic theory. While the synclinal fault-bend models closely match the kinematic theory, the modeled anticlinal fault-bend folds show robust behavior that is distinct from the kinematic theory. Specifically, we observe that modeled structures maintain a linear relationship between fold shape (gamma) and fault-horizon cutoff angle (theta), rather than expressing the non-linear relationship with two distinct modes of anticlinal folding that is prescribed by the kinematic theory. These observations lead to a revised quantitative relationship for fault-bend folds that can serve as a useful interpretation tool. Finally, in Chapter 3, we examine the 3D relationships of tear- and thrust-fault systems in the western, deep-water Niger Delta. Using 3D seismic reflection data and new

  19. Control switching in high performance and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    The problem of reliability in high performance control and in fault tolerant control is considered in this paper. A feedback controller architecture for high performance and fault tolerance is considered. The architecture is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. By usi...

  20. A Method to Quantify Plant Availability and Initiating Event Frequency Using a Large Event Tree, Small Fault Tree Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Ernest J.; Sun, Alice; Rodgers, Shawn; Popova, ElmiraV; Nelson, Paul; Moiseytseva, Vera; Wang, Eric

    2006-01-01

    South Texas Project uses a large fault tree to produce scenarios (minimal cut sets) used in quantification of plant availability and event frequency predictions. On the other hand, the South Texas Project probabilistic risk assessment model uses a large event tree, small fault tree for quantifying core damage and radioactive release frequency predictions. The South Texas Project is converting its availability and event frequency model to use a large event tree, small fault in an effort to streamline application support and to provide additional detail in results. The availability and event frequency model as well as the applications it supports (maintenance and operational risk management, system engineering health assessment, preventive maintenance optimization, and RIAM) are briefly described. A methodology to perform availability modeling in a large event tree, small fault tree framework is described in detail. How the methodology can be used to support South Texas Project maintenance and operations risk management is described in detail. Differences with other fault tree methods and other recently proposed methods are discussed in detail. While the methods described are novel to the South Texas Project Risk Management program and to large event tree, small fault tree models, concepts in the area of application support and availability modeling have wider applicability to the industry. (authors)

  1. Analysis of Fault Spacing in Thrust-Belt Wedges Using Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regensburger, P. V.; Ito, G.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modeling is invaluable in studying the mechanical processes governing the evolution of geologic features such as thrust-belt wedges. The mechanisms controlling thrust fault spacing in wedges is not well understood. Our numerical model treats the thrust belt as a visco-elastic-plastic continuum and uses a finite-difference, marker-in-cell method to solve for conservation of mass and momentum. From these conservation laws, stress is calculated and Byerlee's law is used to determine the shear stress required for a fault to form. Each model consists of a layer of crust, initially 3-km-thick, carried on top of a basal décollement, which moves at a constant speed towards a rigid backstop. A series of models were run with varied material properties, focusing on the angle of basal friction at the décollement, the angle of friction within the crust, and the cohesion of the crust. We investigate how these properties affected the spacing between thrusts that have the most time-integrated history of slip and therefore have the greatest effect on the large-scale undulations in surface topography. The surface position of these faults, which extend through most of the crustal layer, are identifiable as local maxima in positive curvature of surface topography. Tracking the temporal evolution of faults, we find that thrust blocks are widest when they first form at the front of the wedge and then they tend to contract over time as more crustal material is carried to the wedge. Within each model, thrust blocks form with similar initial widths, but individual thrust blocks develop differently and may approach an asymptotic width over time. The median of thrust block widths across the whole wedge tends to decrease with time. Median fault spacing shows a positive correlation with both wedge cohesion and internal friction. In contrast, median fault spacing exhibits a negative correlation at small angles of basal friction (laws that can be used to predict fault spacing in

  2. Distribution network fault section identification and fault location using artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashtdar, Masoud; Dashti, Rahman; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a method for fault location in power distribution network is presented. The proposed method uses artificial neural network. In order to train the neural network, a series of specific characteristic are extracted from the recorded fault signals in relay. These characteristics...... components of the sequences as well as three-phase signals could be obtained using statistics to extract the hidden features inside them and present them separately to train the neural network. Also, since the obtained inputs for the training of the neural network strongly depend on the fault angle, fault...... resistance, and fault location, the training data should be selected such that these differences are properly presented so that the neural network does not face any issues for identification. Therefore, selecting the signal processing function, data spectrum and subsequently, statistical parameters...

  3. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  4. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  5. Response of steel buried pipeline to the three dimensional fault movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia Tohidi, R.; Shakib, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fault movement during an earthquake may have severe effect on buried pipelines as a lifeline element. A few studies are carried out on the behaviour of buried pipelines to this kind of damage and disruption. In most of these studies, the fault movements are modeled as two-dimensional. In this study, by modeling the pipe as a beam and the surrounding soil as nonlinear springs, the effect of three dimensional movement of fault on buried pipelines is investigated. Some important parameters such as; fault movement, depth of buried, geometrical characteristics of the pipe, angle of pipe- soil friction, angle of pipe- fault crossing, and the fault slip are considered in this study

  6. Style and rate of quaternary deformation of the Hosgri Fault Zone, offshore south-central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathryn L.; Lettis, William R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Hall, N. Timothy; Keller, Mararget A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone is the southernmost component of a complex system of right-slip faults in south-central coastal California that includes the San Gregorio, Sur, and San Simeon Faults. We have characterized the contemporary style of faulting along the zone on the basis of an integrated analysis of a broad spectrum of data, including shallow high-resolution and deep penetration seismic reflection data; geologic and geomorphic data along the Hosgri and San Simeon Fault Zones and the intervening San Simeon/Hosgri pull-apart basin; the distribution and nature of near-coast seismicity; regional tectonic kinematics; and comparison of the Hosgri Fault Zone with worldwide strike-slip, oblique-slip, and reverse-slip fault zones. These data show that the modern Hosgri Fault Zone is a convergent right-slip (transpressional) fault having a late Quaternary slip rate of 1 to 3 mm/yr. Evidence supporting predominantly strike-slip deformation includes (1) a long, narrow, linear zone of faulting and associated deformation; (2) the presence of asymmetric flower structures; (3) kinematically consistent localized extensional and compressional deformation at releasing and restraining bends or steps, respectively, in the fault zone; (4) changes in the sense and magnitude of vertical separation both along trend of the fault zone and vertically within the fault zone; (5) strike-slip focal mechanisms along the fault trace; (6) a distribution of seismicity that delineates a high-angle fault extending through the seismogenic crust; (7) high ratios of lateral to vertical slip along the fault zone; and (8) the separation by the fault of two tectonic domains (offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Los Osos domain) that are undergoing contrasting styles of deformation and orientations of crustal shortening. The convergent component of slip is evidenced by the deformation of the early-late Pliocene unconformity. In characterizing the style of faulting along the Hosgri Fault Zone, we assessed

  7. Feature Extraction Method for High Impedance Ground Fault Localization in Radial Power Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Jean; Munk, Steen M.; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to the localization of high impedance ground faults in compensated radial power distribution networks is presented. The total size of such networks is often very large and a major part of the monitoring of these is carried out manually. The increasing complexity of industrial...... of three phase voltages and currents. The method consists of a feature extractor, based on a grid description of the feeder by impulse responses, and a neural network for ground fault localization. The emphasis of this paper is the feature extractor, and the detection of the time instance of a ground fault...... processes and communication systems lead to demands for improved monitoring of power distribution networks so that the quality of power delivery can be kept at a controlled level. The ground fault localization method for each feeder in a network is based on the centralized frequency broadband measurement...

  8. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-09-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  9. Research on Fault Prediction of Distribution Network Based on Large Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of information technology and the improvement of distribution automation level. Especially, the amount of on-line monitoring and statistical data is increasing, and large data is used data distribution system, describes the technology to collect, data analysis and data processing of the data distribution system. The artificial neural network mining algorithm and the large data are researched in the fault diagnosis and prediction of the distribution network.

  10. The weight and angle of depression detection and control system of a large portal crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lian-Wen; Xie, Hongxia; Wang, Meijing; Guan, Yankui; Leng, Gengxin

    2008-12-01

    In order to prevent overturning accidents, the lifted weight and the angle of depression should be detected when a large portal crane is working in a shipyard. However, the locations of the weight sensor and the angle of depression detection part are far away from the central control room. The long signal transmitting distance is so long that it results in a lot of interferences, even the breaking down of the system. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, a high precision analog signal amplifier and a voltage / current (V / I) transforming circuit is set at the place of the sensor to detect the weight. After the sensor signals have been amplified, they will be transformed into 4 to 20 mA current signals for transmission. Thus the interferences in the long transmitting process can be overcome. A WXJ-3 potentiometer is applied to detect the angle of depression. This device has the advantages of a high accuracy of repeated positions, a good stability and a strong anti-fatigue property. After processed by the current-strengthened circuit, the transmitted signals representing voltage value can have the characteristics of transmitting currents because of the large current value. Then the anti-jamming capability is stronger. Send the weight and the angle of depression detection signals to A/D converter, then the signals turn into digital representation and are sent to the control system composed of a PLC. The PLC calculates the current rated lifting weight depending on the different angles of depression, and when the weight is greater than the rated one, the PLC sends control signals to stop the lifting; hence the crane can only put down the weights. So the safety of the large portal crane is effectively guaranteed. At present ,the system has been applied to the 70-ton large portal cranes of the Tianjin Xingang Shipyard with a safe operation of 10 years.

  11. Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults, Boudinage and Ductile Shear at Rifted Passive Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C. N.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Jolivet, L.; Ballard, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Deep structures resulting from the rifting of the continental crust are now well imaged by seismic profiles. We present a series of recent industrial profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear of the base of the crust and low-angle detachment faulting. Along both magma-rich and magma-poor rifted margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust. Large-scale shallow dipping shear zones are identified with a top-to-the-continent sense of shear. This sense of shear is consistent with the activity of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) that accommodate the extension in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for an oceanward migration of the deformation and of the associated syn-tectonic deposits (sediments and/or volcanics). We discuss the origin of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures that seem to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from several locations (Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea…), and discuss their rifting histories that differ from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults.

  12. HOT Faults", Fault Organization, and the Occurrence of the Largest Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. M.; Hillers, G.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    We apply the concept of "Highly Optimized Tolerance" (HOT) for the investigation of spatio-temporal seismicity evolution, in particular mechanisms associated with largest earthquakes. HOT provides a framework for investigating both qualitative and quantitative features of complex feedback systems that are far from equilibrium and punctuated by rare, catastrophic events. In HOT, robustness trade-offs lead to complexity and power laws in systems that are coupled to evolving environments. HOT was originally inspired by biology and engineering, where systems are internally very highly structured, through biological evolution or deliberate design, and perform in an optimum manner despite fluctuations in their surroundings. Though faults and fault systems are not designed in ways comparable to biological and engineered structures, feedback processes are responsible in a conceptually comparable way for the development, evolution and maintenance of younger fault structures and primary slip surfaces of mature faults, respectively. Hence, in geophysical applications the "optimization" approach is perhaps more aptly replaced by "organization", reflecting the distinction between HOT and random, disorganized configurations, and highlighting the importance of structured interdependencies that evolve via feedback among and between different spatial and temporal scales. Expressed in the terminology of the HOT concept, mature faults represent a configuration optimally organized for the release of strain energy; whereas immature, more heterogeneous fault networks represent intermittent, suboptimal systems that are regularized towards structural simplicity and the ability to generate large earthquakes more easily. We discuss fault structure and associated seismic response pattern within the HOT concept, and outline fundamental differences between this novel interpretation to more orthodox viewpoints like the criticality concept. The discussion is flanked by numerical simulations of a

  13. Large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero

    1998-04-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed. © 1998

  14. Integrated 3D Reservoir/Fault Property Modelling Aided Well Planning and Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery in a Niger Delta Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyeagoro, U. O.; Ebong, U. E.; Nworie, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The large and varied portfolio of assets managed by oil companies requires quick decision-making and the deployment of best in class technologies in asset management. Timely decision making and the application of the best technologies in reservoir management are however sometimes in conflict due to large time requirements of the latter.Optimizing the location of development wells is critical to account for variable fluid contact movements and pressure interference effects between wells, which can be significant because of the high permeability (Darcy range) of Niger Delta reservoirs. With relatively high drilling costs, the optimization of well locations necessitates a good realistic static and dynamic 3D reservoir description, especially in the recovery of remaining oil and oil rim type of reservoirs.A detailed 3D reservoir model with fault properties was constructed for a Niger delta producing field. This involved the integration of high quality 3D seismic, core, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, production and structural geology data to construct a realistic 3D reservoir/fault property model for the field. The key parameters considered during the construction of the internal architecture of the model were the vertical and horizontal reservoir heterogeneities-this controls the fluid flow within the reservoir. In the production realm, the fault thickness and fault permeabilities are factors that control the impedance of fluid flow across the fault-fault transmissibility. These key internal and external reservoir/structural variables were explicitly modeled in a 3D modeling software to produce different realizations and manage the uncertainties.The resulting 3D reservoir/fault property model was upscaled for simulation purpose such that grid blocks along the fault planes have realistic transmissibility multipliers of 0 to 1 attached to them. The model was also used in the well planner to optimize the positioning of a high angle deviated well that penetrated

  15. Progress in Root Cause and Fault Propagation Analysis of Large-Scale Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale industrial processes, a fault can easily propagate between process units due to the interconnections of material and information flows. Thus the problem of fault detection and isolation for these processes is more concerned about the root cause and fault propagation before applying quantitative methods in local models. Process topology and causality, as the key features of the process description, need to be captured from process knowledge and process data. The modelling methods from these two aspects are overviewed in this paper. From process knowledge, structural equation modelling, various causal graphs, rule-based models, and ontological models are summarized. From process data, cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian nets are introduced. Based on these models, inference methods are discussed to find root causes and fault propagation paths under abnormal situations. Some future work is proposed in the end.

  16. Moment magnitude, local magnitude and corner frequency of small earthquakes nucleating along a low angle normal fault in the Upper Tiber valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) is still a debated issue (Bath, 1966, 1981; Ristau et al., 2003, 2005). Theoretical considerations and empirical observations show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, MW and ML scale 1∶1. Whilst for smaller magnitudes this 1∶1 scaling breaks down (Bethmann et al. 2011). For accomplishing this task we analyzed the source parameters of about 1500 (30.000 waveforms) well-located small earthquakes occurred in the Upper Tiber Valley (Northern Apennines) in the range of -1.5≤ML≤3.8. In between these earthquakes there are 300 events repeatedly rupturing the same fault patch generally twice within a short time interval (less than 24 hours; Chiaraluce et al., 2007). We use high-resolution short period and broadband recordings acquired between 2010 and 2014 by 50 permanent seismic stations deployed to monitor the activity of a regional low angle normal fault (named Alto Tiberina fault, ATF) in the framework of The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO; Chiaraluce et al., 2014). For this study the direct determination of MW for small earthquakes is essential but unfortunately the computation of MW for small earthquakes (MW < 3) is not a routine procedure in seismology. We apply the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation computed for this area in order to obtain precise spectral corrections to be used in the calculation of small earthquakes spectral plateaus. The aim of this analysis is to achieve moment magnitudes of small events through a procedure that uses our previously calibrated crustal attenuation parameters (geometrical spreading g(r), quality factor Q(f), and the residual parameter k) to correct for path effects. We determine the MW-ML relationships in two selected fault zones (on-fault and fault-hanging-wall) of the ATF by an orthogonal regression analysis providing a semi-automatic and robust procedure for moment magnitude determination within a

  17. Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifat, Yuval; Eitan, Michal; Iluz, Zeev; Hanein, Yael; Boag, Amir; Scheuer, Jacob

    2014-05-14

    We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband, and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nanoantenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on the reflected light. High-fidelity images were projected at angles of 45 and 20° with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40-50% over an optical bandwidth exceeding 180 nm. Excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions was found at a wide spectral range. The demonstration of such reflectarrays opens new avenues toward expanding the limits of large-angle holography.

  18. Hazard-to-Risk: High-Performance Computing Simulations of Large Earthquake Ground Motions and Building Damage in the Near-Fault Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Rodgers, A. J.; McCallen, D.; Petersson, N. A.; Pitarka, A.

    2017-12-01

    We are running high-performance computing (HPC) simulations of ground motions for large (magnitude, M=6.5-7.0) earthquakes in the near-fault region (steel moment frame buildings throughout the near-fault domain. For ground motions, we are using SW4, a fourth order summation-by-parts finite difference time-domain code running on 10,000-100,000's of cores. Earthquake ruptures are generated using the Graves and Pitarka (2017) method. We validated ground motion intensity measurements against Ground Motion Prediction Equations. We considered two events (M=6.5 and 7.0) for vertical strike-slip ruptures with three-dimensional (3D) basin structures, including stochastic heterogeneity. We have also considered M7.0 scenarios for a Hayward Fault rupture scenario which effects the San Francisco Bay Area and northern California using both 1D and 3D earth structure. Dynamic, inelastic response of canonical buildings is computed with the NEVADA, a nonlinear, finite-deformation finite element code. Canonical buildings include 3-, 9-, 20- and 40-story steel moment frame buildings. Damage potential is tracked by the peak inter-story drift (PID) ratio, which measures the maximum displacement between adjacent floors of the building and is strongly correlated with damage. PID ratios greater 1.0 generally indicate non-linear response and permanent deformation of the structure. We also track roof displacement to identify permanent deformation. PID (damage) for a given earthquake scenario (M, slip distribution, hypocenter) is spatially mapped throughout the SW4 domain with 1-2 km resolution. Results show that in the near fault region building damage is correlated with peak ground velocity (PGV), while farther away (> 20 km) it is better correlated with peak ground acceleration (PGA). We also show how simulated ground motions have peaks in the response spectra that shift to longer periods for larger magnitude events and for locations of forward directivity, as has been reported by

  19. A Full-Maxwell Approach for Large-Angle Polar Wander of Viscoelastic Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2017-12-01

    For large-angle long-term true polar wander (TPW) there are currently two types of nonlinear methods which give approximated solutions: those assuming that the rotational axis coincides with the axis of maximum moment of inertia (MoI), which simplifies the Liouville equation, and those based on the quasi-fluid approximation, which approximates the Love number. Recent studies show that both can have a significant bias for certain models. Therefore, we still lack an (semi)analytical method which can give exact solutions for large-angle TPW for a model based on Maxwell rheology. This paper provides a method which analytically solves the MoI equation and adopts an extended iterative procedure introduced in Hu et al. (2017) to obtain a time-dependent solution. The new method can be used to simulate the effect of a remnant bulge or models in different hydrostatic states. We show the effect of the viscosity of the lithosphere on long-term, large-angle TPW. We also simulate models without hydrostatic equilibrium and show that the choice of the initial stress-free shape for the elastic (or highly viscous) lithosphere of a given model is as important as its thickness for obtaining a correct TPW behavior. The initial shape of the lithosphere can be an alternative explanation to mantle convection for the difference between the observed and model predicted flattening. Finally, it is concluded that based on the quasi-fluid approximation, TPW speed on Earth and Mars is underestimated, while the speed of the rotational axis approaching the end position on Venus is overestimated.

  20. Large solid-angle spectrometers for studies of double-differential charged-particle and neutron emission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, M.; Matsuyama, S.; Sanami, T.; Soda, D.; Matsuyama, I.; Ohkubo, T.; Iwasaki, S.; Hirakawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    The large solid-angle spectrometer developed for studies of double-differential cross sections of (n, charged particle) and (n, xn') reactions using a gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber and an 80-cm long liquid scintillator is described. The charged particle spectrometer is a twin gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber with solid angle close to 4 π designed to achieve high stopping power and background suppression. The neutron spectrometer is a long NE213 liquid scintillation detector having position sensitivity. It is used as a large single spectrometer or a position sensitive detector covering wide scattering angle. The facility design, performance and examples of application are discussed. The conclusion is made that the facility provides a useful mean for studies in particular for reactions with small cross sections and/or for neutron sources with low intensity. 15 refs., 15 figs

  1. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  2. Large magnitude earthquakes on the Awatere Fault, Marlborough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.P.M.; Little, T.A.; Van Dissen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Awatere Fault is a principal active strike-slip fault within the Marlborough fault system, and last ruptured in October 1848, in the M w ∼7.5 Marlborough earthquake. The coseismic slip distribution and maximum traceable length of this rupture are calculated from the magnitude and distribution of small, metre-scale geomorphic displacements attributable to this earthquake. These data suggest this event ruptured ∼110 km of the fault, with mean horizontal surface displacement of 5.3 ± 1.6m. Based on these parameters, the moment magnitude of this earthquake would be M w ∼7.4-7.7. Paeloseismic trenching investigations along the eastern section reveal evidence for at least eight, and possibly ten, surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes in the last 8600 years, including the 1848 rupture. The coseismic slip distribution and rupture length of the 1848 earthquake, in combination with the paleoearthquake age data, suggest the eastern section of the Awatere Fault ruptures in M w ∼7.5 earthquakes, with over 5 m of surface displacement, every 860-1080 years. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  3. The large 1956 earthquake in the South Aegean: Macroseismic field configuration, faulting, and neotectonics of Amorgos Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Pavlides, Spyros B.

    1992-10-01

    New field observations of the seismic intensity distribution of the large (M s = 7.4) South Aegean (Amorgos) earthquake of 9 July 1956 are presented. Interpretations based on local ground conditions, structural properties of buildings and peculiarities of the rupture process lead to a re-evaluation of the macroseismic field configuration. This, together with the aftershock epicentral distribution, quite well defines the earthquake rupture zone, which trends NE-SW and coincides with the Amorgos Astypalea trough. The lateral extent of the rupture zone, however, is about 40% smaller than that predicted for Aegean earthquakes of M s = 7.4. This discrepancy could be attributed to sea-bottom topography changes, which seem to control the rupture terminations, and to relatively high stressdrop with respect to other Aegean earthquakes. Fault plane solutions obtained by several authors indicate either mainly normal faulting with a significant right-lateral strike-slip component or predominantly strike-slip motion. The neotectonism of Amorgos Island, based on new field observations, aerial photograph analysis and fault mechanisms, is consistent with the dip-slip interpretation. The neotectonic master fault of Amorgos and the 1956 seismic faulting appear to belong to the same tectonic phase (NE-SW strike and a southeasterly dip). However, the significant right-lateral strike-slip component supports the idea that the Amorgos region deviates from the simple description for pure extension in back-arc conditions.

  4. Constraining the Distribution of Vertical Slip on the South Heli Shan Fault (Northeastern Tibet) From High-Resolution Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haiyun; Zheng, Wenjun; Ge, Weipeng; Zhang, Peizhen; Zeng, Jiangyuan; Yu, Jingxing

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the along-fault slip distribution provides an insight into the long-term rupture patterns of a fault, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of its future behavior. The increasing wealth of high-resolution topographic data, such as Light Detection and Ranging and photogrammetric digital elevation models, allows us to better constrain the slip distribution, thus greatly improving our understanding of fault behavior. The South Heli Shan Fault is a major active fault on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we built a 2 m resolution digital elevation model of the South Heli Shan Fault based on high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo satellite imagery and then measured 302 vertical displacements along the fault, which increased the measurement density of previous field surveys by a factor of nearly 5. The cumulative displacements show an asymmetric distribution along the fault, comprising three major segments. An increasing trend from west to east indicates that the fault has likely propagated westward over its lifetime. The topographic relief of Heli Shan shows an asymmetry similar to the measured cumulative slip distribution, suggesting that the uplift of Heli Shan may result mainly from the long-term activity of the South Heli Shan Fault. Furthermore, the cumulative displacements divide into discrete clusters along the fault, indicating that the fault has ruptured in several large earthquakes. By constraining the slip-length distribution of each rupture, we found that the events do not support a characteristic recurrence model for the fault.

  5. Efficient preparation of large-block-code ancilla states for fault-tolerant quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Cong; Lai, Ching-Yi; Brun, Todd A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC) schemes that use multiqubit large block codes can potentially reduce the resource overhead to a great extent. A major obstacle is the requirement for a large number of clean ancilla states of different types without correlated errors inside each block. These ancilla states are usually logical stabilizer states of the data-code blocks, which are generally difficult to prepare if the code size is large. Previously, we have proposed an ancilla distillation protocol for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes by classical error-correcting codes. It was assumed that the quantum gates in the distillation circuit were perfect; however, in reality, noisy quantum gates may introduce correlated errors that are not treatable by the protocol. In this paper, we show that additional postselection by another classical error-detecting code can be applied to remove almost all correlated errors. Consequently, the revised protocol is fully fault tolerant and capable of preparing a large set of stabilizer states sufficient for FTQC using large block codes. At the same time, the yield rate can be boosted from O (t-2) to O (1 ) in practice for an [[n ,k ,d =2 t +1

  6. Coordinated Fault-Tolerance for High-Performance Computing Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Dhabaleswar Kumar [The Ohio State University; Beckman, Pete

    2011-07-28

    With the Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance Systems (CIFTS, as the original project came to be called) project, our aim has been to understand and tackle the following broad research questions, the answers to which will help the HEC community analyze and shape the direction of research in the field of fault tolerance and resiliency on future high-end leadership systems. Will availability of global fault information, obtained by fault information exchange between the different HEC software on a system, allow individual system software to better detect, diagnose, and adaptively respond to faults? If fault-awareness is raised throughout the system through fault information exchange, is it possible to get all system software working together to provide a more comprehensive end-to-end fault management on the system? What are the missing fault-tolerance features that widely used HEC system software lacks today that would inhibit such software from taking advantage of systemwide global fault information? What are the practical limitations of a systemwide approach for end-to-end fault management based on fault awareness and coordination? What mechanisms, tools, and technologies are needed to bring about fault awareness and coordination of responses on a leadership-class system? What standards, outreach, and community interaction are needed for adoption of the concept of fault awareness and coordination for fault management on future systems? Keeping our overall objectives in mind, the CIFTS team has taken a parallel fourfold approach. Our central goal was to design and implement a light-weight, scalable infrastructure with a simple, standardized interface to allow communication of fault-related information through the system and facilitate coordinated responses. This work led to the development of the Fault Tolerance Backplane (FTB) publish-subscribe API specification, together with a reference implementation and several experimental implementations on top of

  7. Structural character of the northern segment of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed mapping of exposed features along the northern part of the Paintbrush Canyon fault was initiated to aid in construction of the computer-assisted three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model of Yucca Mountain, to contribute to kinematic reconstruction of the tectonic history of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, and to assist in the interpretation of geophysical data from Midway Valley. Yucca Mountain is segmented into relatively intact blocks of east-dipping Miocene volcanic strata, bounded by north-striking, west-dipping high-angle normal faults. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, representing the easternmost block-bounding normal fault, separates Fran Ridge from Midway Valley and continues northward across Yucca Wash to at least the southern margin of the Timber Mountain Caldera complex. South of Yucca Wash, the Paintbrush Canyon Fault is largely concealed beneath thick Quaternary deposits. Bedrock exposures to the north reveal a complex fault, zone, displaying local north- and west-trending grabens, and rhombic pull-apart features. The fault scarp, discontinuously exposed along a mapped length of 8 km north of Yucca Wash, dips westward by 41 degrees to 74 degrees. Maximum vertical offset of the Rhyolite of Comb Peak along the fault measures about 210 m in Paintbrush Canyon and, on the basis of drill hole information, vertical offset of the Topopoah Spring Tuff is about 360 m near the northern part of Fran Ridge. Observed displacement along the fault in Paintbrush Canyon is down to the west with a component of left-lateral oblique slip. Unlike previously proposed tectonic models, strata adjacent to the fault dip to the east. Quaternary deposits do not appear displaced along the fault scarp north of Yucca Wash, but are displaced in trenches south of Yucca Wash

  8. Dynamic weakening of smectite-rich faults at intermediate to high velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, K.; Hirose, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Smectite, one of the hydrous clay mineral, is ubiquitous in incoming sediments to subduction zones and is thought to weaken and stabilize subduction thrust faults. However, frictional properties of smectite alone cannot explain the nucleation and propagation of earthquake slip at the shallow plate boundary thrust which potentially causes the devastating tsunamis. Here, we investigate for the first time the effect of smectite fraction in smectite-quartz mixtures on friction at 30 μm/s to 1.3 m/s, to shed a light on the frictional response for the intermediate to high slip rates where the conventional friction experiments have not been explored. In the low slip rate of 30 μm/s, the steady-state coefficient of friction decreases non-linearly increasing smectite fraction: it drops rapidly at moderate fraction of 30-50 vol%. On the other hand, at the faster slip rates of ≥ 150 μm/s the friction lowers from 10-20 vol% fraction since drastic slip weakening appears for the mixtures of ~20 vol % smectite. Hence the fault suddenly loses the strength by adding only 20 % of smectite. The weakening seems to be associated with an excess pore pressure invoked by shear compaction and thermal pressurization during the experiments. This property weakens the fault strength and accelerates the fault slip, even if clay content is small (c.a. 15-35 %), leading to the large stress drop. In contrast, the faults rich in smectite (≥ 50 %) may cause small stress drop during the faulting owing to low friction coefficient of smectite at any slip rates. The results highlight that smectite content significantly affects frictional properties of faults and may generates the diversity in the subduction zone earthquakes. ACKNOLEDGEMENTS We thank Kyuichi Kanagawa, Masaya Suzuki, Osamu Tadai, and Hiroko Kitajima for constructive discussions and technical help. This work was supported by a JSPS Grant-in-Aid for JSPS fellows (25-04960) to KO, a JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (20740264

  9. A numerical study on the feasibility evaluation of a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter applying thyristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Ji Ho; Hwang, Young Jin; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Smart fault current controller (SFCC) proposed in our previous work consists of a power converter, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor, thyristors, and a control unit [1]. SFCC can limit and control the current by adjusting firing angles of thyristors when a fault occurs. SFCC has complex structure because the HTS DC reactor generates the loss under AC. To use the DC reactor under AC, rectifier that consists of four thyristors is needed and it increases internal resistance of SFCC. For this reason, authors propose a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The hybrid type SFCL proposed in this paper consists of a non-inductive superconducting coil and two thyristors. To verify the feasibility of the proposed hybrid type SFCL, simulations about the interaction of the superconducting coil and thyristors are conducted when fault current flows in the superconducting coil. Authors expect that the hybrid type SFCL can control the magnitude of the fault current by adjusting the firing angles of thyristors after the superconducting coil limits the fault current at first peak.

  10. A numerical study on the feasibility evaluation of a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter applying thyristors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Ji Ho; Hwang, Young Jin; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Smart fault current controller (SFCC) proposed in our previous work consists of a power converter, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor, thyristors, and a control unit [1]. SFCC can limit and control the current by adjusting firing angles of thyristors when a fault occurs. SFCC has complex structure because the HTS DC reactor generates the loss under AC. To use the DC reactor under AC, rectifier that consists of four thyristors is needed and it increases internal resistance of SFCC. For this reason, authors propose a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The hybrid type SFCL proposed in this paper consists of a non-inductive superconducting coil and two thyristors. To verify the feasibility of the proposed hybrid type SFCL, simulations about the interaction of the superconducting coil and thyristors are conducted when fault current flows in the superconducting coil. Authors expect that the hybrid type SFCL can control the magnitude of the fault current by adjusting the firing angles of thyristors after the superconducting coil limits the fault current at first peak.

  11. S-matrix description of anomalous large-angle heavy-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahn, W E; Hussein, M S [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-10-12

    We present a quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n..cap alpha.. type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function for /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si. Our treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement.

  12. S-matrix description of anomalus large-angle heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahn, W.E.; Hussein, M.S.; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n.α type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function or 16 O + 28 Si is presented. This treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement. (Author) [pt

  13. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  14. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B; Chang, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90 deg. < θ < 165 deg. and 0 deg. < φ < 360 deg.) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in φ). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,φ), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method

  15. A new digital ground-fault protection system for generator-transformer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielichowski, Mieczyslaw; Szlezak, Tomasz [Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    Ground faults are one of most often reasons of damages in stator windings of large generators. Under certain conditions, as a result of ground-fault protection systems maloperation, ground faults convert into high-current faults, causing severe failures in power system. Numerous publications in renowned journals and magazines testify about ground-fault matter importance and problems reported by exploitators confirm opinions, that some issues concerning ground-fault protection of large generators have not been solved yet or have been solved insufficiently. In this paper a new conception of a digital ground-fault protection system for stator winding of large generator was proposed. The process of intermittent arc ground fault in stator winding has been briefly discussed and actual ground-fault voltage waveforms were presented. A new relaying algorithm, based on third harmonic voltage measurement was also drawn and the methods of its implementation and testing were described. (author)

  16. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  17. Diagnosis of Short-Circuit Fault in Large-Scale Permanent-Magnet Wind Power Generator Based on CMAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsung Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method based on the cerebellar model arithmetic controller (CMAC for fault diagnosis of large-scale permanent-magnet wind power generators and compares the results with Error Back Propagation (EBP. The diagnosis is based on the short-circuit faults in permanent-magnet wind power generators, magnetic field change, and temperature change. Since CMAC is characterized by inductive ability, associative ability, quick response, and similar input signals exciting similar memories, it has an excellent effect as an intelligent fault diagnosis implement. The experimental results suggest that faults can be diagnosed effectively after only training CMAC 10 times. In comparison to training 151 times for EBP, CMAC is better than EBP in terms of training speed.

  18. The neutron small-angle camera D11 at the high-flux reactor, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibel, K.

    1976-01-01

    The neutron small-angle scattering system at the high-flux reactor in Grenoble consists of three major parts: the supply of cold neutrons via bent neutron guides; the small-angle camera D11; and the data handling facilities. The camera D11 has an overall length of 80 m. The effective length of the camera is variable. The full length of the collimator before the fixed sample position can be reduced by movable neutron guides; the second flight path of 40 m full length contains detector sites in various positions. Thus a large range of momentum transfers can be used with the same relative resolution. Scattering angles between 5 x 10 -4 and 0.5 rad and neutron wavelengths from 0.2 to 2.0 nm are available. A large-area position-sensitive detector is used which allows simultaneous recording of intensities scattered at different angles; it is a multiwire proportional chamber. 3808 elements of 1 cm 2 are arranged in a two-dimensional matrix. (Auth.)

  19. Hard pair production in large-angle Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Trentadue, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cross section of hard pair production in large-angle Bhabha scattering calculated in the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximations. Eight regions of the collinear kinematics, when the final particles imitate a process of the 2 →2 type, and three semicollinear regions, when the final particles imitate a process of the 2→3 type, are considered. Analytical formulae for differential cross sections are presented. (orig.)

  20. Using SETS to find minimal cut sets in large fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    An efficient algebraic algorithm for finding the minimal cut sets for a large fault tree was defined and a new procedure which implements the algorithm was added to the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS). The algorithm includes the identification and separate processing of independent subtrees, the coalescing of consecutive gates of the same kind, the creation of additional independent subtrees, and the derivation of the fault tree stem equation in stages. The computer time required to determine the minimal cut sets using these techniques is shown to be substantially less than the computer time required to determine the minimal cut sets when these techniques are not employed. It is shown for a given example that the execution time required to determine the minimal cut sets can be reduced from 7,686 seconds to 7 seconds when all of these techniques are employed

  1. Large-grazing-angle, multi-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope as the front end to a high-resolution streak camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX - a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  2. Validation of large-angle scattering data via shadow-bar experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Tamaki, S.; Murata, I. [Osaka University, 1-14-16-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-si, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An experiment to validate large-angle scattering cross section is conducted. • Pieces of Nb foil are set behind a shadow bar to obtain the {sup 92m}Nb production rates. • The results calculated using ENDF/B-VI library data exhibit a 57% overestimation. • The adjustment of cross section in large-angle region makes the C/E close to 1. - Abstract: An experiment emphasizing the influence of large-angle scattering on nuclear data was conducted, in which a Fe shadow bar and a Fe slab target were placed before a deuterium–tritium fusion (DT) neutron source. Two Nb foils were set on both sides of the shadow bar in order to monitor the neutron source intensity and to measure the neutrons scattered from the slab target. The {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb reaction rate of the foil was measured following the DT neutron irradiation and calculated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transportation code. The {sup 92m}Nb production rates calculated using data from the JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries agreed with that measured in the experiment, while the result calculated using data from the ENDF/B-VI library exhibited a 57% overestimation. Because the sensitivity of the {sup 92m}Nb production rate to the scattering angular distribution was large in the angular region between scattering direction cosines of −0.9 and −0.4, the scattering angular distribution was adjusted in that region. This adjustment resulted in a calculation-to-experiment ratio close to 1, but had little influence on the existing integral benchmark experiment.

  3. Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tianfeng

    1984-10-01

    It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.

  4. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The ~2000 km long Denali Fault System (DFS) of Alaska is an example of an extra-regional strike-slip fault system that terminates in a zone of widely-distributed deformation. The ~1200 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of Patagonia (southern Chile) is another. Both systems are active, having undergone large-magnitude seismic rupture is 2002 (DFS) and 2007 (LOFZ). Both systems appear to be long-lived: the DFS juxtaposes terranes that docked in at least early Tertiary time, whilst the central LOFZ appears to also record early Tertiary or Mesozoic deformation. Both fault systems comprise a relatively well-defined central zone where individual fault traces can be identified from topographic features or zones of deformed rock. In both cases the proximal and distal traces are much more diffuse tributary and distributary systems of individual, branching fault traces. However, since their inception the DFS and LOFZ have followed very different evolutionary paths. Copious Alaskan paleomagnetic data are consistent with vertical axis small block rotation, long-distance latitudinal translation, and a recently-postulated tectonic extrusion towards a distributary of subordinate faults that branch outward towards the Aleution subduction zone (the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream; see Redfield et al., 2007). Paleomagnetic data from the LOFZ region are consistent with small block rotation but preclude statistically-significant latitudinal transport. Limited field data from the southernmost LOFZ suggest that high-angle normal and reverse faults dominate over oblique to strike-slip structures. Rather than the high-angle oblique 'slivering regime' of the southeasternmost DFS, the initiation of the LOFZ appears to occur across a 50 to 100 km wide zone of brittly-deformed granitic and gneissic rock characterized by bulk compression and vertical pathways of exhumation. In both cases, relative plate motions are consistent with the hypothetical style, and degree, of offset, leading

  5. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  6. Communication Characteristics of Faulted Overhead High Voltage Power Lines at Low Radio Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Suljanović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a model of high-voltage overhead power line under fault conditions at low radio frequencies. The derived model is essential for design of communication systems to reliably transfer information over high voltage power lines. In addition, the model can also benefit advanced systems for power-line fault detection and classification exploiting the phenomenon of changed conditions on faulted power line, resulting in change of low radio frequency signal propagation. The methodology used in the paper is based on the multiconductor system analysis and propagation of electromagnetic waves over the power lines. The model for the high voltage power line under normal operation is validated using actual measurements obtained on 400 kV power line. The proposed model of faulted power lines extends the validated power-line model under normal operation. Simulation results are provided for typical power line faults and typical fault locations. Results clearly indicate sensitivity of power-line frequency response on different fault types.

  7. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  8. Impact parameter dynamics in quantum theory in large angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyanov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    High energy behaviour of a free particle Green's function is studied for construction of the scattering amplitude. The main part of the Green's function is determined by eikonal scattering along the mean moment and by the total scattering along the transfered momentum. This ''impact'' approximation may be included as a first approximation in the iteration scheme for the scattering amplitude along the mean momentum, i.e. the ''impact'' perturbation theory. With the help of the ''impact'' approximation an expansion of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter depending on interaction is obtained. These expansions are more correct than the eikonal expansions at large angle scattering. The results are illustrated grafically foe the exponential and the Yukawa potentials

  9. Microstructures Indicate Large Influence of Temperature and Fluid Pressure on the Reactivation of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A.; Toy, V.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The transpressional Alpine Fault within New Zealand's South Island is the major structure that accommodates relative motion between the Pacific and the Australian Plates. It has been intensively studied, because it is late in its 291-year seismic cycle (Cochran et al., 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.02.026), is likely to generate large (i.e. MW > 8) earthquakes, thus presents the biggest seismic hazard in the region. However, because it is severely misoriented in the present-day stress field for reactivation (Boese et al., 2013; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.030), supra-lithostatic fluid-pressures are required for rupture nucleation. We have analyzed microstructures (SEM and TEM), geochemistry (ICP-OES) and mineralogy (XRD) of outcrop samples of the fault core to investigate the influence of fluids on the geomechanical behavior of the fault. Fluid-related alteration is pervasive within 20 m of the principal slip zone (PSZ) (Sutherland et al., 2012; doi: 10.1130/G33614.1), which is an incohesive, cemented and repeatedly reworked fault gouge mostly consisting of a fine-grained matrix composed of comminuted detrital quartz and feldspar as well as authigenic chlorite and calcite. Authigenic phases seal the PSZ for interseismic cross-fault fluid flow and enable fluid pressure to build-up. Notable, smectite, previously considered to significantly influence propagation of Alpine Fault ruptures, is not present in these samples. Undeformed, euhedral chlorite grains suggest that the processes leading to fault sealing are not only active at greater depths but also close to the surface. The absence of smectite and the presence of undeformed chlorite at very shallow depths can be attributed to the fault's high geothermal gradient of > 120 °C km-1 (Sutherland et al., 2012; doi:10.1038/nature22355), which gives temperature conditions unfavorable for smectite to be stable and fostering chlorite growth. A pervasive network of anastomosing calcite veins in the fault core, depicting

  10. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  11. Adaptive Neural Networks Decentralized FTC Design for Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Interconnected Large-Scale Systems Against Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Tong, Shaocheng

    The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small neighborhood of zero. Finally, numerical results of practical examples are presented to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small

  12. The Evolution from Late Miocene West Salton Detachment Faulting to Cross-Cutting Pleistocene Oblique Strike-Slip Faults in the SW Salton Trough, Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Steely, Alexander N.

    2006-01-01

    Field studies in the southwest Salton Trough between Yaqui Ridge and Borrego Mountain show that the West Salton detachment fault was active during the Pliocene and may have initiated during the latest Miocene. At Yaqui Ridge dominantly east-directed extension is recorded by slickenlines on the NW-striking detachment fault, and shows that the fault is actually a low-angle dextral oblique strike-slip fault. Crustal inheritance is responsible for the position of the fault at Yaqui Ridge, which r...

  13. Evolution of strike-slip fault systems and associated geomorphic structures. Model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keichi

    2003-01-01

    Sandbox experiments were performed to investigate evolution of fault systems and its associated geomorphic structures caused by strike-slip motion on basement faults. A 200 cm long, 40 cm wide, 25 cm high sandbox was used in a strike-slip fault model test. Computerized X-ray tomography applied to the sandbox experiments made it possible to analyze the kinematic evaluation, as well as the three-dimensional geometry, of the faults. The deformation of the sand pack surface was analyzed by use of a laser method 3D scanner, which is a three-dimensional noncontact surface profiling instrument. A comparison of the experimental results with natural cases of active faults reveals the following: In the left-lateral strike-slip fault experiments, the deformation of the sand pack with increasing basement displacement is observed as follows. 1) In three dimensions, the right-stepping shears that have a cirque'/'shell'/'shipbody' shape develop on both sides of the basement fault. The shears on one side of the basement fault join those on the other side, resulting in helicoidal shaped shear surfaces. Shears reach the surface of the sand near or above the basement fault and en echelon Riedel shears are observed at the surface of the sand. The region between two Riedels is always an up-squeezed block. 2) lower-angle shears generally branch off from the first Riedel shears. 3) Pressure ridges develop within the zone defined by the right-stepping helicoidal shaped lower-angle shears. 4) Grabens develop between the pressure ridges. 5) Y-shears offset the pressure ridges. 6) With displacement concentrated on the central throughgoing fault zone, a liner trough developed directly above the basement fault. R1 shear and P foliation are observed in the liner trough. Such evolution of the shears and its associated structures in the fault model tests agrees well with that of strike-slip fault systems and its associated geomorphic structures. (author)

  14. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  15. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9 occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF. However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3 × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  16. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  17. Fault injection as a test method for an FPGA in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Richter, M; Fehlker, D; Helstrup, H; Alme, J; Ullaland, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how fault injection has been implemented as a test method for an FPGA in an existing hardware configuration setup. As this FPGA is in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector, the reliability of this FPGA is of high importance. Due to the complexity of the readout electronics, irradiation testing is technically difficult at this stage of the system commissioning. The work presented in this paper is therefore motivated by introducing fault injection as an alternative method to characterize failures caused by SEUs. It is a method to study the effect that a configuration upset may have on the operation of the FPGA. The target platform consists of two independent modules for data acquisition and detector control functionality. Fault injection to test the response of the data acquisition module is made possible by implementing the solution as part of the detector control functionality. Correct implementation is validated by a simple shift register design. Our results demonstrate th...

  18. Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haiyang; Tang, Yuanhe; Hua, Dengxin; Liu, Hanchen

    2011-10-10

    A wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proposed to effectively reduce the size of the glass arms and constraint on material. It provides a novel and practical instrument for ground based wind measurement of the upper atmosphere. The field widening conditions for the large air gap are calculated in theory. For the five spectral lines of 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm, 732.0 nm, 834.6 nm, and 865.7 nm, the optimal results under ideal condition are obtained with air gaps of 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.0 cm, respectively. With the fixed optical path difference (OPD) of 7.495 cm, three pairs of glass arms are optimized. The pair with length of 1.5 cm for air gap, 5.765 cm for H-ZF12, and 2.956 cm for H-ZLaF54, has better effect of field widening than the other two pairs and its OPD variation is only within 0.30 wavelengths at incident angle of 3°. For developing a more practical wide-angle Michelson interferometer, the H-K9L glass with size of 4.445 cm is employed as the arm material of solid interferometer. The experiment for field of view of 3° is designed and the data processing and analysis for 60 images show the agreement between experimental results and theoretical simulation. The OPD variations are only within 0.27 wavelengths for image edge. The feasibility and practicality of the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap is proved by means of theory and experiment. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. CRISP. Fault detection, analysis and diagnostics in high-DG distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontela, M.; Bacha, S.; Hadsjaid, N.; Andrieu, C.; Raison, B.; Penkov, D.

    2004-04-01

    The fault in the electrotechnical meaning is defined in the document. The main part of faults in overhead lines are non permanent faults, what entails the network operator to maintain the existing techniques to clear as fast as possible these faults. When a permanent fault occurs the operator has to detect and to limit the risks as soon as possible. Different axes are followed: limitation of the fault current, clearing the faulted feeder, locating the fault by test and try under possible fault condition. So the fault detection, fault clearing and fault localization are important functions of an EPS (electric power systems) to allow secure and safe operation of the system. The function may be improved by means of a better use of ICT components in the future sharing conveniently the intelligence needed near the distributed devices and a defined centralized intelligence. This improvement becomes necessary in distribution EPS with a high introduction of DR (distributed resources). The transmission and sub-transmission protection systems are already installed in order to manage power flow in all directions, so the DR issue is less critical for this part of the power system in term of fault clearing and diagnosis. Nevertheless the massive introduction of RES involves another constraints to the transmission system which are the bottlenecks caused by important local and fast installed production as wind power plants. Dealing with the distribution power system, and facing a permanent fault, two main actions must be achieved: identify the faulted elementary EPS area quickly and allow the field crew to locate and to repair the fault as soon as possible. The introduction of DR in distribution EPS involves some changes in fault location methods or equipment. The different existing neutral grounding systems make it difficult the achievement of a general method relevant for any distribution EPS in Europe. Some solutions are studied in the CRISP project in order to improve the

  20. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  1. Significance of grain boundaries and stacking faults on hydrogen storage properties of Mg2Ni intermetallics processed by high-pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Toshifumi; Edalati, Kaveh; Arita, Makoto; Matsuda, Junko; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2015-01-01

    Mg 2 Ni intermetallics are processed using three different routes to produce three different microstructural features: annealing at high temperature for coarse grain formation, severe plastic deformation through high-pressure torsion (HPT) for nanograin formation, and HPT processing followed by annealing for the introduction of stacking faults. It is found that both grain boundaries and stacking faults are significantly effective to activate the Mg 2 Ni intermetallics for hydrogen storage at 423 K (150 °C). The hydrogenation kinetics is also considerably enhanced by the introduction of large fractions of grain boundaries and stacking faults while the hydrogenation thermodynamics remains unchanged. This study shows that, similar to grain boundaries and cracks, stacking faults can act as quick pathways for the transportation of hydrogen in the hydrogen storage materials

  2. Holocene deposition and megathrust splay fault geometries within Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pratt, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    New high resolution sparker seismic reflection data, in conjunction with reprocessed legacy seismic data, provide the basis for a new fault, fold, and Holocene sediment thickness database for Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, legacy airgun seismic data in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska tie features on these new sparker data to deeper portions of megathrust splay faults. We correlate regionally extensive bathymetric lineaments within Prince William Sound to megathrust splay faults, such as the ones that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Lastly, we estimate Holocene sediment thickness within Prince William Sound to better constrain the Holocene fault history throughout the region. We identify three seismic facies related to Holocene, Quaternary, and Tertiary strata that are crosscut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of the megathrust splay faults. The crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A change in exhumation rates, slip rates, and fault orientation appears near Hinchinbrook that we attribute to differences in subducted slab geometry. Based on our slip rate analysis, we calculate average Holocene displacements of 20 m and 100 m in eastern and western Prince William Sound, respectively. Landward of two splay faults exposed on Montague Island, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes.

  3. Coseismic Slip Deficit of the 2017 Mw 6.5 Ormoc Earthquake That Occurred Along a Creeping Segment and Geothermal Field of the Philippine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Tsai, Min-Chien; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Aurelio, Mario A.; Hashimoto, Manabu; Escudero, John Agustin P.; Su, Zhe; Chen, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic surface deformation imaged through interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements was used to estimate the fault geometry and slip distribution of the 2017 Mw 6.5 Ormoc earthquake along a creeping segment of the Philippine Fault on Leyte Island. Our best fitting faulting model suggests that the coseismic rupture occurred on a fault plane with high dip angle of 78.5° and strike angle of 325.8°, and the estimated maximum fault slip of 2.3 m is located at 6.5 km east-northeast of the town of Kananga. The recognized insignificant slip in the Tongonan geothermal field zone implies that the plastic behavior caused by high geothermal gradient underneath the Tongonan geothermal field could prevent the coseismic failure in heated rock mass in this zone. The predicted Coulomb failure stress change shows that a significant positive Coulomb failure stress change occurred along the SE segment of central Philippine Fault with insignificant coseismic slip and infrequent aftershocks, which suggests an increasing risk for future seismic hazard.

  4. Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Catalyst selection is very crucial for controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Here we introduce a well-designed Fe-Ti-O solid solution for SWNT growth with a high preference to large chiral angles. The Fe-Ti-O catalyst was prepared by combining Ti layer deposition onto premade...... Fe nanoparticles with subsequent high-temperature air calcination, which favours the formation of a homogeneous Fe-Ti-O solid solution. Using CO as the carbon feedstock, chemical vapour deposition growth of SWNTs at 800 °C was demonstrated on the Fe-Ti-O catalyst. Nanobeam electron diffraction...... characterization on a number of individual SWNTs revealed that more than 94% of SWNTs have chiral angles larger than 15°. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study was carried out to reveal the catalyst dynamics upon reduction. Our results identify that the phase segregation through reducing Fe...

  5. Homogeneity of small-scale earthquake faulting, stress, and fault strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale faulting at seismogenic depths in the crust appears to be more homogeneous than previously thought. I study three new high-quality focal-mechanism datasets of small (M angular difference between their focal mechanisms. Closely spaced earthquakes (interhypocentral distance faults of many orientations may or may not be present, only similarly oriented fault planes produce earthquakes contemporaneously. On these short length scales, the crustal stress orientation and fault strength (coefficient of friction) are inferred to be homogeneous as well, to produce such similar earthquakes. Over larger length scales (???2-50 km), focal mechanisms become more diverse with increasing interhypocentral distance (differing on average by 40-70??). Mechanism variability on ???2- to 50 km length scales can be explained by ralatively small variations (???30%) in stress or fault strength. It is possible that most of this small apparent heterogeneity in stress of strength comes from measurement error in the focal mechanisms, as negligibble variation in stress or fault strength (<10%) is needed if each earthquake is assigned the optimally oriented focal mechanism within the 1-sigma confidence region. This local homogeneity in stress orientation and fault strength is encouraging, implying it may be possible to measure these parameters with enough precision to be useful in studying and modeling large earthquakes.

  6. Characterizing the thermal effects of High Energy Arc Faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putorti, Anthony; Bareham, Scott; Praydis, Joseph Jr. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Melly, Nicholas B. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    International and domestic operating experience involving High Energy Arc Faults (HEAF) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) electrical power systems have demonstrated the potential to cause extensive damage to electrical components and distribution systems along with damage to adjacent equipment and cables. An international study by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) gOECD Fire Project. Topical Report No. 1: Analysis of High Energy Arcing Fault (HEAF) Fire Events h published June 25, 2013 [1], illustrates that HEAF events have the potential to be major risk contributors with significant safety consequences and substantial economic loss. In an effort to better understand and characterize the threats posed by HEAF related phenomena, an international project has been chartered; the Joint Analysis of Arc Faults (Joan of ARC) OECD International Testing Program for High Energy Arc Faults. One of the major challenges of this research is how to properly measure and characterize the risk and influence of these events. Methods are being developed to characterize relevant parameters such as; temperature, heat flux, and heat release rate of fires resulting from HEAF events. Full scale experiments are being performed at low (≤ 1000 V) and medium (≤ 35 kV) voltages in electrical components. This paper introduces the methods being developed to measure thermal effects and discusses preliminary results of full scale HEAF experiments.

  7. A simulation training evaluation method for distribution network fault based on radar chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of automatic evaluation of dispatcher fault simulation training in distribution network, a simulation training evaluation method based on radar chart for distribution network fault is proposed. The fault handling information matrix is established to record the dispatcher fault handling operation sequence and operation information. The four situations of the dispatcher fault isolation operation are analyzed. The fault handling anti-misoperation rule set is established to describe the rules prohibiting dispatcher operation. Based on the idea of artificial intelligence reasoning, the feasibility of dispatcher fault handling is described by the feasibility index. The relevant factors and evaluation methods are discussed from the three aspects of the fault handling result feasibility, the anti-misoperation correctness and the operation process conciseness. The detailed calculation formula is given. Combining the independence and correlation between the three evaluation angles, a comprehensive evaluation method of distribution network fault simulation training based on radar chart is proposed. The method can comprehensively reflect the fault handling process of dispatchers, and comprehensively evaluate the fault handling process from various angles, which has good practical value.

  8. A Method for SINS Alignment with Large Initial Misalignment Angles Based on Kalman Filter with Parameters Resetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.

  9. Fault fluid evolution at the outermost edges of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Vita Petrullo, Angela

    2017-04-01

    This work focuses on the structural architecture and mineralization of a high-angle, extensional fault zone that crosscuts the Middle Pleistocene tuffs and pyroclastites of the Vulture Volcano, southern Italy. This fault zone is topped by a few m-thick travertine deposit formed by precipitation, in a typical lacustrine depositional environment, from a fault fluid that included a mixed, biogenic- and mantle-derived CO2. The detailed analysis of its different mineralization can shed new lights into the shallow crustal fluid flow that took place during deformation of the outer edge of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. In fact, the study fault zone is interpreted as a shallow-seated, tear fault associated with a shallow thrust fault displacing the most inner portion of the Bradano foredeep basin infill, and was thus active during the latest stages of contractional deformation. Far from the fault zone, the fracture network is made up of three high-angle joint sets striking N-S, E-W and NW-SE, respectively. The former two sets can be interpreted as the older structural elements that pre-dated the latter one, which is likely due to the current stress state that affects the whole Italian peninsula. In the vicinity of the fault zone, a fourth joint high-angle set striking NE-SW is also present, which becomes the most dominant fracture set within the study footwall fault damage zone. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder obtained from hand specimens representative of the multiple mineralization present within the fault zone, and in the surrounding volcanites, are consistent with circulation of a fault fluid that modified its composition with time during the latest stages of volcanic activity and contractional deformation. Specifically, veins infilled with and slickenside coated by jarosite, Opal A and/or goethite are found in the footwall fault damage zone. Based upon the relative timing of formation of the aforementioned joint sets, deciphered after

  10. Large-Grazing-Angle, Multi-Image Kirkpatrick-Baez Microscope as the Front End to a High-Resolution Streak Camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    (B204)A new, high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX-a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al./Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF) over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  11. Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...

  12. Fault displacement along the Naruto-South fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku, southwestern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 圭太; 中田, 高; 後藤, 秀昭; 岡田, 篤正; 原口, 強; 松木, 宏彰

    1998-01-01

    The Naruto-South fault is situated of about 1000m south of the Naruto fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku. We investigated fault topography and subsurface geology of this fault by interpretation of large scale aerial photographs, collecting borehole data and Geo-Slicer survey. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The Naruto-South fault runs on the Yoshino River deltaic plain at least 2.5 km long with fault scarplet. the Naruto-South fault is o...

  13. Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L

    2015-09-11

    Subduction zone megathrust faults produce most of the world's largest earthquakes. Although the physical properties of these faults are difficult to observe directly, their frictional strength can be estimated indirectly by constraining the orientations of the stresses that act on them. A global investigation of stress orientations in subduction zones finds that the maximum compressive stress axis plunges systematically trenchward, consistently making an angle of 45° to 60° with respect to the subduction megathrust fault. These angles indicate that the megathrust fault is not substantially weaker than its surroundings. Together with several other lines of evidence, this implies that subduction zone megathrusts are weak faults in a low-stress environment. The deforming outer accretionary wedge may decouple the stress state along the megathrust from the constraints of the free surface. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. HAVmS: Highly Available Virtual Machine Computer System Fault Tolerant with Automatic Failback and Close to Zero Downtime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memmo Federici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In scientic computing, systems often manage computations that require continuous acquisition of of satellite data and the management of large databases, as well as the execution of analysis software and simulation models (e.g. Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics cell simulations which may require several weeks of continuous run. These systems, consequently, should ensure the continuity of operation even in case of serious faults. HAVmS (High Availability Virtual machine System is a highly available, "fault tolerant" system with zero downtime in case of fault. It is based on the use of Virtual Machines and implemented by two servers with similar characteristics. HAVmS, thanks to the developed software solutions, is unique in its kind since it automatically failbacks once faults have been fixed. The system has been designed to be used both with professional or inexpensive hardware and supports the simultaneous execution of multiple services such as: web, mail, computing and administrative services, uninterrupted computing, data base management. Finally the system is cost effective adopting exclusively open source solutions, is easily manageable and for general use.

  15. High-frequency maximum observable shaking map of Italy from fault sources

    KAUST Repository

    Zonno, Gaetano

    2012-03-17

    We present a strategy for obtaining fault-based maximum observable shaking (MOS) maps, which represent an innovative concept for assessing deterministic seismic ground motion at a regional scale. Our approach uses the fault sources supplied for Italy by the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources, and particularly by its composite seismogenic sources (CSS), a spatially continuous simplified 3-D representation of a fault system. For each CSS, we consider the associated Typical Fault, i. e., the portion of the corresponding CSS that can generate the maximum credible earthquake. We then compute the high-frequency (1-50 Hz) ground shaking for a rupture model derived from its associated maximum credible earthquake. As the Typical Fault floats within its CSS to occupy all possible positions of the rupture, the high-frequency shaking is updated in the area surrounding the fault, and the maximum from that scenario is extracted and displayed on a map. The final high-frequency MOS map of Italy is then obtained by merging 8,859 individual scenario-simulations, from which the ground shaking parameters have been extracted. To explore the internal consistency of our calculations and validate the results of the procedure we compare our results (1) with predictions based on the Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion equations for an earthquake of M w 7.1, (2) with the predictions of the official Italian seismic hazard map, and (3) with macroseismic intensities included in the DBMI04 Italian database. We then examine the uncertainties and analyse the variability of ground motion for different fault geometries and slip distributions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. High-frequency maximum observable shaking map of Italy from fault sources

    KAUST Repository

    Zonno, Gaetano; Basili, Roberto; Meroni, Fabrizio; Musacchio, Gemma; Mai, Paul Martin; Valensise, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    We present a strategy for obtaining fault-based maximum observable shaking (MOS) maps, which represent an innovative concept for assessing deterministic seismic ground motion at a regional scale. Our approach uses the fault sources supplied for Italy by the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources, and particularly by its composite seismogenic sources (CSS), a spatially continuous simplified 3-D representation of a fault system. For each CSS, we consider the associated Typical Fault, i. e., the portion of the corresponding CSS that can generate the maximum credible earthquake. We then compute the high-frequency (1-50 Hz) ground shaking for a rupture model derived from its associated maximum credible earthquake. As the Typical Fault floats within its CSS to occupy all possible positions of the rupture, the high-frequency shaking is updated in the area surrounding the fault, and the maximum from that scenario is extracted and displayed on a map. The final high-frequency MOS map of Italy is then obtained by merging 8,859 individual scenario-simulations, from which the ground shaking parameters have been extracted. To explore the internal consistency of our calculations and validate the results of the procedure we compare our results (1) with predictions based on the Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion equations for an earthquake of M w 7.1, (2) with the predictions of the official Italian seismic hazard map, and (3) with macroseismic intensities included in the DBMI04 Italian database. We then examine the uncertainties and analyse the variability of ground motion for different fault geometries and slip distributions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Coordinated Fault Tolerance for High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Bosilca, George; et al.

    2013-04-08

    Our work to meet our goal of end-to-end fault tolerance has focused on two areas: (1) improving fault tolerance in various software currently available and widely used throughout the HEC domain and (2) using fault information exchange and coordination to achieve holistic, systemwide fault tolerance and understanding how to design and implement interfaces for integrating fault tolerance features for multiple layers of the software stack—from the application, math libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system software such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.

  18. Fault-tolerant Control of a Cyber-physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxana, Rusu-Both; Eva-Henrietta, Dulf

    2017-10-01

    Cyber-physical systems represent a new emerging field in automatic control. The fault system is a key component, because modern, large scale processes must meet high standards of performance, reliability and safety. Fault propagation in large scale chemical processes can lead to loss of production, energy, raw materials and even environmental hazard. The present paper develops a multi-agent fault-tolerant control architecture using robust fractional order controllers for a (13C) cryogenic separation column cascade. The JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) platform was used to implement the multi-agent fault tolerant control system while the operational model of the process was implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK environment. MACSimJX (Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension) toolbox was used to link the control system and the process model. In order to verify the performance and to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture several fault simulation scenarios were performed.

  19. Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators with demanded low uncertainties using single reading head angle encoders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yandayan, Tanfer; Akgoz, S Asli; Asar, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators is carried out in TUBITAK UME using an angle comparator to ensure direct traceability to the SI unit of plane angle, radian (rad). The device is a specially designed air-bearing rotary table fitted with a commercially available angular encoder utilizing a single reading head. It is shown that high-resolution electronic autocollimators in the large measurement range (e.g. ±1000 arcsec) can be calibrated with an expanded uncertainty of 0.035 arcsec (k = 2) in conventional dimensional laboratory conditions, applying good measurement strategy for single reading head angle encoders and taking simple but smart precautions. Description of the angle comparator is presented with various test results derived using different high-precision autocollimators, and a detailed uncertainty budget is given for the calibration of a high-resolution electronic autocollimator. (paper)

  20. Fracture Modes and Identification of Fault Zones in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Pan, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Peng, L.

    2017-12-01

    After suffering from the disaster of Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, scientists are eager to figure out the structure of formation, the geodynamic processes of faults and the mechanism of earthquake in Wenchuan by drilling five holes into the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Anxian-Guanxian fault zone. Fractures identification and in-situ stress determination can provide abundant information for formation evaluation and earthquake study. This study describe all the fracture modes in the five boreholes on the basis of cores and image logs, and summarize the response characteristics of fractures in conventional logs. The results indicate that the WFSD boreholes encounter enormous fractures, including natural fractures and induced fractures, and high dip-angle conductive fractures are the most common fractures. The maximum horizontal stress trends along the borehole are deduced as NWW-SEE according to orientations of borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, which is nearly parallel to the strikes of the younger natural fracture sets. Minor positive deviations of AC (acoustic log) and negative deviation of DEN (density log) demonstrate their responses to fracture, followed by CNL (neutron log), resistivity logs and GR (gamma ray log) at different extent of intensity. Besides, considering the fact that the reliable methods for identifying fracture zone, like seismic, core recovery and image logs, can often be hampered by their high cost and limited application, this study propose a method by using conventional logs, which are low-cost and available in even old wells. We employ wavelet decomposition to extract the high frequency information of conventional logs and reconstruction a new log in special format of enhance fracture responses and eliminate nonfracture influence. Results reveal that the new log shows obvious deviations in fault zones, which confirm the potential of conventional logs in fracture zone identification.

  1. Fault diagnosis for agitator driving system in a high temperature reduction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gee Young; Hong, Dong Hee; Jung, Jae Hoo; Kim, Young Hwan; Jin, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Ji Sup [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, a preliminary study for development of a fault diagnosis is presented for monitoring and diagnosing faults in the agitator driving system of a high temperature reduction reactor. In order to identify a fault occurrence and classify the fault cause, vibration signals measured by accelerometers on the outer shroud of the agitator driving system are firstly decomposed by Wavelet Transform (WT) and the features corresponding to each fault type are extracted. For the diagnosis, the fuzzy ARTMAP is employed and thereby, based on the features extracted from the WT, the robust fault classifier can be implemented with a very short training time - a single training epoch and a single learning iteration is sufficient for training the fault classifier. The test results demonstrate satisfactory classification for the faults pre-categorized from considerations of possible occurrence during experiments on a small-scale reduction reactor.

  2. The 2009 MW MW 6.1 L'Aquila fault system imaged by 64k earthquake locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valoroso, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    On April 6 2009, a MW 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. We investigate the complex architecture and mechanics of the activated fault system by using 64k high-resolution foreshock and aftershock locations. The fault system is composed by two major SW dipping segments forming an en-echelon NW trending system about 50 km long: the high-angle L’Aquila fault and the listric Campotosto fault, located in the first 10 km depth. From the beginning of 2009, fore shocks activated the deepest portion of the main shock fault. A week before the MW 6.1 event, the largest (MW 4.0) foreshock triggered seismicity migration along a minor off-fault segment. Seismicity jumped back to the main plane a few hours before the main shock. High-precision locations allowed to peer into the fault zone showing complex geological structures from the metre to the kilometre scale, analogous to those observed by field studies and seismic profiles. Also, we were able to investigate important aspects of earthquakes nucleation and propagation through the upper crust in carbonate-bearing rocks such as: the role of fluids in normal-faulting earthquakes; how crustal faults terminate at depths; the key role of fault zone structure in the earthquake rupture evolution processes.

  3. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  4. Faults in the Collection Grid of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with transient conditions in the collection grid of offshore wind farms under different faults. A model of a standard wind farm was established in two versions, with a floating and a grounded collection grid respectively. Line to ground faults and three-phase to ground faults were...... applied at critical points at worst-case phase angle and the results compared. The simulations show that it is better with a grounded collection grid, since lack of a ground reference will prevent the system from recovering after a line to ground fault....

  5. A KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection framework for large-scale processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shardt, Yuri A W; Chen, Zhiwen; Yang, Xu; Ding, Steven X; Peng, Kaixiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale processes, consisting of multiple interconnected subprocesses, are commonly encountered in industrial systems, whose performance needs to be determined. A common approach to this problem is to use a key performance indicator (KPI)-based approach. However, the different KPI-based approaches are not developed with a coherent and consistent framework. Thus, this paper proposes a framework for KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection (PM-FD) for large-scale industrial processes, which considers the static and dynamic relationships between process and KPI variables. For the static case, a least squares-based approach is developed that provides an explicit link with least-squares regression, which gives better performance than partial least squares. For the dynamic case, using the kernel representation of each subprocess, an instrument variable is used to reduce the dynamic case to the static case. This framework is applied to the TE benchmark process and the hot strip mill rolling process. The results show that the proposed method can detect faults better than previous methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Holocene slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gorgonio Pass and implications for large earthquakes in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermance, Richard V.; Yule, Doug

    2017-06-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) in southern California contains a 40 km long region of structural complexity where the San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into a series of oblique-slip faults with unknown slip history. We combine new 10Be exposure ages (Qt4: 8600 (+2100, -2200) and Qt3: 5700 (+1400, -1900) years B.P.) and a radiocarbon age (1260 ± 60 years B.P.) from late Holocene terraces with scarp displacement of these surfaces to document a Holocene slip rate of 5.7 (+2.7, -1.5) mm/yr combined across two faults. Our preferred slip rate is 37-49% of the average slip rates along the SAF outside the SGP (i.e., Coachella Valley and San Bernardino sections) and implies that strain is transferred off the SAF in this area. Earthquakes here most likely occur in very large, throughgoing SAF events at a lower recurrence than elsewhere on the SAF, so that only approximately one third of SAF ruptures penetrate or originate in the pass.Plain Language SummaryHow large are earthquakes on the southern San Andreas Fault? The answer to this question depends on whether or not the earthquake is contained only along individual fault sections, such as the Coachella Valley section north of Palm Springs, or the rupture crosses multiple sections including the area through the San Gorgonio Pass. We have determined the age and offset of faulted stream deposits within the San Gorgonio Pass to document slip rates of these faults over the last 10,000 years. Our results indicate a long-term slip rate of 6 mm/yr, which is almost 1/2 of the rates east and west of this area. These new rates, combined with faulted geomorphic surfaces, imply that large magnitude earthquakes must occasionally rupture a 300 km length of the San Andreas Fault from the Salton Sea to the Mojave Desert. Although many ( 65%) earthquakes along the southern San Andreas Fault likely do not rupture through the pass, our new results suggest that large >Mw 7.5 earthquakes are possible on the southern San Andreas Fault and likely

  7. The role of fault zones in affecting multiphase flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Within Yucca Mountain, the potential High Level Nuclear-Waste Repository site, there are large scale fault zones, most notably the Ghost Dance Fault. The effect of such high-permeability, large scale discontinuities on the flow and transport is a question of concern in assessing the ability of the site to isolate radio-nuclides from the biosphere. In this paper, we present a numerical study to investigate the role of the fault in affecting both the liquid and gas phase flows in the natural state at Yucca Mountain prior to waste emplacement, as well as after the waste emplacement when the fluid flow is strongly heat-driven. Our study shows that if the characteristic curves of the Ghost Dance Fault obey the same relationship between saturated permeability and capillary scaling parameter, as is observed from the measured data of Yucca Mountain welded and nonwelded tuffs. Apache Leap tuffs, and Las Cruces soil, then a large saturated permeability of the Ghost Dance Fault will play little role in channeling water into the fault, or inenhancing the flow of water down the fault. However, the Fault may greatly enhance the upward gas flow after emplacement of waste. This may have implications on the transport of gaseous radio-nuclides such as C 14 . The results of this study also focus attention on the need for field measurements of fluid flow in the fault zones

  8. A method for detection and location of high resistance earth faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Antila, E [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In the first part of this presentation, the theory of earth faults in unearthed and compensated power systems is briefly presented. The main factors affecting the high resistance fault detection are outlined and common practices for earth fault protection in present systems are summarized. The algorithms of the new method for high resistance fault detection and location are then presented. These are based on the change of neutral voltage and zero sequence currents, measured at the high voltage / medium voltage substation and also at the distribution line locations. The performance of the method is analyzed, and the possible error sources discussed. Among these are, for instance, switching actions, thunder storms and heavy snow fall. The feasibility of the method is then verified by an analysis based both on simulated data, which was derived using an EMTP-ATP simulator, and by real system data recorded during field tests at three substations. For the error source analysis, some real case data recorded during natural power system events, is also used

  9. High resolution t-LiDAR scanning of an active bedrock fault scarp for palaeostress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicherter, Klaus; Wiatr, Thomas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Fernández-Steeger, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Palaeostress analysis of an active bedrock normal fault scarp based on kinematic indicators is carried applying terrestrial laser scanning (t-LiDAR or TLS). For this purpose three key elements are necessary for a defined region on the fault plane: (i) the orientation of the fault plane, (ii) the orientation of the slickenside lineation or other kinematic indicators and (iii) the sense of motion of the hanging wall. We present a workflow to obtain palaeostress data from point cloud data using terrestrial laser scanning. The entire case-study was performed on a continuous limestone bedrock normal fault scarp on the island of Crete, Greece, at four different locations along the WNW-ESE striking Spili fault. At each location we collected data with a mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system and validated the calculated three-dimensional palaeostress results by comparison with the conventional palaeostress method with compass at three of the locations. Numerous kinematics indicators for normal faulting were discovered on the fault plane surface using t-LiDAR data and traditional methods, like Riedel shears, extensional break-outs, polished corrugations and many more. However, the kinematic indicators are more or less unidirectional and almost pure dip-slip. No oblique reactivations have been observed. But, towards the tips of the fault, inclination of the striation tends to point towards the centre of the fault. When comparing all reconstructed palaeostress data obtained from t-LiDAR to that obtained through manual compass measurements, the degree of fault plane orientation divergence is around ±005/03 for dip direction and dip. The degree of slickenside lineation variation is around ±003/03 for dip direction and dip. Therefore, the percentage threshold error of the individual vector angle at the different investigation site is lower than 3 % for the dip direction and dip for planes, and lower than 6 % for strike. The maximum mean variation of the complete

  10. Large field distributed aperture laser semiactive angle measurement system design with imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunyun; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Jing, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    A type of laser semiactive angle measurement system is designed for target detecting and tracking. Only one detector is used to detect target location from four distributed aperture optical systems through a 4×1 imaging fiber bundle. A telecentric optical system in image space is designed to increase the efficiency of imaging fiber bundles. According to the working principle of a four-quadrant (4Q) detector, fiber diamond alignment is adopted between an optical system and a 4Q detector. The structure of the laser semiactive angle measurement system is, we believe, novel. Tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits of manufacture and installation errors of the optical system. The performance of the proposed method is identified by computer simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that the linear region of the system is ±12°, with measurement error of better than 0.2°. In general, this new system can be used with large field of view and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable, and fast method for angle measurement in practical situations.

  11. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...

  12. Large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies in an open universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.

    1994-01-01

    If the universe is open, scales larger than the curvature scale may be probed by observation of large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We consider primordial adiabatic perturbations and discuss power spectra that are power laws in volume, wavelength, and eigenvalue of the Laplace operator. Such spectra may have arisen if, for example, the universe underwent a period of `frustated' inflation. The resulting large-angle anisotropies of the CMB are computed. The amplitude generally increases as Omega is decreased but decreases as h is increased. Interestingly enough, for all three Ansaetze, anisotropies on angular scales larger than the curvature scale are suppressed relative to the anisotropies on scales smaller than the curvature scale, but cosmic variance makes discrimination between various models difficult. Models with 0.2 approximately less than Omega h approximately less than 0.3 appear compatible with CMB fluctuations detected by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the Tenerife experiment and with the amplitude and spectrum of fluctuations of galaxy counts in the APM, CfA, and 1.2 Jy IRAS surveys. COBE normalization for these models yields sigma(sub 8) approximately = 0.5 - 0.7. Models with smaller values of Omega h when normalized to COBE require bias factors in excess of 2 to be compatible with the observed galaxy counts on the 8/h Mpc scale. Requiring that the age of the universe exceed 10 Gyr implies that Omega approximately greater than 0.25, while requiring that from the last-scattering term in the Sachs-Wolfe formula, large-angle anisotropies come primarily from the decay of potential fluctuations at z approximately less than 1/Omega. Thus, if the universe is open, COBE has been detecting temperature fluctuations produced at moderate redshift rather than at z approximately 1300.

  13. Fault diagnosis of rotating machine by isometric feature mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yun; Li, Benwei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zibin

    2013-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) are well-known linear dimensionality reductions for fault classification. However, since they are linear methods, they perform not well for high-dimensional data that has the nonlinear geometric structure. As kernel extension of PCA, Kernel PCA is used for nonlinear fault classification. However, the performance of Kernel PCA largely depends on its kernel function which can only be empirically selected from finite candidates. Thus, a novel rotating machine fault diagnosis approach based on geometrically motivated nonlinear dimensionality reduction named isometric feature mapping (Isomap) is proposed. The approach can effectively extract the intrinsic nonlinear manifold features embedded in high-dimensional fault data sets. Experimental results with rotor and rolling bearing data show that the proposed approach overcomes the flaw of conventional fault pattern recognition approaches and obviously improves the fault classification performance.

  14. Prestate of Stress and Fault Behavior During the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake (M7.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Manami; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Sakai, Shinichi; Iio, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Goto, Kazuhiko; Okada, Tomomi; Ohzono, Mako; Terakawa, Toshiko; Kosuga, Masahiro; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Asano, Youichi

    2018-01-01

    Fault behavior during an earthquake is controlled by the state of stress on the fault. Complex coseismic fault slip on large earthquake faults has recently been observed by dense seismic networks, which complicates strong motion evaluations for potential faults. Here we show the three-dimensional prestress field related to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. The estimated stress field reveals a spatially variable state of stress that forced the fault to slip in a direction predicted by the "Wallace and Bott Hypothesis." The stress field also exposes the pre-condition of pore fluid pressure on the fault. Large coseismic slip occurred in the low-pressure part of the fault. However, areas with highly pressured fluid also showed large displacement, indicating that the seismic moment of the earthquake was magnified by fluid pressure. These prerupture data could contribute to improved seismic hazard evaluations.

  15. FOKN: a relativistic Fokker-Planck code with large angle scattering and radiation losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.; Scharlemann, T.; Wood, L.; Weaver, T.; Chu, T.; Lee, G.

    1976-07-01

    FOKN is a computer code which employs a relativistic Fokker-Planck algorithm to evolve the distribution functions of the various mutually interacting components of a multi-species plasma forward in time, with the optional addition of high angle, large energy and momentum transfer interactions between the various charged species of the plasma. As a computational expediency, the latter processes are handled by transfer matrices which are generated separately by another code, RNUX, so that once specific transfer matrices are generated, they can be used over and over by FOKN provided the group structures are compatible

  16. Fault-tolerance techniques for high-speed fiber-optic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruiter, John

    1991-01-01

    Four fiber optic network topologies (linear bus, ring, central star, and distributed star) are discussed relative to their application to high data throughput, fault tolerant networks. The topologies are also examined in terms of redundancy and the need to provide for single point, failure free (or better) system operation. Linear bus topology, although traditionally the method of choice for wire systems, presents implementation problems when larger fiber optic systems are considered. Ring topology works well for high speed systems when coupled with a token passing protocol, but it requires a significant increase in protocol complexity to manage system reconfiguration due to ring and node failures. Star topologies offer a natural fault tolerance, without added protocol complexity, while still providing high data throughput capability.

  17. Robust, nonlinear, high angle-of-attack control design for a supermaneuverable vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight control laws are developed for a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft. The methods of dynamic inversion and structured singular value synthesis are combined into an approach which addresses both the nonlinearity and robustness problems of flight at extreme operating conditions. The primary purpose of the dynamic inversion control elements is to linearize the vehicle response across the flight envelope. Structured singular value synthesis is used to design a dynamic controller which provides robust tracking to pilot commands. The resulting control system achieves desired flying qualities and guarantees a large margin of robustness to uncertainties for high angle-of-attack flight conditions. The results of linear simulation and structured singular value stability analysis are presented to demonstrate satisfaction of the design criteria. High fidelity nonlinear simulation results show that the combined dynamics inversion/structured singular value synthesis control law achieves a high level of performance in a realistic environment.

  18. Multiple incipient sensor faults diagnosis with application to high-speed railway traction devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkai; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Ningyun; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of incipient fault diagnosis for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with sensor biases and explores further results of total measurable fault information residual (ToMFIR). Firstly, state and output transformations are introduced to transform the original system into two subsystems. The first subsystem is subject to system disturbances and free from sensor faults, while the second subsystem contains sensor faults but without any system disturbances. Sensor faults in the second subsystem are then formed as actuator faults by using a pseudo-actuator based approach. Since the effects of system disturbances on the residual are completely decoupled, multiple incipient sensor faults can be detected by constructing ToMFIR, and the fault detectability condition is then derived for discriminating the detectable incipient sensor faults. Further, a sliding-mode observers (SMOs) based fault isolation scheme is designed to guarantee accurate isolation of multiple sensor faults. Finally, simulation results conducted on a CRH2 high-speed railway traction device are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of ∼2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of ∼25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs

  20. The origin of high frequency radiation in earthquakes and the geometry of faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, R.

    2004-12-01

    In a seminal paper of 1967 Kei Aki discovered the scaling law of earthquake spectra and showed that, among other things, the high frequency decay was of type omega-squared. This implies that high frequency displacement amplitudes are proportional to a characteristic length of the fault, and radiated energy scales with the cube of the fault dimension, just like seismic moment. Later in the seventies, it was found out that a simple explanation for this frequency dependence of spectra was that high frequencies were generated by stopping phases, waves emitted by changes in speed of the rupture front as it propagates along the fault, but this did not explain the scaling of high frequency waves with fault length. Earthquake energy balance is such that, ignoring attenuation, radiated energy is the change in strain energy minus energy released for overcoming friction. Until recently the latter was considered to be a material property that did not scale with fault size. Yet, in another classical paper Aki and Das estimated in the late 70s that energy release rate also scaled with earthquake size, because earthquakes were often stopped by barriers or changed rupture speed at them. This observation was independently confirmed in the late 90s by Ide and Takeo and Olsen et al who found that energy release rates for Kobe and Landers were in the order of a MJ/m2, implying that Gc necessarily scales with earthquake size, because if this was a material property, small earthquakes would never occur. Using both simple analytical and numerical models developed by Addia-Bedia and Aochi and Madariaga, we examine the consequence of these observations for the scaling of high frequency waves with fault size. We demonstrate using some classical results by Kostrov, Husseiny and Freund that high frequency energy flow measures energy release rate and is generated when ruptures change velocity (both direction and speed) at fault kinks or jogs. Our results explain why super shear ruptures are

  1. Fault analysis and strategy of high pulsed power supply for high power laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefu; Qin Shihong; Li Jin; Pan Yuan; Yao Zonggan; Zheng Wanguo; Guo Liangfu; Zhou Peizhang; Li Yizheng; Chen Dehuai

    2001-01-01

    according to the requirements of driving flash-lamp, a high pulsed power supply (PPS) based on capacitors as energy storage elements is designed. The author analyzes in detail the faults of high pulsed power supply for high power laser. Such as capacitor internal short-circuit, main bus breakdown to ground, flashlamp sudden short or break. The fault current and voltage waveforms were given by circuit simulations. Based on the analysis and computation, the protection strategy with the fast fuse and ZnO was put forward, which can reduce the damage of PPS to the lower extent and provide the personnel safe and collateral property from the all threats. The preliminary experiments demonstrated that the design of the PPS can satisfy the project requirements

  2. Large-coil-test-facility fault-tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An operating-safety study is being conducted for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). The purpose of this study is to provide the facility operators and users with added insight into potential problem areas that could affect the safety of personnel or the availability of equipment. This is a preliminary report, on Phase I of that study. A central feature of the study is the incorporation of engineering judgements (by LCTF personnel) into an outside, overall view of the facility. The LCTF was analyzed in terms of 32 subsystems, each of which are subject to failure from any of 15 generic failure initiators. The study identified approximately 40 primary areas of concern which were subjected to a computer analysis as an aid in understanding the complex subsystem interactions that can occur within the facility. The study did not analyze in detail the internal structure of the subsystems at the individual component level. A companion study using traditional fault tree techniques did analyze approximately 20% of the LCTF at the component level. A comparison between these two analysis techniques is included in Section 7

  3. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org), suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor

  4. (Quasi)Elastic Electron-Muon Large-Angle Scattering to a Two-Loop Approximation: Vertex Contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bytev, V V; Shaikhatdenov, B G

    2002-01-01

    We consider a process of quasielastic e\\mu large-angle scattering at high energies with radiative corrections up to a two-loop level. The lowest order radiative correction arising both from one-loop virtual photon emission and a real soft emission are presented to a power accuracy. Two-loop level corrections are supposed to be of three gauge-invariant classes. One of them, so-called vertex contribution, is given in logarithmic approximation. Relation with the renormalization group approach is discussed.

  5. (Quasi)Elastic Electron-Muon Large-Angle Scattering to a Two-Loop Approximation Vertex Contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bytev, V V; Shaikhatdenov, B G

    2002-01-01

    We consider a process of quasielastic e\\mu large-angle scattering at high energies with radiative corrections up to a two-loop level. The lowest order radiative correction arising both from one-loop virtual photon emission and a real soft emission are presented to a power accuracy. Two-loop level corrections are supposed to be of three gauge-invariant classes. One of them, so-called vertex contribution, is given in logarithmic approximation. Relation with the renormalization group approach is discussed.

  6. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  7. Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control of Modular Multi-level Converter High-voltage DC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    of failures and lower the reliability of the MMC-HVDC system. Therefore, research on the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of MMC-HVDC system is of great significance in order to enhance the reliability of the system. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault diagnosis and fault handling...

  8. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappa, Frédéric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France). Cote d' Azur Observatory. GeoAzur

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  9. Modeling the effect of preexisting joints on normal fault geometries using a brittle and cohesive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, M.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Brittle rocks, such as for example those hosting many carbonate or sandstone reservoirs, are often affected by different kinds of fractures that influence each other. Understanding the effects of these interactions on fault geometries and the formation of cavities and potential fluid pathways might be useful for reservoir quality prediction and production. Analogue modeling has proven to be a useful tool to study faulting processes, although usually the used materials do not provide cohesion and tensile strength, which are essential to create open fractures. Therefore, very fine-grained, cohesive, hemihydrate powder was used for our experiments. The mechanical properties of the material are scaling well for natural prototypes. Due to the fine grain size structures are preserved in in great detail. The used deformation box allows the formation of a half-graben and has initial dimensions of 30 cm width, 28 cm length and 20 cm height. The maximum dip-slip along the 60° dipping predefined basement fault is 4.5 cm and was fully used in all experiments. To setup open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper placed vertically within the box to a depth of about 5 cm from top. The powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely. Finally strings were used to remove the paper carefully, leaving open voids. Using this method allows the creation of cohesionless open joints while ensuring a minimum impact on the sensitive surrounding material. The presented series of experiments aims to investigate the effect of different angles between the strike of a rigid basement fault and a distinct joint set. All experiments were performed with a joint spacing of 2.5 cm and the fault-joint angles incrementally covered 0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20° and 25°. During the deformation time lapse photography from the top and side captured every structural change and provided data for post-processing analysis using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Additionally

  10. Noise Configuration and fault zone anisotropy investigation from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Deep Borehole Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Ma, K. F.; Song, T. R. A.; Nishida, K.; Lin, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project was operated to understand the fault zone characteristics associated with the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Seven Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS) were installed through the identified fault zone to monitor the micro-seismic activities, as well as the fault-zone seismic structure properties. To understand the fault zone anisotropy and its possible temporal variations after the Chichi earthquake, we calculated cross-correlations of the noise at different stations to obtain cross correlation functions (CCFs) of the ambient noise field between every pair of the stations. The result shows that TCDP well site suffers from complex wavefield, and phase traveltime from CCF can't provide explicit result to determine the dominated wavefield. We first analyze the power density spectra and probability density functions of this array. We observe that the spectra show diurnal variation in the frequency band 1-25 Hz, suggesting human-generated sources are dominated in this frequency band. Then, we focus on the particle motion analysis at each CCF. We assume one component at a station plays as a visual source and compute the CCF tensor in other station components. The particle motion traces show high linearity which indicate that the dominated wavefield in our study area is body wave signals with the azimuth approximate to 60° from north. We also analyze the Fourier spectral amplitudes by rotating every 5 degrees in time domain to search for the maximum background energy distribution. The result shows that the spectral amplitudes are stronger at NE-SW direction, with shallow incident angles which are comparable with the CCF particle motion measurement. In order to obtain higher resolution about the dominated wavefield in our study area, we also used beamforming from surface station array to validate our results from CCF analysis. In addition to the CCF analysis to provide the noise configuration at the TCDPBHS site for further analysis on

  11. Violation of the factorization theorem in large-angle radiative Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, Eh.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The lowest order QED radiative corrections to the radiative large-angle Bhabha scattering process in the region where all the kinematical invariants are large compared to the electron mass are considered. We show that the leading logarithmic corrections do not factor before the Born cross section, contrary to the picture assumed in the renormalization group approach. Estimation of the leading and nonleading contributions for typical kinematics of the hard process for energy of Φ factory is done

  12. Automatic bearing fault diagnosis of permanent magnet synchronous generators in wind turbines subjected to noise interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Lu, Siliang; Zhai, Chao; He, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    An automatic bearing fault diagnosis method is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs), which are widely installed in wind turbines subjected to low rotating speeds, speed fluctuations, and electrical device noise interferences. The mechanical rotating angle curve is first extracted from the phase current of a PMSG by sequentially applying a series of algorithms. The synchronous sampled vibration signal of the fault bearing is then resampled in the angular domain according to the obtained rotating phase information. Considering that the resampled vibration signal is still overwhelmed by heavy background noise, an adaptive stochastic resonance filter is applied to the resampled signal to enhance the fault indicator and facilitate bearing fault identification. Two types of fault bearings with different fault sizes in a PMSG test rig are subjected to experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is fully automated and thus shows potential for convenient, highly efficient and in situ bearing fault diagnosis for wind turbines subjected to harsh environments.

  13. Analog Fault Diagnosis of Large-Scale Electronic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    operational amplifiers and electrolytic capacitors. Remarks. 1. For fault diagnosis problems, the nominal characteristics are usually given and the...fractional repre- m. sentation in (G,H,I,J) of the element peG ; then Z. is h,.,--p(l+cp)’---n,(yd,+xln,)-’y,. (3.13) well defined in H if and only if d...B3S3 A6-0 then C1 is faulty. The fifth row of Table lb reads that if AB2*0, £ 3350 , and AB-A34=0 then * where S is the complex frequency, and a fault

  14. Fault healing and earthquake spectra from stick slip sequences in the laboratory and on active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, G. C.; Glaser, S. D.; Thomas, A.; Burgmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    Repeating earthquake sequences (RES) are thought to occur on isolated patches of a fault that fail in repeated stick-slip fashion. RES enable researchers to study the effect of variations in earthquake recurrence time and the relationship between fault healing and earthquake generation. Fault healing is thought to be the physical process responsible for the 'state' variable in widely used rate- and state-dependent friction equations. We analyze RES created in laboratory stick slip experiments on a direct shear apparatus instrumented with an array of very high frequency (1KHz - 1MHz) displacement sensors. Tests are conducted on the model material polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). While frictional properties of this glassy polymer can be characterized with the rate- and state- dependent friction laws, the rate of healing in PMMA is higher than room temperature rock. Our experiments show that in addition to a modest increase in fault strength and stress drop with increasing healing time, there are distinct spectral changes in the recorded laboratory earthquakes. Using the impact of a tiny sphere on the surface of the test specimen as a known source calibration function, we are able to remove the instrument and apparatus response from recorded signals so that the source spectrum of the laboratory earthquakes can be accurately estimated. The rupture of a fault that was allowed to heal produces a laboratory earthquake with increased high frequency content compared to one produced by a fault which has had less time to heal. These laboratory results are supported by observations of RES on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults, which show similar spectral changes when recurrence time is perturbed by a nearby large earthquake. Healing is typically attributed to a creep-like relaxation of the material which causes the true area of contact of interacting asperity populations to increase with time in a quasi-logarithmic way. The increase in high frequency seismicity shown here

  15. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Long Valley Caldera straddles the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and the western edge of the Basin and Range Province, and represents one of the largest caldera complexes on Earth. The caldera is intersected by numerous fault systems, including the Hartley Springs Fault System, the Round Valley Fault System, the Long Valley Ring Fault System, and the Hilton Creek Fault System, which is our main region of interest. The Hilton Creek Fault System appears as a single NW-striking fault, dipping to the NE, from Davis Lake in the south to the southern rim of the Long Valley Caldera. Inside the caldera, it splays into numerous parallel faults that extend toward the resurgent dome. Seismicity in the area increased significantly in May 1980, following a series of large earthquakes in the vicinity of the caldera and a subsequent large earthquake swarm which has been suggested to be the result of magma migration. A large portion of the earthquake swarms in the Long Valley Caldera occurs on or around the Hilton Creek Fault splays. We are conducting an interdisciplinary geophysical study of the Hilton Creek Fault System from just south of the onset of splay faulting, to its extension into the dome of the caldera. Our investigation includes ground-based magnetic field measurements, high-resolution total station elevation profiles, Structure-From-Motion derived topography and an analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms and statistics. Preliminary analysis of topographic profiles, of approximately 1 km in length, reveals the presence of at least three distinct fault splays within the caldera with vertical offsets of 0.5 to 1.0 meters. More detailed topographic mapping is expected to highlight smaller structures. We are also generating maps of the variation in b-value along different portions of the Hilton Creek system to determine whether we can detect any transition to more swarm-like behavior towards the North. We will show maps of magnetic anomalies, topography

  16. Large-uncertainty intelligent states for angular momentum and angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goette, Joerg B; Zambrini, Roberta; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M

    2005-01-01

    The equality in the uncertainty principle for linear momentum and position is obtained for states which also minimize the uncertainty product. However, in the uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angular position both sides of the inequality are state dependent and therefore the intelligent states, which satisfy the equality, do not necessarily give a minimum for the uncertainty product. In this paper, we highlight the difference between intelligent states and minimum uncertainty states by investigating a class of intelligent states which obey the equality in the angular uncertainty relation while having an arbitrarily large uncertainty product. To develop an understanding for the uncertainties of angle and angular momentum for the large-uncertainty intelligent states we compare exact solutions with analytical approximations in two limiting cases

  17. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan

    2017-05-31

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  18. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian Sunflower

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  19. The cenozoic strike-slip faults and TTHE regional crust stability of Beishan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhaojie; Zhang Zhicheng; Zhang Chen; Liu Chang; Zhang Yu; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    The remote sensing images and geological features of Beishan area indicate that the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault and Hongliuhe fault are distributed in Beishan area from south to north. The faults are all left-lateral strike-slip faults with trending of NE40-50°, displaying similar distribution pattern. The secondary branch faults are developed at the end of each main strike-slip fault with nearly east to west trending form dendritic oblique crossings at the angle of 30-50°. Because of the left-lateral slip of the branch faults, the granites or the blocks exposed within the branch faults rotate clockwisely, forming 'Domino' structures. So the structural style of Beishan area consists of the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault, Hongliuhe fault and their branch faults and rotational structures between different faults. Sedimentary analysis on the fault valleys in the study area and ESR chronological test of fault clay exhibit that the Sanweishan-Shuangta fault form in the late Pliocene (N2), while the Daquan fault displays formation age of l.5-1.2 Ma, and the activity age of the relevant branch faults is Late Pleistocene (400 ka). The ages become younger from the Altyn Tagh fault to the Daquan fault and strike-slip faults display NW trending extension, further revealing the lateral growth process of the strike-slip boundary at the northern margin during the Cenozoic uplift of Tibetan Plateau. The displacement amounts on several secondary faults caused by the activities of the faults are slight due to the above-mentioned structural distribution characteristics of Beishan area, which means that this area is the most stable active area with few seismic activities. We propose the main granitic bodies in Beishan area could be favorable preselected locations for China's high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  20. The discovery of a conjugate system of faults in the Wharton Basin intraplate deformation zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satish C; Hananto, Nugroho; Qin, Yanfang; Leclerc, Frederique; Avianto, Praditya; Tapponnier, Paul E; Carton, Helene; Wei, Shengji; Nugroho, Adam B; Gemilang, Wishnu A; Sieh, Kerry; Barbot, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The deformation at well-defined, narrow plate boundaries depends on the relative plate motion, but how the deformation takes place within a distributed plate boundary zone remains a conundrum. This was confirmed by the seismological analyses of the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes [moment magnitude ( M w ) 8.6], which suggested the rupture of several faults at high angles to one another. Using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflection data, we report the discovery of new N294°E-striking shear zones, oblique to the plate fabric. These shear zones are expressed by sets of normal faults striking at N335°E, defining the direction of the principal compressional stress in the region. Also, we have imaged left-lateral strike-slip faults along reactivated N7°E-oriented oceanic fracture zones. The shear zones and the reactivated fracture zones form a conjugate system of faults, which accommodate present-day intraplate deformation in the Wharton Basin.

  1. Strain-Driven Stacking Faults in CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortière, Arnaud; Leonard, Donovan N; Petkov, Valeri; Chapman, Karena; Chattopadhyay, Soma; She, Chunxing; Cullen, David A; Shibata, Tomohiro; Pelton, Matthew; Shevchenko, Elena V

    2018-04-19

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are commonly grown with a shell of a second semiconductor material to obtain desired physical properties, such as increased photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the growth of a lattice-mismatched shell results in strain within the nanocrystal, and this strain has the potential to produce crystalline defects. Here, we study CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods as a model system to investigate the influence of core size and shape on the formation of stacking faults in the nanocrystal. Using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and pair-distribution-function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that growth of the CdS shell on smaller, spherical CdSe cores results in relatively small strain and few stacking faults. By contrast, growth of the shell on larger, prolate spheroidal cores leads to significant strain in the CdS lattice, resulting in a high density of stacking faults.

  2. Long-Term Fault Memory: A New Time-Dependent Recurrence Model for Large Earthquake Clusters on Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Campbell, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    A challenge for earthquake hazard assessment is that geologic records often show large earthquakes occurring in temporal clusters separated by periods of quiescence. For example, in Cascadia, a paleoseismic record going back 10,000 years shows four to five clusters separated by approximately 1,000 year gaps. If we are still in the cluster that began 1700 years ago, a large earthquake is likely to happen soon. If the cluster has ended, a great earthquake is less likely. For a Gaussian distribution of recurrence times, the probability of an earthquake in the next 50 years is six times larger if we are still in the most recent cluster. Earthquake hazard assessments typically employ one of two recurrence models, neither of which directly incorporate clustering. In one, earthquake probability is time-independent and modeled as Poissonian, so an earthquake is equally likely at any time. The fault has no "memory" because when a prior earthquake occurred has no bearing on when the next will occur. The other common model is a time-dependent earthquake cycle in which the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which the probability resets to zero. Because the probability is reset after each earthquake, the fault "remembers" only the last earthquake. This approach can be used with any assumed probability density function for recurrence times. We propose an alternative, Long-Term Fault Memory (LTFM), a modified earthquake cycle model where the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which it decreases, but not necessarily to zero. Hence the probability of the next earthquake depends on the fault's history over multiple cycles, giving "long-term memory". Physically, this reflects an earthquake releasing only part of the elastic strain stored on the fault. We use the LTFM to simulate earthquake clustering along the San Andreas Fault and Cascadia. In some portions of the simulated earthquake history, events would

  3. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  4. Seismic Evidence for Conjugate Slip and Block Rotation Within the San Andreas Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Craig; Seeber, Leonardo; Williams, Patrick; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1986-08-01

    The pattern of seismicity in southern California indicates that much of the activity is presently occurring on secondary structures, several of which are oriented nearly orthogonal to the strikes of the major through-going faults. Slip along these secondary transverse features is predominantly left-lateral and is consistent with the reactivation of conjugate faults by the current regional stress field. Near the intersection of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, however, these active left-lateral faults appear to define a set of small crustal blocks, which in conjunction with both normal and reverse faulting earthquakes, suggests contemporary clockwise rotation as a result of regional right-lateral shear. Other left-lateral faults representing additional rotating block systems are identified in adjacent areas from geologic and seismologic data. Many of these structures predate the modern San Andreas system and may control the pattern of strain accumulation in southern California. Geodetic and paleomagnetic evidence confirm that block rotation by strike-slip faulting is nearly ubiquitous, particularly in areas where shear is distributed, and that it accommodates both short-term elastic and long-term nonelastic strain. A rotating block model accounts for a number of structural styles characteristic of strike-slip deformation in California, including: variable slip rates and alternating transtensional and transpressional features observed along strike of major wrench faults; domains of evenly-spaced antithetic faults that terminate against major fault boundaries; continued development of bends in faults with large lateral displacements; anomalous focal mechanisms; and differential uplift in areas otherwise expected to experience extension and subsidence. Since block rotation requires a detachment surface at depth to permit rotational movement, low-angle structures like detachments, of either local or regional extent, may be involved in the contemporary strike

  5. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  6. Which potentials have to be surface peaked to reproduce large angle proton scattering at high energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1990-01-01

    Corrections to the usual form factors of the optical potential are studied with a view to getting a better fit for proton elastic scattering at large angles on 40 Ca at 497 and 800 MeV. When a real surface form factor is added to the central potential in the Schrodinger formalism, the experimental data are as well reproduced as in the standard Dirac formalism. Coupling to the strong 3 - collective state gives a better fit. The use of surface corrections to the imaginary Dirac potential also gives improved results. A slightly better fit is obtained by coupling to the 3 - state with, at the same time, a weakening of these corrections. Further corrections to the potential do not give significant improvements

  7. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, D; Vassilakis, E

    2008-01-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures

  8. Gravity interpretation of dipping faults using the variance analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, Khalid S

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed to estimate simultaneously the depth and the dip angle of a buried fault from the normalized gravity gradient data. This algorithm utilizes numerical first horizontal derivatives computed from the observed gravity anomaly, using filters of successive window lengths to estimate the depth and the dip angle of a buried dipping fault structure. For a fixed window length, the depth is estimated using a least-squares sense for each dip angle. The method is based on computing the variance of the depths determined from all horizontal gradient anomaly profiles using the least-squares method for each dip angle. The minimum variance is used as a criterion for determining the correct dip angle and depth of the buried structure. When the correct dip angle is used, the variance of the depths is always less than the variances computed using wrong dip angles. The technique can be applied not only to the true residuals, but also to the measured Bouguer gravity data. The method is applied to synthetic data with and without random errors and two field examples from Egypt and Scotland. In all cases examined, the estimated depths and other model parameters are found to be in good agreement with the actual values. (paper)

  9. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim

    2016-01-01

    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  10. Implementation and testing of a fault detection software tool for improving control system performance in a large commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury, T.I.; Diamond, R.C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a model-based, feedforward control scheme that can detect faults in the controlled process and improve control performance over traditional PID control. The tool uses static simulation models of the system under control to generate feed-forward control action, which acts as a reference of correct operation. Faults that occur in the system cause discrepancies between the feedforward models and the controlled process. The scheme facilitates detection of faults by monitoring the level of these discrepancies. We present results from the first phase of tests on a dual-duct air-handling unit installed in a large office building in San Francisco. We demonstrate the ability of the tool to detect a number of preexisting faults in the system and discuss practical issues related to implementation.

  11. Development of direct dating methods of fault gouges: Deep drilling into Nojima Fault, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, M.; Uchida, J. I.; Satsukawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to develop a direct dating method of fault gouges for the assessment of recent fault activity in terms of site evaluation for nuclear power plants. This method would be useful in regions without Late Pleistocene overlying sediments. In order to estimate the age of the latest fault slip event, it is necessary to use fault gouges which have experienced high frictional heating sufficient for age resetting. It is said that frictional heating is higher in deeper depths, because frictional heating generated by fault movement is determined depending on the shear stress. Therefore, we should determine the reliable depth of age resetting, as it is likely that fault gouges from the ground surface have been dated to be older than the actual age of the latest fault movement due to incomplete resetting. In this project, we target the Nojima fault which triggered the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan. Samples are collected from various depths (300-1,500m) by trenching and drilling to investigate age resetting conditions and depth using several methods including electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL), which are applicable to ages later than the Late Pleistocene. The preliminary results by the ESR method show approx. 1.1 Ma1) at the ground surface and 0.15-0.28 Ma2) at 388 m depth, respectively. These results indicate that samples from deeper depths preserve a younger age. In contrast, the OSL method dated approx. 2,200 yr1) at the ground surface. Although further consideration is still needed as there is a large margin of error, this result indicates that the age resetting depth of OSL is relatively shallow due to the high thermosensitivity of OSL compare to ESR. In the future, we plan to carry out further investigation for dating fault gouges from various depths up to approx. 1,500 m to verify the use of these direct dating methods.1) Kyoto University, 2017. FY27 Commissioned for the disaster presentation on nuclear facilities (Drilling

  12. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna

    2012-01-01

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required

  13. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required.

  14. Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Ryo, E-mail: ishikawa@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lupini, Andrew R. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hinuma, Yoyo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, 328 Ferris Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    To fully understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us to measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation. - Highlights: • We theoretically demonstrate 3D near-atomic depth resolution imaging by large-angle illumination STEM. • This method can be useful to identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies within materials. • This method can be useful to determine reconstructed surface atomic structures.

  15. "Handling" seismic hazard: 3D printing of California Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Potter, M.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    As earth scientists, we face the challenge of how to explain and represent our work and achievements to the general public. Nowadays, this problem is partially alleviated by the use of modern visualization tools such as advanced scientific software (Paraview.org), high resolution monitors, elaborate video simulations, and even 3D Virtual Reality goggles. However, the ability to manipulate and examine a physical object in 3D is still an important tool to connect better with the public. For that reason, we are presenting a scaled 3D printed version of the complex network of earthquake faults active in California based on that used by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 3 (UCERF3) (Field et al., 2013). We start from the fault geometry in the UCERF3.1 deformation model files. These files contain information such as the coordinates of the surface traces of the faults, dip angle, and depth extent. The fault specified in the above files are triangulated at 1km resolution and exported as a facet (.fac) file. The facet file is later imported into the Trelis 15.1 mesh generator (csimsoft.com). We use Trelis to perform the following three operations: First, we scale down the model so that 100 mm corresponds to 100km. Second, we "thicken" the walls of the faults; wall thickness of at least 1mm is necessary in 3D printing. We thicken fault geometry by 1mm on each side of the faults for a total of 2mm thickness. Third, we break down the model into parts that will fit the printing bed size ( 25 x 20mm). Finally, each part is exported in stereolithography format (.stl). For our project, we are using the 3D printing facility within the Creat'R Lab in the UC Riverside Orbach Science Library. The 3D printer is a MakerBot Replicator Desktop, 5th Generation. The resolution of print is 0.2mm (Standard quality). The printing material is the MakerBot PLA Filament, 1.75 mm diameter, large Spool, green. The most complex part of the display model requires approximately 17

  16. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  17. Structural Evolution of Transform Fault Zones in Thick Oceanic Crust of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Horst, A. J.; Farrell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Spreading centers in Iceland are offset from the regional trend of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in the north and the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in the south. Rift propagation away from the center of the Iceland hotspot, has resulted in migration of these transform faults to the N and S, respectively. As they migrate, new transform faults develop in older crust between offset spreading centers. Active transform faults, and abandoned transform structures left in their wakes, show features that reflect different amounts (and durations) of slip that can be viewed as a series of snapshots of different stages of transform fault evolution in thick, oceanic crust. This crust has a highly anisotropic, spreading fabric with pervasive zones of weakness created by spreading-related normal faults, fissures and dike margins oriented parallel to the spreading centers where they formed. These structures have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the crust. By integrating available data, we suggest a series of stages of transform development: 1) Formation of an oblique rift (or leaky transform) with magmatic centers, linked by bookshelf fault zones (antithetic strike-slip faults at a high angle to the spreading direction) (Grimsey Fault Zone, youngest part of the TFZ); 2) broad zone of conjugate faulting (tens of km) (Hreppar Block N of the SISZ); 3) narrower ( 20 km) zone of bookshelf faulting aligned with the spreading direction (SISZ); 4) mature, narrow ( 1 km) through-going transform fault zone bounded by deformation (bookshelf faulting and block rotations) distributed over 10 km to either side (Húsavík-Flatey Fault Zone in the TFZ). With progressive slip, the transform zone becomes progressively narrower and more closely aligned with the spreading direction. The transform and non-transform (beyond spreading centers) domains may be truncated by renewed propagation and separated by subsequent spreading. This perspective

  18. Asymptotic angular dependences of exclusive hadron large-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    Asymptotic approach to the description of the large-angle scattering amplitudes of the meson-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering is studied. The paper is based on the Mandelstam representation and quark counting rules. The crossing summetry, SU-3 symmetry and spin effects are taken into account. Formulae obtained are used for the description of the differential cross sections of πsup(+-)p, pp and pn scattering. The predictions about ksup(+-)p and p anti p scattering are made. It is shown that formulae provide quantitative description of experimental data for the considered reactions

  19. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments

  20. Fault Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current Systems with Bridge Type Fault Current Limiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiul Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of bridge type fault current limiters (BFCLs as a potential solution to reduce the impact of fault disturbance on voltage source converter-based high voltage DC (VSC-HVDC systems. Since VSC-HVDC systems are vulnerable to faults, it is essential to enhance the fault ride-through (FRT capability with auxiliary control devices like BFCLs. BFCL controllers have been developed to limit the fault current during the inception of system disturbances. Real and reactive power controllers for the VSC-HVDC have been developed based on current control mode. DC link voltage control has been achieved by a feedback mechanism such that net power exchange with DC link capacitor is zero. A grid-connected VSC-HVDC system and a wind farm integrated VSC-HVDC system along with the proposed BFCL and associated controllers have been implemented in a real time digital simulator (RTDS. Symmetrical three phase as well as different types of unsymmetrical faults have been applied in the systems in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed BFCL solution. DC link voltage fluctuation, machine speed and active power oscillation have been greatly suppressed with the proposed BFCL. Another significant feature of this work is that the performance of the proposed BFCL in VSC-HVDC systems is compared to that of series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR. Comparative results show that the proposed BFCL is superior over SDBR in limiting fault current as well as improving system fault ride through (FRT capability.

  1. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songyan; Chen, Ning; Yu, Daren; Foley, Aoife; Zhu, Lingzhi; Li, Kang; Yu, Jilai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  2. Transient analysis of the output short-circuit fault of high power and high voltage DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhigang; Zhang Jian; Huang Yiyun; Hao Xu; Sun Haozhang; Guo Fei

    2014-01-01

    The transient conditions of output short-circuit fault of high voltage DC power supply was introduced, and the energy of power supply injecting into klystron during the protection process of three-electrode gas switch were analyzed and calculated in detail when klystron load happening electrode arc faults. The results of calculation and simulation are consistent with the results of the experiment. When the output short-circuit fault of high voltage power supply occurs, switch can be shut off in the microsecond, and the short circuit current can be controlled in 200 A. It has verified the rapidity and reliability of the three-electrode gas switch protection, and it has engineering application value. (authors)

  3. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  4. Non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip faults: Observations, theory, and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, A; Taylor, M H

    2008-01-01

    Formation of conjugate strike-slip faults is commonly explained by the Anderson fault theory, which predicts a X-shaped conjugate fault pattern with an intersection angle of ∼30 degrees between the maximum compressive stress and the faults. However, major conjugate faults in Cenozoic collisional orogens, such as the eastern Alps, western Mongolia, eastern Turkey, northern Iran, northeastern Afghanistan, and central Tibet, contradict the theory in that the conjugate faults exhibit a V-shaped geometry with intersection angles of 60-75 degrees, which is 30-45 degrees greater than that predicted by the Anderson fault theory. In Tibet and Mongolia, geologic observations can rule out bookshelf faulting, distributed deformation, and temporal changes in stress state as explanations for the abnormal fault patterns. Instead, the GPS-determined velocity field across the conjugate fault zones indicate that the fault formation may have been related to Hagen-Poiseuille flow in map view involving the upper crust and possibly the whole lithosphere based on upper mantle seismicity in southern Tibet and basaltic volcanism in Mongolia. Such flow is associated with two coeval and parallel shear zones having opposite shear sense; each shear zone produce a set of Riedel shears, respectively, and together the Riedel shears exhibit the observed non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip fault pattern. We speculate that the Hagen-Poiseuille flow across the lithosphere that hosts the conjugate strike-slip zones was produced by basal shear traction related to asthenospheric flow, which moves parallel and away from the indented segment of the collisional fronts. The inferred asthenospheric flow pattern below the conjugate strike-slip fault zones is consistent with the magnitude and orientations of seismic anisotropy observed across the Tibetan and Mongolian conjugate fault zones, suggesting a strong coupling between lithospheric deformation and asthenospheric flow. The laterally moving

  5. Non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip faults: Observations, theory, and tectonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, A [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1567 (United States); Taylor, M H [Department of Geology, University of Kansas, 1475 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66044 (United States)], E-mail: yin@ess.ucla.edu

    2008-07-01

    Formation of conjugate strike-slip faults is commonly explained by the Anderson fault theory, which predicts a X-shaped conjugate fault pattern with an intersection angle of {approx}30 degrees between the maximum compressive stress and the faults. However, major conjugate faults in Cenozoic collisional orogens, such as the eastern Alps, western Mongolia, eastern Turkey, northern Iran, northeastern Afghanistan, and central Tibet, contradict the theory in that the conjugate faults exhibit a V-shaped geometry with intersection angles of 60-75 degrees, which is 30-45 degrees greater than that predicted by the Anderson fault theory. In Tibet and Mongolia, geologic observations can rule out bookshelf faulting, distributed deformation, and temporal changes in stress state as explanations for the abnormal fault patterns. Instead, the GPS-determined velocity field across the conjugate fault zones indicate that the fault formation may have been related to Hagen-Poiseuille flow in map view involving the upper crust and possibly the whole lithosphere based on upper mantle seismicity in southern Tibet and basaltic volcanism in Mongolia. Such flow is associated with two coeval and parallel shear zones having opposite shear sense; each shear zone produce a set of Riedel shears, respectively, and together the Riedel shears exhibit the observed non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip fault pattern. We speculate that the Hagen-Poiseuille flow across the lithosphere that hosts the conjugate strike-slip zones was produced by basal shear traction related to asthenospheric flow, which moves parallel and away from the indented segment of the collisional fronts. The inferred asthenospheric flow pattern below the conjugate strike-slip fault zones is consistent with the magnitude and orientations of seismic anisotropy observed across the Tibetan and Mongolian conjugate fault zones, suggesting a strong coupling between lithospheric deformation and asthenospheric flow. The laterally moving

  6. Remote triggering of fault-strength changes on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Silver, Paul G; Niu, Fenglin; Nadeau, Robert M

    2009-10-01

    Fault strength is a fundamental property of seismogenic zones, and its temporal changes can increase or decrease the likelihood of failure and the ultimate triggering of seismic events. Although changes in fault strength have been suggested to explain various phenomena, such as the remote triggering of seismicity, there has been no means of actually monitoring this important property in situ. Here we argue that approximately 20 years of observation (1987-2008) of the Parkfield area at the San Andreas fault have revealed a means of monitoring fault strength. We have identified two occasions where long-term changes in fault strength have been most probably induced remotely by large seismic events, namely the 2004 magnitude (M) 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the earlier 1992 M = 7.3 Landers earthquake. In both cases, the change possessed two manifestations: temporal variations in the properties of seismic scatterers-probably reflecting the stress-induced migration of fluids-and systematic temporal variations in the characteristics of repeating-earthquake sequences that are most consistent with changes in fault strength. In the case of the 1992 Landers earthquake, a period of reduced strength probably triggered the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient as well as the accompanying cluster of four M > 4 earthquakes at Parkfield. The fault-strength changes produced by the distant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are especially important, as they suggest that the very largest earthquakes may have a global influence on the strength of the Earth's fault systems. As such a perturbation would bring many fault zones closer to failure, it should lead to temporal clustering of global seismicity. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the unusually high number of M >or= 8 earthquakes occurring in the few years following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

  7. Three Least-Squares Minimization Approaches to Interpret Gravity Data Due to Dipping Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, E. M.; Essa, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    We have developed three different least-squares minimization approaches to determine, successively, the depth, dip angle, and amplitude coefficient related to the thickness and density contrast of a buried dipping fault from first moving average residual gravity anomalies. By defining the zero-anomaly distance and the anomaly value at the origin of the moving average residual profile, the problem of depth determination is transformed into a constrained nonlinear gravity inversion. After estimating the depth of the fault, the dip angle is estimated by solving a nonlinear inverse problem. Finally, after estimating the depth and dip angle, the amplitude coefficient is determined using a linear equation. This method can be applied to residuals as well as to measured gravity data because it uses the moving average residual gravity anomalies to estimate the model parameters of the faulted structure. The proposed method was tested on noise-corrupted synthetic and real gravity data. In the case of the synthetic data, good results are obtained when errors are given in the zero-anomaly distance and the anomaly value at the origin, and even when the origin is determined approximately. In the case of practical data (Bouguer anomaly over Gazal fault, south Aswan, Egypt), the fault parameters obtained are in good agreement with the actual ones and with those given in the published literature.

  8. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  9. Seismicity and Tectonics of the West Kaibab Fault Zone, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, J. T.; Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The West Kaibab Fault Zone (WKFZ) is the westernmost bounding structure of the Kaibab Plateau of northern Arizona. The WKFZ is a branching complex of high angle, normal faults downthrown to the west. There are three main faults within the WKFZ, the Big Springs fault with a maximum of 165 m offset, the Muav fault with 350 m of displacement, and the North Road fault having a maximum throw of approximately 90 m. Mapping of geologically recent surface deposits at or crossing the fault contacts indicates that the faults are likely Quaternary with the most recent offsets occurring one of the most seismically active areas in Arizona and lies within the Northern Arizona Seismic Belt (NASB), which stretches across northern Arizona trending NW-SE. The data set for this study includes 156 well documented events with the largest being a M5.75 in 1959 and including a swarm of seven earthquakes in 2012. The seismic data set (1934-2014) reveals that seismic activity clusters in two regions within the study area, the Fredonia cluster located in the NW corner of the study area and the Kaibab cluster located in the south central portion of the study area. The fault plane solutions to date indicate NE-SW to EW extension is occurring in the study area. Source relationships between earthquakes and faults within the WKFZ have not previously been studied in detail. The goal of this study is to use the seismic data set, the available data on faults, and the regional physiography to search for source relationships for the seismicity. Analysis includes source parameters of the earthquake data (location, depth, and fault plane solutions), and comparison of this output to the known faults and areal physiographic framework to indicate any active faults of the WKFZ, or suggested active unmapped faults. This research contributes to a better understanding of the present nature of the WKFZ and the NASB as well.

  10. Fault finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  11. Effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions on inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, A E; Sherlock, M; Rose, S J

    2014-06-20

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions affect the rates of energy and momentum exchange in a plasma, and it is expected that their effects will be important in many plasmas of current research interest, including in inertial confinement fusion. Their inclusion is a long-standing problem, and the first fully self-consistent method for calculating their effects is presented. This method is applied to "burn" in the hot fuel in inertial confinement fusion capsules and finds that the yield increases due to an increase in the rate of temperature equilibration between electrons and ions which is not predicted by small-angle collision theories. The equilibration rate increases are 50%-100% for number densities of 10(30)  m(-3) and temperatures around 1 keV.

  12. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  14. Quantification of Fault-Zone Plasticity Effects with Spontaneous Rupture Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Day, S. M.; Cui, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that plastic yielding in crustal rocks in the fault zone may impose a physical limit to extreme ground motions. We explore the effects of fault-zone non-linearity on peak ground velocities (PGVs) by simulating a suite of surface-rupturing strike-slip earthquakes in a medium governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity using the AWP-ODC finite-difference code. Our simulations cover magnitudes ranging from 6.5 to 8.0, three different rock strength models, and average stress drops of 3.5 and 7.0 MPa, with a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear-wave velocity of 500 m/s. Friction angles and cohesions in our rock models are based on strength criteria which are frequently used for fractured rock masses in civil and mining engineering. For an average stress drop of 3.5 MPa, plastic yielding reduces near-fault PGVs by 15-30% in pre-fractured, low strength rock, but less than 1% in massive, high-quality rock. These reductions are almost insensitive to magnitude. If the stress drop is doubled, plasticity reduces near-fault PGVs by 38-45% and 5-15% in rocks of low and high strength, respectively. Because non-linearity reduces slip rates and static slip near the surface, plasticity acts in addition to, and may partially be emulated by, a shallow velocity-strengthening layer. The effects of plasticity are exacerbated if a fault damage zone with reduced shear-wave velocities and reduced rock strength is present. In the linear case, fault-zone trapped waves result in higher near-surface peak slip rates and ground velocities compared to simulations without a low-velocity zone. These amplifications are balanced out by fault-zone plasticity if rocks in the damage zone exhibit low-to-moderate strength throughout the depth extent of the low-velocity zone (˜5 km). We also perform dynamic non-linear simulations of a high stress drop (8 MPa) M 7.8 earthquake rupturing the southern San Andreas fault along 250 km from Indio to Lake Hughes. Non-linearity in the

  15. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  16. Support vector machine based fault classification and location of a long transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia Ray

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates support vector machine based fault type and distance estimation scheme in a long transmission line. The planned technique uses post fault single cycle current waveform and pre-processing of the samples is done by wavelet packet transform. Energy and entropy are obtained from the decomposed coefficients and feature matrix is prepared. Then the redundant features from the matrix are taken out by the forward feature selection method and normalized. Test and train data are developed by taking into consideration variables of a simulation situation like fault type, resistance path, inception angle, and distance. In this paper 10 different types of short circuit fault are analyzed. The test data are examined by support vector machine whose parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization method. The anticipated method is checked on a 400 kV, 300 km long transmission line with voltage source at both the ends. Two cases were examined with the proposed method. The first one is fault very near to both the source end (front and rear and the second one is support vector machine with and without optimized parameter. Simulation result indicates that the anticipated method for fault classification gives high accuracy (99.21% and least fault distance estimation error (0.29%.

  17. LAMPF first-fault identifier for fast transient faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, A.R.; Hill, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator is presently producing 800-MeV proton beams at 0.5 mA average current. Machine protection for such a high-intensity accelerator requires a fast shutdown mechanism, which can turn off the beam within a few microseconds of the occurrence of a machine fault. The resulting beam unloading transients cause the rf systems to exceed control loop tolerances and consequently generate multiple fault indications for identification by the control computer. The problem is to isolate the primary fault or cause of beam shutdown while disregarding as many as 50 secondary fault indications that occur as a result of beam shutdown. The LAMPF First-Fault Identifier (FFI) for fast transient faults is operational and has proven capable of first-fault identification. The FFI design utilized features of the Fast Protection System that were previously implemented for beam chopping and rf power conservation. No software changes were required

  18. Ground-fault protection of insulated high-voltage power networks in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudelko, H

    1976-09-01

    Safety of power networks is discussed in underground black coal mines in Poland. Safety in mines with a long service life was compared with safety in mines constructed since 1950. Power networks and systems protecting against electric ground-faults in the 2 mine groups are comparatively evaluated. Systems for protection against electric ground-faults in mine high-voltage networks with an insulated star point of the transformer are characterized. Fluctuations of resistance of electrical insulation under conditions of changing load are analyzed. The results of analyses are given in 14 diagrams. Recommendations for design of systems protecting against electric ground-faults in 6 kV mine power systems are made. 7 references.

  19. Searching for Seismically Active Faults in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, S.; Antunes, V.; Arroucau, P.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active fault segments in the region. However, due to an apparently diffuse seismicity pattern defining a broad region of distributed deformation west of Gibraltar Strait, the question of the location, dimension and geometry of such structures is still open to debate. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events having occurred from 2007 to 2013, using P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area lying between 8.5˚W and 5˚W in longitude and 36˚ and 37.5˚ in latitude. The most remarkable change in the seismicity pattern after relocation is an apparent concentration of events, in the North of the Gulf of Cadiz, along a low angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. If confirmed, this would be the first structure clearly illuminated by seismicity in a region that has unleashed large magnitude earthquakes. Here, we present results from the joint analysis of focal mechanism solutions and waveform similarity between neighboring events from waveform cross-correlation in order to assess whether those earthquakes occur on the same fault plane.

  20. Influence of faults on groundwater flow and transport at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B.; Sitar, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to investigate how faults influence groundwater flow pathways and regional-scale macrodispersion. The 3-D model has a unique grid block discretization that facilitates the accurate representation of the complex geologic structure present in faulted formations. Each hydrogeologic layer is discretized into a single layer of irregular and dipping grid blocks, and faults are discretized such that they are laterally continuous and varied in displacement varies along strike. In addition, the presence of altered fault zones is explicitly modeled, as appropriate. Simulations show that upward head gradients can be readily explained by the geometry of hydrogeologic layers, the variability of layer permeabilities, and the presence of permeable fault zones or faults with displacement only, not necessarily by upwelling from a deep aquifer. Large-scale macrodispersion results from the vertical and lateral diversion of flow near the contact of high- and low-permeability layers at faults, and from upward flow within high-permeability fault zones. Conversely, large-scale channeling can occur as a result of groundwater flow into areas with minimal fault displacement. Contaminants originating at the water table can flow in a direction significantly different from that of the water table gradient, and isolated zones of contaminants can occur at the water table downgradient. By conducting both 2-D and 3-D simulations, we show that the 2-D cross-sectional models traditionally used to examine flow in faulted formations may not be appropriate. In addition, the influence of a particular type of fault cannot be generalized; depending on the location where contaminants enter the saturated zone, faults may either enhance or inhibit vertical dispersion

  1. Dynamic Behavior of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-an Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault slip burst is a serious dynamic hazard in coal mining. A static and dynamic analysis for fault slip was performed to assess the risk of rock burst. A numerical model FLAC3D was established to understand the stress state and mechanical responses of fault rock system. The results obtained from the analysis show that the dynamic behavior of fault slip induced by stress waves is significantly affected by mining depth, as well as dynamic disturbance intensity and the distance between the stope and the fault. The isolation effect of the fault is also discussed based on the numerical results with the fault angle appearing to have the strongest influence on peak vertical stress and velocity induced by dynamic disturbance. By taking these risks into account, a stress-relief technology using break-tip blast was used for fault slip burst control. This technique is able to reduce the stress concentration and increase the attenuation of dynamic load by fracturing the structure of coal and rock. The adoption of this stress-relief method leads to an effective reduction of fault slip induced rock burst (FSIRB occurrence.

  2. Fault reactivation by fluid injection considering permeability evolution in fault-bordering damage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yehya, A.; Rice, J. R.; Yin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes can be induced by human activity involving fluid injection, e.g., as wastewater disposal from hydrocarbon production. The occurrence of such events is thought to be, mainly, due to the increase in pore pressure, which reduces the effective normal stress and hence the strength of a nearby fault. Change in subsurface stress around suitably oriented faults at near-critical stress states may also contribute. We focus on improving the modeling and prediction of the hydro-mechanical response due to fluid injection, considering the full poroelastic effects and not solely changes in pore pressure in a rigid host. Thus we address the changes in porosity and permeability of the medium due to the changes in the local volumetric strains. Our results also focus on including effects of the fault architecture (low permeability fault core and higher permeability bordering damage zones) on the pressure diffusion and the fault poroelastic response. Field studies of faults have provided a generally common description for the size of their bordering damage zones and how they evolve along their direction of propagation. Empirical laws, from a large number of such observations, describe their fracture density, width, permeability, etc. We use those laws and related data to construct our study cases. We show that the existence of high permeability damage zones facilitates pore-pressure diffusion and, in some cases, results in a sharp increase in pore-pressure at levels much deeper than the injection wells, because these regions act as conduits for fluid pressure changes. This eventually results in higher seismicity rates. By better understanding the mechanisms of nucleation of injection-induced seismicity, and better predicting the hydro-mechanical response of faults, we can assess methodologies and injection strategies to avoid risks of high magnitude seismic events. Microseismic events occurring after the start of injection are very important indications of when injection

  3. A new and accurate fault location algorithm for combined transmission lines using Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeh, Javad; Afradi, Hamid [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box: 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a new and accurate algorithm for locating faults in a combined overhead transmission line with underground power cable using Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The proposed method uses 10 ANFIS networks and consists of 3 stages, including fault type classification, faulty section detection and exact fault location. In the first part, an ANFIS is used to determine the fault type, applying four inputs, i.e., fundamental component of three phase currents and zero sequence current. Another ANFIS network is used to detect the faulty section, whether the fault is on the overhead line or on the underground cable. Other eight ANFIS networks are utilized to pinpoint the faults (two for each fault type). Four inputs, i.e., the dc component of the current, fundamental frequency of the voltage and current and the angle between them, are used to train the neuro-fuzzy inference systems in order to accurately locate the faults on each part of the combined line. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as different fault locations, different fault inception angles and different fault resistances. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be used as an efficient means for accurate fault location on the combined transmission lines. (author)

  4. A note on 2-D lithospheric deformation due to a blind strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytical solution for the problem of a surface-breaking long strike-slip fault in an elastic layer overlying an elastic half-space is well known. The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault. Since the solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle, the effects of these ...

  5. Fault location in underground cables using ANFIS nets and discrete wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa Barakat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an accurate algorithm for locating faults in a medium voltage underground power cable using a combination of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and discrete wavelet transform (DWT. The proposed method uses five ANFIS networks and consists of 2 stages, including fault type classification and exact fault location. In the first part, an ANFIS is used to determine the fault type, applying four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents. Other four ANFIS networks are utilized to pinpoint the faults (one for each fault type. Four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents, are used to train the neuro-fuzzy inference systems in order to accurately locate the faults on the cable. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as different fault locations, different fault inception angles and different fault resistances.

  6. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  7. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  8. Interseismic Strain Accumulation of the Gazikoy-Saros segment (Ganos fault) of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havazli, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.

    2017-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is one of the most active continental transform faults in the world. A westward migrating earthquake sequence has started in 1939 in Erzincan and the last two events of this sequence occurred in 1999 in Izmit and Duzce manifesting the importance of NAFZ on the seismic hazard potential of the region. NAFZ exhibits slip rates ranging from 14-30 mm/yr along its 1500 km length with a right lateral strike slip characteristic. In the East of the Marmara Sea, the NAFZ splits into two branches. The Gazikoy-Saros segment (Ganos Fault) is the westernmost and onshore segment of the northern branch. The ENE-WSW oriented Ganos Fault is seismically active. It produced a Ms 7.2 earthquake in 1912, which was followed by several large aftershocks, including Ms 6.3 and Ms 6.9 events. Since 1912, the Ganos Fault did not produce any significant earthquakes (> M 5), in contrast to its adjacent segments, which produced 20 M>5 earthquakes, including a M 6.7 event, offshore in Gulf of Saros. Interseismic strain accumulation along the Ganos Fault was assessed from sparse GPS measurements along a single transect located perpendicular to the fault zone, suggesting strain accumulation rate of 20-25 mm/yr. Insofar, InSAR studies, based on C-band data, didn't produce conclusive results due to low coherence over the fault zone area, which is highly vegetated. In this study, we present a detailed interseismic velocity map of the Ganos Fault zone derived from L-band InSAR observations. We use 21 ALOS PALSAR scenes acquired over a 5-year period, from 2007 to 2011. We processed the ALOS data using the PySAR software, which is the University of Miami version of the Small Baseline (SB) method. The L-band observations enabled us to overcome the coherence issue in the study area. Our initial results indicate a maximum velocity of 15 mm/yr across the fault zone. The high spatial resolution of the InSAR-based interseismic velocity map will enable us to better to

  9. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  10. Looking for Off-Fault Deformation and Measuring Strain Accumulation During the Past 70 years on a Portion of the Locked San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadman, M.; Bemis, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Even at high tectonic rates, detection of possible off-fault plastic/aseismic deformation and variability in far-field strain accumulation requires high spatial resolution data and likely decades of measurements. Due to the influence that variability in interseismic deformation could have on the timing, size, and location of future earthquakes and the calculation of modern geodetic estimates of strain, we attempt to use historical aerial photographs to constrain deformation through time across a locked fault. Modern photo-based 3D reconstruction techniques facilitate the creation of dense point clouds from historical aerial photograph collections. We use these tools to generate a time series of high-resolution point clouds that span 10-20 km across the Carrizo Plain segment of the San Andreas fault. We chose this location due to the high tectonic rates along the San Andreas fault and lack of vegetation, which may obscure tectonic signals. We use ground control points collected with differential GPS to establish scale and georeference the aerial photograph-derived point clouds. With a locked fault assumption, point clouds can be co-registered (to one another and/or the 1.7 km wide B4 airborne lidar dataset) along the fault trace to calculate relative displacements away from the fault. We use CloudCompare to compute 3D surface displacements, which reflect the interseismic strain accumulation that occurred in the time interval between photo collections. As expected, we do not observe clear surface displacements along the primary fault trace in our comparisons of the B4 lidar data against the aerial photograph-derived point clouds. However, there may be small scale variations within the lidar swath area that represent near-fault plastic deformation. With large-scale historical photographs available for the Carrizo Plain extending back to at least the 1940s, we can potentially sample nearly half the interseismic period since the last major earthquake on this portion of

  11. Wavelet Entropy-Based Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis in High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keting Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a diagnosis plan is proposed to settle the detection and isolation problem of open switch faults in high-speed railway traction system traction inverters. Five entropy forms are discussed and compared with the traditional fault detection methods, namely, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. The traditional fault detection methods cannot efficiently detect the open switch faults in traction inverters because of the low resolution or the sudden change of the current. The performances of Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy (WPESE, Wavelet Packet Energy Tsallis Entropy (WPETE with different non-extensive parameters, Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy with a specific sub-band (WPESE3,6, Empirical Mode Decomposition Shannon Entropy (EMDESE, and Empirical Mode Decomposition Tsallis Entropy (EMDETE with non-extensive parameters in detecting the open switch fault are evaluated by the evaluation parameter. Comparison experiments are carried out to select the best entropy form for the traction inverter open switch fault detection. In addition, the DC component is adopted to isolate the failure Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. The simulation experiments show that the proposed plan can diagnose single and simultaneous open switch faults correctly and timely.

  12. Stacking fault density and bond orientational order of fcc ruthenium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Okkyun; Sakata, Osami; Kim, Jae Myung; Hiroi, Satoshi; Song, Chulho; Kumara, Loku Singgappulige Rosantha; Ohara, Koji; Dekura, Shun; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated crystal structure deviations of catalytic nanoparticles (NPs) using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The samples were fcc ruthenium (Ru) NPs with diameters of 2.4, 3.5, 3.9, and 5.4 nm. We analyzed average crystal structures by applying the line profile method to a stacking fault model and local crystal structures using bond orientational order (BOO) parameters. The reflection peaks shifted depending on rules that apply to each stacking fault. We evaluated the quantitative stacking faults densities for fcc Ru NPs, and the stacking fault per number of layers was 2-4, which is quite large. Our analysis shows that the fcc Ru 2.4 nm-diameter NPs have a considerably high stacking fault density. The B factor tends to increase with the increasing stacking fault density. A structural parameter that we define from the BOO parameters exhibits a significant difference from the ideal value of the fcc structure. This indicates that the fcc Ru NPs are highly disordered.

  13. Massive Sensor Array Fault Tolerance: Tolerance Mechanism and Fault Injection for Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Um

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As today's machines become increasingly complex in order to handle intricate tasks, the number of sensors must increase for intelligent operations. Given the large number of sensors, detecting, isolating, and then tolerating faulty sensors is especially important. In this paper, we propose fault tolerance architecture suitable for a massive sensor array often found in highly advanced systems such as autonomous robots. One example is the sensitive skin, a type of massive sensor array. The objective of the sensitive skin is autonomous guidance of machines in unknown environments, requiring elongated operations in a remote site. The entirety of such a system needs to be able to work remotely without human attendance for an extended period of time. To that end, we propose a fault-tolerant architecture whereby component and analytical redundancies are integrated cohesively for effective failure tolerance of a massive array type sensor or sensor system. In addition, we discuss the evaluation results of the proposed tolerance scheme by means of fault injection and validation analysis as a measure of system reliability and performance.

  14. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Oceanic active faults were classified into trench and in-land types, and a bottom survey was conducted on an aim of estimation on activity of a trench type oceanic active faults. For both sides of an oceanic active fault found at high precision sonic investigations in 1996 fiscal year, it was attempted from a record remained in sediments how a fault changed by a fault motion and how long time it acted. And, construction of a data base for evaluation of the active faults was promoted by generalizing the issued publications. As a result, it was found that a method to estimate a fault activity using turbidite in success at shallow sea could not easily be received at deep sea, and that as sedimentation method in deep sea changed largely by topography and so on, the turbidite did not play always a rule of key layer. (G.K.)

  15. Structural analysis of cataclastic rock of active fault damage zones: An example from Nojima and Arima-Takatsuki fault zones (SW Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsukawa, T.; Lin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Most of the large intraplate earthquakes which occur as slip on mature active faults induce serious damages, in spite of their relatively small magnitudes comparing to subduction-zone earthquakes. After 1995 Kobe Mw7.2 earthquake, a number of studies have been done to understand the structure, physical properties and dynamic phenomenon of active faults. However, the deformation mechanics and related earthquake generating mechanism in the intraplate active fault zone are still poorly understood. The detailed, multi-scalar structural analysis of faults and of fault rocks has to be the starting point for reconstructing the complex framework of brittle deformation. Here, we present two examples of active fault damage zones: Nojima fault and Arima-Takatsuki active fault zone in the southwest Japan. We perform field investigations, combined with meso-and micro-structural analyses of fault-related rocks, which provide the important information in reconstructing the long-term seismic faulting behavior and tectonic environment. Our study shows that in both sites, damage zone is observed in over 10m, which is composed by the host rocks, foliated and non-foliated cataclasites, fault gouge and fault breccia. The slickenside striations in Asano fault, the splay fault of Nojima fault, indicate a dextral movement sense with some normal components. Whereas, those of Arima-Takatsuki active fault shows a dextral strike-slip fault with minor vertical component. Fault gouges consist of brown-gray matrix of fine grains and composed by several layers from few millimeters to a few decimeters. It implies that slip is repeated during millions of years, as the high concentration and physical interconnectivity of fine-grained minerals in brittle fault rocks produce the fault's intrinsic weakness in the crust. Therefore, faults rarely express only on single, discrete deformation episode, but are the cumulative result of several superimposed slip events.

  16. Early diagnosis and research of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People with high myopia are high risk populations to have primary open angle glaucoma. Clinically, we found that patients with primary open angle glaucoma and high myopia is closely related. So to understand the clinical features of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma and the importance of early diagnosis, to avoiding missed diagnosis or lower misdiagnosed rate, can help to improve the vigilance and level of early diagnosis of the clinicians. In this paper, high myopia with clinical features of primary open angle glaucoma, and the research progress on the main points of early diagnosis were reviewed.

  17. A large mantle water source for the northern San Andreas Fault System: A ghost of subduction past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.; Wang, Kelin; Brocher, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the shallow mantle of the Cascadia subduction margin under near-coastal Pacific Northwest U.S. is cold and partially serpentinized, storing large quantities of water in this wedge-shaped region. Such a wedge probably formed to the south in California during an earlier period of subduction. We show by numerical modeling that after subduction ceased with the creation of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), the mantle wedge warmed, slowly releasing its water over a period of more than 25 Ma by serpentine dehydration into the crust above. This deep, long-term water source could facilitate fault slip in San Andreas System at low shear stresses by raising pore pressures in a broad region above the wedge. Moreover, the location and breadth of the water release from this model gives insights into the position and breadth of the SAFS. Such a mantle source of water also likely plays a role in the occurrence of Non-Volcanic Tremor (NVT) that has been reported along the SAFS in central California. This process of water release from mantle depths could also mobilize mantle serpentinite from the wedge above the dehydration front, permitting upward emplacement of serpentinite bodies by faulting or by diapiric ascent. Specimens of serpentinite collected from tectonically emplaced serpentinite blocks along the SAFS show mineralogical and structural evidence of high fluid pressures during ascent from depth. Serpentinite dehydration may also lead to tectonic mobility along other plate boundaries that succeed subduction, such as other continental transforms, collision zones, or along present-day subduction zones where spreading centers are subducting.

  18. Impact of large field angles on the requirements for deformable mirror in imaging satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Mueller, Mark; Martinez, Ty; Agrawal, Brij

    2018-04-01

    For certain imaging satellite missions, a large aperture with wide field-of-view is needed. In order to achieve diffraction limited performance, the mirror surface Root Mean Square (RMS) error has to be less than 0.05 waves. In the case of visible light, it has to be less than 30 nm. This requirement is difficult to meet as the large aperture will need to be segmented in order to fit inside a launch vehicle shroud. To reduce this requirement and to compensate for the residual wavefront error, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) deformable mirrors can be considered in the aft optics of the optical system. MEMS deformable mirrors are affordable and consume low power, but are small in size. Due to the major reduction in pupil size for the deformable mirror, the effective field angle is magnified by the diameter ratio of the primary and deformable mirror. For wide field of view imaging, the required deformable mirror correction is field angle dependant, impacting the required parameters of a deformable mirror such as size, number of actuators, and actuator stroke. In this paper, a representative telescope and deformable mirror system model is developed and the deformable mirror correction is simulated to study the impact of the large field angles in correcting a wavefront error using a deformable mirror in the aft optics.

  19. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  20. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  1. TILT ANGLE AND FOOTPOINT SEPARATION OF SMALL AND LARGE BIPOLAR SUNSPOT REGIONS OBSERVED WITH HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager—Debrecen Data with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within ±96 hr of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (≈30 MSH), midsize (≈50 MSH), and large (≈110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions for separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.°6), midsize (5.°9), and large (9.°3) regions. Within ±48 hr of the time of peak umbral area, large regions steadily increase in tilt angle, midsize regions are nearly constant, and small regions show evidence of negative tilt during emergence. A period of growth in footpoint separation occurs over a 72-hr period for all of the regions from roughly 40 to 70 Mm. The smallest bipoles (<9 MSH) are outliers in that they do not obey Joy's law and have a much smaller footpoint separation. We confirm the Muñoz-Jaramillo et al. results that the sunspots appear to be two distinct populations

  2. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao.

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  3. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known.The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault.The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle.Graphs showing the variation of the ...

  4. Off-fault seismicity suggests creep below 10 km on the northern San Jacinto Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; Beyer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Within the San Bernardino basin, CA, south of the juncture of the San Jacinto (SJF) and San Andreas faults (SAF), focal mechanisms show normal slip events that are inconsistent with the interseismic strike-slip loading of the region. High-quality (nodal plane uncertainty faults [Anderson et al., 2004]. However, the loading of these normal slip events remains enigmatic because the region is expected to have dextral loading between large earthquake events. These enigmatic normal slip events may be loaded by deep (> 10 km depth) spatially creep along the northern SJF. Steady state models show that over many earthquake cycles, the dextral slip rate on the northern SJF increases southward, placing the San Bernardino basin in extension. In the absence of recent large seismic events that could produce off-fault normal focal mechanisms in the San Bernardino basin, non-uniform deep aseismic slip on the SJF could account for this seismicity. We develop interseismic models that incorporate spatially non-uniform creep below 10 km on the SJF based on steady-state slip distribution. These model results match the pattern of deep normal slip events within the San Bernardino basin. Such deep creep on the SJF may not be detectable from the geodetic signal due to the close proximity of the SAF, whose lack of seismicity suggests that it is locked to 20 km. Interseismic models with 15 km locking depth on both faults are indistinguishable from models with 10 km locking depth on the SJF and 20 km locking depth on the SAF. This analysis suggests that the microseismicity in our multi-decadal catalog may record both the interseismic dextral loading of the region as well as off-fault deformation associated with deep aseismic creep on the northern SJF. If the enigmatic normal slip events of the San Bernardino basin are included in stress inversions from the seismic catalog used to assess seismic hazard, the results may provide inaccurate information about fault loading in this region.

  5. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc. may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coefficient in principal component usually corresponds to the fault. Therefore, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on principal components analysis technology, we have extracted successfully the distinct features of fault component. Of course, because of the complexity of different types of faults in electric power system, there still exists enormous problems need a close and intensive study.

  6. Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R

    2010-12-20

    Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

  7. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian) sedimentary basins, and the influence of Late Paleozoic faulting on the underlying Variscan basement. The present structure of the basement is rather complex as it results from multiple Variscan an...

  8. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  10. Stafford fault system: 120 million year fault movement history of northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Horton, J. Wright; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Stafford fault system, located in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of the eastern United States, provides the most complete record of fault movement during the past ~120 m.y. across the Virginia, Washington, District of Columbia (D.C.), and Maryland region, including displacement of Pleistocene terrace gravels. The Stafford fault system is close to and aligned with the Piedmont Spotsylvania and Long Branch fault zones. The dominant southwest-northeast trend of strong shaking from the 23 August 2011, moment magnitude Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake is consistent with the connectivity of these faults, as seismic energy appears to have traveled along the documented and proposed extensions of the Stafford fault system into the Washington, D.C., area. Some other faults documented in the nearby coastal plain are clearly rooted in crystalline basement faults, especially along terrane boundaries. These coastal plain faults are commonly assumed to have undergone relatively uniform movement through time, with average slip rates from 0.3 to 1.5 m/m.y. However, there were higher rates during the Paleocene–early Eocene and the Pliocene (4.4–27.4 m/m.y), suggesting that slip occurred primarily during large earthquakes. Further investigation of the Stafford fault system is needed to understand potential earthquake hazards for the Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., area. The combined Stafford fault system and aligned Piedmont faults are ~180 km long, so if the combined fault system ruptured in a single event, it would result in a significantly larger magnitude earthquake than the Mineral earthquake. Many structures most strongly affected during the Mineral earthquake are along or near the Stafford fault system and its proposed northeastward extension.

  11. Large angle cosmic microwave background fluctuations from cosmic strings with a cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landriau, M.; Shellard, E.P.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present results for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies generated from high resolution simulations of cosmic string networks in a range of flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with a cosmological constant. Using an ensemble of all-sky maps, we compare with the Cosmic Background Explorer data to infer a normalization (or upper bound) on the string linear energy density μ. For a flat matter-dominated model (Ω M =1) we find Gμ/c 2 ≅0.7x10 -6 , which is lower than previous constraints probably because of the more accurate inclusion of string small-scale structure. For a cosmological constant within an observationally acceptable range, we find a relatively weak dependence with Gμ/c 2 less than 10% higher

  12. FAULT TOLERANCE IN JOB SCHEDULING THROUGH FAULT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK USING SOA IN GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indhumathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development in computing resources has enhanced the recital of computers and abridged their costs. This accessibility of low cost prevailing computers joined with the fame of the Internet and high-speed networks has leaded the computing surroundings to be mapped from dispersed to grid environments. Grid is a kind of dispersed system which supports the allotment and harmonized exploit of geographically dispersed and multi-owner resources, autonomously from their physical form and site, in vibrant practical organizations that carve up the similar objective of decipher large-scale applications. Thus any type of failure can happen at any point of time and job running in grid environment might fail. Therefore fault tolerance is an imperative and demanding concern in grid computing as the steadiness of individual grid resources may not be guaranteed. In order to build computational grids more effectual and consistent fault tolerant system is required. In order to accomplish the user prospect in terms of recital and competence, the Grid system desires SOA Fault Management Framework for the sharing of tasks with fault tolerance. A Fault Management Framework endeavor to pick up the response time of user’s proposed applications by ensures maximal exploitation of obtainable resources. The main aim is to avert, if probable, the stipulation where some processors are congested by means of a set of tasks while others are flippantly loaded or even at leisure.

  13. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine Systems Subject to Recurring Symmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    New grid codes demand the wind turbine systems to ride through recurring grid faults. In this paper, the performance of the doubly Ffed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine system under recurring symmetrical grid faults is analyzed. The mathematical model of the DFIG under recurring symmetrical...... grid faults is established. The analysis is based on the DFIG wind turbine system with the typical low-voltage ride-through strategy-with rotor-side crowbar. The stator natural flux produced by the voltage recovery after the first grid fault may be superposed on the stator natural flux produced...... by the second grid fault, so that the transient rotor and stator current and torque fluctuations under the second grid fault may be influenced by the characteristic of the first grid fault, including the voltage dips level and the grid fault angle, as well as the duration between two faults. The mathematical...

  14. Deciphering Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Kansas Based on High-resolution Stress Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Haffener, J.; Trugman, D. T.; Carpenter, B.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Induced seismicity in Oklahoma and Kansas delineates clear fault trends. It is assumed that fluid injection reactivates faults which are optimally oriented relative to the regional tectonic stress field. We utilized recently improved earthquake locations and more complete focal mechanism catalogs to quantitatively analyze the stress state of seismogenic faults with high-resolution stress maps. The steps of analysis are: (1) Mapping the faults by clustering seismicity using a nearest-neighbor approach, manually picking the fault in each cluster and calculating the fault geometry using principal component analysis. (2) Running a stress inversion with 0.2° grid spacing to produce an in-situ stress map. (3) The fault stress state is determined from fault geometry and a 3D Mohr circle. The parameter `understress' is calculated to quantify the criticalness of these faults. If it approaches 0, the fault is critically stressed; while understress=1 means there is no shear stress on the fault. Our results indicate that most of the active faults have a planar shape (planarity>0.8), and dip steeply (dip>70°). The fault trends are distributed mainly in conjugate set ranges of [50°,70°] and [100°,120°]. More importantly, these conjugate trends are consistent with mapped basement fractures in southern Oklahoma, suggesting similar basement features from regional tectonics. The fault length data shows a loglinear relationship with the maximum earthquake magnitude with an expected maximum magnitude range from 3.2 to 4.4 for most seismogenic faults. Based on 3D local Mohr circle, we find that 61% of the faults have low understress (0.5) are located within highest-rate injection zones and therefore are likely to be influenced by high pore pressure. The faults that hosted the largest earthquakes, M5.7 Prague and M5.8 Pawnee are critically stressed (understress 0.2). These differences may help in understanding earthquake sequences, for example, the predominantly aftershock

  15. Active fault research in India: achievements and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the progress made towards active fault research in India. An 8 m high scarp running for more than 80 km in the Rann of Kachchh is the classical example of the surface deformation caused by the great earthquake (1819 Kachchh earthquake. Integration of geological/geomorphic and seismological data has led to the identification of 67 active faults of regional scale, 15 in the Himalaya, 17 in the adjoining foredeep with as many as 30 neotectonic faults in the stable Peninsular India. Large-scale trenching programmes coupled with radiometric dates have begun to constraint the recurrence period of earthquakes; of the order of 500–1000 years for great earthquakes in the Himalaya and 10,000 years for earthquakes of >M6 in the Peninsular India. The global positioning system (GPS data in the stand alone manner have provided the fault parameters and length of rupture for the 2004 Andaman Sumatra earthquakes. Ground penetration radar (GPR and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques have enabled detection of large numbers of new active faults and their geometries. Utilization of modern technologies form the central feature of the major programme launched by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to prepare geographic information system (GIS based active fault maps for the country.

  16. A novel concept of fault current limiter based on saturable core in high voltage DC transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiaxin; Zhou, Hang; Gan, Pengcheng; Zhong, Yongheng; Gao, Yanhui; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Du, Zhiye; Chen, Baichao

    2018-05-01

    To develop mechanical circuit breaker in high voltage direct current (HVDC) system, a fault current limiter is required. Traditional method to limit DC fault current is to use superconducting technology or power electronic devices, which is quite difficult to be brought to practical use under high voltage circumstances. In this paper, a novel concept of high voltage DC transmission system fault current limiter (DCSFCL) based on saturable core was proposed. In the DCSFCL, the permanent magnets (PM) are added on both up and down side of the core to generate reverse magnetic flux that offset the magnetic flux generated by DC current and make the DC winding present a variable inductance to the DC system. In normal state, DCSFCL works as a smoothing reactor and its inductance is within the scope of the design requirements. When a fault occurs, the inductance of DCSFCL rises immediately and limits the steepness of the fault current. Magnetic field simulations were carried out, showing that compared with conventional smoothing reactor, DCSFCL can decrease the high steepness of DC fault current by 17% in less than 10ms, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  17. Geometry and kinematics of adhesive wear in brittle strike-slip fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark T.

    2005-05-01

    Detailed outcrop surface mapping in Late Paleozoic cataclastic strike-slip faults of coastal Maine shows that asymmetric sidewall ripouts, 0.1-200 m in length, are a significant component of many mapped faults and an important wall rock deformation mechanism during faulting. The geometry of these structures ranges from simple lenses to elongate slabs cut out of the sidewalls of strike-slip faults by a lateral jump of the active zone of slip during adhesion along a section of the main fault. The new irregular trace of the active fault after this jump creates an indenting asperity that is forced to plow through the adjoining wall rock during continued adhesion or be cut off by renewed motion along the main section of the fault. Ripout translation during adhesion sets up the structural asymmetry with trailing extensional and leading contractional ends to the ripout block. The inactive section of the main fault trace at the trailing end can develop a 'sag' or 'half-graben' type geometry due to block movement along the scallop-shaped connecting ramp to the flanking ripout fault. Leading contractional ramps can develop 'thrust' type imbrication and forces the 'humpback' geometry to the ripout slab due to distortion of the inactive main fault surface by ripout translation. Similar asymmetric ripout geometries are recognized in many other major crustal scale strike-slip fault zones worldwide. Ripout structures in the 5-500 km length range can be found on the Atacama fault system of northern Chile, the Qujiang and Xiaojiang fault zones in western China, the Yalakom-Hozameen fault zone in British Columbia and the San Andreas fault system in southern California. For active crustal-scale faults the surface expression of ripout translation includes a coupled system of extensional trailing ramps as normal oblique-slip faults with pull-apart basin sedimentation and contractional leading ramps as oblique thrust or high angle reverse faults with associated uplift and erosion. The

  18. Continentward-dipping detachment fault system and asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Chen, Liang; Hao, Shihao

    2018-02-01

    The rift architecture and deep crustal structure of the distal margin at the mid-northern margin of the South China Sea have been previously investigated by using deep seismic reflection profiles. However, one fundamental recurring problem in the debate is the extensional fault system and rift structure of the hyperextended rift basins (Baiyun Sag and Liwan Sag) within the distal margin because of the limited amount of seismic data. Based on new 3D seismic survey data and 2D seismic reflection profiles, we observe an array of fault blocks in the Baiyun Sag, which were tilted towards the ocean by extensional faulting. The extensional faults consistently dip towards the continent. Beneath the tilted fault blocks and extensional faults, a low-angle, high-amplitude and continuous reflection has been interpreted as the master detachment surface that controls the extension process. During rifting, the continentward-dipping normal faults evolved in a sequence from south to north, generating the asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag. The Baiyun Sag is separated from the oceanic domain by a series of structural highs that were uplifted by magmatic activity in response to the continental breakup at 33 Ma and a ridge jump to the south at 26-24 Ma. Therefore, we propose that magmatism played a significant role in the continental extension and final breakup in the South China Sea.

  19. High-speed large angle mammography tomosynthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Staudinger, Paul; Smolenski, Joe; Ding, Jason; Schmitz, Andrea; McCoy, Julie; Rumsey, Michael; Al-Khalidy, Abdulrahman; Ross, William; Landberg, Cynthia E.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Carson, Paul; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Chan, Heang-Ping; Roubidoux, Marilyn; Thomas, Jerry A.; Osland, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    A new mammography tomosynthesis prototype system that acquires 21 projection images over a 60 degree angular range in approximately 8 seconds has been developed and characterized. Fast imaging sequences are facilitated by a high power tube and generator for faster delivery of the x-ray exposure and a high speed detector read-out. An enhanced a-Si/CsI flat panel digital detector provides greater DQE at low exposure, enabling tomo image sequence acquisitions at total patient dose levels between 150% and 200% of the dose of a standard mammographic view. For clinical scenarios where a single MLO tomographic acquisition per breast may replace the standard CC and MLO views, total tomosynthesis breast dose is comparable to or below the dose in standard mammography. The system supports co-registered acquisition of x-ray tomosynthesis and 3-D ultrasound data sets by incorporating an ultrasound transducer scanning system that flips into position above the compression paddle for the ultrasound exam. Initial images acquired with the system are presented.

  20. Voltage Based Detection Method for High Impedance Fault in a Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mini Shaji; Bhaskar, Namrata; Prakash, Anupama

    2016-09-01

    High-impedance faults (HIFs) on distribution feeders cannot be detected by conventional protection schemes, as HIFs are characterized by their low fault current level and waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the ground return path. This paper proposes a method to identify the HIFs in distribution system and isolate the faulty section, to reduce downtime. This method is based on voltage measurements along the distribution feeder and utilizes the sequence components of the voltages. Three models of high impedance faults have been considered and source side and load side breaking of the conductor have been studied in this work to capture a wide range of scenarios. The effect of neutral grounding of the source side transformer is also accounted in this study. The results show that the algorithm detects the HIFs accurately and rapidly. Thus, the faulty section can be isolated and service can be restored to the rest of the consumers.

  1. A methodology for fault diagnosis in large chemical processes and an application to a multistage flash desalination process: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifa, Enrique E.; Scenna, Nicolas J.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new strategy for fault diagnosis in large chemical processes (E.E. Tarifa, Fault diagnosis in complex chemistries plants: plants of large dimensions and batch processes. Ph.D. thesis, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, 1995). A special decomposition of the plant is made in sectors. Afterwards each sector is studied independently. These steps are carried out in the off-line mode. They produced vital information for the diagnosis system. This system works in the on-line mode and is based on a two-tier strategy. When a fault is produced, the upper level identifies the faulty sector. Then, the lower level carries out an in-depth study that focuses only on the critical sectors to identify the fault. The loss of information produced by the process partition may cause spurious diagnosis. This problem is overcome at the second level using qualitative simulation and fuzzy logic. In the second part of this work, the new methodology is tested to evaluate its performance in practical cases. A multiple stage flash desalination system (MSF) is chosen because it is a complex system, with many recycles and variables to be supervised. The steps for the knowledge base generation and all the blocks included in the diagnosis system are analyzed. Evaluation of the diagnosis performance is carried out using a rigorous dynamic simulator

  2. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  3. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.

    2014-12-01

    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  4. High Order Sliding Mode Control of Doubly-fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a doubly-fed induction generator-based (DFIG) wind turbine system under grid fault conditions such as: unbalanced grid voltage, three-phase grid fault, using a high order sliding mode control (SMC). A second order sliding mode controller, which is robust with respect...

  5. A large angle cold neutron bender using sequential garland reflections for pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Soyama, K.; Suzuki, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    We discuss a basic structure and performance of a new cold neutron bender using sequential garland reflections, in order to bend a neutron beam with large divergence by large angle. Using this bender for a pulsed neutron source we could not only avoid the frame overlap for cold neutrons but also install a plural spectrometers at a cold guide and obtain polarized neutron beams if necessary. (author)

  6. A large angle cold neutron bender using sequential garland reflections for pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Soyama, K.; Suzuki, J.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a basic structure and performance of a new cold neutron bender using sequential garland reflections, in order to bend a neutron beam with large divergence by large angle. Using this bender for a pulsed neutron source we could not only avoid the frame overlap for cold neutrons but also install a plural spectrometers at a cold guide and obtain polarized neutron beams if necessary. (author)

  7. Numerical Study for a Large Volume Droplet on the Dual-rough Surface: Apparent Contact Angle, Contact Angle Hysteresis and Transition Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Jin, Yanli; Dong, He; Liu, Jiawei; Ye, Senbin

    2018-06-14

    The profile, apparent contact angle (ACA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting state transmission energy barrier (WSTEB) are important static and dynamic properties of a large volume droplet on the hierarchical surface. Understanding them can provide us with important insights to functional surfaces and promote the application in corresponding areas. In this paper, we established three theoretical models (Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3) and corresponding numerical methods, which were obtained by the free energy minimization and the nonlinear optimization algorithm, to predict the profile, ACA, CAH and WSTEB of a large volume droplet on the horizontal regular dual-rough surface. In consideration of the gravity, the energy barrier on the contact circle, the dual heterogenous structures and their roughness on the surface, the models are more universal and accurate than previous models. It showed that the predictions of the models were in good agreement with the results from the experiment or literature. The models are promising to become novel design approaches of functional surfaces, which are frequently applied in microfluidic chips, water self-catchment system and dropwise condensation heat transfer system.

  8. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in high-mobility semimetal LuPtBi

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guizhou; Hou, Zhipeng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Enke; Xi, X; Xu, Feng; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of ultrahigh mobility and large positive magnetoresistance in topologically non-trivial Half-Heusler semimetal LuPtBi provides a unique playground for studying exotic physics and significant perspective for device applications. As an fcc-structured electron-hole-compensated semimetal, LuPtBi theoretically exhibits six symmetrically arranged anisotropic electron Fermi pockets and two nearly-spherical hole pockets, offering the opportunity to explore the physics of Fermi surface with a simple angle-related magnetotransport properties. In this work, through the angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance measurements, in combination with high-field SdH quantum oscillations, we achieved to map out a Fermi surface with six anisotropic pockets in the high-temperature and low-field regime, and furthermore, identify a possible magnetic field driven Fermi surface change at lower temperatures. Reasons account for the Fermi surface change in LuPtBi are discussed in terms of the field-induced electron evacuation due to Landau quantization.

  9. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in high-mobility semimetal LuPtBi

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guizhou

    2017-03-14

    The recent discovery of ultrahigh mobility and large positive magnetoresistance in topologically non-trivial Half-Heusler semimetal LuPtBi provides a unique playground for studying exotic physics and significant perspective for device applications. As an fcc-structured electron-hole-compensated semimetal, LuPtBi theoretically exhibits six symmetrically arranged anisotropic electron Fermi pockets and two nearly-spherical hole pockets, offering the opportunity to explore the physics of Fermi surface with a simple angle-related magnetotransport properties. In this work, through the angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance measurements, in combination with high-field SdH quantum oscillations, we achieved to map out a Fermi surface with six anisotropic pockets in the high-temperature and low-field regime, and furthermore, identify a possible magnetic field driven Fermi surface change at lower temperatures. Reasons account for the Fermi surface change in LuPtBi are discussed in terms of the field-induced electron evacuation due to Landau quantization.

  10. Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.

  11. Design of a self-calibration high precision micro-angle deformation optical monitoring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingying; Wang, Li; Guo, Shaogang; Wu, Yun; Liu, Da

    2018-03-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision and micro-angle measurement on orbit, a self-calibrated optical non-contact real-time monitoring device is designed. Within three meters, the micro-angle variable of target relative to measuring basis can be measured in real-time. The range of angle measurement is +/-50'', the angle measurement accuracy is less than 2''. The equipment can realize high precision real-time monitoring the micro-angle deformation, which caused by high strength vibration and shock of rock launching, sun radiation and heat conduction on orbit and so on.

  12. Broadband infrared photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with high density stacking faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Su, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Dunwei; Jian, Jie; Lee, Joon Hwan; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Qingkai; Bao, Jiming

    2015-02-07

    Making silicon an efficient light-emitting material is an important goal of silicon photonics. Here we report the observation of broadband sub-bandgap photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with a high density of stacking faults. The photoluminescence becomes stronger and exhibits a blue shift under higher laser powers. The super-linear dependence on excitation intensity indicates a strong competition between radiative and defect-related non-radiative channels, and the spectral blue shift is ascribed to the band filling effect in the heterostructures of wurtzite silicon and cubic silicon created by stacking faults.

  13. Fluid-faulting evolution in high definition: Connecting fault structure and frequency-magnitude variations during the 2014 Long Valley Caldera, California earthquake swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Ellsworth, William L.; Hill, David P.

    2016-01-01

    An extended earthquake swarm occurred beneath southeastern Long Valley Caldera between May and November 2014, culminating in three magnitude 3.5 earthquakes and 1145 cataloged events on 26 September alone. The swarm produced the most prolific seismicity in the caldera since a major unrest episode in 1997-1998. To gain insight into the physics controlling swarm evolution, we used large-scale cross-correlation between waveforms of cataloged earthquakes and continuous data, producing precise locations for 8494 events, more than 2.5 times the routine catalog. We also estimated magnitudes for 18,634 events (~5.5 times the routine catalog), using a principal component fit to measure waveform amplitudes relative to cataloged events. This expanded and relocated catalog reveals multiple episodes of pronounced hypocenter expansion and migration on a collection of neighboring faults. Given the rapid migration and alignment of hypocenters on narrow faults, we infer that activity was initiated and sustained by an evolving fluid pressure transient with a low-viscosity fluid, likely composed primarily of water and CO2 exsolved from underlying magma. Although both updip and downdip migration were observed within the swarm, downdip activity ceased shortly after activation, while updip activity persisted for weeks at moderate levels. Strongly migrating, single-fault episodes within the larger swarm exhibited a higher proportion of larger earthquakes (lower Gutenberg-Richter b value), which may have been facilitated by fluid pressure confined in two dimensions within the fault zone. In contrast, the later swarm activity occurred on an increasingly diffuse collection of smaller faults, with a much higher b value.

  14. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the influence of faults on groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to investigate how the faulted hydrogeologic structure influences groundwater flow from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Simulations are performed using a 3-D model that has a unique grid block discretization to accurately represent the faulted geologic units, which have variable thicknesses and orientations. Irregular grid blocks enable explicit representation of these features. Each hydrogeologic layer is discretized into a single layer of irregular and dipping grid blocks, and faults are discretized such that they are laterally continuous and displacement varies along strike. In addition, the presence of altered fault zones is explicitly modeled, as appropriate. The model has 23 layers and 11 faults, and approximately 57,000 grid blocks and 200,000 grid block connections. In the past, field measurement of upward vertical head gradients and high water table temperatures near faults were interpreted as indicators of upwelling from a deep carbonate aquifer. Simulations show, however, that these features can be readily explained by the geometry of hydrogeologic layers, the variability of layer permeabilities and thermal conductivities, and by the presence of permeable fault zones or faults with displacement only. In addition, a moderate water table gradient can result from fault displacement or a laterally continuous low permeability fault zone, but not from a high permeability fault zone, as others postulated earlier. Large-scale macrodispersion results from the vertical and lateral diversion of flow near the contact of high and low permeability layers at faults, and from upward flow within high permeability fault zones. Conversely, large-scale channeling can occur due to groundwater flow into areas with minimal fault displacement. Contaminants originating at the water table can flow in a direction significantly different than that of the water table gradient, and isolated

  15. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the influence of faults on groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to investigate how the faulted hydrogeologic structure influences groundwater flow from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Simulations are performed using a 3-D model that has a unique grid block discretization to accurately represent the faulted geologic units, which have variable thicknesses and orientations. Irregular grid blocks enable explicit representation of these features. Each hydrogeologic layer is discretized into a single layer of irregular and dipping grid blocks, and faults are discretized such that they are laterally continuous and displacement varies along strike. In addition, the presence of altered fault zones is explicitly modeled, as appropriate. The model has 23 layers and 11 faults, and approximately 57,000 grid blocks and 200,000 grid block connections. In the past, field measurement of upward vertical head gradients and high water table temperatures near faults were interpreted as indicators of upwelling from a deep carbonate aquifer. Simulations show, however, that these features can be readily explained by the geometry of hydrogeologic layers, the variability of layer permeabilities and thermal conductivities, and by the presence of permeable fault zones or faults with displacement only. In addition, a moderate water table gradient can result from fault displacement or a laterally continuous low permeability fault zone, but not from a high permeability fault zone, as others postulated earlier. Large-scale macrodispersion results from the vertical and lateral diversion of flow near the contact of high and low permeability layers at faults, and from upward flow within high permeability fault zones. Conversely, large-scale channeling can occur due to groundwater flow into areas with minimal fault displacement. Contaminants originating at the water table can flow in a direction significantly different than that of the water table gradient, and isolated

  16. Rapid Transient Fault Insertion in Large Digital Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    This paper presents a technique for rapidtransientfault injection, regarding the CPU time, to perform simulation-based fault-injection in complex System-on-Chip Systems (SoCs). The proposed approach can be applied to complex circuits, as it is not required to modify the top-level modules of a

  17. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J

    2017-01-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  18. Geophysical methods for identification of active faults between the Sannio-Matese and Irpinia areas of the Southern Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Apennines is one of the Italian most active areas from a geodynamic point of view since it is characterized by occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. Most seismicity of the area is concentrated along the chain, affecting mainly the Irpinia and Sannio-Matese areas. The seismogenetic sources responsible for the destructive events of 1456, 1688, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1930, 1962 and 1980 (Io = X-XI MCS) occurred mostly on NW-SE faults, and the relative hypocenters are concentrated within the upper 20 km of the crust. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW-SE trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW trending structures. The available focal mechanisms of the largest events show normal solutions consistent with NE-SW extension of the chain. After the 1980 Irpinia large earthquake, the release of seismic energy in the Southern Apennines has been characterized by occurrence of moderate energy sequences of main shock-aftershocks type and swarm-type activity with low magnitude sequences. Low-magnitude (Md<5) historical and recent earthquakes, generally clustered in swarms, have commonly occurred along the NE-SW faults. This paper deals with integrated analysis of geological and geophysical data in GIS environment to identify surface, buried and hidden active faults and to characterize their geometry. In particular we have analyzed structural data, earthquake space distribution and gravimetric data. The main results of the combined analysis indicate good correlation between seismicity and Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) lineaments from gravity data. Furthermore 2D seismic hypocentral locations together with high-resolution analysis of gravity anomalies have been correlated to estimate the fault systems parameters (strike, dip direction and dip angle) through the application of the DEXP method (Depth from Extreme Points).

  19. A Novel Protection Method for Single Line-to-Ground Faults in Ungrounded Low-Inertia Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuming Jing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel protection method for single line-to-ground (SLG faults in ungrounded low-inertia microgrids. The proposed method includes microgrid interface protection and unit protection. The microgrid interface protection is based on the difference between the zero-sequence voltage angle and the zero-sequence current angle at the microgrid interconnection transformer for fast selection of the faulty feeder. The microgrid unit protection is based on a comparison of the three zero-sequence current phase directions at each junction point of load or distributed energy resources. Methods are also included to locate the minimum fault section. The fault section location technology operates according to the coordination of microgrid unit protection. The proposed method responds to SLG faults that may occur in both the grid and the microgrid. Simulations of an ungrounded low-inertia microgrid with a relay model were carried out using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD/Electromagnetic Transients including DC (EMTDC.

  20. Dissolved Gas Analysis Principle-Based Intelligent Approaches to Fault Diagnosis and Decision Making for Large Oil-Immersed Power Transformers: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefeng Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional methods of fault diagnosis for power transformers, which have defects such as imperfect encoding and too absolute encoding boundaries, this paper systematically discusses various intelligent approaches applied in fault diagnosis and decision making for large oil-immersed power transformers based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA, including expert system (EPS, artificial neural network (ANN, fuzzy theory, rough sets theory (RST, grey system theory (GST, swarm intelligence (SI algorithms, data mining technology, machine learning (ML, and other intelligent diagnosis tools, and summarizes existing problems and solutions. From this survey, it is found that a single intelligent approach for fault diagnosis can only reflect operation status of the transformer in one particular aspect, causing various degrees of shortcomings that cannot be resolved effectively. Combined with the current research status in this field, the problems that must be addressed in DGA-based transformer fault diagnosis are identified, and the prospects for future development trends and research directions are outlined. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic survey on various intelligent approaches to faults diagnosing and decisions making of the power transformer, in which their merits and demerits are thoroughly investigated, as well as their improvement schemes and future development trends are proposed. Moreover, this paper concludes that a variety of intelligent algorithms should be combined for mutual complementation to form a hybrid fault diagnosis network, such that avoiding these algorithms falling into a local optimum. Moreover, it is necessary to improve the detection instruments so as to acquire reasonable characteristic gas data samples. The research summary, empirical generalization and analysis of predicament in this paper provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of complex power grid in the new environment, as

  1. Focused exhumation along megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Armstrong, Phillip A; Liberty, Lee M; Ferguson, Kelly M; Finn, Shaun P; Arkle, Jeannette C; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Megathrust splay faults are a common feature of accretionary prisms and can be important for generating tsunamis during some subduction zone earthquakes. Here we provide new evidence from Alaska that megathrust splay faults have been conduits for focused exhumation in the last 5 Ma. In most of central Prince William Sound, published and new low-temperature thermochronology data indicate little to no permanent rock uplift over tens of thousands of earthquake cycles. However, in southern Prince William Sound on Montague Island, apatite (U–Th)/He ages are as young as 1.1 Ma indicating focused and rapid rock uplift. Montague Island lies in the hanging wall of the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system, which ruptured during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake and produced ∼9 m of vertical uplift. Recent geochronology and thermochronology studies show rapid exhumation within the last 5 Ma in a pattern similar to the coseismic uplift in the 1964 earthquake, demonstrating that splay fault slip is a long term (3–5 my) phenomena. The region of slower exhumation correlates with rocks that are older and metamorphosed and constitute a mechanically strong backstop. The region of rapid exhumation consists of much younger and weakly metamorphosed rocks, which we infer are mechanically weak. The region of rapid exhumation is separated from the region of slow exhumation by the newly identified Montague Strait Fault. New sparker high-resolution bathymetry, seismic reflection profiles, and a 2012 Mw4.8 earthquake show this feature as a 75-km-long high-angle active normal fault. There are numerous smaller active normal(?) faults in the region between the Montague Strait Fault and the splay faults. We interpret this hanging wall extension as developing between the rapidly uplifting sliver of younger and weaker rocks on Montague Island from the essentially fixed region to the north. Deep seismic reflection profiles show the splay faults root into the subduction megathrust where there

  2. The effect of random matter density perturbations on the large mixing angle solution to the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Holanda, P. C.; Reggiani, N.

    2003-08-01

    The neutrino energy spectrum observed in KamLAND is compatible with the predictions based on the Large Mixing Angle realization of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) mechanism, which provides the best solution to the solar neutrino anomaly. From the agreement between solar neutrino data and KamLAND observations, we can obtain the best fit values of the mixing angle and square difference mass. When doing the fitting of the MSW predictions to the solar neutrino data, it is assumed the solar matter do not have any kind of perturbations, that is, it is assumed the the matter density monothonically decays from the center to the surface of the Sun. There are reasons to believe, nevertheless, that the solar matter density fluctuates around the equilibrium profile. In this work, we analysed the effect on the Large Mixing Angle parameters when the density matter randomically fluctuates around the equilibrium profile, solving the evolution equation in this case. We find that, in the presence of these density perturbations, the best fit values of the mixing angle and the square difference mass assume smaller values, compared with the values obtained for the standard Large Mixing Angle Solution without noise. Considering this effect of the random perturbations, the lowest island of allowed region for KamLAND spectral data in the parameter space must be considered and we call it very-low region.

  3. Dislocation Processes and Frictional Stability of Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, V. G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Druiventak, A.

    2011-12-01

    The rate dependence of frictional processes in faults in quartzofeldspathic crust is proposed to change at c. 300°C, because above this temperature asperity deformation can be accommodated by crystal plastic processes. As a consequence, the real fault contact area increases and the fault velocity strengthens. Conversely, faults at lower temperatures are velocity weakening and therefore prone to earthquake slip. We have investigated whether dislocation processes are important around faults in quartzites on seismic timescales, by inducing fault slip on a saw cut surface in novaculite blocks. Deformation was carried out at 450°C and 600°C in a Griggs apparatus. Slip rates of 8.3 x 10-7s-1 allowed total slip, u, of 0.5mm to be achieved in c. 10 minutes. Failure occurred at peak differential stresses of ~1.7 GPa and 1.4 GPa respectively, followed by significant weakening. Structures of the novaculite within and surrounding the fault surface were examined using EBSD, FIB-SEM and TEM to elucidate changes to their dislocation substructure. In the sample deformed at 450°C, a ~50μm thick layer of amorphous / non-crystalline silica was developed on the saw-cut surface during deformation. Rare clasts of the wall rock are preserved within this material. The surrounding sample is mostly composed of equant quartz grains of 5-10μm diameter that lack a preferred orientation, contain very few intercrystalline dislocations, and are divided by organised high angle grain boundaries. After deformation, most quartz grains within the sample retain their starting microstructure. However, within ~10μm of the sliding surface, dislocations are more common, and these are arranged into elongated, tangled zones (subgrain boundaries?). Microfractures are also observed. These microstructures are characteristic of deformation accommodated by low temperature plasticity. Our preliminary observations suggest that dislocation processes may be able to accommodate some deformation around fault

  4. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  5. Resistivity Structures of the Chelungpu Fault in the Taichung Area, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted magnetotelluric prospecting in the Taichung area to investigate subsurface resistivity structures of the Chelungpu fault and the resistivity of rock formations. The results indicate that the Chelungpu fault is a complex fault system consisting of two major fault zones, several fracture zones, and back thrust. The two major fault zones, the basal and the Chi-Chi fault zone are about 800 m apart on the ground and converge to a narrow band at a depth of 3000 m. The fault zones are not smooth, composed of ramps and platforms with an average eastward dipping angle of 35° - 37° within the depth of 3000 m. In the shallower region, the basal fault zone has developed along the boundary of the Toukoshan Formation (resistivity: 200 - 400 Ω-m at the footwall and the Neogene formations on the hanging wall, where the Cholan Formation, the Chinshiu Shale, and the Kueichulai Formation have respective resistivity mainly in the ranges: 40 - 100, 8 - 60, and 50 - 150 Ω-m. While the Chi-Chi fault zone has developed along the weak layers of the Cholan Formation where resistivity is lower than the unsheared block.

  6. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  7. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experiments were done to gather the energy characteristics with a voltage sensor. The signal is analyzed with 5-layer wavelet packets, and the energy eigenvalue of each frequency band is obtained. Meanwhile, the energy-eigenvalue tolerance was introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy. With the wavelet packet fault diagnosis, the fault tolerant four-phase DFBLSG can detect the usual open-circuit fault and operate in the fault tolerant mode if there is a fault. The results indicate that the fault analysis techniques in this paper are accurate and effective.

  8. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, J.R.; Anastas, G.V. Jr.; Bushko, D.A.; Flynn, F.J.; Goldie, J.H.; Gondhalekar, V.; Hawkey, T.J.; Hockney, R.L.; Torti, R.P.

    1992-12-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible

  9. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  10. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  11. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  12. Cosmic ray zenith angle distribution at low geomagnetic latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, G [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Gagliardini, A; Ghielmetti, H S

    1977-12-01

    The intensity of secondary charged cosmic rays at different zenith angles was measured by narrow angle Geiger-Mueller telescopes up to an atmospheric depth of 2 g cm/sup -2/. The angular distribution observed at high altitudes is nearly flat at small angles around the vertical and suggests that the particle intensity peaks at large zenith angles, close to the horizon.

  13. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian)

  14. Faults, fluids and friction : effect of pressure solution and phyllosilicates on fault slip behaviour, with implications for crustal rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, B.

    2000-01-01

    In order to model the mechanics of motion and earthquake generation on large crustal fault zones, a quantitative description of the rheology of fault zones is prerequisite. In the past decades, crustal strength has been modeled using a brittle or frictional failure law to represent fault slip

  15. Protection system for high impedance faults; Sistema de protecao para faltas de alta impedancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagodi, Caius Vinicius Sampaio

    1997-07-01

    This paper proposes a protection system against high impedance faults based on the voltage unbalance along the feeder. The main focus is on the sensor developed together with Sao Paulo state utilities through the CED - Center of Excellence in Distribution, to detect this kind of fault. These simulations show the voltage unbalance that allows to safely determine the conductor breakdown, taking into consideration the distribution transformers and the way they are connected to the line. A zero consequence prototype sensor that has as its greatest advantage the coupling with the distribution line through the electric field, is also presented. Sensibility settings and timings delay are included to allow the coordination between the sensors and other feeder protections.When a fault occurs, only the downstream sensors work. In order to have the information of the sensor situation reaching an upstream fault protection device, a way of communication is needed. Distribution lines with supervision and control system already have this advantage, allowing for the function of protection against faults and high impedance to be aggregated to this communication system. For distribution lines that do not have this kind of system, a more detailed study on the carrier signals as a means of communication should be carried out. (author)

  16. Very high geothermal gradient in near surface of the Whataroa Valley adjacent to the Alpine Fault: topographic driving forces and permeable mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Coussens, J.; Capova, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1B) yielded a geothermal gradient of 62.6 ± 2.1 °C/km from a depth of 126 m where it intersected the Alpine Fault principal slip surface beneath Gaunt Creek (Sutherland et al. 2012). Ambient fluid pressures in DFDP-2B at Whataroa River were 8-10% above hydrostatic and a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km was determined, the geothermal gradient being considerably higher than we had predicted previously. 3D coupled thermal/fluid flow models have been generated of the Whataroa Valley and the DFDP-2 drill site. Modelling confirms that the following features, present in the Whataroa Valley, are a requirement for a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km at a depth of 1km beneath the valley; high topography, permeability on the order of 10-15 m2 in both the mountains and beneath the valleys to depths of > 1km below the valley floor, and abundant fluid. The high permeability and large topographic driving force leads to abundant meteoric water flowing downward through the mountains, hitting the permeability barrier of the Alpine Fault and being pushed upward into the valleys. The high geothermal gradient of the DFDP-2B borehole implies that the valleys also have a very high permeability which is likely a result of rock damage along the Alpine Fault.

  17. Late Pleistocene surface rupture history of the Paeroa Fault, Taupo Rift, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Villamor, P.; Nairn, I.A.; Van Dissen, R.J.; Begg, J.G.; Lee, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 30 km long Paeroa Fault is one of the largest and fastest slipping (c. 1.5 mm/yr vertical displacement rate) normal faults of the currently active Taupo Rift of North Island, New Zealand. Along its northern section, seven trenches excavated across 5 of 11 subparallel fault strands show that successive ruptures of individual strands probably occurred at the same time, but were individually and collectively highly variable in size and recurrence, and most fault strands have ruptured three or four times in the past 16 kyr. In the c. 16 kyr timeframe, four surface-rupturing earthquakes took place when Okataina volcano was erupting, and six occurred between eruptions. Large earthquakes on the Paeroa Fault comprise a significant component of the seismic hazard in the region between the Okataina and Taupo Volcanic Centres, and there are partial associations between these large earthquakes and volcanism. (author). 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  18. High prevalence of narrow angles among Filipino-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Porco, Travis C; Weinreb, Robert N; Lin, Shan C

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow anterior chamber angles in a Filipino-American clinic population. The records of 122 consecutive, new, self-declared Filipino-American patients examined in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in Vallejo, California were reviewed retrospectively. After exclusion, 222 eyes from 112 patients remained for analysis. Data were collected for anterior chamber angle grade as determined by gonioscopy (Shaffer system), age, sex, manifest refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure, and cup-to-disk ratio. Data from both eyes of patients were included and modeled using standard linear mixed-effects regression. As a comparison, data were also collected from a group of 30 consecutive White patients from the same clinic. After exclusion, 50 eyes from 25 White patients remained for comparison. At least 1 eye of 24% of Filipino-American patients had a narrow anterior chamber angle (Shaffer grade ≤ 2). Filipino-American angle grade significantly decreased with increasingly hyperopic refraction (P=0.007) and larger cup-to-disk ratio (P=0.038). Filipino-American women had significantly decreased angle grades compared with men (P=0.028), but angle grade did not vary by intraocular pressure or age (all, P≥ 0.059). Narrow anterior chamber angles are highly prevalent in Filipino-American patients in our clinic population.

  19. A Fault Tolerant Direct Control Allocation Scheme with Integral Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Mirza Tariq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integral sliding mode control ideas are combined with direct control allocation in order to create a fault tolerant control scheme. Traditional integral sliding mode control can directly handle actuator faults; however, it cannot do so with actuator failures. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be adopted to distribute the control effort amongst the remaining functioning actuators in cases of faults or failures, so that an acceptable level of closed-loop performance can be retained. This paper considers the possibility of introducing fault tolerance even if fault or failure information is not provided to the control strategy. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme, a high fidelity nonlinear model of a large civil aircraft is considered in the simulations in the presence of wind, gusts and sensor noise.

  20. Divergence of sun-rays by atmospheric refraction at large solar zenith angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of photolysis rates at large zenith angles it has been demonstrated that refraction by the earth's atmosphere must be taken into account. In fact, due to the modified optical path the optical transmittance is thereby increased in most instances. Here we show that in addition the divergence of sun-rays, which is also caused by refraction but which reduces the direct solar irradiance, should not be neglected. Our calculations are based on a spherically symmetric atmosphere and include extinction by Rayleigh scattering, ozone, and background aerosol. For rays with 10km tangent altitude the divergence yields a reduction of about 10% to 40% at solar zenith angles of 91° to 96°. Moreover, we find that the divergence effect can completely cancel the relative enhancement caused by the increase of transmittance.

  1. Dai Omega, a large solid angle axial focusing superconducting surface muon channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, H.; Nagamine, K.; Shimomura, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tanaka, H.; Fukuchi, K.; Makimura, S.; Ishida, K.

    2003-01-01

    An axial focusing surface muon channel, Dai Omega, was installed at KEK-MSL in the summer of 2001. Large aperture superconducting coils are utilized instead of quadrupole magnets. Dai Omega adopts an axial focusing beam path using symmetric magnetic fields from four coils. Computer simulations were performed on constructing Dai Omega, and the calculated solid angle acceptance of Dai Omega was larger than 1 sr at the optimum momentum. The momentum acceptance of Dai Omega was 6% FWHM. Dai Omega improved the solid angle acceptance by almost 20 times, in comparison with conventional muon channels. Beam tuning tests of Dai Omega have been carried out, and a beam intensity of 10 6 μ + /s was achieved at KEK-NML (500 MeV, 5 μA), which was almost comparable with that of RAL (800 MeV, 200 μA)

  2. Study on conditional probability of surface rupture: effect of fault dip and width of seismogenic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.

    2017-12-01

    The conditional probability of surface ruptures is affected by various factors, such as shallow material properties, process of earthquakes, ground motions and so on. Toda (2013) pointed out difference of the conditional probability of strike and reverse fault by considering the fault dip and width of seismogenic layer. This study evaluated conditional probability of surface rupture based on following procedures. Fault geometry was determined from the randomly generated magnitude based on The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (2017) method. If the defined fault plane was not saturated in the assumed width of the seismogenic layer, the fault plane depth was randomly provided within the seismogenic layer. The logistic analysis was performed to two data sets: surface displacement calculated by dislocation methods (Wang et al., 2003) from the defined source fault, the depth of top of the defined source fault. The estimated conditional probability from surface displacement indicated higher probability of reverse faults than that of strike faults, and this result coincides to previous similar studies (i.e. Kagawa et al., 2004; Kataoka and Kusakabe, 2005). On the contrary, the probability estimated from the depth of the source fault indicated higher probability of thrust faults than that of strike and reverse faults, and this trend is similar to the conditional probability of PFDHA results (Youngs et al., 2003; Moss and Ross, 2011). The probability of combined simulated results of thrust and reverse also shows low probability. The worldwide compiled reverse fault data include low fault dip angle earthquake. On the other hand, in the case of Japanese reverse fault, there is possibility that the conditional probability of reverse faults with less low dip angle earthquake shows low probability and indicates similar probability of strike fault (i.e. Takao et al., 2013). In the future, numerical simulation by considering failure condition of surface by the source

  3. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  4. Faults, fluids and friction : Effect of pressure solution and phyllosilicates on fault slip behaviour, with implications for crustal rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, B.

    2000-01-01

    In order to model the mechanics of motion and earthquake generation on large crustal fault zones, a quantitative description of the rheology of fault zones is prerequisite. In the past decades, crustal strength has been modeled using a brittle or frictional failure law to represent fault slip at

  5. Relationship of the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake with geological structure. Evaluation of earthquake source fault in active folding zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    We compile the important points to evaluate earthquake source fault in active folding zone through a temporary aftershock observation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake. The aftershock distribution shows spindle shape whose middle part is wide and both ends are narrow in NNE-SSW trending. The range of seismic activity corresponds well to the distribution of fold axes in this area, whose middle part is anticlinorium (some anticlines) and both ends are single anticline. In the middle part, the west dipping aftershock plane including the mainshock (M6.8) is located under the Higashiyama anticline. Another west dipping aftershock plane including the largest aftershock (M6.5) is located under the Tamugiyama and Komatsugura anticlines, and the east margin of the aftershock distribution corresponds well with Suwa-toge flexure. Therefore the present fold structure should have been formed by an accumulation of the same faults movement. In other words, it is important to refer the fold axes distribution pattern, especially with flexure, for the evaluation of earthquake source fault. In addition, we performed FEM analyses to investigate the relation of fold structure to the thickness of the sedimentary layer and the dip angle of the fault. Reverse fault movement forms asymmetric fold above the fault, which steeper slope is formed just above the upper end of the fault. As the sedimentary layer became thicker, anticline axis moved to hanging wall side in the fold structure. As the dip angle became smaller, the wavelength of the fold became longer and the fold structure grew highly asymmetric. Thus the shape of the fold structure is useful as an index to estimate the blind thrust below it. (author)

  6. Scientific drilling into the San Andreas Fault Zone - an overview of SAFOD's first five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mark; Hickman, Stephen; Ellsworth, William; ,

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) was drilled to study the physical and chemical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation along an active, plate-bounding fault at depth. SAFOD is located near Parkfield, California and penetrates a section of the fault that is moving due to a combination of repeating microearthquakes and fault creep. Geophysical logs define the San Andreas Fault Zone to be relatively broad (~200 m), containing several discrete zones only 2–3 m wide that exhibit very low P- and S-wave velocities and low resistivity. Two of these zones have progressively deformed the cemented casing at measured depths of 3192 m and 3302 m. Cores from both deforming zones contain a pervasively sheared, cohesionless, foliated fault gouge that coincides with casing deformation and explains the observed extremely low seismic velocities and resistivity. These cores are being now extensively tested in laboratories around the world, and their composition, deformation mechanisms, physical properties, and rheological behavior are studied. Downhole measurements show that within 200 m (maximum) of the active fault trace, the direction of maximum horizontal stress remains at a high angle to the San Andreas Fault, consistent with other measurements. The results from the SAFOD Main Hole, together with the stress state determined in the Pilot Hole, are consistent with a strong crust/weak fault model of the San Andreas. Seismic instrumentation has been deployed to study physics of faulting—earthquake nucleation, propagation, and arrest—in order to test how laboratory-derived concepts scale up to earthquakes occurring in nature.

  7. Shallow high-resolution geophysical investigation along the western segment of the Victoria Lines Fault (island of Malta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Panzera, Francesco; Vassallo, Maurizio; Bozionelos, George; Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The Victoria Lines Fault (island of Malta) is a >15 km-long and N260°-striking segmented normal fault-system, which is probably inactive since the late Pliocene. In the westernmost part, the Fomm Ir-Rih segment displays comparable geologic throw and escarpment height ( 150-170 m), moreover its hangingwall hosts thin patches of Middle Pleistocene clastic continental deposits (red beds), which are poorly preserved elsewhere. We acquired two seismic transects, by collecting ambient vibration recordings, processed by using horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios, complemented by one high-resolution 2-D refraction tomography survey crossing this fault where it is locally covered by red beds and recent colluvial deposits. We found a resonance peak at 1.0 Hz in the hangingwall block, whereas clear peaks in the range 5.0-10.0 Hz appear when approaching the subsurface fault, and we relate them to the fractured bedrock within the fault zone. The best-fit tomographic model shows a relatively high-Vp shallow body (Vp 2200-2400 m/s) that we relate to the weathered top of the Miocene Upper Coralline Limestone Fm., bounded on both sides by low-Vp regions (230 m/s above the weathered top-bedrock. Our results depict a clear seismic signature of the Victoria Lines Fault, characterized by low seismic velocity and high amplification of ground motion. We hypothesize that, during the Middle Pleistocene, faulting may have affected the basal part of the red beds, so that this part of the investigated complex fault-system may be considered inactive since 0.6 Myr ago.

  8. Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Cuzco basin forms a 80-wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru. This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land. The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a 100-km-long and 10-km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east. Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to 600 m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes. We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain. The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera, capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone. As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component.

  9. Paleoseismology of the Chelungpu Fault During the Past 1900 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Lee, K.; Lee, L.; Yang, C. B.; Chen, Y.; Chang, H.

    2003-12-01

    The 1999 earthquake brought about 80-km-long surface ruptures along the Shihkang, Chelungpu, and Tajienshan Faults, central Taiwan. Several trenches have been excavated across the Chelungpu Fault of the middle segment. The surface ruptures display clear scarps ranging from 0.2 m to 4 m high, showing a complex geomorphic pattern due to coseismic faulting and folding. In the study, measurement of the vertical offset or structural relief was taken with reference to the hanging wall beyond the trishear deformation zone. Therefore we suggest that, for the measurement of offset, we should leave out the trishear zone, and that structural relief on the hanging wall should be represented as a real vertical offset. The net slip is then calculated from the structural relief and dip angle of the thrust on a vertical plane along the slip direction. By the excavation of the pineapple field across the Chelungpu Fault, we are able to first provide evidence of at least four earthquake events for the past about 1900 years, including the 1999 earthquake. Furthermore, based on the radiocarbon dates and historical record, the timing of the penultimate event is bracketed to be between 430 and 150 years ago, and the average recurrence interval smaller than 700 years. These data indicate that the average slip rate is about 8.7 mm/yr for the past 1900 years.

  10. Comment on 'Approximation for a large-angle simple pendulum period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qingxin; Ding Pei

    2009-01-01

    In a recent letter, Belendez et al (2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 L25-8) proposed an alternative of approximation for the period of a simple pendulum suggested earlier by Hite (2005 Phys. Teach. 43 290-2) who set out to improve on the Kidd and Fogg formula (2002 Phys. Teach. 40 81-3). As a response to the approximation scheme, we obtain another analytical approximation for the large-angle pendulum period, which owns the simplicity and accuracy in evaluating the exact period, and moreover, for amplitudes less than 144 deg. the analytical approximate expression is more accurate than others in the literature. (letters and comments)

  11. Seismic anisotropy in the vicinity of the Alpine fault, New Zealand, estimated by seismic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, R.; Okada, T.; Yoshida, K.; Townend, J.; Boese, C. M.; Baratin, L. M.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Savage, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate shear wave velocity anisotropy in shallow crust near the Alpine fault using seismic interferometry of borehole vertical arrays. We utilized four borehole observations: two sensors are deployed in two boreholes of the Deep Fault Drilling Project in the hanging wall side, and the other two sites are located in the footwall side. Surface sensors deployed just above each borehole are used to make vertical arrays. Crosscorrelating rotated horizontal seismograms observed by the borehole and surface sensors, we extracted polarized shear waves propagating from the bottom to the surface of each borehole. The extracted shear waves show polarization angle dependence of travel time, indicating shear wave anisotropy between the two sensors. In the hanging wall side, the estimated fast shear wave directions are parallel to the Alpine fault. Strong anisotropy of 20% is observed at the site within 100 m from the Alpine fault. The hanging wall consists of mylonite and schist characterized by fault parallel foliation. In addition, an acoustic borehole imaging reveals fractures parallel to the Alpine fault. The fault parallel anisotropy suggest structural anisotropy is predominant in the hanging wall, demonstrating consistency of geological and seismological observations. In the footwall side, on the other hand, the angle between the fast direction and the strike of the Alpine fault is 33-40 degrees. Since the footwall is composed of granitoid that may not have planar structure, stress induced anisotropy is possibly predominant. The direction of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) estimated by focal mechanisms of regional earthquakes is 55 degrees of the Alpine fault. Possible interpretation of the difference between the fast direction and SHmax direction is depth rotation of stress field near the Alpine fault. Similar depth rotation of stress field is also observed in the SAFOD borehole at the San Andreas fault.

  12. Study of fault diagnosis software design for complex system based on fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Run; Li Yazhou; Wang Jianye; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Wu Yican

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems always have high-level reliability and safety requirements, and same does their diagnosis work. As a great deal of fault tree models have been acquired during the design and operation phases, a fault diagnosis method which combines fault tree analysis with knowledge-based technology has been proposed. The prototype of fault diagnosis software has been realized and applied to mobile LIDAR system. (authors)

  13. How do horizontal, frictional discontinuities affect reverse fault-propagation folding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Emanuele; Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2017-09-01

    The development of new reverse faults and related folds is strongly controlled by the mechanical characteristics of the host rocks. In this study we analyze the impact of a specific kind of anisotropy, i.e. thin mechanical and frictional discontinuities, in affecting the development of reverse faults and of the associated folds using physical scaled models. We perform analog modeling introducing one or two initially horizontal, thin discontinuities above an initially blind fault dipping at 30° in one case, and 45° in another, and then compare the results with those obtained from a fully isotropic model. The experimental results show that the occurrence of thin discontinuities affects both the development and the propagation of new faults and the shape of the associated folds. New faults 1) accelerate or decelerate their propagation depending on the location of the tips with respect to the discontinuities, 2) cross the discontinuities at a characteristic angle (∼90°), and 3) produce folds with different shapes, resulting not only from the dip of the new faults but also from their non-linear propagation history. Our results may have direct impact on future kinematic models, especially those aimed to reconstruct the tectonic history of faults that developed in layered rocks or in regions affected by pre-existing faults.

  14. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  15. Orion GN&C Fault Management System Verification: Scope And Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denise; Weiler, David; Flanary, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term ability to meet mission goals and to provide for the safety of the public, ground personnel, and any crew members, nearly all spacecraft include a fault management (FM) system. For a manned vehicle such as Orion, the safety of the crew is of paramount importance. The goal of the Orion Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) fault management system is to detect, isolate, and respond to faults before they can result in harm to the human crew or loss of the spacecraft. Verification of fault management/fault protection capability is challenging due to the large number of possible faults in a complex spacecraft, the inherent unpredictability of faults, the complexity of interactions among the various spacecraft components, and the inability to easily quantify human reactions to failure scenarios. The Orion GN&C Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) team has developed a methodology for bounding the scope of FM system verification while ensuring sufficient coverage of the failure space and providing high confidence that the fault management system meets all safety requirements. The methodology utilizes a swarm search algorithm to identify failure cases that can result in catastrophic loss of the crew or the vehicle and rare event sequential Monte Carlo to verify safety and FDIR performance requirements.

  16. A gamma-ray approach for hidden faults in the disaster zone of 1995 Kobe earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakado, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray intensities were measured of the ground on an eastern part of the Kobe urban area, where a strong earthquake occurred in January 1995 killing 6000 people, in order to investigate hidden faults and its relation to the damage of constructions. Several linear alignments of relatively high γ-ray intensity points were detected and at least some of them are considered to be ascribed to small-scale faults. It can be pointed out that the localities of such high γ-ray alignments are almost in accordance with those of relatively highly damaged zones. However, a long and distinct high γ-ray alignment as expected for a large fault which runs through the heavy damage belt does not exist beneath the area, supporting non-fault origin for the overall heavy damage belt. (author)

  17. Subsurface structures of the active reverse fault zones in Japan inferred from gravity anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, N.; Sawada, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Okada, S.; Tanaka, T.; Honda, R.

    2016-12-01

    The object of our study is to examine subsurface features such as continuity, segmentation and faulting type, of the active reverse fault zones. We use the gravity data published by the Gravity Research Group in Southwest Japan (2001), the Geographical Survey Institute (2006), Yamamoto et al. (2011), Honda et al. (2012), and the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST (2013) in this study. We obtained the Bouguer anomalies through terrain corrections with 10 m DEM (Sawada et al. 2015) under the assumed density of 2670 kg/m3, a band-pass filtering, and removal of linear trend. Several derivatives and structural parameters calculated from a gravity gradient tensor are applied to highlight the features, such as a first horizontal derivatives (HD), a first vertical derivatives (VD), a normalized total horizontal derivative (TDX), a dip angle (β), and a dimensionality index (Di). We analyzed 43 reverse fault zones in northeast Japan and the northern part of southwest Japan among major active fault zones selected by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. As the results, the subsurface structural boundaries clearly appear along the faults at 21 faults zones. The weak correlations appear at 13 fault zones, and no correlations are recognized at 9 fault zones. For example, in the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line, the subsurface structure boundary seems to extend further north than the surface trace. Also, a left stepping structure of the fault around Hakuba is more clearly observed with HD. The subsurface structures, which detected as the higher values of HD, are distributed on the east side of the surface rupture in the north segments and on the west side in the south segments, indicating a change of the dip direction, the east dipping to the west dipping, from north to south. In the Yokote basin fault zone, the subsurface structural boundary are clearly detected with HD, VD and TDX along the fault zone in the north segment, but less clearly in the south segment. Also, Di

  18. Retrieving atmospheric dust opacity on Mars by imaging spectroscopy at large angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, S.; Ceamanos, X.; Appéré, T.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new method to retrieve the optical depth of Martian aerosols (AOD) from OMEGA and CRISM hyperspectral imagery at a reference wavelength of 1 μm. Our method works even if the underlying surface is completely made of minerals, corresponding to a low contrast between surface and atmospheric dust, while being observed at a fixed geometry. Minimizing the effect of the surface reflectance properties on the AOD retrieval is the second principal asset of our method. The method is based on the parametrization of the radiative coupling between particles and gas determining, with local altimetry, acquisition geometry, and the meteorological situation, the absorption band depth of gaseous CO2. Because the last three factors can be predicted to some extent, we can define a new parameter β that expresses specifically the strength of the gas-aerosols coupling while directly depending on the AOD. Combining estimations of β and top of the atmosphere radiance values extracted from the observed spectra within the CO2 gas band at 2 μm, we evaluate the AOD and the surface reflectance by radiative transfer inversion. One should note that practically β can be estimated for a large variety of mineral or icy surfaces with the exception of CO2 ice when its 2 μm solid band is not sufficiently saturated. Validation of the proposed method shows that it is reliable if two conditions are fulfilled: (i) the observation conditions provide large incidence or/and emergence angles (ii) the aerosols are vertically well mixed in the atmosphere. Experiments conducted on OMEGA nadir looking observations as well as CRISM multi-angular acquisitions with incidence angles higher than 65° in the first case and 33° in the second case produce very satisfactory results. Finally in a companion paper the method is applied to monitoring atmospheric dust spring activity at high southern latitudes on Mars using OMEGA.

  19. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  20. Structural Mapping Along the Central San Andreas Fault-zone Using Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Bedrosian, P.; Ball, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of active fault zones typically focus on either surface expressions or the associated seismogenic zones. However, the largely aseismic upper kilometer can hold significant insight into fault-zone architecture, strain partitioning, and fault-zone permeability. Geophysical imaging of the first kilometer provides a link between surface fault mapping and seismically-defined fault zones and is particularly important in geologically complex regions with limited surface exposure. Additionally, near surface imaging can provide insight into the impact of faulting on the hydrogeology of the critical zone. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods offer a unique opportunity to collect a spatially-large, detailed dataset in a matter of days, and are used to constrain subsurface resistivity to depths of 500 meters or more. We present initial results from an AEM survey flown over a 60 kilometer long segment of the central San Andreas Fault (SAF). The survey is centered near Parkfield, California, the site of the SAFOD drillhole, which marks the transition between a creeping fault segment to the north and a locked zone to the south. Cross sections with a depth of investigation up to approximately 500 meters highlight the complex Tertiary and Mesozoic geology that is dismembered by the SAF system. Numerous fault-parallel structures are imaged across a more than 10 kilometer wide zone centered on the surface trace. Many of these features can be related to faults and folds within Plio-Miocene sedimentary rocks found on both sides of the fault. Northeast of the fault, rocks of the Mesozoic Franciscan and Great Valley complexes are extremely heterogeneous, with highly resistive volcanic rocks within a more conductive background. The upper 300 meters of a prominent fault-zone conductor, previously imaged to 1-3 kilometers depth by magnetotellurics, is restricted to a 20 kilometer long segment of the fault, but is up to 4 kilometers wide in places. Elevated fault

  1. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  2. The influence of erupting lateral teeth on maxillary anterior crowding in two Angle Class I maloclussion cases with high and low angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of anterior crowding, both Skeletal Class I and Angle Class I maloclussion, one being low angle and the other high angle respectively, respectively, were treated and evaluated to ascertain whether or not there is a relationship among disproportionate mesial axial angulation of the maxillary lateral teeth and the Frankfurt Horizontal-Functional Occlusal plane, therefore generating maxillary anterior crowding. Both cases were Japanese boys, the first one aged 9 years 10 months with chief complaint being anterior crowding and the second case aged 7 years and 8 months complaining of inadequate space for satisfying canine eruption. During and after the second stage of orthodontic treatment on both cases, several radiographic analysis were performed to assess treatment progress and retention; from these radiographs, it was noticed among other findings that in the high-angle case, the axial angulations of the maxillary lateral incisors were markedly smaller than in the low-angle case, thus indicating mesial tipping in the upper dental arch. This decreased mesial axial angulation of the lateral teeth observed at high angles may potentially cause maxillary space deficiency.

  3. The boolean algebra with restricted variables as a tool for fault tree modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.; Wickenhaeuser, A.

    1981-08-01

    The number of minimal cut sets (m.c.s.) of very complex and highly interconnected fault trees can become extremely large (e.g. more than 10 7 ). In this case the usual analytical approach of dissecting the fault tree TOP variable into m.c.s. is not only computationally prohibitively expensive, but also meaningless because it does not offer any synthetic overview of system behavior. The method proposed in this paper overcomes the deficiencies of the analytical method. It is shown that, by applying boolean algebra with restricted variables (b.a.w.r.v.), the concept of fault tree modularization can be straightforwardly extended from a single gate to a set of gates. Thus, large fault trees are divided into smaller fault trees (modules), which are connected to each other according to a simple scheme. This scheme is represented by a block diagram in which each block is a module. The modules are analyzed separately by the m.c.s. method, and the results are combined according of the TOP event. The method allows the calculation of very large fault trees in a short time and offers a synthetic overview of systems behavior through the block diagram. Numerical examples are also included. Calculations have been carried out by using the computer code MUSTAMO, which is based on the theory developed in this paper. (orig.) [de

  4. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  5. Fault Classification and Location in Transmission Lines Using Traveling Waves Modal Components and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Namdari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate fault classification and localization are the bases of protection for transmission systems. This paper presents a new method for classifying and showing location of faults by travelling waves and modal analysis. In the proposed method, characteristics of different faults are investigated using Clarke transformation and initial current traveling wave; then, appropriate indices are introduced to identify different types of faults. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is employed to extract information of current and voltage travelling waves. Fault location and classification algorithm is being designed according to wavelet transform coefficients relating to current and voltage modal components. The performance of the proposed method is tested for different fault conditions (different fault distance, different fault resistances, and different fault inception angles by using PSCAD and MATLAB with satisfactory results

  6. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  7. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  8. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  9. Small angle scattering methods to study porous materials under high uniaxial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.le-floch@univ-lyon1.fr; Balima, Félix; Pischedda, Vittoria; Legrand, Franck; San-Miguel, Alfonso [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-02-15

    We developed a high pressure cell for the in situ study of the porosity of solids under high uniaxial strain using neutron small angle scattering. The cell comprises a hydraulically actioned piston and a main body equipped with two single-crystal sapphire windows allowing for the neutron scattering of the sample. The sample cavity is designed to allow for a large volume variation as expected when compressing highly porous materials. We also implemented a loading protocol to adapt an existing diamond anvil cell for the study of porous materials by X-ray small angle scattering under high pressure. The two techniques are complementary as the radiation beam and the applied pressure are in one case perpendicular to each other (neutron cell) and in the other case parallel (X-ray cell). We will illustrate the use of these two techniques in the study of lamellar porous systems up to a maximum pressure of 0.1 GPa and 0.3 GPa for the neutron and X-ray cells, respectively. These devices allow obtaining information on the evolution of porosity with pressure in the pore dimension subdomain defined by the wave-numbers explored in the scattering process. The evolution with the applied load of such parameters as the fractal dimension of the pore-matrix interface or the apparent specific surface in expanded graphite and in expanded vermiculite is used to illustrate the use of the high pressure cells.

  10. Deciphering Past and Present Tectonics of the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico Utilizing Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology, Geochronology, Quaternary Faulting, and Cross-Section Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S. A.; Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Selmi, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent laboratory for understanding styles and processes of extensional tectonics, and their driving forces. We apply apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, geochronology, fracture analysis, and cross-section restoration to decipher past and present tectonics of the Rio Grande rift. AFT data has been compiled from rift flank uplifts along the Rio Grande rift in an attempt to recognize long wavelength spatial and temporal patterns. AFT ages record time of cooling of rocks below ~110°C and, when cooling is due to exhumation, age elevation traverses can record upward advection of rocks through paleo 110°C isotherms. The relatively passive sides of half-grabens (e.g. Manzanos and Santa Fe Range) preserve Laramide AFT ages ranging from 45-70 Ma, indicating they were cooled during the Laramide Orogeny and have remained cooler than 110°C since then. Rift flanks on the tectonically active sides of half-grabens, (e.g. Sierra Ladrones, Sandias, Taos Range, and Sierra Blanca) have AFT ages that range from 35 Ma to history and its mechanisms. AFT data at Ladron Peak, an active rift flank along the western margin of the Rio Grande rift in central New Mexico, indicates that it was rapidly unroofed between 20-10 Ma. Preliminary apatite helium data gives a similar age vs. elevation trend, but apatites have highly radiogenically damaged lattices and hence have corrected closure temperatures tens of degrees higher than AFT ages. The style of faulting at Ladron Peak is unusual because it is bounded by the anomalously low-angle (~15°) Jeter fault. In order to understand the evolution of faulting in this region, a balanced cross-section was constructed and restored to its pre-rift geometry. Our working hypothesis is that the low angle of the Jeter fault is most adequately explained by a rolling hinge model, where isostatic uplift causes progressive rotation of an initially steep (~60°) normal fault to shallower dips. Thirty km north of

  11. Fault diagnosis and performance evaluation for high current LIA based on radial basis function neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xinglin; Wang Huacen; Chen Nan; Dai Wenhua; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    High current linear induction accelerator (LIA) is a complicated experimental physics device. It is difficult to evaluate and predict its performance. this paper presents a method which combines wavelet packet transform and radial basis function (RBF) neural network to build fault diagnosis and performance evaluation in order to improve reliability of high current LIA. The signal characteristics vectors which are extracted based on energy parameters of wavelet packet transform can well present the temporal and steady features of pulsed power signal, and reduce data dimensions effectively. The fault diagnosis system for accelerating cell and the trend classification system for the beam current based on RBF networks can perform fault diagnosis and evaluation, and provide predictive information for precise maintenance of high current LIA. (authors)

  12. Fat fraction bias correction using T1 estimates and flip angle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Issac Y; Cui, Yifan; Wiens, Curtis N; Wade, Trevor P; Friesen-Waldner, Lanette J; McKenzie, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new method of reducing T1 bias in proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measured with iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL). PDFF maps reconstructed from high flip angle IDEAL measurements were simulated and acquired from phantoms and volunteer L4 vertebrae. T1 bias was corrected using a priori T1 values for water and fat, both with and without flip angle correction. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) maps were used to measure precision of the reconstructed PDFF maps. PDFF measurements acquired using small flip angles were then compared to both sets of corrected large flip angle measurements for accuracy and precision. Simulations show similar results in PDFF error between small flip angle measurements and corrected large flip angle measurements as long as T1 estimates were within one standard deviation from the true value. Compared to low flip angle measurements, phantom and in vivo measurements demonstrate better precision and accuracy in PDFF measurements if images were acquired at a high flip angle, with T1 bias corrected using T1 estimates and flip angle mapping. T1 bias correction of large flip angle acquisitions using estimated T1 values with flip angle mapping yields fat fraction measurements of similar accuracy and superior precision compared to low flip angle acquisitions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knowledge-driven board-level functional fault diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Fangming; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Gu, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive set of characterization, prediction, optimization, evaluation, and evolution techniques for a diagnosis system for fault isolation in large electronic systems. Readers with a background in electronics design or system engineering can use this book as a reference to derive insightful knowledge from data analysis and use this knowledge as guidance for designing reasoning-based diagnosis systems. Moreover, readers with a background in statistics or data analytics can use this book as a practical case study for adapting data mining and machine learning techniques to electronic system design and diagnosis. This book identifies the key challenges in reasoning-based, board-level diagnosis system design and presents the solutions and corresponding results that have emerged from leading-edge research in this domain. It covers topics ranging from highly accurate fault isolation, adaptive fault isolation, diagnosis-system robustness assessment, to system performance analysis and evalua...

  14. Application of CMAC Neural Network to Solar Energy Heliostat Field Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng-Sheng Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy heliostat fields comprise numerous sun tracking platforms. As a result, fault detection is a highly challenging problem. Accordingly, the present study proposes a cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC neutral network for automatically diagnosing faults within the heliostat field in accordance with the rotational speed, vibration, and temperature characteristics of the individual heliostat transmission systems. As compared with radial basis function (RBF neural network and back propagation (BP neural network in the heliostat field fault diagnosis, the experimental results show that the proposed neural network has a low training time, good robustness, and a reliable diagnostic performance. As a result, it provides an ideal solution for fault diagnosis in modern, large-scale heliostat fields.

  15. Vibration-based Fault Diagnostic of a Spur Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative studies of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT as several advanced time-frequency analysis methods for diagnosing an early stage of spur gear tooth failure. An incipient fault of a chipped tooth was investigated in this work using vibration measurements from a spur gearbox test rig. Time Synchronous Averaging was implemented for the analysis to enhance the clarity of fault feature from the gear of interest. Based on the experimental results and analysis, it was shown that FFT method could identify the location of the faulty gear with sufficient accuracy. On the other hand, Short Time Fourier Transform method could not provide the angular location information of the faulty gear. It was found that the Continuous Wavelet Transform method offered the best representation of angle-frequency representation. It was not only able to distinguish the difference between the normal and faulty gearboxes from the joint angle-frequency results but could also provide an accurate angular location of the faulty gear tooth in the gearbox.

  16. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of fault-bend fold by incompressible Newtonian fluid; Hiasshukusei Newton ryutai ni yoru danso oremagari shukyoku kozo no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Incompressible Newtonian fluid simulation is experimentally applied to faults typical of the compression and extension fields. A fault-bend folding structure of the flat-ramp flat fault in the compression field and a folding structure of a normal fault in the extension field are studied, and the results are compared with those obtained by the balanced cross section method. The result of calculation indicates that the velocity gradient with the ramp angle set at 30deg is correspondent to stress and that stress concentration is taking place at the ramp section of the fault. This solution is an approximation and does not necessary support the conservation of area but, when the ramp angle is allowed to change from 10 through 40deg, it is found that the conservation of area holds though roughly. It is found that the configuration of the folding structure formed by a flat-ramp flat fault is positioned between the anomalous-mode layer parallel shear typical of a balanced cross section and the folding structure formed by a vertical shear. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  19. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  20. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared W.; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  1. Slip in the 1857 and earlier large earthquakes along the Carrizo Plain, San Andreas Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J Ramón; Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Akçiz, Sinan O

    2010-02-26

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857, with a approximately 350-kilometer-long surface rupture, was the most recent major earthquake along the south-central San Andreas Fault, California. Based on previous measurements of its surface slip distribution, rupture along the approximately 60-kilometer-long Carrizo segment was thought to control the recurrence of 1857-like earthquakes. New high-resolution topographic data show that the average slip along the Carrizo segment during the 1857 event was 5.3 +/- 1.4 meters, eliminating the core assumption for a linkage between Carrizo segment rupture and recurrence of major earthquakes along the south-central San Andreas Fault. Earthquake slip along the Carrizo segment may recur in earthquake clusters with cumulative slip of approximately 5 meters.

  2. The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left). A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements. Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may

  3. Long‐term creep rates on the Hayward Fault: evidence for controls on the size and frequency of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.

  4. Fluvial-Deltaic Strata as a High-Resolution Recorder of Fold Growth and Fault Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Kodama, K. P.; Pazzaglia, F. P.

    2008-12-01

    Fluvial-deltaic systems characterize the depositional record of most wedge-top and foreland basins, where the synorogenic stratigraphy responds to interactions between sediment supply driven by tectonic uplift, climate modulated sea level change and erosion rate variability, and fold growth patterns driven by unsteady fault slip. We integrate kinematic models of fault-related folds with growth strata and fluvial terrace records to determine incremental rates of shortening, rock uplift, limb tilting, and fault slip with 104-105 year temporal resolution in the Pyrenees and Apennines. At Pico del Aguila anticline, a transverse dècollement fold along the south Pyrenean mountain front, formation-scale synorogenic deposition and clastic facies patterns in prodeltaic and slope facies reflect tectonic forcing of sediment supply, sea level variability controlling delta front position, and climate modulated changes in terrestrial runoff. Growth geometries record a pinned anticline and migrating syncline hinges during folding above the emerging Guarga thrust sheet. Lithologic and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) data series from the Eocene Arguis Fm. show cyclicity at Milankovitch frequencies allowing detailed reconstruction of unsteady fold growth. Multiple variations in limb tilting rates from roof ramp and basal dècollement. Along the northern Apennine mountain front, the age and geometry of strath terraces preserved across the Salsomaggiore anticline records the Pleistocene-Recent kinematics of the underlying fault-propagation fold as occurring with a fixed anticline hinge, a rolling syncline hinge, and along-strike variations in uplift and forelimb tilting. The uplifted intersection of terrace deposits documents syncline axial surface migration and underlying fault-tip propagation at a rate of ~1.4 cm/yr since the Middle Pleistocene. Because this record of fault slip coincides with the well-known large amplitude oscillations in global climate that contribute

  5. Fault Tolerance Assistant (FTA): An Exception Handling Programming Model for MPI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Aiman [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Laguna, Ignacio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sato, Kento [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Islam, Tanzima [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    Future high-performance computing systems may face frequent failures with their rapid increase in scale and complexity. Resilience to faults has become a major challenge for large-scale applications running on supercomputers, which demands fault tolerance support for prevalent MPI applications. Among failure scenarios, process failures are one of the most severe issues as they usually lead to termination of applications. However, the widely used MPI implementations do not provide mechanisms for fault tolerance. We propose FTA-MPI (Fault Tolerance Assistant MPI), a programming model that provides support for failure detection, failure notification and recovery. Specifically, FTA-MPI exploits a try/catch model that enables failure localization and transparent recovery of process failures in MPI applications. We demonstrate FTA-MPI with synthetic applications and a molecular dynamics code CoMD, and show that FTA-MPI provides high programmability for users and enables convenient and flexible recovery of process failures.

  6. The characteristics of the western extension of the Karakax fault in NW Tibet and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Zheng, Y.; Pan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Karakax strike-slip fault, located in northwest Tibet, is a mature deformation belt with a long-time evolutionary history, which is also active at present and plays an important role in the tectonic deformation of the northwestern Tibetan Plateau. Nowadays, most geologists consider that the Karakax fault is generally east-west striking along the Karakax river valley, and northwest striking until to the Tashkorgan in the Mazar area. However, an ENE-WSW fault was identified at the Mazar area, which sited at the bend of the Karakax fault, we named this fault as the Matar fault. Via the detailed geological survey, the similar geometry and kinematic characteristics were identified between the Karakax and Matar faults: (1) The similar fault zone scale(Karakax:90 300m; Matar:100 220m); (2) The similar preferred orientation (nearly EW) of the stretching lineations and foliations; (3) All the fault planes of the both faults have a high dip angle and is nearly EW striking; (4) Lots of ductile deformations, such as σ-type quartz rotational mortar, S-C fabric, symmetric drag fold and so on, indicated that the Matar fault is a right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault during the early ductile deformation stage; (5) the deluvium, sheared by Matar fault, indicated that the Matar fault has already transformed into a left-lateral strike-slip fault during the later brittle deformation stage. All the above showed that the Matar fault has a similar geometry and kinematic characteristics with the Karakax fault, and the former is the probable the western extension of the latter. Moreover, the form of the Karakax-Matar fault may had an impact to the geomorphology of the west Kunlun-Pamir area, such as the strike of the moutains and faults. considering the age of west Kunlun mountains uplifting and Karakax fault activating, we regard that the Matar fault (the westward extension of Karakax fault) may contributes much in forming the modern geomorphology features of the west Kunlun

  7. Nonlinear, Adaptive and Fault-tolerant Control for Electro-hydraulic Servo Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin

    is designed and implemented on the test bed that successfully diagnoses internal or external leakages, friction variations in the actuator or fault related to pressure sensors. The presented algorithm uses the position and pressure measurements to detect and isolate faults, avoiding missed detection and false...... numerous attractive properties, hydraulic systems are always subject to potential leakages in their components, friction variation in their hydraulic actuators and deciency in their sensors. These violations of normal behaviour reduce the system performances and can lead to system failure...... if they are not detected early and handled. Moreover, the task of controlling electro hydraulic systems for high performance operations is challenging due to the highly nonlinear behaviour of such systems and the large amount of uncertainties present in their models. This thesis focuses on nonlinear adaptive fault...

  8. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian M. Saffer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/.

  9. High prevalence of narrow angles among Chinese-American glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Pekmezci, Melike; Han, Ying; Sandhu, Simi; Kwok, Shiu Y; Lee, Roland Y; Lin, Shan C

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow angles in a Chinese-American population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Charts from all Chinese-American patients seen in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in the Chinatown district of San Francisco in 2002 were reviewed. One eye from each patient with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion that met inclusion criteria was included (n=108). Data were collected for sex, age, race (self-declared), refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, and vertical cup-to-disk ratio. Sixty percent (n=65) of Chinese-American eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles (Shaffer grade or = 0.071). In a multivariate model including age, sex, and refraction as predictors of angle grade (open or narrow), only age was a significant predictor of angle grade (P=0.004). A large proportion of Chinese-Americans in our study population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles. In multivariate analysis, patients with narrow angles were older than those with open angles but did not differ from them in terms of sex or refraction. Continued evaluation of angle closure glaucoma risk among Chinese-Americans is needed.

  10. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using...

  11. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  12. Microfluidic very large-scale integration for biochips: Technology, testing and fault-tolerant design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araci, Ismail Emre; Pop, Paul; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    of this paper is on continuous-flow biochips, where the basic building block is a microvalve. By combining these microvalves, more complex units such as mixers, switches, multiplexers can be built, hence the name of the technology, “microfluidic Very Large-Scale Integration” (mVLSI). A roadblock......Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers by integrating all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. Biochips are used in many application areas, such as, in vitro diagnostics, drug discovery, biotech and ecology. The focus...... presents the state-of-the-art in the mVLSI platforms and emerging research challenges in the area of continuous-flow microfluidics, focusing on testing techniques and fault-tolerant design....

  13. Automatic reconstruction of fault networks from seismicity catalogs including location uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of plate tectonics, the deformation that arises from the relative movement of two plates occurs across discontinuities in the earth's crust, known as fault zones. Active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes, which suddenly release tectonic stresses within a very short time. In return, fault zones slowly grow by accumulating slip due to such earthquakes by cumulated damage at their tips, and by branching or linking between pre-existing faults of various sizes. Over the last decades, a large amount of knowledge has been acquired concerning the overall phenomenology and mechanics of individual faults and earthquakes: A deep physical and mechanical understanding of the links and interactions between and among them is still missing, however. One of the main issues lies in our failure to always succeed in assigning an earthquake to its causative fault. Using approaches based in pattern-recognition theory, more insight into the relationship between earthquakes and fault structure can be gained by developing an automatic fault network reconstruction approach using high resolution earthquake data sets at largely different scales and by considering individual event uncertainties. This thesis introduces the Anisotropic Clustering of Location Uncertainty Distributions (ACLUD) method to reconstruct active fault networks on the basis of both earthquake locations and their estimated individual uncertainties. This method consists in fitting a given set of hypocenters with an increasing amount of finite planes until the residuals of the fit compare with location uncertainties. After a massive search through the large solution space of possible reconstructed fault networks, six different validation procedures are applied in order to select the corresponding best fault network. Two of the validation steps (cross-validation and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)) process the fit residuals, while the four others look for solutions that

  14. Automatic reconstruction of fault networks from seismicity catalogs including location uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Within the framework of plate tectonics, the deformation that arises from the relative movement of two plates occurs across discontinuities in the earth's crust, known as fault zones. Active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes, which suddenly release tectonic stresses within a very short time. In return, fault zones slowly grow by accumulating slip due to such earthquakes by cumulated damage at their tips, and by branching or linking between pre-existing faults of various sizes. Over the last decades, a large amount of knowledge has been acquired concerning the overall phenomenology and mechanics of individual faults and earthquakes: A deep physical and mechanical understanding of the links and interactions between and among them is still missing, however. One of the main issues lies in our failure to always succeed in assigning an earthquake to its causative fault. Using approaches based in pattern-recognition theory, more insight into the relationship between earthquakes and fault structure can be gained by developing an automatic fault network reconstruction approach using high resolution earthquake data sets at largely different scales and by considering individual event uncertainties. This thesis introduces the Anisotropic Clustering of Location Uncertainty Distributions (ACLUD) method to reconstruct active fault networks on the basis of both earthquake locations and their estimated individual uncertainties. This method consists in fitting a given set of hypocenters with an increasing amount of finite planes until the residuals of the fit compare with location uncertainties. After a massive search through the large solution space of possible reconstructed fault networks, six different validation procedures are applied in order to select the corresponding best fault network. Two of the validation steps (cross-validation and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)) process the fit residuals, while the four others look for solutions that

  15. Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault Zone —An Overview of SAFOD’s First Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hickman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFODwas drilled to study the physical and chemical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation along an active, plate-bounding fault at depth. SAFOD is located near Parkfield, California and penetrates a section of the fault that is moving due to a combination of repeating microearthquakes and fault creep. Geophysical logs define the SanAndreas Fault Zone to be relatively broad (~200 m, containing several discrete zones only 2–3 m wide that exhibit very low P- and S-wave velocities and low resistivity. Two of these zones have progressively deformed the cemented casing at measured depths of 3192 m and 3302 m. Cores from both deforming zones contain a pervasively sheared, cohesionless, foliated fault gouge that coincides with casing deformation and explains the observed extremely low seismic velocities and resistivity. These cores are being now extensivelytested in laboratories around the world, and their composition, deformation mechanisms, physical properties, and rheological behavior are studied. Downhole measurements show that within 200 m (maximum of the active fault trace, the direction of maximum horizontal stress remains at a high angle to the San Andreas Fault, consistent with other measurements. The results from the SAFOD Main Hole, together with the stress state determined in the Pilot Hole, are consistent with a strong crust/weak fault model of the San Andreas. Seismic instrumentation has been deployed to study physics of faulting—earthquake nucleation, propagation, and arrest—in order to test how laboratory-derived concepts scale up to earthquakes occurring in nature.

  16. Spectral negentropy based sidebands and demodulation analysis for planet bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Ma, Haoqun; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-12-01

    Planet bearing vibration signals are highly complex due to intricate kinematics (involving both revolution and spinning) and strong multiple modulations (including not only the fault induced amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, but also additional amplitude modulations due to load zone passing, time-varying vibration transfer path, and time-varying angle between the gear pair mesh lines of action and fault impact force vector), leading to difficulty in fault feature extraction. Rolling element bearing fault diagnosis essentially relies on detection of fault induced repetitive impulses carried by resonance vibration, but they are usually contaminated by noise and therefor are hard to be detected. This further adds complexity to planet bearing diagnostics. Spectral negentropy is able to reveal the frequency distribution of repetitive transients, thus providing an approach to identify the optimal frequency band of a filter for separating repetitive impulses. In this paper, we find the informative frequency band (including the center frequency and bandwidth) of bearing fault induced repetitive impulses using the spectral negentropy based infogram. In Fourier spectrum, we identify planet bearing faults according to sideband characteristics around the center frequency. For demodulation analysis, we filter out the sensitive component based on the informative frequency band revealed by the infogram. In amplitude demodulated spectrum (squared envelope spectrum) of the sensitive component, we diagnose planet bearing faults by matching the present peaks with the theoretical fault characteristic frequencies. We further decompose the sensitive component into mono-component intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) to estimate their instantaneous frequencies, and select a sensitive IMF with an instantaneous frequency fluctuating around the center frequency for frequency demodulation analysis. In the frequency demodulated spectrum (Fourier spectrum of instantaneous frequency) of

  17. Fault kinematics and localised inversion within the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, I.; Omosanya, K. O.; Lippard, S. J.; Johansen, S. E.

    2018-04-01

    The areas bounding the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex are affected by complex tectonic evolution. In this work, the history of fault growth, reactivation, and inversion of major faults in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex is interpreted from three-dimensional seismic data, structural maps and fault displacement plots. Our results reveal eight normal faults bounding rotated fault blocks in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Both the throw-depth and displacement-distance plots show that the faults exhibit complex configurations of lateral and vertical segmentation with varied profiles. Some of the faults were reactivated by dip-linkages during the Late Jurassic and exhibit polycyclic fault growth, including radial, syn-sedimentary, and hybrid propagation. Localised positive inversion is the main mechanism of fault reactivation occurring at the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. The observed structural styles include folds associated with extensional faults, folded growth wedges and inverted depocentres. Localised inversion was intermittent with rifting during the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous at the boundaries of the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex to the Finnmark Platform. Additionally, tectonic inversion was more intense at the boundaries of the two fault complexes, affecting Middle Triassic to Early Cretaceous strata. Our study shows that localised folding is either a product of compressional forces or of lateral movements in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Regional stresses due to the uplift in the Loppa High and halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin are likely additional causes of inversion in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex.

  18. Angle imaging: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037

  19. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering and calorimetric studies of large unilamellar vesicles of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, P.C.; Gaulin, B.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (CANADA); Epand, R.M. [Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (CANADA); Wignall, G.D.; Lin, J.S. [Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    High-resolution differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been conducted on large unilamellar vesicles (LUV{close_quote}s) of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in excess water. The DSC results indicate a phase transition at temperatures corresponding to the gel (L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}) to ripple (P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}) phase transition seen in multilamellar vesicles of DPPC while the SANS experiments provide direct evidence for the formation of the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase in these systems. In addition, it is shown that SANS is an effective technique for extracting structural parameters such as vesicle radius and thickness in LUV model membrane systems. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Large-angle coherent/Compton scattering method for measurement in vitro of trabecular bone mineral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, G.E.; Sciuti, S.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, experiments and related theoretical deductions on coherent/Compton scattering of 59.5-keV Am241 gamma line by bonelike materials are described. In particular, the authors demonstrate that a photon scattering mineralometer (PSM) can attain the best working conditions when it operates in a backscattering geometry mode. In fact, the large scattering angle they chose, theta = 135 degrees, allowed them to assemble a very compact source-detector device. Further, the relative sensitivity at 135 degrees turns out to be congruent to 1.7 and congruent to 6 times bigger than at 90 degrees and 45 degrees, respectively. The performances of the theta = 135 degrees PSM were experimentally investigated; i.e., in a measuring time of 10(3) s, a congruent to 5% statistical precision for bonelike materials, such as K 2 HPO 4 -water solutions, was obtained. The large-angle PSM device seems to be very promising for trabecular bone mineral density measurements in vivo in peripheral anatomic sites

  2. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  3. Large-magnitude Dextral Slip on the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. W.; Little, T.

    2004-12-01

    Dextral slip associated with an 1855 Ms 8.0+ event on the Wairarapa fault near Wellington, New Zealand was reported to be 12+/-1 m along a rupture length of at least 148km (Grapes, 1999), one of the largest single-event strike-slip offsets documented worldwide. Initial results from a new study involving detailed neotectonic mapping and microtopographic surveys of offset landforms (including many beheaded, inactive streams) strongly suggest that dextral slip was as much as 50% greater than previously measured. 1855 surface ruptures were mapped with certainty where a linear scarp characterized by steep slopes (30-90°) and exposed alluvium cuts across active or inactive stream channels. The fifteen individual strands comprising the Wairarapa fault zone that we have mapped to date are 1200+/-700 m long and typically left-stepping. Slip in the stepover zones between these strands is distributed amongst two or more ruptures and intervening anticlines, a situation that causes along-strike variations in slip and which locally complicates the interpretation of 1855 displacement. We focused on seven of the best-preserved sites where low-discharge streams are disrupted by the fault zone, including five that had been previously attributed by Grapes (1999) to coseismic slip during the 1855 earthquake. One of these (Pigeon Bush) includes two sequentially displaced, now beheaded linear stream channels, oriented perpendicular to the fault scarp, that preserve distinct offsets with respect to a single deeply incised, originally contiguous gorge on the opposite side of the fault. To quantify the minimum fault displacements at each site, we made 1:500 scale topographic maps employing n = 2,000-10,000 points collected with GPS and laser instrumentation. Measured dextral slip values, here attributed to the 1855 earthquake, include 16.4+/-1.0m (Hinaburn), 12.9+/-2.0m (Cross Creek), 17.2+/-2.5m (Lake Meadows), 18.7+/-1.0m (Pigeon Bush), 13.0+/-1.5m (Pigeon Bush 2), 15.1+/-1.0m (Pigeon

  4. Fault roughness and strength heterogeneity control earthquake size and stress drop

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2017-01-13

    An earthquake\\'s stress drop is related to the frictional breakdown during sliding and constitutes a fundamental quantity of the rupture process. High-speed laboratory friction experiments that emulate the rupture process imply stress drop values that greatly exceed those commonly reported for natural earthquakes. We hypothesize that this stress drop discrepancy is due to fault-surface roughness and strength heterogeneity: an earthquake\\'s moment release and its recurrence probability depend not only on stress drop and rupture dimension but also on the geometric roughness of the ruptured fault and the location of failing strength asperities along it. Using large-scale numerical simulations for earthquake ruptures under varying roughness and strength conditions, we verify our hypothesis, showing that smoother faults may generate larger earthquakes than rougher faults under identical tectonic loading conditions. We further discuss the potential impact of fault roughness on earthquake recurrence probability. This finding provides important information, also for seismic hazard analysis.

  5. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  6. Eigenvector of gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips considering fault type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The dips of boundaries in faults and caldera walls play an important role in understanding their formation mechanisms. The fault dip is a particularly important parameter in numerical simulations for hazard map creation as the fault dip affects estimations of the area of disaster occurrence. In this study, I introduce a technique for estimating the fault dip using the eigenvector of the observed or calculated gravity gradient tensor on a profile and investigating its properties through numerical simulations. From numerical simulations, it was found that the maximum eigenvector of the tensor points to the high-density causative body, and the dip of the maximum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the normal fault. It was also found that the minimum eigenvector of the tensor points to the low-density causative body and that the dip of the minimum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the reverse fault. It was shown that the eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips is determined by fault type. As an application of this technique, I estimated the dip of the Kurehayama Fault located in Toyama, Japan, and obtained a result that corresponded to conventional fault dip estimations by geology and geomorphology. Because the gravity gradient tensor is required for this analysis, I present a technique that estimates the gravity gradient tensor from the gravity anomaly on a profile.

  7. Exploring Potential Foreshocks on Highly Compressed Patches in a Rate-and-State Fault Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.

    2015-12-01

    On both natural and laboratory faults, some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks. Such foreshocks may be triggered by aseismic processes of the mainshock nucleation at fault heterogeneities such as bumps, as inferred in some laboratory experiments. We explore a rate-and-state fault model in which potential foreshocks occur on patches of elevated normal compression (by a factor of 5 to 10) within a larger velocity-weakening (VW) region, using 3D numerical simulations of long-term earthquake sequences and aseismic slip. We find that this model produces isolated microseismicity during the nucleation of a larger-scale seismic event, under the following conditions: (i) Patch diameter D is comparable to or larger than the patch nucleation size h*patch; (ii) D is much smaller than the nucleation size h*main for the larger-scale VW region; otherwise, a patch-hosted event simply starts the larger-scale event; (iii) the patches are sufficiently separated to prevent them triggering each other nearly instantaneously. Hence the nucleation sizes h*main and h*patch need to be substantially different, by a factor of around 10 in our simulations so far, and potentially much more. The aforementioned separation of scales can be achieved by assigning high levels of compression on the patches. However, one would expect unrealistically large stress drops for events on such patches. Remarkably, in this model, we find that the stress drops of the patch-hosted events are reasonable and roughly constant, despite a wide variation in the patch compression, due to patch ruptures extending into the surrounding VW region. Furthermore, for D close to h*patch, a substantial part of the stress change on the patch occurs aseismically. Our current work is directed towards quantifying and explaining these trends, as well as exploring whether the microseismicity occurring on highly compressed patches due to nucleation-induced creep has any observable differences from other events.

  8. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  9. 3D Constraints On Fault Architecture and Strain Distribution of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust Fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. Analysis of stratigraphy and 3D mapping of this new data has yielded a new kinematic fault model of the area that provides new insight on deformation caused by interactions in both compressional and extensional regimes. For the first time, we can reconstruct fault interaction and investigate how strain is distributed through time along a typical strike-slip margin using 3D constraints on fault

  10. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  11. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  12. Robust fault detection for the dynamics of high-speed train with multi-source finite frequency interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weiqi; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Ning, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a composite fault detection scheme for the dynamics of high-speed train (HST), using an unknown input observer-like (UIO-like) fault detection filter, in the presence of wind gust and operating noises which are modeled as disturbance generated by exogenous system and unknown multi-source disturbance within finite frequency domain. Using system input and system output measurements, the fault detection filter is designed to generate the needed residual signals. In order to decouple disturbance from residual signals without truncating the influence of faults, this paper proposes a method to partition the disturbance into two parts. One subset of the disturbance does not appear in residual dynamics, and the influence of the other subset is constrained by H ∞ performance index in a finite frequency domain. A set of detection subspaces are defined, and every different fault is assigned to its own detection subspace to guarantee the residual signals are diagonally affected promptly by the faults. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Controls on fault zone structure and brittle fracturing in the foliated hanging wall of the Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack N.; Toy, Virginia G.; Massiot, Cécile; McNamara, David D.; Smith, Steven A. F.; Mills, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Three datasets are used to quantify fracture density, orientation, and fill in the foliated hanging wall of the Alpine Fault: (1) X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of drill core collected within 25 m of its principal slip zones (PSZs) during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project that were reoriented with respect to borehole televiewer images, (2) field measurements from creek sections up to 500 m from the PSZs, and (3) CT images of oriented drill core collected during the Amethyst Hydro Project at distances of ˜ 0.7-2 km from the PSZs. Results show that within 160 m of the PSZs in foliated cataclasites and ultramylonites, gouge-filled fractures exhibit a wide range of orientations. At these distances, fractures are interpreted to have formed at relatively high confining pressures and/or in rocks that had a weak mechanical anisotropy. Conversely, at distances greater than 160 m from the PSZs, fractures are typically open and subparallel to the mylonitic or schistose foliation, implying that fracturing occurred at low confining pressures and/or in rocks that were mechanically anisotropic. Fracture density is similar across the ˜ 500 m width of the field transects. By combining our datasets with measurements of permeability and seismic velocity around the Alpine Fault, we further develop the hierarchical model for hanging-wall damage structure that was proposed by Townend et al. (2017). The wider zone of foliation-parallel fractures represents an outer damage zone that forms at shallow depths. The distinct inner damage zone. This zone is interpreted to extend towards the base of the seismogenic crust given that its width is comparable to (1) the Alpine Fault low-velocity zone detected by fault zone guided waves and (2) damage zones reported from other exhumed large-displacement faults. In summary, a narrow zone of fracturing at the base of the Alpine Fault's hanging-wall seismogenic crust is anticipated to widen at shallow depths, which is

  14. Transient pattern analysis for fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Yang, Hoon-Cheol; Zaheer-uddin, M.; Ahn, Byung-Cheon

    2005-01-01

    Modern building HVAC systems are complex and consist of a large number of interconnected sub-systems and components. In the event of a fault, it becomes very difficult for the operator to locate and isolate the faulty component in such large systems using conventional fault detection methods. In this study, transient pattern analysis is explored as a tool for fault detection and diagnosis of an HVAC system. Several tests involving different fault replications were conducted in an environmental chamber test facility. The results show that the evolution of fault residuals forms clear and distinct patterns that can be used to isolate faults. It was found that the time needed to reach steady state for a typical building HVAC system is at least 50-60 min. This means incorrect diagnosis of faults can happen during online monitoring if the transient pattern responses are not considered in the fault detection and diagnosis analysis

  15. Internal architecture, permeability structure, and hydrologic significance of contrasting fault-zone types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Wilson, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Sand Hill fault is a steeply dipping, large-displacement normal fault that cuts poorly lithified Tertiary sediments of the Albuquerque basin, New Mexico, United States. The fault zone does not contain macroscopic fractures; the basic structural element is the deformation band. The fault core is composed of foliated clay flanked by structurally and lithologically heterogeneous mixed zones, in turn flanked by damage zones. Structures present within these fault-zone architectural elements are different from those in brittle faults formed in lithified sedimentary and crystalline rocks that do contain fractures. These differences are reflected in the permeability structure of the Sand Hill fault. Equivalent permeability calculations indicate that large-displacement faults in poorly lithified sediments have little potential to act as vertical-flow conduits and have a much greater effect on horizontal flow than faults with fractures.

  16. Growth Normal Faulting at the Western Edge of the Metropolitan Taipei Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tung Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth strata analysis is an useful tool in understanding kinematics and the evolution of active faults as well as the close relationship between sedimentation and tectonics. Here we present the Shanchiao Fault as a case study which is an active normal fault responsible for the formation of the 700-m-thick late Quaternary deposits in Taipei Basin at the northern tip of the Taiwan mountain belt. We compiled a sedimentary record, particularly the depositional facies and their dated ages, at three boreholes (SCF-1, SCF-2 and WK-1, from west to east along the Wuku Profile that traverses the Shanchiao Fault at its central segment. By incorporating the global sea level change curve, we find that thickness changes of sediments and changes of depositional environments in the Wuku area are in a good agreement with a rapid sea level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM of about 23 ka. Combining depositional facies changes and their ages with their thickness, we are able to introduce a simple back-stripping method to reconstruct the evolution of growing strata across the Shanchiao Fault since the LGM. We then estimate the vertical tectonic slip rate since 23 ka, which exhibits 2.2 mm yr-1 between SCF-2 and WK-1 and 1.1 mm yr-1 between SCF-1 and SCF-2. We also obtain the Holocene tectonic subsidence rate of 2.3 mm yr-1 at WK-1 and 0.9 mm yr-1 at SCF-2 since 8.4 ka. We thus conclude that the fault zone consists of a high-angle main fault to the east between SCF-2 and WK-1 and a western lower-angle branch fault between SCF-1 and SCF-2, resembling a tulip structure developed under sinistral transtensional tectonism. We find that a short period of 600-yr time span in 9 - 8.4 ka shows important tectonic subsidence of 7.4 and 3.3 m for the main and branch fault, respectively, consistent with possible earthquake events proposed by previous studies during that time. A correlation between geomorphology and subsurface geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone shows

  17. High Prevalence of Narrow Angles among Chinese-American Glaucoma and Glaucoma Suspect Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Pekmezci, Melike; Han, Ying; Sandhu, Simi; Kwok, Shiu Y; Lee, Roland Y; Lin, Shan C

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow angles in a Chinese-American population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Patients and Methods Charts from all Chinese-American patients seen in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in the Chinatown district of San Francisco in 2002 were reviewed. One eye from each patient with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion that met inclusion criteria was included (n=108). Data was collected for gender, age, race (self-declared), refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy and vertical cup-to-disk ratio (CDR). Results Sixty percent (n=65) of Chinese-American eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles (Shaffer grade ≤2 in three or more quadrants). Those with narrow angles were significantly older (P=0.004) than their open angle counterparts, but the two groups did not differ in terms of gender, refraction, IOP or CDR (all, P≥0.071). In a multivariate model including age, gender and refraction as predictors of angle grade (open or narrow), only age was a significant predictor of angle grade (P=0.004). Conclusions A large proportion of Chinese-Americans in our study population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles. In multivariate analysis, patients with narrow angles were older than those with open angles but did not differ from them in terms of gender or refraction. Continued evaluation of angle closure glaucoma risk among Chinese-Americans is needed. PMID:19826385

  18. Searching for Active Faults in the Western Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Veronica; Custodio, Susana; Arroucau, Pierre; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active faults in the region. However, the region undergoes slow deformation, which results in low rates of seismic activity, and the location, dimension and geometry of active structures remains unsettled. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events that occurred from 2007 to 2013. The method takes as inputs P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area defined by 8.5°W < lon < 5°W and 36° < lat < 37.5°. After relocation, we obtain a lineation of events in the Guadalquivir bank region, in the northern Gulf of Cadiz. The lineation defines a low-angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. We provide seismological evidence for the existence of this seemingly active structure based on earthquake relocations, focal mechanisms and waveform similarity between neighboring events.

  19. Geomorphological and geological property of short active fault in fore-arc region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Inoue, Daiei; Ueta, Keiichi; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The important issue in the earthquake magnitude evaluation method is the classification of short active faults or lineaments. It is necessary to determine the type of active fault to be included in the earthquake magnitude evaluation. The particular group of fault is the surface earthquake faults that are presumed to be branched faults of large interplate earthquakes in subduction zones. We have classified short lineaments in two fore-arc regions of Japan through geological and geomorphological methods based on field survey and aerial photograph interpretation. The first survey is conducted at Enmeiji Fault in Boso Peninsula. The fault is known to have been displaced by 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake. The altitude distributions of marine terrace surfaces are different on both sides of the fault. In other words, this fault has been displaced repeatedly by the large interplate earthquakes in the past. However, the recurrent interval of this fault is far longer than the large interplate earthquake calculated by the slip rate and the displacement per event. The second survey is conducted in the western side of Muroto Peninsula, where several short lineaments are distributed. We have found several fault outcrops along the few, particular lineaments. The faults in the region have similar properties to Enmeiji Fault. On the other hand, short lineaments are found to be structural landforms. The comparison of the two groups enables us to classify the short lineaments based on the geomorphological property and geological cause of these faults. Displacement per event is far larger than displacement deduced from length of the active fault. Recurrence interval of the short active fault is far longer than that of large interplate earthquake. Displacement of the short active fault has cumulative. The earthquake magnitude of the faults have these characters need to be evaluated by the plate boundary fault or the long branched seismogenic fault. (author)

  20. Implementation of superconducting fault current limiter for flexible operation in the power substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chong Suk, E-mail: chong_suk@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansang [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon-sung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jaewan [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam dong, Seonbukgu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The power load concentrated in load centers results in high levels of fault current. • This paper introduces a fault current reduction scheme using SFCLs in substations. • The SFCL is connected in parallel to the bus tie between the two busbars. • The fault current mitigation using SFCLs is verified through PSS/e simulations. - Abstract: The concentration of large-scale power loads located in the metropolitan areas have resulted in high fault current levels during a fault thereby requiring the substation to operate in the double busbar configuration mode. However, the double busbar configuration mode results in deterioration of power system reliability and unbalanced power flow in the adjacent transmission lines which may result in issues such as overloading of lines. This paper proposes the implementation of the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to be installed between the two substation busbars for a more efficient and flexible operation of the substation enabling both single and double busbar configurations depending on the system conditions for guaranteeing power system reliability as well as fault current limitations. Case studies are being performed for the effectiveness of the SFCL installation and results are compared for the cases where the substation is operating in single and double busbar mode and with and without the installation of the SFCL for fault current mitigation.

  1. Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M

    1975-01-01

    The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).

  2. High tsunami risk at northern tip of Sumatra as a result of the activity of the Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) combined with coastal landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Huang, B. S.; Wen, K. L.; Mirza, A.; Rizal, S.; Purnawan, S.; Fajri, I.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Liu, C. S.; Lee, C. S.; Wilson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The lesson learned from the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake has shown that an earthquake with strike-slip faulting can produce a significant tsunami. This occasion is rare since in the fact of the fault consist predominantly of lateral motion, which is rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. Yet, another hint from this event, that this earthquake was accompanied by a coastal landslide. Again, there were only few records of a submarine slides as a primary source that generate a tsunami. Hence, the Haiti Mw 7.0 earthquake was generated by these combined mechanisms, i.e. strike-slip faulting earthquake and coastal landslide. In reflecting this event, the Sumatra region exhibit almost identical situation, where the right lateral strike-slip faulting of Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) is located. In this study, we are focusing at the northern tip of SFZ at Aceh Province. The reason we focused our study at its northern tip is that, since the Sumatra-Andaman mega earthquake and tsunami on 26 December 2004, which occurred at the subduction zone, there were no records of significant earthquake along the SFZ, where at this location the SFZ is divided into two faults, i.e. Aceh and Seulimeum faults. This study aimed as a mitigation effort, if an earthquake happened at these faults, do we observe a similar result as that happened at Haiti or not. To do so, we access the high-resolution shallow bathymetry data that acquired through a Community-Based Bathymetric Survey (CBBS), examines five scanned Single Channel Seismic (SCS) reflections data, perform the slope stability analysis and that simulate the tsunami using Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) model with a combined source of fault activity and submarine landslide. The result shows that, by these combined mechanisms, if the earthquake as large as 7 Mw or larger, it could produce a tsunami as high as 6 meters along the coast. The detailed shallow bathymetric and the slope stability

  3. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.